You are on page 1of 19

5kllls Jevelopmeot fot employoblllty ooJ

locloslve qtowtb emetqloq sttoteqles ooJ


ptlotltles lo Aslos Jeveloploq ecooomles
8ra[esh anLh
Lead LducaLlon SpeclallsL SAPS Au8
uLllne of Lhe resenLaLlon
W lmpllcaLlons of Asla 2030
W Clobal/reglonal Lrends and drlvers of change
W PollsLlc educaLlon llfelong learnlng
W Analysls of skllls developmenL
W Lmerglng good pracLlces
W key quesLlons arlslng from skllls developmenL
W Lmerglng consensus on skllls developmenL
lmpllcaLlons Asla 2030
W Asla has demonsLraLed lLs reslllence
Lo conLlnue lLs paLh of hlgh economlc
growLh
W lf Lhe currenL growLh Lrend ls
susLalned over Lhe nexL Lhree Lo four
decades Asla's per caplLa lncome wlll
reach Lurope's levels of Loday by 2030
W 1o achleve Lhls Asla wlll have Lo
overcome several lnLerrelaLed rlsks
and challenges
lncreaslng lnequallLy wlLhln counLrles
rlslng lncome dlsparlLles across
counLrles
Lhe mlddle lncome" Lrap
lnLense compeLlLlon for flnlLe naLural
resources
global warmlng and cllmaLe change
poor governance and weak lnsLlLuLlonal
capaclLy
Source Asla 2030
Chlna
8angladesh
lndla
nepal
Srl Lanka
lndonesla
hlllpplnes
vleLnam
300
400
300
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
2008 2010 2012
GD Growth se|ected As|an
countr|es 20082012
G|oba| and keg|ona| 1rends Dr|vers of Change
G|oba|]keg|ona| 1rends Dr|vers of Change
opulaLlon growLh and more
youLhs enLerlng Lhe labour force
8ural Lo urban mlgraLlon leadlng
Lo rapld urbanlzaLlon
Crowlng and large lnformal
economy
lnLernaLlonal Lrade llberallzaLlon
and globallzaLlon are havlng ma[or
lmpacL on Lhe workforce
8apld Lechnologlcal change whlch
requlres conLlnuous adapLaLlon
uemographlc
LranslLlon and
labor moblllLy


1echnologlcal
changes


Changlng global
power sLrucLure
1he workforce ls growlng and workers
are mlgraLlng Lo clLles
236 338 42 277 137 134 383 243
281
449
337
301
131
182
664
288
8Cu CPn lun lnu LkA nL PL vnM
Drban popu|at|on as of 1ota|
se|ected As|an countr|es
2000 and 2010
2000 2010
3868 6731 6463 6106 6713 3340 3831 6232
6411
7236
6741
6449
6696
3964
6092
7040
8Cu CPn lun lnu LkA nL PL vnM
1S64 Age Group as of 1ota|
se|ected As|an countr|es
2000 and 2010
2000 2010
8eglonal ConLexL
W uemographlc dlvldend (or curse)
W Lnhanclng Lhe lmage of 1vL1
W SouLh Asla emerglng as Lhe
suppller of labor force for Lhe
reglon and world
W Large remlLLances lndlcaLe Lhe
poLenLlal Lo reduce poverLy and
lncrease sLandards of llvlng
W 1he shlfLlng composlLlon of Lhe
economy wlll have lmpllcaLlons
on labor markeL needs
W Addresslng consLralnLs faclng
1vL1
8angladesh
Chlna
lndla
Srl Lanka
nepal
lndonesla
hlllpplnes
vleLnam
33
40
43
30
33
60
63
70
73
80
83
2000 2003 2010
Dependency kat|os se|ected As|an
countr|es 20002010
Cu CrowLh and Labor ComposlLlon (SA)
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
nL
Ag
nL
lnd
nL
Ser
S8l Ag S8l
lnd
S8l
Ser
lnu
Ag
lnu
lnd
lnu
Ser
8An
Ag
8An
lnd
8An
Ser
of GD
2000 2010
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
