Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Rate of Reaction 1

# Rate of Reaction 1

Ratings:

4.83

(18)
|Views: 35,726|Likes:

### Availability:

See more
See less

07/23/2013

pdf

text

original

1
Rate of Reaction I
Mind MapDefinition
Example 1
In a chemical reaction, 2.5g of calcium carbonatereact completely with excess hydrochloric acid toproduce 600cm
3
of carbon dioxide gas in 1.5minutes. Find the rate of reaction in term of a.

decreasing mass of calcium carbonateb.

increasing volume of carbon dioxide gasproduced[a. -0.0278g/s; b. 6.67cm
3
/s]
What is rate of reaction?
1.

Rate of reaction
is defined as the change in the amount of reactants or products per unit time.2.

It means ‘
how fast is the reaction
’ or '
the speed of the reaction
'.

Fast Reaction

High rate

Slow Reaction

Low rate3.

Therefore,
Quantity change of reactants/productsRates of reaction =Total time for the reaction

2
Example of fast reactionType of Reaction ExampleCombustion
Combustion of magnesium in oxygenCombustion of ethane (C
2
H
6
)
Reaction betweenreactive metal andwater
Reaction between potassium and water
Reaction between metalcarbonate and acid
Reaction between limestone/ marble and sulphuric acid
Ionic precipitation(Double decomposition)
Precipitation of silver(I) chlorideAgNO
3
+ HCl
→
AgCl + HNO
3
Example of slow reactionType of Reaction ExamplePhotosynthesis
6CO
2
+ 6 H
2
O
→
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
Rusting
4Fe + 3O
2
+ 2H
2
O
→
2Fe
2
O
3
H
2
O
Fermentation
C
6
H
12
O
6

→
2C
2
H
5
OH + 2CO
2

Measurement and Calculation
Quantity Measure and Average RateMeasurable quantity
During a chemical reaction, two things happenThe quantities of reactantsreduce.The quantities of productsincrease.1.

Therefore, the rate of the reaction can bedetermined bya.

measuring the decrease of the amount of the reactants over time.b.

measuring the increase of the amount of the products over time.2.

The easily measured quantity changes includea.

Massb.

Concentration (Conductivity)c.

Volume of gas

3
Example
Reaction between calcium carbonate andhydrochloric acid.CaCO
3
+ 2HCl
→
CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
OThe rate of the reaction can be determined bya.

Measuring the reduces of the mass of thecalcium carbonate (reactants) over time
3
Mass of CaCO reactedRate of Reaction =Time taken b.

Measuring the increases of the volume of thecarbon dioxide gas produced over time.
2
Vlolume of CO producedRate of Reaction =Time taken
Example 2
In a reaction, 5 g of calcium carbonate takes 250seconds to completely react with solution of hydrochloric acid. Calculate the average rate forthis reaction in units(a) g s
-1
and(b) mol s
-1
[ Relative atomic mass: C 12; 0, 16; Ca, 40][a. 0.02g/s; b. 0.0002mol/s]
Immeasurable quantity and average rate
1.

In some reaction, some changes are observablebut difficult to be measured. For examplea.

Change in colourb.

Precipitation2.

The time taken for the colour of a reactant tochange or certain amount of precipitate toform can be used to measure the rate of reaction.
Example 3
2HCl
(ak)
+ Na
2
S
2
O
3(ak)
2NaCl
(ak)
+ S
(p)
+ SO
2(g)
+ H
2
O
(ce)
In a reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid andsodium thiosulphate, sulphur precipitate wasproduced after 2 minute . What is the rate of thereaction?AnswerRate of reaction =[0.00833s
-1
]
Example 4
When the aqueous of ethanadioic is mixed withacided potassium manganate(VII) , the reactionhappen slowly at room temperature. The purplecolour of the solution is bleached after 40 seconds.Calculate the average rate of reaction.AnswerRate of reaction =[0.025s
-1
]
Example 5
Cr
2
O
72-
(aq) + 14H
+
+ C
2
O
42-

→
6CO
2
(g) + 7H
2
O(l) + 2Cr
3+
(aq)The chemical equation above represents a reactionbetween acidic potassium dichromate(VI) andethanedioic. Which of the following can be usedto determine the rate of reaction?I.

Volume of carbon dioxide collected over time.II.

Time for chromium ion to form.III.

Time for the colour of the solution to changefrom orange to green.IV.

Time for the pH change.A.

I and IIB.

I and IIIC.

I II and IIID.

II, III and IVIf the quantity change is immeasurable
1Rates of reaction =Total time for the reaction