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Two types of FDAS

1. Conventional
A conventional fire alarm
system is often the
natural choice for smaller
applications or where
budget constraints exist.
Conventional systems
use zoning to define
areas and where
detectors are considered
as one circuit.

Conventional Fire Alarm Control Panel

1. If the total floor area (i.e. the total of the floor areas of each storey) of the
building is not greater than 300m2 then the building need only be one
zone, no matter how many floors it has.
2. The total floor area for a zone should not exceed 2000m2.
3. The search distance should not exceed 30m. This means the distance
that has to be travelled by a searcher inside a zone to determine visually the
position of a fire should not exceed 30m. The use of remote indicator lamps
outside doors may reduce the number of zones required.
4. Where stairwells or similar structures extend beyond one floor but are
in one fire compartment, the stairwell should be a separate zone.
5. If the zone covers more than one fire compartment, then the zone
boundaries should follow compartment boundaries.
6. If the building is split into several occupancies, no zone should be split
between two occupancies.
7. It may be an advantage to have manual call points on separate zones to
detectors. This will avoid misleading information regarding the position of
fire, particularly on staircase landings.
2. Addressable

It is a system which detects fire early, wherein all loop devices

in the system are individually addressed to provide the control
panel with absolute unique identification of each device. The
system monitors any changes caused by dust or smoke and
then adjusts the calibration accordingly to maintain each sensor
at its original sensitivity. The system carries out a self-test
automatically every 24 hours, as well as seprate adjustment for
a day and night. The system can be integrated along with
building management system, CCTV and Access Control
systems ensuring total saftey and security at one central
monitoring station.
Maximum area covered by one
loop is 10,000 sq m.

The code retains the use of

zones to indicate the origin of a
fire. In addressable systems the
detector or manual call point in
alarm can be shown by the use
of an alpha numeric display.
This on its own will not be
acceptable and the zone in which
the detector/manual call point
has operated must be displayed.

Addressable Fire Alarm Control Panel

Different Detector Types and Application:

1. Fixed-Temperature Heat Detector

2. Photoelectric Smoke Detector
3. Rate Of Rise Detector
4. Flame Detector
5. Combination Smoke and Heat Detector
Fixed-Temperature Heat Detector

When detector's ambient temperature is reached 58 C

(Fixed-Temperature) then the fire signal will be sent to
control panel. Detector itself has auto balance function
when temperature changed rapidly, so false alarm wouldn't
Photoelectric Smoke Detector

The infrared light beam from Transmitter intersect the

smoke particles will cause the light spread to all directions.
When receiver has sensed the light, it will send signal to
control panel for fire alarm status as soon as the density of
smoke reaches pre-determined alarm level.
Rate of Rise Detector

When detector's ambient temperature rises rapidly and

has reached the pre-fire standard (alarm temperature), inside
of detector will inflate and then press the sensing diaphragm
to conduct the metal contact. Thus, the fire signal will be sent
to control panel. Detector itself has auto balance function
when temperature changed rapidly, so false alarm wouldn't
Flame Detector

When UV tube detect the ultraviolet radiation emitted from

weak flame, UV rays pass through the UV glass and strike the
cathode, then photoelectrons are emitted due to emission effect.
Thus, the air inside UV tube will begin to change and voltage will
dropped greatly to produce alarm
Combination Smoke and Heat Detector

When there is smoke or heat during pre-fire period, field

situation will become vary due to different environments.
This combination design is to ensure that the pre-fire
confirmation will not effected by vary environments.
Manual Pull Station and Alarm Bell
• Pull stations/Break glass/ call points should be located on exit routes and in
particular on the floor landings of staircases and at all exits to the open air.

2. Break glass call points should be located so that no person need travel more than
30m from any position within the premises in order to give an alarm.

3. Generally, call points should be fixed at a height of 1.4m above the floor, at easily
accessible, well-illuminated and conspicuous positions free from obstruction.

4. The method of operation of all call points in an installation should be identical unless
there is a special reason for differentiation.

5. Manual and automatic devices may be installed on the same system although it may
be advisable to install the manual call points on separate zones for speed of
The following notes give guidance for the correct use of alarm sounders:

1. A minimum sound level of either 65dBA or 5dBA above any background

noise likely to persist for a period longer than 30 seconds, whichever is
greater, should be produced by the sounders at any occupiable point in the

2. If the alarm system is to be used in premises such as hotels, boarding houses

etc., where it is required to wake sleeping persons then the sound level
should be 75dBA minimum at the bedhead.

3. All audible warning devices used in the same system should have a similar
sound and be distinct from any other audible alarms used for other
purposes. Except in noisy areas where high performance sounders may be

4. A large number of quieter sounders rather than a few very loud sounders
may be preferable to prevent noise levels in some areas from becoming too
5. It is unlikely that sounder noise levels in a room will be
satisfactory if more than one dividing wall or door separates it
from the nearest sounders.
At least one sounder per fire compartment will be necessary.

6. The level of sound provided should not be so high as to cause

permanent damage to hearing.

7. The number of fire alarm sounders used inside a building should

be sufficient to produce the sound level recommended, but should in
any case be at least two.Other requirements include:
Detector Wiring Assembly