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MINI PROJECT REPORT Sound operated switch using 555 Timer IC

1.ABSTRACT

Sound operated switch is one of the interesting applications of 555 timer IC. The circuit uses a 555 timer IC and transistor BC547 for its operation. The electrets microphone is used to provide the pulse to the 555 timer. The operation is simple. Clap and the lamp turns on. Clap again it turns off. The electrets microphone picks up the sound of your claps, coughs, and the sound of that knocked off the table. It produces a small electrical signal which is amplified by the succeeding transistor stage. Two transistor cross connected as a bistable multivibrator change state at each signal. One of these transistors drives a heavier transistor which controls a lamp. The transistor type is not critical and any n-p-n silicon transistors can be used.

2. INTRODUCTION

Clap switch is an beginners project done using 555 timer IC. Its application is interesting that we can switch on an off by just clapping the hands. Simply by lying on the bed even we can switch on and off the light. The circuit which is provided in this report is the most simple and economical circuit for a clap switch. Since it uses a simple condenser mike to produce the pulse signal more voltage is not necessary. It can be used for controlling ornamental lightning circuit.

3.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

4.COMPONENTS USED
RESISTOR:
A linear resistor is a linear, passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. This relation is represented by Ohm's law:

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. In a high-voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.

CONDENSER MICROPHONES
Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type of microphone, which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. Condensers also tend to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamics, making them well-suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound. They are not ideal for high-volume work, as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort.
How Condenser Microphones Work

A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them. In the condenser mic, one of these plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. The diaphragm vibrates when struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance. Specifically, when the plates are closer together, capacitance increases and a charge current occurs. When the plates are further apart, capacitance decreases and a discharge current occurs. A voltage is required across the capacitor for this to work. This voltage is supplied either by a battery in the mic or by external phantom power.
Cross-Section of a Typical Condenser Microphone

CAPACITOR
A capacitor is a little like a battery. Although they work in completely different ways, capacitors and batteries both store electrical energy. A battery has two terminals. Inside the battery, chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal and absorb electrons on the other terminal. A capacitor is much simpler than a battery, as it can't produce new electrons -- it only stores them. Inside the capacitor, the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by a non-conducting substance, or dielectric. We can easily make a capacitor from two pieces of aluminum foil and a piece of paper. The dielectric can be any non-conductive substance. However, for practical applications, specific materials are used that best suit the capacitor's function. Mica, ceramic, cellulose, porcelain, Mylar, Teflon and even air are some of the non-conductive materials used. The dielectric dictates what kind of capacitor it is and for what it is best suited. Depending on the size and type of dielectric, some capacitors are better for high frequency uses, while some are better for high voltage applications. Capacitors can be manufactured to serve any purpose, from the smallest plastic capacitor in your calculator, to an ultra capacitor that can power a commuter bus. NASA uses glass capacitors to help wake up the space shuttle's circuitry and help deploy space probes. Here are some of the various types of capacitors and how they are used.

Air - Often used in radio tuning circuits Mylar - Most commonly used for timer circuits like clocks, alarms and counters Glass - Good for high voltage applications Ceramic - Used for high frequency purposes like antennas, X-ray and MRI machines Super capacitor - Powers electric and hybrid cars

BC547 TRANSISTOR
The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor. The BC547 transistor is a general-purpose transistor in a small plastic packages. It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors. The BC547 transistor is an NPN bipolar transistor, in which the letters "N" and "P" refer to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN, because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility in semiconductors, allowing greater currents and faster operation. NPN transistors consist of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. A small current entering the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output. In other terms, an NPN transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter. The arrow in the NPN transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode. One mnemonic device for identifying the symbol for the NPN transistor is "not pointing in." An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode region. In typical operation, the emitter base junction is forward biased and the base collector junction is reverse biased. In an NPN transistor, for example, when a positive voltage is applied to the base emitter junction, the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes unbalanced, allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region. These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. The electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which would make holes the majority carrier in the base

BC547 Transistor Symbol

BC547 Transistor Pinouts

555 TIMER IC
555 is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing pulses. It is an 8pin timer IC and has mainly two modes of operation: monostable and astable. In monostable mode time delay of the pulses can be precisely controlled by an external resistor and a capacitor whereas in astable mode the frequency & duty cycle are controlled by two external resistors and a capacitor. 555 is very commonly used for generating time delays and pulses. The 555 timer IC is an amazingly simple yet versatile device. It has been around now for many years and has been reworked into a number of different technologies. The two primary versions today are the original bipolar design and the more recent CMOS equivalent. These differences primarily affect the amount of power they require and their maximum frequency of operation; they are pin-compatible and functionally interchangeable.

