Murugesh .

M Roll No : 25

Computer Network
Computer Network means that there are interconnected collection of two or more autonomous Computers. The connection need not be via a copper wire, fiber optics,microwaves ,and communication satellites can also be used. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information.

Need for a Computer Network
• • • • • • • Resource Sharing High Reliability Saving Money Scalability Communication Medium Remote Access Interactive Entertainment

Some Topologies
• • • • • • Star Ring Tree Complete Intersecting Ring Irregular

Client Server vs Peer to Peer

Client Server Model

A typical example for a Client –Server file transfer is an FTP server where the client and server programs are quite distinct, and the clients initiate the download / uploads and the servers react to and satisfy these requests.

Peer to Peer Network
A peer-to-peer (or "P2P") computer Network exploits diverse connectivity between participants in a network and the cumulative bandwidth of network participants rather than conventional centralized resources where a relatively low number of server provide the core value to a service or application.

A pure peer-to-peer network does not have the notion of clients or servers, but only equal peer nodes that simultaneously function as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client-server model where communication is usually to and from a central server.

Peer to Peer Connection

Classification of P2P Network
• • • • • • Pure peer-to-peer Centralized P2P network Decentralized P2P network Structured P2P network Unstructured P2P network Hybrid P2P network (Centralized and Decentralized)

 Pure peer-to-peer: • Peers act as equals, merging the roles of clients and server • There is no central server managing the network • There is no central router

• Hybrid peer-to-peer
• Has a central server that keeps information on peers and responds to requests for that information. • Peers are responsible for hosting available resources (as the central server does not have them), for letting the central server know what resources they want to share, and for making its shareable resources available to peers that request it. • Route terminals are used addresses, which are referenced by a set of indices to obtain an absolute address.

A Peer-to-peer capable network operating system, such as Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows for Workgroups are usually the best choices for home and small office networks. They do an excellent job of sharing applications, data, printers, and other local resources across a handful of computers. Individual resources such as disk drives, CD-ROM drives, scanners and even printers are transformed into shared resources that are accessible from each of the computers.

Peer-to-peer networks come in three flavors
• • • Collaborative Computing Instant Messaging Affinity Communities

Collaborative Computing
Also referred to as distributed computing, it combines the idle or unused CPU processing power and/or free disk space of many computers in the network. Collaborative computing is most popular with science and biotech organizations where intense computer processing is required.

Instant Messaging
One very common form of P2P networking is Instant Messaging (IM) where software applications, allow users to chat via text messages in real-time. MSN Messenger or Yahoo Instant Messenger

Affinity Communities
Affinity communities is the group of P2P networks that is based around filesharing and became widely known and talked about due to the public legal issues surrounding the direct file sharing group, Napster. Affinity Communities are based on users collaborating and searching other user's computers for information and files.

Before Taking the Peer-to-Plunge
Peer-to-peer networks work remarkably well in certain circumstances; however there are a few things to consider before setting one up. • Size Peer-to-peer networks are designed for connecting small numbers of computers. They tend to run into problems at around 5-10 computers or more. • Security Security on a peer-to-peer network is not very powerful. So if you have security concerns go for something you can control (read server!) Since on a peer to peer network the users give access to folders, they can choose not to require passwords. This lack of consistency has a tremendous impact on the security of your network and you will need adequate training for your users to prevent problems. • Growth If your organization is growing rapidly, it will usually out grow a peer-to-peer network very quickly. While a peer-to-peer network may work fine for up to around ten computers, it almost certainly won't for twenty.

• Training In a peer-to-peer network, the users handle administration. This means that all the users need to be trained in how to share files, folders, and printers. In a peer-to-peer network, suddenly shutting down your computer can cause one of your colleagues to be unable to print or worse still corrupt your shared database if you have one… • Hosting Resources The last concern is that each computer that attaches to another computer, whether for printing or for file sharing, takes up system resources on the hosting computer. If the drain becomes dramatic enough to slow down the host computer (which someone else is working on) then perhaps it is time to start thinking about a dedicated server.

Connection Established Three Ways 1) 10BaseT Cabling 2) Thin Coax Cabling 3) Mixing 10BaseT & Coax

10BaseT Cabling:

When 10BaseT cabling is used, a strand of cabling is inserted between each computer and a hub. If you have 5 computers, you'll need 5 cables. No cable can exceed 325 feet in length. Because the cables from all of the computers converge at a common point (normally a hub), a 10BaseT network forms a star configuration, or geometric design, when viewed from above.

