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Mole Concept

# Mole Concept

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09/29/2013

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engineering-resource.com Mole Concept
Prepared by Mr. Saad Hameed (M.Sc. Chemistry, teacher at Beaconhouse School Lahore, Pakistan)
MOLE CONCEPT

Definitions of Mole:
1. In terms of mass:
The mass

of one mole of any substance is equal to its relativeatomic or molecular mass taken in grams, e.g.,

1 mole of Fe = 56 g (Atomic mass, Ar)1 mole of H
2
O = 18 g (Molecular mass, Mr)
2. In terms of number:
One mole of any substance contains particles equal to 6.02 x10
23
. For example,

1 mole of Fe = 56 g = 6.02 x 10
23
particles1 mole of H
2
O = 18 g = 6.02 x 10
23
particles
3. In terms of volume (applicable only to gases):
One mole of any gas occupiesvolume equal to 24 dm
3
at r.t.p. For example.

1 mole of H
2
= 2g = 24dm
3
= 6.02 x 10
23
particles1 mole of NH
3
= 17g = 24 dm
3
= 6.02 x 10
23
particles
Note:
The volumes of gas are considered also while defining one mole (def. 3)because the mass of a gas cannot be that easily determined practically in laboratory.
Worked Examples:1.
Find out the amount of Na
2
O formed when 50g of Na is made to react completelywith oxygen to form Na
2
O?
Solution:
4Na
(s)
+ O
2(g)
2Na
2
O
(s)

Na

92g 124g
Na
2
O
50g

=
(124 x 50) / 92 = 67.39 g of Na
2
O
2.
Find out the amount of CO
2
formed when 40g of Carbon reacts completely withO
2
to form CO
2
.C
(s)
+ O
2(g)
CO
2(g)

engineering-resource.com Mole Concept
Prepared by Mr. Saad Hameed (M.Sc. Chemistry, teacher at Beaconhouse School Lahore, Pakistan)
C

12g 24dm
3

CO
2
40g
dm
3

=
(24 x 40) / 12 = 80dm
3
of CO
2

If amount of a gas is to be calculated in a question without the specification ofmass or volume, it is understood that the amount of a gas is to be determined involume (dm
3
), in general.
3.
Find out the amount of O
2
required when it is completely reacted with CarbonMonoxide to form 65dm
3
of CO
2
.

2CO
(g)
+ O
2(g)
2CO
2(g)

O
2

24 dm
3
48dm
3

CO
2

65
=
(24 x 65) / 48 = 32.5dm
3
of O
2
4.
Same as in previous one but with the difference that now CO is to be calculatedin place of O
2
.2CO
(g)
+ O
2(g)
2CO
2(g)

CO

2 x 24 dm
3
2 x 24 dm
3

CO
2

65
=
(24 x 65) / 24 = 65dm
3
of O
2
Second Method (To be preferred):
2CO
(g)
+ O
2(g)
2CO
2(g)
Since, in case of gases, mole ratio = volume ratio,Hence, O
2
= 65/2 = 32.5 dm
3
(because mole ratio – CO
2
: O
2
= 2 : 1)

engineering-resource.com Mole Concept
Prepared by Mr. Saad Hameed (M.Sc. Chemistry, teacher at Beaconhouse School Lahore, Pakistan)

Yet another important rule:
“In gaseous case only, the mole ratio is equal to the volume ratio since one moleof every gas is equal to the same quantity and same volume i.e. 24dm
3
.”“Moles, if taken in terms of grams – the mole ratio is different from the gram ratiobecause Ar or Mr of one species is more or less different from others.”For example,
Grams: 1 mole H
2
: 1 mole CO
2
1 x 2 : 1 x 442 : 44
Volume:
1 x 24 : 1 x 241 : 1

Excess & Limiting Reagents:
The amount of product formed in any chemical reaction depends upon thelimiting reagent.
1.
Find out the limiting and excess reagents when 45g of Fe is made to react with45g of Sulphur to form FeS.Fe
(s)
+ S
(s)
FeS
(s)

Fe
56g 32g
S
45g

=
(45 x 32) / 56 = 25.7g of SulphurSince Sulphur required (25.7g) is less than that present (45g), so, Sulphur is theexcess reactant and 19.3g is extra. Hence, Fe is the limiting reagent.Also,
Fe
56g 32g
S

45g
=
(45 x 56) / 32 = 78.75g of FeSince Fe required (78.75g) is greater than that present (45g), so, Fe is thelimiting reactant and Sulphur is the excess reagent.