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Histology, Frog Musculature

Histology, Frog Musculature

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Description of features and functions of different types of cells in the body: skin, liver, kidney, intestine, stomach, and spinal cord.
Also includes description, origin, and insertion of different frog muscles as studied in dissection.
Description of features and functions of different types of cells in the body: skin, liver, kidney, intestine, stomach, and spinal cord.
Also includes description, origin, and insertion of different frog muscles as studied in dissection.

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Published by: Anna Margarita Tongco on Jul 08, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Histology
Skin
Layer/ Part Features Function
Stratum (subcutaneous) corneum Outermost layer of epidermis Non-living; shed off Stratum (subcutaneous) germinativum Several rows of columnar cells Living; replace stratum corneum cellsStratum spongiosum/ laxum Loose connective tissue Contains chromatophores, pigment granules,cutaneous glands, blood vessels, lymph spacesStratum compactum Deepest layer of dermis; tightly packed Contains blood vessels and nervesChromatophore Cells contain pigment granules Produce and control skin colorationCutaneous gland Multicellular grand (formed by infolding) Secrete mucus; keep skin moist
Liver 
Layer/ Part Features Function
Hepatocyte Liver cell (polygonal, dark spherical nuclei) Protein synthesis; detoxificationSinusoid Endothelial tubes Very permeable; absorptionPigment granule Irregularly scattered Produce colorationBile duct Lined with cuboidal epithelium Produce and secrete bile (fat emulsifier)Artery Thick-walled Bring oxygenated blood from heart to bodyVein Thin-walled Bring deoxygenated blood from body to heart
Kidney 
Layer/ Part Features Function
Malpighian body/ renal corpuscle Round masses on ventral part of kidney Filters bloodGlomerulus Capillary network inside Malpighian body Filters blood
Bowman’s capsule
Cup-shaped double membrane of glomerulus Covers glomerulusUriniferous tubule Long coiled tubule Reabsorption of water and other substancesCollecting tubule With wide lumen lined with cuboidal cells Continuation of uriniferous tubulesWolffian duct/ mesonephric duct Near renal portal vein Opening of collecting tubules
 
Intestine
Layer/ Part Features Function
Valves of Kerkring Circular folds of inner wall of intestine Slow passage of food; increased absorptionLumen Cavity/ interior of intestinal tract N/AGoblet cell Unicellular gland; slender base, dilated apex Secrete mucin (which becomes mucous)Tunica mucosa Innermost layer; mucous coat Traps pathogens; facilitates movementTunica submucosa Outside mucosa; loose connective tissue Contains blood vessels and lymph spaceTunica muscularis Outside submucosa; muscular coat Consists of 2 layers; facilitates gut movementStratum circulare Thick inner circular layer Spindle-shaped smooth muscle cellsStratum longitudinale Thin outer longitudinal layer Cross-sections of muscle cellsTunica serosa Outermost layer; very thin layer of looseconnective tissue; covered with mesotheliumSerous coat; visceral peritoneumMesothelium Pavement epithelial cells Facilitate intracoelomic movement;Line internal cavity; derived from mesoderm
Stomach
Layer/ Part Features Function
Ruga Large wavy folds of inner wall of stomach AbsorptionLumen Cavity/ interior of stomach N/ATunica mucosa Innermost layer; mucous coat Facilitates movement; composed of 2 layersColumnar cells Innermost layer Secretion and absorptionLamina propria Outer layer of connective tissue Contain openings for gastric pitsGastric gland Branched tubular glands with neck and body Secrete mucus, gastric acid, etc.Zymogenic/ chief cell Base of fundus Secrete pepsinogen, renninParietal cell Wedged between chief cells Secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factorMuscularis mucosa Outside lamina propria; consists of 2 layers Facilitates outflow from gastric glandsTela submucosa Loose connective tissue Contains large blood and lymph vesselsTunica muscularis Very thick; circular layer of smooth muscle Facilitates movement of food particlesSubserosa Narrow layer of connective tissue Contains sections of blood vesselsTunica serosa Outermost layer; covered with mesothelium Visceral peritoneum; contains nerves
 
Spinal Cord 
Layer/ Part Features Function
White matter Outer layer; loosely arranged medullatednerve fibers and supporting neurogliaPassage of messagesGray matter Inner layer; made up of cell bodies Controls muscles, sensory perception, etcCornua (dorsal and ventral) Horn-like projections (ventral is farther apart) Controls axial muscles, touch and sensationFissure (dorsal and ventral) Invagination of spinal cord surface Contains spinal arteryCentral canal Cavity found in center of spinal cord Contains cerebrospinal fluidEpendymal cell Cells lining central canal Produces cerebrospinal fluidNeuroglia/ glia cell Small oval bodies; scattered in spinal cord Non-neuronal cells; support and protectionMotor cell Concentrated in cornua; star-shaped Connection with neuronsMotor neuron/ efferent neuron Concentrated in cornua; 3-7 at each horn Makes synaptic connection with interneuronDura mater Thick loose connective tissue; made up of fatty tissue with many veinsCarries blood from brain to heart; supportsdural sinusesSubdural space Lies beneath dura mater
“Artificial” space created as a result of trauma
 Arachnoid mater Spiderweb-like layer of connective tissue Allows cerebrospinal fluid flow beneathPia mater Thin layer of connective tissue Contains blood vessels investing the spinalcord; nourishes brain

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