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EEP305 Electric Drives Laboratory Jan-May 2013 List of Experiments CYCLE1 1.

DC shunt motor braking – Dynamic braking and low voltage plugging. Get the parameters of the DC machine and also simulate the braking performance in a digital computer. 2. Three-phase Induction motor starting- Record the starting current and speed transients for Y- , auto transformer and DOL starting. Simulate the performance of DOL starting in a digital computer. 3. Three-phase Induction motor braking (a) low voltage plugging (b) low voltage DC dynamic braking (c) Diode braking (d) capacitor braking. Simulate the plugging performance with a large rotor resistance in a digital computer. 4. Rectifier fed DC motor Drive. Observing Current and Voltage waveforms in the AC as well as DC side through current and voltage sensors for two different load conditions. Also study the harmonic spectrum in the current in the AC side for these load conditions. 5. Rotor resistance control of 3-phase slip ring induction motor – simulation and experiment CYCLE 2

6. VSI fed 3-phase induction motor drive. Study the speed regulation at different load conditions for a given frequency setting. Observe input and output voltage and current waveforms. Simulate the same in SIMULINK. 7. Pole changing of 3-phase induction motors – Experimentally study the pole changing configurations of the motor in the laboratory and simulation of speed-torque characteristics 8. Chopper fed DC motor drive 9. Performance characteristics of PMSM drive 10. Performance characteristics of PMBLDC motor drive NOTE:-Please make sure that you learn abo ut the experiment that you are going to perform and read the hand outs before you come for the actual laboratory class. Please submit the reports along with the results and inference in the following week itself. T he report submitted (one per subgroup) should contain: Title of the experiment, Name of the person writing the report, Names of the members o f the subgroup, Date of submissio n, Date on which the experiment was conducted, Aim, Apparatus required, Circuit d iagram, Theory, Procedure, Observatio ns, Inference, Precautions to be taken while conducting the experiment, graphs (if any), answers for quiz questions, simulation models, results of simulatio n and additional remarks/comments.

(G.Bhuvaneswari) Course co-ordinator

otherwise the machine might unduly get heated up. a DC supply of reverse polarity has to be connected in series and this voltage has to be about 30 to 50V.Regenerative braking 2. The plugging is to be done at a reduced voltage so that the current through the machine is limited to its Full-Load value. the generated power in the machine is dissipated in an external resistance. so that the dynamic braking takes effect. Plugging voltage should be varied from 25 to 50V and the time taken by the m/c to stop should be recorded. In dynamic braking. As the m/c picks up the external resistance can be cut down. the stored kinetic energy in the machine as well as the energy supplied from the source – both are wasted in the form of heat in the external resistance. Plugging or reverse current braking. Keep Rext in maximum resistance position and switch on the DC supply to the motor by closing the DPDT in 11’ position.Hand out EXPERIMENT NO-1 DC Shunt Motor Braking Braking in any electrical machine is accomplished mainly by three methods: 1. throw the switch in position 22’. an external rheostat has to be used in series with the armature so that the starting current is within the set limit. Reverse Voltage Braking Time 1 2 . Plugging has to be done at reduced voltage. In plugging. Note that the field should be excited separately. PROCEDURE: As there is no starter provided for the given DC shunt machine. two methods of braking namely dynamic braking and plugging are to be implemented and tested for the given DC motor. The computer simulation of plugging operation is also to be carried out using a dynamic model for the DC machine. Regenerative braking allows feeding back of the stored energy in the m/c back to the supply and hence it is the most energy efficient method of braking. The connections are exactly similar to dynamic braking condition except that along with RB. Dynamic braking 3. In this experiment. No. When the machine has gone up to its rated speed. Note down the time taken by the machine to stop completely after dynamic braking is initiated. S.

Ia + La dIa/dt + Rb. initial current Ia is known.NOTE: Field to be separately excited during braking. Field coil resistance can also be measured.Ia = Eb + V during braking where Eb= KIf  = initial speed If = Eb / Rf J d/dt = TL = -. If is also known. and J has to be measured by retardation test (please refer to S. Speed is known. Compare this braking time with the actual one that was obtained from the experiment. La etc.K. (ii) Ra . Time.PILLAI). Comment on the discrepancies. Finally the parameters of machine are to be measured – Ra. QUIZ: (1) Can a series motor be braked by regenerative braking. Why? . Why? (2) Plugging causes a heavy current to flow through the m/c .(Ia2 Rb)/ Solve these two simultaneous differential equation and obtain  and Ia vs. Simulation of plugging can be done as follows: (i) During running.KIfIa -.Why? (3) Dynamic braking is more effective in separately excited m/c compared to shunt m/c.