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation and oscillator applications. The part is still in widespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability.
PINOUT DIAGRAM

The connection of the pins for a DIP package is as follows:


Pin Name Purpose 1 2 3 4 5 GND TRIG OUT Ground, low level (0 V) OUT rises, and interval starts, when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. This output is driven to +VCC or GND.

RESET A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. CTRL "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC).

6 7 8

THR DIS

The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. Open collector output; may discharge a capacitor between intervals.

V+, VCC Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V.

The 555 has three operating modes:

Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on. Astable free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on. Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches.

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE:
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.[3] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. The advantages of LEDs mentioned above have allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications

technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.

Battery:
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells; each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the anode or negative electrode; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes.

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5.OPERATION OF SOUND OPERATED SWITCH


Conversion of sound to electrical pulse Microphones are types of transducers, they convert acoustic energy i.e. sound signal. Basically, a microphone is made up of a diaphragm, which is a thin piece of material that vibrates when it is struck by sound wave. This causes other components in the microphone to vibrate leading to variations in some electrical quantities thereby causing electrical current to be generated. The current generated in the microphone is the electrical pulse. This microphone has a stage of amplification built in. The power for this built in amplifier is supplied by connecing a resistor to a posotive source of voltage and the changes in current get reflected as changes in voltage across this resistor according to the familiar relation V=T*R. A larger resistor will give you a larger voltage, but then the current into the device gets reduce which brings down the gain. Biasing of amplifier: A transistor stage, biased near cut-off (that is, almost no current with no signal) amplifier the signal from the microphone. The output of the microphone is coupled to the base of the transistor using an electrolytic capacitor (note : using a better capacitor here will not work). The top of the electrets microphone is at a few volts, the base conducts at around half a volt, so the leakages current of the capacitor (all electrolytic capacitor here will not work). The top of the electrets microphone is at a few volts, the base conducts at around half a volt. so the leakage current of the capacitor (all electrolytic capacitors leak at least a little bit) will eventually cause he steady state condition in which the leakage of the capacitor goes into the base terminal of the transistor. So the collector will have He times this leakage, which can usually be ignored. The first time the microphone output goes positive, however, (because somebody clapped) this change gets coupled to the base entirely due to the action of the capacitor. This causes the current through the transistor to increase and this increase in current causes the voltage at the collector, which was sitting near the supply voltage at the collector, which was sitting near the supply voltage, to fall to nearly zero. If you clapped loudly enough. This is not a high fidelity audio amplifier. Its function is to produce no output for (slightly) bigger sounds, so the customary biasing network can be omitted. Changing State: On a clap, the state of the bistable changes. The output of the amplifier is converted to a sharp pulse by passing it through a (relatively) low valued capacitor, of 0.1 microfarads (100 nanofarads). This is connected through streering diodes to the base of the transistor which is conducting. This transistor stop conducting, and the other transistor was not conducting anyway. So at a clap, both transistors become off. Then, those two capacitors across the base resistors come into action. The capacitor connecting to the base of the transistor which was ON has voltage across it. The capacitor connecting to the base of the transistor which was OFF has no voltage across it. As the sound of the clap dies away, both bases rise towards the supply voltage.But due to the difference in the charges of the two capacitors, the base of the transistor which was previously not conducting reaches the magic 11

value of half a volt first, and it gets on, and stays on. Until the next clap. Two Red Light Emitting Diodes have been placed in the two collector circuits so that this circuit can be made to work by itself. If you cover up one LED, and display the other prominently, you have it there - a clap operated light.