10BaseT Category

What It's Used For

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 4 3 2 1 Fast Ethernet (and everything below) Networks other than Ethernet 10Mbps 10BaseT Alarms, telephone voice lines Unknown (not rated for anything specific)

Thin Coax Cabling The geometric design that is formed when thin coax cabling is used is called a linear or backbone configuration. The reason for this is that thin coax is always arranged in a straight line of PCs, hubs and/or other devices. Thin coax networks always requires termination, which is the act of "plugging" the ends of the network. Instead of inserting an incoming thin coax cable directly into a computer, a T-connector is inserted instead, splitting the network adapter's input port into two separate ports. One port receives an incoming network cable; the other receives an outgoing network cable. If the PC is at the end of the network chain, a terminator plug is connected to the empty side of the T-connector.

Mixing 10BaseT & Coax Thin coax backbones and 10BaseT cabling & hubs can be connected together to allow for a wide variety of expansion options. In the example below, a thin coax backbone connects two 10BaseT hubs together, along with a computer in-between. Each hub, in turn, branches off to still more computers with 10BaseT cabling. Note that the ends of the thin coax backbone are terminated.

Use thin coax cabling if you... -----------------------------------------------ii. have fewer than 10 PCs, iii. don't have any portable computers, iv. and don't plan to expand • Use 10BaseT cabling with a hub if you... -----------------------------------------------vii. have 16 or fewer PCs within a 325 foot radius of each other, viii. have portable computers, ix. and/or you plan to expand • Use both thin coax and 10BaseT together if... -----------------------------------------------xii. you have more than 16 computers, xiii. or the radius of your workgroup is more than 300 feet

Once the networking hardware has been installed, a peer-to-peer network software package must be installed on each of the computers. This software package allows information to be transferred back and forth between the computers, hard disks, and other devices connected to the computers or to the network when users request it .

P2P Architecture

Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking architecture consists of the following components: 1) Graphing The Graphing component is responsible for maintaining a set of connected nodes known as a graph and providing flooding and replication of data across the graph. The Graphing component uses the Flood & Synchronization, Store, and Graph Maintenance subcomponents. 2) Grouping The Grouping component is the security layer provided by default on top of a graph. The security layer defines the security model behind group creation, invitation, and connection to the group. The Grouping component uses the Group Security and Group Security Service Provider (SSP) sub components.

3) NSP The Name Service Provider (NSP) component provides a mechanism to access an arbitrary name service provider. In the case of Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking, peer-to peer applications use the NSP interface to access PNRP.

4) PNRP (Peer Name Resolution Protocol) The PNRP component provides peer-to-peer name resolution. Identity manager enables the creation and management of peer-to peer identities.

5) Microsoft TCP/IP version 6 protocol The Microsoft TCP/IP version 6 protocol (IPv6) provides the transport over which Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking operates.

Most network operating system software (such as Windows 95 98,XP,and VISTA) allows each peer-to-peer computer to determine which resources will be available for use by all other users of the remaining computers on the network. Specific hard and floppy disk drives, directories, files, printers, and all other resources can be attached or detached from the network via software. When one computers disk has been configured so that it is being shared, it will usually appear as a new or additional drive to the other computer users.
As an example If user A has an A and C drive on his computer, and user B configures his entire C drive so that it is shared, user A can map to the user B's C drive and have an A, C, and D drive (user A's D drive is actually user B's C drive). Directories operate in a similar fashion. If user A has an A & C drive, and user B configures his "C:\WINDOWS" and "C:\DOS" directories as sharable, user A can map to those directories and then have an A, C, D, and E drive (user A's D is user B's C:\WINDOWS, and E is user B's C:\DOS).

Because drives can be easily shared between peer-to-peer computers, data only needs to be stored on one computer, not two or three. As an example, let's say that three computers have Microsoft Word installed. Instead of saving documents and other data on all three machines, you can save all of the documents on one computer.

Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking is a developer platform to create peer-to-peer applications for computers running Windows XP with Service Pack 2, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP with Service Pack 1 and the Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP, or Windows Vista™. The long-term goal of Windows Peer-toPeer Networking is the following To enable people to communicate securely and share information with one another without a dependence on centralized servers, but to work even better when servers are present. Computers running Windows Vista already have Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking installed. For computers running Windows XP with SP2, do the following to install Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking

1. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click Add or Remove Programs. 2. Click Add/Remove Windows Components. 3. In Components, click Networking Services (but do not select its check box), and then click Details. 4. Select the Peer-to-Peer check box, and then click OK. 5. Click Next, and then follow the instructions in the wizard.

Grid computing
Grid computing is also called "peerto-peer computing" and "distributed computing," A parallel processing architecture in which CPU resources are shared across a network, and all machines function as one large supercomputer. It allows unused CPU capacity in all participating machines to be allocated to one application that is extremely computation intensive and programmed for parallel processing.