Record these transients. x1. Rc and J. x2.3/2 Vc Vd = 0 Vq = 0 . SAY for starting methods. G. The equation governing induction motor dynamics are as follows: where V = Va .EXPERIMENT NO-2 Induction Motor Starting Transients There are various methods of starting of an induction motor: (a) Direct on line starting (DOL) (b) Star – Delta starting (c) Auto transformer starting As most of the squirrel-cage induction motors draw 6 to 7 times Full-Load current while starting direct on line. it is desirable to have some mechanism to bring down this starting current. Conduct free running test.observe how long its takes for the machine to come up to its rated speed using each of these methods when it is running on no-load.½ Vc V = 0 + 3/2Vb . blocked rotor test and retardation test on the induction motor to find out its parameters like r1. r2. Please refer M. Xm. Speed and current transients are observed from all the three types of starters by using the tacho and current sensors and feeding these signals to the CRO.½ Vb .

V. Quiz: 1.where Va . Vc are the stator applied voltages( per phase) instantaneous values & Vq. JONES) L1 = M + l1 Mutual + leakage inductance of stator L2 = M + l2 Mutual + leakage inductance of rotor r = instantaneous rotor speed These four simultaneous differential equations allow us to solve for currents for the given m/c parameters and i/p voltages.(Please refer to a book on Numerical methods for differential equation solution using Runge . T = -M i iq + M i id = Electromagnetic torque Te . Vd are rotor voltages. . What are the methods of starting IM using solid-state controllers? 2. Are they better than the conventional starting methods? Justify. Vb..Kutta method). Thus all these five simultaneous differential equations can be solved and hence the response of the m/c can be obtained.(Please refer to Unified Theory of Electrical Machines by C. This result is obtained by transforming 3-phase stator and rotor to their 2-phase equivalents and then transforming all the rotor quantities to stationary reference frame.TL = J dr / dt From which r (instantaneous rotor speed) can be solved for.

Capacitor value Braking Time . the induction machine will be disconnected from the supply and connected to a capacitor bank connected in Star or Delta. So. braking of a 3-phase induction motor will be implemented using the following four methods: (a) capacitor braking (b) DC dynamic braking (c) Diode braking (d) Plugging For all these methods of braking.This causes generator action and the energy is dissipated in winding resistances. now the excitation would be provided by the capacitor and the machine will start acting like a generator (Why?). (Why?). Dubey (from Narosa). PROCEDURE: The induction motor is started by using an Auto transformer and brought up to Full speed. In plugging the phase sequence of the stator supply is reversed but very low voltage is applied. The generated electric power will be dissipated in the inherent resistance of the windings and thus braking is accomplished . the 3-phase supply to the stator is cut off and a low voltage DC is applied to the stator windings. please refer to the book on Fundmanetals of Electric drives by G . In capacitor braking. The circuit diagram for different types of braking are shown below: Capacitor Braking: S. Diode braking is almost similar to the DC dynamic braking.K . the students are encouraged to dig out the research papers and study them. For diode braking. In this experiment. No.This causes braking because of the reversed direction of the revolving magnetic field. This causes stator magnetic field to be stationary and hence s < r.EXPERIMENT NO-3 Induction Motor Braking The different type of braking have already been discussed in experiment no-1. In DC dynamic braking.

No. No.DC Dynamic Braking: S. DC Voltage Braking Time Diode Braking: S. Voltage Time for stopping .

In the simulation . The final results of that could be taken as the initial conditions.Plugging: S. it is necessary to do retardation test and free running & blocked rotor test to get the parameters of the machine. what will happen? . only the forcing function has to be changed from ABC to BAC and rest of the things remain the same. (4) It is always necessary to have a centrifugal switch during plugging operation to detect zero speed and switch off the supply. Current vs Time. plugging and regenerative braking in a single torque-speed plane. No. the simulation of the machine during starting was done. (3) Draw the drive characteristics for motoring. Speed vs Torque. For plugging operation. Speed vs Time are to be obtained. In the previous experiment. Voltage Time for stopping SIMULATION: The simulation can be done by using the model of induction motor. If this switch malfunctions. In this experiment also. QUIZ: (1) Is regenerative braking feasible in an induction m/c? (2) Analyse DC dynamic braking for the two cases: (a) one phase open (b) two stator phases started and DC supply applied between the other terminal and short-circuited terminal.