6.APPLICATION OF CLAP SWITCH The primary application involves an elderly or mobility-impaired person. A clap switch is generally used for a light, television, radio or similar electronic device that the person will want to turn on/off from bed. ADVANTAGES : The major advantage of a clap switch is that you can something (e.g. a lamp) on and off from any location in the room (e.g. while lying in bed) simply by clapping your hands. DISADVANTAGES : The major disadvantage is that its generally cumbersome to have to clap ones hands to turn something on or off and its generally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch. REFERENCES William D.Stanely, Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits. Pearson Education, 2004. Electronic Devices and Circuits T.F. Bogart Jr., J.S.Beasley and G.Rico, Pearson Education, 6th edition, 2004. Electronic Devices and Circuits Dr. K. Lal Kishore, B.S. Publications, 2nd Edition, 2005. Microprocessor and Microcontrollers, Krishna Kant Eastern Company Edition, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi , 2007. M.H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications, Pearson Education, PHI Third edition, New Delhi 2004.

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PAPER PRESENTATION
Remote Detection Of Illegal Electricity Usage Via Powerline Communication

C.Jinesh Final year EEE, St. Xaviers Catholic College of Engineering


ABSTRACT: One of the ways through which the power loss occurs is by power theft so in order to conserve the power the power theft should be literally eradicated from the power system Power line communication (PLC) presents an interesting and economical solution for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). If an AMR system via PLC is set in a power delivery system, a detection system for illegal electricity usage may be easily added in the existing PLC network. In the detection system, the second digitally energy meter chip is used and the value of energy is stored. The recorded energy is compared with the value at the main kilo Watt-hour meter. In the case of the difference between two recorded energy data,
INTRODUCTION :

this is one of the effective ways by which power theft can be controlled. So the remote detection of illegal power usage comes under Energy conservation. an error signal is generated and transmitted via PLC network. The detector and control system is proposed. The architecture of the system and their critical components are given. The measurement results are given. This paper describes detector system for illegal electricity usage using the power lines based on the research work-taking place at the Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bangalore. The target of this study is to discover new and possible solutions for this problem. utilities are losing billions of rupees in this account. If an Automatic Meter Reading system via Power line Communication is set in a power delivery system, a detection system for illegal electricity usage is possible .Power line communications (PLC) has many new service

India, the largest democracy with an estimated population of about 1.04 billion, is on a road to rapid growth in economy. Energy, particularly electricity, is a key input for accelerating economic growth. The theft of electricity is a criminal offence and power

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possibilities on the data transferring via power lines without use of extra cables. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is a very important application in these possibilities due to every user connected each other via modems, using power lines. AMR is a technique to facilitate remote readings of energy consumption. The following sections will describe the proposed detection and control system for
Methods of illegal electricity usage: In illegal usage a subscriber illegally use electricity in the following ways, 1) Using the mechanical objects: A subscriber can use some mechanical objects to prevent the revolution of a meter, so that disk speed is reduced and the recorded energy is also reduced. 2) Using a fixed magnet: A subscriber can use a fixed magnet to change the electromagnetic field of the current coils. As is well known, the recorded energy is proportional to electromagnetic field.

illegal electricity usage using the power lines. The scheme is based on the research worktaking place at Central Power Research Unit (CPRI), Bangalore .In this section the discussion is on how a subscriber can illegally use the electricity and the basic building blocks for the detection using power line communication.

3) Using the external phase before meter terminals: This method gives subscribers free energy without any record. 4) Switching the energy cables at the meter connector box: In this way, the current does not pass through the current coil of the meter, so the meter does not record the energy consumption. Although all of the methods explained above may be valid for electromechanical meters, only the last two methods are valid for digital meters. Therefore, this problem should be solved by electronics and control techniques .