8An Ag8An lnd8An Ser lnu Aglnu lndlnu Ser S8l Ag S8l lndS8l Ser
of 1ota| Lmp|oyment
2000 laLesL
Cu CrowLh and Labor ComposlLlon (SL)
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
CPl
Ag
CPl
lnd
CPl
Ser
Pl
Ag
Pl
lnd
Pl
Ser
vlL Ag vlL
lnd
vlL
Ser
lun
Ag
lun
lnd
lun
Ser
of 1ota| Lmp|oyment
2000 laLesL
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
CPl
Ag
CPl
lnd
CPl
Ser
Pl
Ag
Pl
lnd
Pl
Ser
vlL
Ag
vlL
lnd
vlL
Ser
lun
Ag
lun
lnd
lun
Ser
of GD
2000 2010
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
CPl
Ag
CPl
lnd
CPl
Ser
Pl
Ag
Pl
lnd
Pl
Ser
vlL
Ag
vlL
lnd
vlL
Ser
lun
Ag
lun
lnd
lun
Ser
of 1ota| Lmp|oyment
2000 laLesL
Labor moblllLy ls keeplng some
economles afloaL
33
3
23
2
13
1
03
0
8Cu CPn lun lnu LkA nL PL vnM
,
|
|
|
|
o
n
s
Net ,|grat|on |n se|ected As|an
countr|es 20002010
2000 2003 2010
0
3
10
13
20
23
8Cu CPn lun lnu LkA nL PL vnM
kem|ttances ( of GD)
se|ected As|an countr|es
20002010
2000 2003 2010
PollsLlc LducaLlon Llfelong Learnlng
lmpresslve quanLlLaLlve progress buL
W Lfflclency and equlLy dropouL and low cycle
compleLlon publlcprlvaLe dlvlde
W CuallLy and relevance sLudenL learnlng
W Pow Lo sLlmulaLe Leachlng and learnlng?
W Lmerglng elearnlng plaLform LransformaLlonal
W Llnkages across educaLlon sysLem cruclal
W Covernance lncenLlves and moLlvaLlon
lnsLlLuLlonal leadershlp
Llfelong learnlng
lmpresslve quanLlLaLlve progress
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
80
90
100
8Cu CPn lun lnu LkA nL PL vnM
outh L|teracy kates se|ected As|an
countr|es 2001 to |atest data
2001 laLesL
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
80
90
100
8Cu CPn lun lnu LkA nL PL vnM
Adu|t L|teracy kates se|ected As|an
countr|es 2001 to |atest data
2001 laLesL
buL llLeracy does noL always LranslaLe
lnLo employmenL
rlmary 444
rlmary 434
rlmary 1378
Secondary
407
Secondary 22
Secondary
4318
1erLlary 96
1erLlary 326
1erLlary 4103
uneducaLed
33
uneducaLed 0 uneducaLed 0
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
80
90
100
lun LkA PL
D|str|but|on of Lducat|ona|
Atta|nment of Dnemp|oyed
se|ected As|an Countr|es |atest
ava||ab|e data
rlmary 337
rlmary 673
rlmary 317
Secondary
206
Secondary
139
Secondary
387
1erLlary 63
1erLlary 163
1erLlary 277
uneducaLed
172
uneducaLed
01
uneducaLed
19
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
80
90
100
lun LkA PL
D|str|but|on of Lducat|ona|
Atta|nment of Labor Iorce
se|ected As|an Countr|es |atest
ava||ab|e data
Analysls of Skllls uevelopmenL
1VL1 System Ana|ys|s Standards Cperat|ons L|nkages
Lconomlc 8elevance
1ralnlng for whaL?
nvCl and SSC AuLonomy llnanclng
Access and LqulLy
1ralnlng for whom?
ccupaLlonal
sLandards
1ralnlng of 1ralners
rganlzaLlon MgmL
LffecLlveness who
organlzes and dellvers?
LnLry requlremenLs
Career Counsellng
and guldance
CoordlnaLlon
CuallLy of Skllls
AcqulslLlon 1ralnlng Lo
whaL sLandards?
8ecognlLlon of prlor
learnlng
AccredlLaLlon and
quallLy assurance
verLlcal and
horlzonLal
moblllLy
CosL flnanclng and
efflclency aL whaL cosL
and who pays?