Utilizing Idle Time
In a large enterprise, hundreds or thousands of desktop machines sit idle at any given moment. Even when a user is at the computer reading the screen and not typing or clicking, it constitutes idle time. These unused cycles can be put to use on large computational problems. Likewise, the millions of users on the Internet create a massive amount of wasted machine cycles that can be harnessed instead. This is precisely what the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence program does with Internet users all over the world. Naturally, grid computing over the Internet requires more extensive security than within a single enterprise,

Anonymous P2P
• An anonymous P2P computer network is a particular type of peerto-peer network in which the users and their nodes are pseudonymous by default. The primary difference between regular and anonymous networks is in the routing method of their respective network architectures. These networks allow for unfettered free flow of information, legal or otherwise.

The P2P community's interest in anonymous P2P has increased rapidly in recent years for many reasons, including distrust of government and digital imprimatur. Such a network may also appeal to those wishing to share copyrighted files illegally - organizations such as the Recording Industry Association of America and the British Phonographic Industry have successfully tracked and sued users on non-anonymous P2P networks.

Security Mechanisms
All security mechanisms deployed today are based on either symmetric/secret key or asymmetric/public key cryptography, or sometimes a combination of the two. Here we will introduce the basic aspects of the secret key and public key techniques and compare their main characteristics.

1)Secret Key Techniques: Secret key techniques are based on the fact that the sender and recipient share a secret, which is used for various cryptographic operations, such as encryption and decryption of messages and the creation and verification of message authentication data. This secret key must be exchanged in a separate out of bound procedure prior to the intended communication.

2)Public Key Techniques Public Key Techniques are based on the use of asymmetric key pairs. Usually each user is in possession of just one key pair. One of the pair is made publicly available, while the other is kept private. Because one is available there is no need for an out of band key exchange, however there is a need for an infrastructure to distribute the public key authentically. Because there is no need for pre-shared secrets prior to a communication, public key techniques are ideal for supporting security between previously unknown parties.

P2P Routing
Once a servent is connected to the network it can send information into the network to find out about other servents in the system. The other servents can respond to this request by sending information about their own state, including their IP addresses, the number of files it has decided to share on the network and the total size of these files. A servent can then query the network for files meeting certain search criteria. If a servent has files meeting the criteria, it will respond with a list of appropriate file details. The servent that made the initial request can then ask an appropriate servent for a particular file and have that file routed to it.
Descriptor Header

Byte Positions Contents

0 - 15 Descriptor ID

16 Payload Descriptor

17 Time To Live

18 Hops

19 - 22 Payload Length

Descriptor ID This is used to uniquely identify the particular message on the network. It is created by the client and must be unique (in theory) to ensure that certain other servants can detect when they are seeing a message from a particular servant that they have processed before. Payload Descriptor This defines the type of descriptor which is following the header.

Time To Live (TTL):
This field outlines the maximum amount of servants that the message can be routed through before it must be discarded. Each time the message passes through a servant this field is decremented. When the value reaches 0 the message is discarded. This ensures that a particular message will not be routed continually around the network. This would cause an immediate degradation of network performance if all servants were sending out many packets in succession which were never being removed from the network.

This is a count of the number of servents through which the message has been passed. The count is incremented each time it passes through a new servent.

Payload Length:
The length of the payload immediately following this header. This header is important because the protocol does not define any flags to define where one payload ends and the next descriptor begins. This means that if the fields in the descriptor header are invalid then that message cannot be routed. As a result it is impossible to find the beginning of the next descriptor and the connection must be terminated

Peer to Peer File sharing Program
       Kazaa Napster BitTorrent WinMX Shareaza Ares Bear Share

The Kazaa software family has been the single-most popular P2P file sharing program / system of all time. Kazaa is fast and easy to use. However Kazaa software and the FastTrack network it utilizes appear to be declining rapidly in popularity and availability of files.

Kazaa provides a central directory of shared files, Kazaa distributes its directories to "supernodes," which are the users' own computers. Supernodes communicate with other supernodes to complete a search. Users with fast computers and connections are automatically made supernodes unless they disallow it. As a supernode, no more than 10% of the CPU power is used.

The Kazaa software enables users to view content available from other users as well as paid content from Altnet, which uses digital rights management (DRM). Although Kazaa encourages users who wish to share content not to share copyrighted material, there is no way to enforce this policy.

Napster is a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs which is now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files.

BitTorrent is another free P2P software application. It has attracted a loyal following among those interested in sharing movies and television programs. The offical BitTorrent P2P client generally does not support bandwidth throttling, meaning that it will tend to monopolize a network connection and not allow surfing the Internet or otherwise utilizing the network while files are being downloaded or uploaded. A freely-available alternative BitTorrent client overcomes this limitation.

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