BUILDING BLOCKS FOR DETECTION: Automatic Meter Reading (AMR):

Fig 2 : AMR communication setup Fig 1: Automatic meter reading The AMR system starts at the meter. Some means of translating readings from rotating meter dials, or cyclometer style meter dials, into digital form is

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necessary in order to send digital metering data from the customer site to a central point. In most cases, the meter that is used in an AMR system is the same ordinary meter used for manual reading but the difference with conventional energy meter is the addition of some device to generate Three main components of AMR system are: 1. Meter interface module: with power supply, meter sensors, controlling electronics and a communication interface that allows data to be 2. Communications systems: used for the transmission, or telemetry, of data and control send signals between the meter interface units and the central office. POWER LINE COMMUNICATION (PLC): transmitted from this remote device to a central location. 3. Central office systems equipment: including modems, receivers, data concentrators, controllers, host upload links, and host computer . pulses relating to the amount of consumption monitored, or generates an electronic, digital code that translates to the actual reading on the meter dials. One such technique using optical sensor

Power line carrier communications take place over the same lines that deliver electricity. This technique involves injecting a high frequency AC carrier onto the power line and modulating this carrier with data originating from the remote meter or central station. Power line communications has many new service possibilities on the data transferring via power lines without use of extra cables. AMR is a very important application in these possibilities due to every user connected each other via power lines. In this power network, every user connected to each other via modems with data originating from the remote meter or central station. Electrical power systems vary in configuration from country to country depending on the state of the respective power sources and loads. The practice of using medium-voltage (11-to-33kV) and low-voltage (100-to-400V) power distribution lines as highspeed PLC communication means and optical networks as backbone networks is commonplace.Under normal service conditions,

they can be broadly divided into open-loop systems, each with a single opening, and tree systems with radial arranged lines. In the case of tree systems, connection points for adjacent systems are provided in order that paths/loads may be switched when necessary for operation. Additionally, in terms of distribution line types, there are underground cables and overhead power distribution lines. Where transformers are concerned, they can be divided into polemounted transformers, pad-mounted transformers and indoor transformers. High-speed PLC applications of the future include Automatic Meter Reading

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(AMR), power system fault detection, power theft detection, leakage current detection, and the measurement/control/energy-management of electrical power equipment for electrical power companies, as well as home security, the

remote- monitoring/control of electrical household appliances, online games, home networks, and billing .
Fig 3 : illegal detector system of one subscriber

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DETECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEM: The proposed control system for the detection of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig.3. PLC signaling is only valid over the low voltage VAC power lines. The system should be applied to every low-voltage distribution network. The system given in Fig. 3 belongs only one distribution transformer network and should be repeated for every distribution network. Although the proposed system can be used uniquely, it is better to use it with automatic meter reading system. If the AMR system will be used in any network, the host PLC unit and a PLC modem for every subscriber should be contained in this system. In Fig. 3, the host PLC unit and other PLC modems are named PLC1A, PLCNA and are used for AMR. These units provide communication with each other and send the recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters to the PLC unit. In order to detect illegal usage of electrical energy, a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an existing AMR system. As given in Fig. 3, PLC1B, PLCNB and energy meter chips belong to the detector.The detector PLC s and energy meters must be placed at the connection point between distribution main lines and subscribers line. Since this connection point is usually in the air or at underground, it is not suitable for anyone to access, such that its control is easy. The main procedure of the proposed system can be summarized as follows.PLC signaling must be in CENELEC standards. In Europe, CENELEC has formed the standard EN-50 065-1, in which the frequency bands, signaling levels, and procedures are specified. 395 kHz are restricted for use by electricity suppliers, and 95148.5 kHz are restricted to consumer use. The recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via PLC modems, which is placed in subscribers locations. On the other hand, energy meter chips are located at the connection points and read the energy in

kilowatt-hours and also send the data to host PLC unit. This proposed detector system has two recorded energy data in host PLC unit, one, which comes from the AMR-PLC, and the other, which comes from the PLC modem at the connection points. These two recorded energy data are compared in the host PLC. If there is any difference between two readings, an error signal is generated. This means that there is an illegal usage in the network. After that, the subscriber address and error signal are combined and sent to the central control unit. If it is requested, a contactor may be included to the system at subscriber locations to turn off the energy automatically, as in the case of illegal usage.

SIMULATION: The system model and simulation of the detection system of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig. 4. It contains a host PLC modem, an energy meter chip and its PLC modem, an electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter and its PLC modem, and an optical reflector sensor system is loaded at the same phase of the power grid. The energy value at the electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector sensor. Disk speed of the kilowatt-hour meter is counted and obtained data is sent to PLC modem as energy value of the kilowatt-hour meter. At the system model, an illegal load may be connected to the power line before the kilowatt-hour meter via an S switch. While only a legal load is in the system, two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. The host PLC unit reads two recorded data coming from metering PLC units. If the S switch is closed, the illegal load is connected to the system, and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each other.