CompeLencybased
Lralnlng and
currlculum
LMlS 8esearch
ML lmpacL
analysls
Llearnlng
plaLform and
unlque lu
Lessons learned good pracLlces and lnnovaLlons
8esponslve Skllls uevelopmenL
aradox L|m|tat|ons Cpt|on
uevel oplng counLrl es Ll ml Led
resources buL need
subsLanLl al l nvesLmenL l n
responslve skl l ls devel opmenL
Lo move up Lhe value chaln
Many 1vL1 l nsLlLuLl ons are
governmenLrun and suffer
from weak relevance and hl gh
l neffl cl ency
AuLonomy fl scal
adml nl sLraLl ve fl exl bl ll Ly
Lo offer courses LargeLed
prl vaLe provl sl on LargeLed
hl gh reLurn skl l ls
rl vaLe secLor keen Lo seek a
sLrong vol ce ln poll cles and
sLandard seLLl ng buL ofLen
rel ucLanL Lo conLrlbuLe
naLlonal sLandards belng
devel oped buL smal l er
provl ders unable Lo access
capl Lal Lo meeL Lhese sLandards
lnnovaLl ve Lral nl ng funds
Lled Lo sLl mulaLe demand
pl acemenLs and prl vaLe
secLor parLl clpaLl on
1he more 1vL1 LargeLs Lhose
mosL ln need Lhe more l L
suffers from negaLl ve
percepLl on
1vL1 conLl nues as secondclass
educaLl on wlLh dl ffl culLy Lo
reduce demand suppl y
ml smaLches
MarkeLl ng 1vL1 as a vl able
opLlon horl zonLal and
verLl cal mobll l Ly ll fel ong
l earnl ng repuLed provlders
lncreasl ng economl c
modernl zaLl on buL ma[ orlLy
l abor force sLl l l Lrapped l n
Agrlcul Lure
Low overal l l abor producLl vlLy
lndusLry
and/servl ces noL growlng aL a
deslrabl e raLe oLenLl al
overall economlc growLh sl ower
uecreaslng dependency raLl os
buL perslsLenL hlgh l evel s of
youLh unemploymenL
LlmlLed opporLunl Ly ln
demographl c dl vl dend
lncreasl ng number of school
graduaLes buL dlfflcul Ly
l ncreasl ng 1vL1 enrol menL l n
hl gh demand areas
oor qual l Ly and l ack of
l lnkages and mobll l Ly lead Lo
uncheked quanLl LaLl ve growLh
* 1argeL mlgranL workers
(domesLlc/overseas wl Lh a
clear paLhway Lo move Lo
hl gher skl l ls/value chal n Lo
fuel overal l growLh
** 8eLLer l l nkages beLween
formal and l nformal
educaLl on and Lralnlng
*** lnnovaLl ve fundlng Lo
l ncenLl vlze prl vaLe/nC
secLors
Clobal ConLexL ulfferenL Models
SkiIIs Requirements Pyramid
PubIic ModeI PotentiaI Areas
Level 4
Highly Skilled Universities emerging technologies/R&D/innovation
nstitutes
Level 3 College Educated Engineering Col staff development
high quality relevant skills - infrastructure
Level 2 Polytechnics sector skills councils - infrastructure
Vocationally Skilled innovative skills provision
Vocational employer participation
Level 1 MES sustainable financing
basic skills, testing, certification
Minimally Educated/Requiring Modular Skills RPL, MES, basic social services
Monitoring and evaluation
utsourcing ModeI Enterprise ModeI Piloting and taking to scale
Source: MaCS Analysis Standardization and replication
All three required: labor intensive capital intensive knowledge intensive
key Challenges
Cha||enges Issues
MlsmaLches
uemand Supply Ceographlc dynamlc and lnLegraLed LMlS
LducaLlonal aLLalnmenL
and efflclency
Solld baslc educaLlon Lo provlde foundaLlonal skllls and
openlng access for all
Large lnformal secLor
Lconomlc composlLlon shlfLlng buL large populaLlon sLlll sLuck
ln agrlculLure
Plgh youLh unemploymenL
8lsk of desLabllzaLlon fuels dlsconLenL mlsmaLch career
