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Mechanical Vibrations: 4600-431 Example Problems

December 20, 2006

Contents

1 Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 12 Frictionally Damped Systems 333 Forced Single Degree-of-freedom Systems 424 Multi Degree-of-freedom Systems 69

1 Free Vibration of Single Degree-of-freedom Systems

Problem 1:

In the ﬁgure, the disk and the block havemass

m

and the radius of the disk is

r

.a) Find the equations of motion for thissystem.b) What are the natural frequency anddamping ratio of the system in termsof

m

,

c

, and

k

?c) If the block is displaced 18 cm to theright and released from rest ﬁnd the re-sulting angular displacement of the diskwith

m

= 3 kg

, r

= 9 cm

,k

= 21 N

/

m

, c

= 63 N

·

s

/

m

,kcm

4

kk

(

m,r

)

1

Problem 2:

For the system shown to the right, the disk of mass

m

rolls without slip and

x

measures thedisplacement of the disk from the unstretchedposition of the spring.a) Find the equations of motion.b) With

c

= 16 N

/

(m

/

s)

, m

= 2 kg

,r

= 0

.

10 mfor what value of the spring stiﬀness

k

is the damping ratio of the system one-half of the critically damped value, sothat

ζ

=

ζ

cr

/

2?c) With these parameter values, ﬁnd thedisplacement of the disk if it is rolled20 cm to the right (from static equilib-rium) and released from rest.

xck

(

m,r

)

Problem 3:

From the ﬁgure shown to the righta) ﬁnd the equations of motion in terms of the angular rotation of the disk;b) what are the damping ratio and naturalfrequency of the system in terms of theparameters

m

,

b

,

k

1

, and

k

2

;c) can you draw an equivalent spring-mass-damper system?

r

r

2

bk

1

k

2

mm

2

Problem 4:

For the mechanical system shown to theright, the uniform rigid bar has mass

m

andpinned at point

O

. For this system:a) ﬁnd the equations of motion;b) Identify the damping ratio and naturalfrequency in terms of the parameters

m

,

c

,

k

, and

ℓ

.c) For:

m

= 1

.

50 kg

, ℓ

= 45 cm

,c

= 0

.

125 N

/

(m

/

s)

, k

= 250 N

/

m

,

ﬁnd the angular displacement of the bar

θ

(

t

) for the following initial conditions:

θ

(0) = 0

,

˙

θ

(0) = 10 rad

/

s

.

Assume that in the horizontal position thesystem is in static equilibrium and that allangles remain small.

ℓ

2

ℓ

2

mOky

2

mkcxθ

ˆ

ı

ˆ

Solution:

a) In addition to the coordinate

θ

identiﬁed inthe original ﬁgure, we also deﬁne

x

and

y

asthe displacment of the block and end of thebar respecively. The directionsˆ

ı

andˆ

aredeﬁned as shown in the ﬁgure.A free body diagram for this system isshown to the right. Note that the tension inthe cable between the bar and the block isunknown and represented with

T

while thereaction force

F

R

is included, although bothits magnitude and direction are unspeciﬁed.In terms of the identifed coordinates, theangular acceleration of the bar

α

β/

F

and thelinear acceleration of the block

F

a

G

are

α

β/

F

=¨

θ

ˆ

k

,

F

a

G

= ¨

x

ˆ

.

F

R

−

ky

ˆ

−

T

ˆ

T

ˆ

−

kx

ˆ

−

c

˙

x

ˆ

We can also relate the identiﬁed coordinates as

x

=

ℓ

2

θ, y

=

ℓθ.

The equations of motion for this system can be obtained with linear momentum balanceapplied to the block and angular momentum balance aout

O

on the bar. These can bewritten as

F

=

m

F

a

G

−→

T

−

kx

−

c

˙

x

ˆ

= 2

m

¨

x

ˆ

,

M

O

=

I

O

α

β/

F

−→

−

T ℓ

2

−

kyℓ

ˆ

k

=

mℓ

2

3¨

θ

ˆ

k

.

3

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