Fig 4 : System simulation and modeling of the detection system of illegal electricity usage for electromechanical kilowatt-hour meters

The host PLC unit is generated when it received two different records from the same subscriber. This is the detection of the illegal usage for interested users. In these tests, the carrier frequency is selected at 132 kHz, which is permitted in the CENELEC frequency band. In real applications the AMR systems may be designed in CENELEC bands. The data rate between the host and other PLC modems is 2400 b/s.

communication bits such as parity and stop bits. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of the required houses. In the digital energy meter system, the recorded energy may be received in the digital form directly using the port of the meter. Therefore, there is no need for an optical reflector system in digital meters. The results of the tests show that this system may solve this problem economically because the budget of the proposed system is approximately U.S. $ 2025 per subscriber. It is very economical and is a reliable solution when it is compared with the economic loss caused by illegal usage . CONCLUSION :
The proposed detector system to determine illegal electricity usage via power line communications is examined in the laboratory conditions. Results proved that if AMR and detector system are used together illegal usage of electricity might be detected. Once this proposed detection systems are tried in real power lines, the distribution losses in India can be reduced to a considerable level effectively.

Data signaling between PLC modems has a protocol, which includes a header, address, energy value data, error correction bits, and other serial

REFERENCES William D.Stanely, Operational Amplifiers with Linear Integrated Circuits. Pearson Education, 2004. Electronic Devices and Circuits T.F. Bogart Jr., J.S.Beasley and G.Rico, Pearson Education, 6th edition, 2004. Electronic Devices and Circuits Dr. K. Lal Kishore, B.S. Publications, 2nd Edition, 2005. Microprocessor and Microcontrollers, Krishna Kant Eastern Company Edition, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi , 2007. M.H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications, Pearson Education, PHI Third edition, New Delhi 2004.

APTITUDE QUESTIONS
1.)Look at this series: 664, 332, 340, 170, ____, 89, ... What number should fill the blank?
A. 85 B. 97 C. 109 D. 178

Answer: Option D Explanation: This is an alternating division and addition series: First, divide by 2, and then add 8.
2.)Look at this series: 83, 73, 93, 63, __, 93, 43, ... What number should fill the blank?

A.33 C.73 Answer: Option B Explanation:

B.53 D.93

This is a simple subtraction series in which a random number, 93, is interpolated as every third number. In the subtraction series, 10 is subtracted from each number to arrive at the next. 3.)Window is to pane as book is to A.novel C.cover Answer: Option D Explanation: A window is made up of panes, and a book is made up of pages. The answer is not (choice a) because a novel is a type of book. The answer is not (choice b) because glass has no relationship to a book. (Choice c) is incorrect because a cover is only one part of a book; a book is not made up of covers. 4.)Yard is to inch as quart is to A.gallon C.milk Answer: Option B B.ounce D.liquid B.glass D.page

Explanation: A yard is a larger measure than an inch (a yard contains 36 inches). A quart is a larger measure than an ounce (a quart contains 32 ounces). Gallon (choice a) is incorrect because it is larger than a quart. Choices c and d are incorrect because they are not units of measurement. 5.)Pride is to lion as shoal is to A.teacher C.self-respect Answer: Option D Explanation: A group of lions is called a pride. A group of fish swim in a shoal. Teacher (choice a) and student (choice b) refer to another meaning of the word school. The answer is not (choice c) because self-respect has no obvious relationship to this particular meaning of school. 6.)CMM, EOO, GQQ, _____, KUU A.GRR C.ISS Answer: Option C Explanation: The first letters are in alphabetical order with a letter skipped in between each segment: C, E, G, I, K. The second and third letters are repeated; they are also in order with a skipped letter: M, O, Q, S, U. B.GSS D.ITT B.student D.fish

7.)DEF, DEF2, DE2F2, _____, D2E2F3 A.DEF3 C.D2E3F Answer: Option D Explanation: In this series, the letters remain the same: DEF. The subscript numbers follow this series: 111, 112, 122, 222, 223, 233, 333, ... B.D3EF3 D.D2E2F2

8.)Which word does NOT belong with the others? A.street C.interstate Answer: Option A Explanation: Freeway, interstate, and expressway are all high- speed highways; a street is for low-speed traffic. B.freeway D.expressway

9.)