guldance and counsellng comblned wlLh foundaLlonal skllls
uemographlc shlfL and
lmpllcaLlons
uemographlc shlfL ls a doubleedged sword only a 20year
wlndow soclal securlLy overseas and domesLlc employmenL r
lmage and MoblllLy 1vL1 ls second class how Lo rebrand mulLlple paLhways
Pow Lo sLlumlaLe prlvaLe
secLor
Why should Lhe prlvaLe secLor parLlclpaLe how Lo lncenLlvlze
Lhem caplLallze on poLenLlal lnnovaLlons Levles 1ax CredlL
unemploymenL lnsurance SLudenL Loans
8alance beLween exlsLlng
and emerglng [obs
MaLchlng skllls opporLunlLles wlLh prlorlLy lnvesLmenLs and
growLh poLenLlal more rellable LMlS
Mlddle lncome Lrap
lnvesLmenL ln skllls Lo move up Lhe value chaln focus on
lncluslve growLh and expandlng opporLunlLles/economlc ple
Lmerg|ng Good ract|ces and Innovat|ons
Good ract|ces Imp||cat|ons
Canadlan CommunlLy
Colleges
Plghly relevanL ln orlenLlng skllls developmenL Lhrough buslness enLerprlse
and demand drlven approach
Chlna
naLlonal Councll ollcy Lo ensure LhaL Leachers have aL leasL Lwo monLhs
lndusLry experlence every Lwo years close relaLlonshlps beLween 1vL1 schools
and lndusLry 13 Lax on employers Lo speclflcally supporL adulL Lralnlng
korean Lxperlence
AllgnmenL beLween economlc growLh and educaLlon and Lralnlng evoluLlon
demonsLraLes hlgh level coordlnaLlon and lnLervenLlons
Slngapore Workforce Plghly responslve workforce managemenL sysLem
lndlas nSuC
uLsourclng
lrom governmenL domlnance Lo hlghly markeL responslve approach Lo sLrlke a
balance beLween governmenL and prlvaLe secLor role evolvlng wlLh hlgh
poLenLlal for ma[or LransformaLlon
Srl Lanka nvCl and
unlvoLec
Ma[or shlfL deslred from governmenL domlnaLed sysLem Lo markeL responslve
sysLem ma[or LransformaLlon also needed ln some leadlng developmenLs
8angladesh uCL
MAWS1 marlne
uCL acceleraLed grade 8 compleLlon ln 43 years followed by skllls
developmenL wlLh hlgh placemenL MAWS1 shlp bulldlng
Lmerglng
Lechnologles Moblle phones common learnlng plaLforms porLablllLy of Lralnlng unlque lus
hlllpplne naLlonal
CerLlflcaLe
1vL1 ueparLmenL worklng hard Lo make cerLlflcaLes recognlzed worldwlde
even resulLs ln degree holders golng back Lo Lralnlng cenLers Lo obLaln
cerLlflcaLes
key CuesLlons ln Skllls uevelopmenL
W WhaL are Lhe lmpllcaLlons on lncluslve economlc
and soclal developmenL?
W WhaL ls Lhe role of Lhe governmenL?
W Pow Lo lncenLlvlze prlvaLe secLor parLlclpaLlon Lo
sLlmulaLe demand drlven skllls developmenL?
W Pow Lo ralse and dlsLrlbuLe funds for skllls
developmenL ln ways LhaL lmprove performance?
W WhaL are Lhe pollcy dlrecLlons and lmpllcaLlons
for skllls developmenL?
Lmerglng Consensus ln 1vL1
W 1here are many rouLes Lo skllls developmenL LhaL should be
consldered
W 1he 1vL1 sysLem musL be flexlble Lo respond Lo emerglng
labor markeL needs
W lncenLlves musL be changed Lo sLlmulaLe enLerprlses and
employers Lo do more Lo respond Lo skllls needs
W 1here ls a need Lo benchmark quallLy sLandards and ensure
performance assessmenL
W 1he use of Lechnology and open learnlng sysLems provlde
opporLunlLles Lo LargeL Lralnlng flexlbly for effecLlve llfelong
learnlng
W Labor markeL analysls and graduaLe desLlnaLlon surveys are
essenLlal for proper dlrecLlon and feedback