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Unit 3 ( DESIGN THEORY: LIMIT STATES AND BENDING )

# Unit 3 ( DESIGN THEORY: LIMIT STATES AND BENDING )

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09/13/2013

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REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT3/
UNIT 3

DESIGN THEORY: LIMIT STATES AND BENDING
GENERAL OBJECTIVETo understand the reinforced concrete design theory in Limit States and BendingAt the end of this unit, you will be able to: -1.calculate the design strength for concrete.2.calculate the design strength for steel reinforcement.3.state the 3 modes of failure.4.differentiate among the 3 modes of failure.5.identify the behaviour of beams subjected to bending.6.use the BS 8110 stress block.7.calculate the depth to the neutral axis.
1
OBJECTIVES
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT3/
3.1
Introduction
When load in imposed on a structural element, deformation occurs due to theinduced stress and strain in the element. It is of paramount importance for us tounderstand the stress-strain relationship in order to analyze and design reinforcedconcrete. Reinforced concrete is a composite material of concrete and steel.Therefore we need to know the stress-strain relationship of both materials.3.2
Concrete
The stress-strain relationship for concrete is shown in Figure 3.1 below: -
2
Stress0.67f
cu

γ
m
0.0035Strain
Figure 3.1 Concrete Stress-strain relationships
INPUT 1

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN C4301/UNIT3/
The actual stress-strain curve depends on the grade of concrete that is used. For normal concrete mixes, it can be concluded that:i)The stress-strain curve can be assumed to be a straight line up to about50% of the maximum stress.ii)Maximum stress is achieved at about 0.02 strains.iii)Cracks and the disintegration of concrete are visible when thestrain is at a value of 0.0035.The actual stress-strain curve is shown in Figure 3.2 : - For design purposes, the simplified curve BS 8110 is used as shown in Figure 3.1.From the curve, it can be seen that, the maximum stress is equal toand the concrete is assumed yield (fail) at an ultimate strain equal to 0.0035.
3
CBAVisiblecracks0.020.0035StrainStress
Figure 3.2: The stress-Strain Curve
0.67f
cu

γ
m