Answer

: 5:19

Explanation : Starting with the watch on the left, add 42 minutes to the time shown to give the time on the next watch to the right. 10.)

Answer

: To the 4

Explanation : The sum of the numbers pointed to by the hour and minute hands is always 11. 11.) The length of the bridge, which a train 130 metres long and travelling at 45 km/hr can cross in 30 seconds, is: A.200 m C.245 m Answer: Option C Explanation: 45 x 1 8 5 m/sec = 2 5 2 m/sec. B.225 m D.250 m

Speed =

Time = 30 sec. Let the length of bridge be x metres. 130 + 2 Then,x =5 30 2 2(130 + x) = 750 x = 245 m. 12.)A train passes a station platform in 36 seconds and a man standing on the platform in 20 seconds. If the speed of the train is 54 km/hr, what is the length of the platform? A.120 m C.300 m Answer: Option B Explanation: Speed = 5 54 1 x 8 B.240 m D.None of these

m/sec = 15 m/sec.

Length of the train = (15 x 20)m = 300 m. Let the length of the platform be x metres.

x + Then,300 = 15 36 x + 300 = 540 x = 240 m. 13.) Mr. Thomas invested an amount of Rs. 13,900 divided in two different schemes A and B at the simple interest rate of 14% p.a. and 11% p.a. respectively. If the total amount of simple interest earned in 2 years be Rs. 3508, what was the amount invested in Scheme B? A.Rs. 6400 C.Rs. 7200 E. None of these Answer: Option A Explanation: Let the sum invested in Scheme A be Rs. x and that in Scheme B be Rs. (13900 - x). x x 14 x (13900 - x) x 11 x Then, 2 + 2 = 3508 100 100 28x - 22x = 350800 - (13900 x 22) 6x = 45000 x = 7500. So, sum invested in Scheme B = Rs. (13900 - 7500) = Rs. 6400. 14.) Reena took a loan of Rs. 1200 with simple interest for as many years as the rate of interest. If she paid Rs. 432 as interest at the end of the loan period, what was the rate of interest? A.3.6 C.18 E. None of these Answer: Option B Explanation: Let rate = R% and time = R years. Then, 1200 x R x R = 432 B.6 D.Cannot be determined B.Rs. 6500 D.Rs. 7500

100 12R2 = 432 R2 = 36 R = 6. 15.) A sum of money amounts to Rs. 9800 after 5 years and Rs. 12005 after 8 years at the same rate of simple interest. The rate of interest per annum is: A.5% C.12% Answer: Option C Explanation: S.I. for 3 years = Rs. (12005 - 9800) = Rs. 2205. 220 x S.I. for 5 years = Rs. 5 5 3 = Rs. 3675 B.8% D.15%

Principal = Rs. (9800 - 3675) = Rs. 6125. 100 x Hence, rate = 3675 = 12% % 6125 x 5 16.) The compound interest on Rs. 30,000 at 7% per annum is Rs. 4347. The period (in years) is: A.2 C.3 Answer: Option A Explanation: Amount = Rs. (30000 + 4347) = Rs. 34347. Let the time be n years. 7 Then, 30000 1 +10 0 n= 34347 B.2 D.4 1 2

10 7 10 0

3434 1144 10 7 9 7 n= = = 3000 1000 10 0 0 0

n = 2 years. 17.) Two ships are sailing in the sea on the two sides of a lighthouse. The angle of elevation of the top of the lighthouse is observed from the ships are 30 and 45 respectively. If the lighthouse is 100 m high, the distance between the two ships is: A.173 m C.273 m Answer: Option C Explanation: Let AB be the lighthouse and C and D be the positions of the ships. B.200 m D.300 m

Then, AB = 100 m,

ACB = 30 and

ADB = 45.

