# Glenn D.

Tripulca

On September 24, 1929, made a flight without outside visual references. The consolidated NY-2 airplane he flew, had an artificial horizon, which gave him an indication of the pitch and roll attitude of the airplane relative to the earth¶s surface. He had also a sensitive altimeter that showed the airplane¶s altitude above the ground within a few feet, and a radio direction finder which allowed him to determine his position relative to the landing area. With this equipments, Doolittle proved that blind flight indeed was possible.

Principles of Pressure Measurement
y Pressure is the force differential between two points. y The force exerted by the air that constantly

surrounds us is known as atmospheric pressure, created by the weight of all the air that¶s sits on top of the earth¶s surface. y Because many factors cause atmospheric pressure to vary, scientist have found it necessary to establish an average or standard day ³pressure value´. y This common reference for temperature and pressure is called the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)

Three Basic Ways of Measuring Pressure
yAbsolute Pressure yGauge Pressure yDifferential Pressure

Absolute Pressure
y Absolute Pressure is the measurement of

pressure relative to a total vacuum. y Atmospheric pressure is measured in absolute terms in that it is compared to zero, or a complete vacuum. y Absolute pressure is often used in comparison to other pressures. In order to make this comparison, a devise called an aneroid wafer was devised.

Acceloremeters
y Acceloremeter is an instrument that measures forces

acting on the airframe.
y The dynamic load acting on an aircraft in flight is

indicated on an accelerometer in G units (gravity units).

Auxiliary pointer (plus G indication)

Main pointer Auxiliary pointer (minus G indication) Reset knob

Synchroscopes
y Synchroscope is an instrument that helps the pilot of

a twin-engine airplane synchronize the propellers.
y Monitors the electrical output of each tachometer

generator to determine the rotational speed of each engine.

Tachometers
y Tachometer is a mechanical or electrical instrument

that displays engine r.p.m.
y A pilot uses this instrument to determine how much

power an engine is producing at a given throttle setting, and to ensure is operating within its limits.

Mechanical Tachometers

Electric Tachometer

Angle of Attack Indicating Systems

Magnetic Compass

Compass Errors
yVariation yDeviation yDip errors

Variation
y is the magnetic compass error caused by the

fact that the earth s magnetic and geographic poles are not at the same location. y It is the angular difference between the true and magnetic north at a given point. y In land navigation this is called declination error .

Deviation
y A compass error which occurs due to

disturbances from magnetic fields produced by metals and electrical accessories within the aircraft itself. y The process used to compensate or minimize the deviation error is called swinging the compass.

Dip Errors
y A compass error which occurs due to magnetic

field pulls one end of the magnet down, when the compass magnets are aligned with the magnetic field and near the poles.

Remote Indicating Compass
y Uses a remotely-mounted transmitter located

in an area least likely to be subject to stray magnetism. y Remote-transmitter is connected to a magnesyn-type remote indicating systems which transmits the action of the compass to the needle of the indicator.

Slaved Gyro Compass
y A heading indicator, combined with direction-

sensing instrumentation, overcomes the limitations of either a conventional magnetic compass or a gyroscopic heading indicator without directional input. y The resulting instrument is called a slaved gyro

Gyroscopic Theory
y Gyro is simply a rotating mass; a familiar example is a

child s top. y In 1851, the French physicist Leon Focault deviced a small wheel with a heavy outside rim. When spun at high speed, the wheel demonstrated the strange characteristic of remaining rigid in the plane in which it was spinning. y Focoult deduced that because the wheel remained rigid in space, it could show the rotation of the earth. y He named the device the gyroscope, from Greek means to view the earth s rotation .

Characteristics of a gyroscope

y Rigidity in space refers to the principle that a wheel with a heavily weighted rim will, when spun rapidly, remain in a fixed position in the plane in which it is spinning.

y Precession is the characteristic of a gyroscope that causes a force to be felt, not at the point of application, but at a point 90 degrees in the direction of rotation from that point.

y Directional gyros and gyro horizons are attitude gyros, and they make use of the characteristic of rigidity in space. y Rate gyros such as turn and slip indicators and turn coordinators use the characteristic of precession.

yA gyroscopic flight instrument that

gives the pilot an indication of the aircraft heading.

Attitude Indicator
y A gyroscopic flight instrument that gives the pilot an indication of the attitude of the aircraft relative to its pitch and roll axes. y The attitude indicator in an autopilot is in the sensing systems that detects deviation from a level flight attitude.

Attitude Director Indicator

Turn Indicator
y Measure the rate of rotation of an aircraft about its vertical axis. y There are two basic types of turn indicators: the turn and slip indicators and the turn coordinator.

Turn and Slip Indicator
y A rate gyroscopic instrument that gives the

pilot an indication of the rate of rotation of the aircraft about its vertical axis. y The first blind flight instrument invented. y Known as needle and ball and turn and bank indicator

Turn Coordinator
y It is a rate gyro with the gimbal axis tilted

upward about 30 degrees. This allows the instrument to sense both roll and yaw. y This capability makes the turn coordinator more useful in backing up the bank information provided by the attitude indicator.