AB 1 = tan 30 = AC = AB x 3 = 1003 m. AC 3 AB = tan 45 = 1 AD = AB = 100 m. AD CD = (AC + = (1003 + 100) m AD) = 100(3 + 1) = (100 x 2.73) m = 273 m. 18.) The angle of elevation of a ladder leaning against a wall is 60 and the foot of the ladder is 4.6 m away from the wall. The length of the ladder is: A.2.3 m C.7.8 m Answer: Option D Explanation: B.4.6 m D.9.2 m

Let AB be the wall and BC be the ladder.

Then,

ACB = 60 and AC = 4.6 m.

AC 1 = cos 60 = BC 2 BC= 2 x AC = (2 x 4.6) m = 9.2 m. 19.) A hollow iron pipe is 21 cm long and its external diameter is 8 cm. If the thickness of the pipe is 1 cm and iron weighs 8 g/cm3, then the weight of the pipe is: A.3.6 kg C.36 kg Answer: Option B Explanation: External radius = 4 cm, Internal radius = 3 cm. 2 = 2 x [(4)2 - (3)2] x21 Volume of iron cm3 7 2 x 7 x 1 x = 2 21 cm3 7 = 462 cm3. Weight of iron = (462 x 8) gm = 3696 gm = 3.696 kg. 20.)Evaluate : A.2 C.6 (2.39)2 - (1.61)2 2.39 - 1.61 B.4 D.8 B.3.696 kg D.36.9 kg

Answer: Option B Explanation: (a + b)(a Given Expression = =b) = (a + b) = (2.39 + 1.61) = 4. a - b (a - b) a2 - b2 21.) If 2994 14.5 = 172, then 29.94 1.45 = ? A.0.172 C.17.2 Answer: Option C Explanation: 29.9 299. 4 =4 1.45 14.5 299 1 4 = x [ Here, Substitute 172 in the place of 2994/14.5 ] 1 14.5 0 17 =2 10 = 17.2 22.) 3 pumps, working 8 hours a day, can empty a tank in 2 days. How many hours a day must 4 pumps work to empty the tank in 1 day? A.9 C.11 Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the required number of working hours per day be x. More pumps, Less working hours per day (Indirect Proportion) Less days, More working hours per day (Indirect Proportion) Pumps4:3 :: 8 : Days 1:2 x B.10 D.12 B.1.72 D.172

4x1xx=3x2x8 x = (3 x 2 x 8) (4)

x = 12. 23.) 39 persons can repair a road in 12 days, working 5 hours a day. In how many days will 30 persons, working 6 hours a day, complete the work? A.10 C.14 Answer: Option B Explanation: Let the required number of days be x. Less persons, More days (Indirect Proportion) More working hours per day, Less days (Indirect Proportion) 3 0 Working hours/day6 Persons 3 9 :5 : :: 12 : x B.13 D.15

30 x 6 x x = 39 x 5 x 12 x = (39 x 5 x 12) (30 x 6)

x = 13. 24.) a b If log +log = log (a + b), then: b a A.a + b = 1 C.a = b Answer: Option A Explanation: B.a - b = 1 D.a2 - b2 = 1

a b log + log = log (a + b) b a log (a + b) = a b x = log 1. log b a So, a + b = 1. 25.)In order to obtain an income of Rs. 650 from 10% stock at Rs. 96, one must make an investment of: A.Rs. 3100 C.Rs. 6500 Answer: Option B Explanation: To obtain Rs. 10, investment = Rs. 96. 9 6 x To obtain Rs. 650, investment = Rs. 1 650 0 B.Rs. 6240 D.Rs. 9600

= Rs. 6240.

26.) A man bought 20 shares of Rs. 50 at 5 discount, the rate of dividend being 13 . The rate of interest obtained is: A. 1 1 % 2 2 1 3 1 D. 6 B. 1 % 2 2 % 3

C.15% Answer: Option C Explanation: Investment = Rs. [20 x (50 - 5)] = Rs. 900. Face value = Rs. (50 x 20) = Rs. 1000. 2 100 Dividend = Rs. 7 x0 = Rs. 135. 2 100 13 5 x Interest obtained = 90 = 15% 100 % 0