The current and voltage waveforms in the CRO can be traced. 4. In the present experiment we are considering the case of armature voltage control. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Here the DC machine whose speed is to be controlled acts like a prime mover and the induction generator is the load on the DC machine. The drive characteristics should match with the load characteristics and this can be done by controlling the converter appropriately. These can be repeated for different speed settings on the POT. THD and power factor of the drive unit. controlled converters are used to adjust DC level that is inputted to the drive. Solid state control of DC drives could be done using converters or choppers. then the DC motor is on No-Load. (ii) Record harmonics in the AC side current and THD Using a power analyzer. If the incoming supply is AC. the 3-phase power analyzer (the connection is similar to a 3-phase wattmeter) can be used to note down the harmonic contents in the currents. In the AC side. The reference speed is set using a “ POT “ on the panel of the drive unit. . Study the manual as to what kind of controls are used for firing etc.Experiment No. Now. For two different loads (if the current output from generator is within its Full-Load limit). On No-Load. the readings taken during No-Load could be taken. the excitation to the induction generator could be turned on and the load can be applied on to the generator. Rectifier Fed DC Motor Drive Study of Rectifier fed DC Motor –coupled to induction generator (a) Run at two different loads (two different firing angles) (i) observe & trace the waveforms of voltage and current in the i/p and o/p side by using voltage/current sensors. the current drawn by the DC motor and the voltage across the armature can be noted down. When the induction generator is not loaded and when the capacitors are not connected to the m/c.

Load Current DC motor Current Voltage AC side harmonics 1 5 7 11 13 THD PF Wave form Traces 1 2 3 QUIZ:1.No. Could you observe commutation overlap in these waveforms? Why? What is the effect of overlap? Is the current continuous all the time in the DC side? What is the effect of discontinuity in current? . 4. 3. 2.S.

2 where Re = C^2 Rs. Resister controllers in the rotor circuit are used to achieve smooth start & speed control. (Rr + Rs)/S Let (Rr + Rs)/S = R & Xr + X(s)/S = X Combine these =ns we get T.. The thevenins equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. Ee = C .. Objective The objective of this experiment is to determine the performance (speed.. efficiency. Passive two terminal network is connected externally to each rotor phase. To simplify the circuit Thevenins equivalent of the circuit is taken across the air gap.. or where the motor is to be started under heavy load. Ws = R. Theory The per phase equivalent circuit of a polyphase Induction Motor is shown in Fig. Xs.(A) The above =n gives the torque slip relation for an Induction Motor with external rotor impedance. current.. Slip ring Induction Motor is used where the load requirements are high starting toque & variable speed.. Xe = C ..1. Resent investigations have shown that certain desired torque speed characteristics can be achieved by insertion of relatively simple passive frequency sensitive networks. E We know that the internal torque of Induction Motor is T = Pg/Ws watts/phase Pg = Airgap power Ws= synchronous speed in rad/sec. 5 Rotor Resistance Control of Wound Rotor Induction Motor Motivation The main advantage of slip ring induction motor over the squirrel cage motor is that it offers one more degree of freedom to the Engineers for starting & speed control. Typical applications of these motors are crane & hoist control.1. The rotor impedance when referred to stator side becomes Z(s)/S as shown in Fig.. Also Pg = Ir^2.. Now the effect of different network parameters will be examined. and power-factor) of Slip ring Induction Motor for a) Various values of rotor circuit resistance b) Various values of series combination of resistance & capacitance in the rotor circuit.Experiment No.... The external network can be represented as impedance Z(s) = R(s) + JX(s) At slip s. Careful selection of network parameters leads to highly reduced starting current & & improved torque/ current ratio.. torque... To understand the industrial systems incorporating the Slip ring Induction Motors it is therefore necessary to study the effect of rotor impedance on the performance of Induction Motors. E^2/[(R+Re)^2 + (X + Xe)^2] . (1) Resistance Control .

Xe.Xr are constants therefore the torque developed (internal) is a function of rotor resistance & rotor . Equipments & Components:(1) Three phase slip ring Induction Motor coupled to a DC dynamo motor with torque measuring devices. / S & X = Xr Hence =n (A) becomes T * Ws = (Ee)^2 .) / S1 ………. . …… (B) {Re + (Rr + Rext)/S}^2 + (Xe + Xr) ^2 In =n (B) Ee. . =n (D) becomes T. (2) Three phase autotransformers (3) DC machine coupled to an Induction Motor / DC motor to make Ward Leonard system.(D) {Re + (Rr + Rext)/S1}^2 As. …………(C) {Re + (Rr + Rext)/S}^2 + (Xe + Xr – 1/S^2 WsC) ^2 The value of C is such that for a particular value of Slip S = S1 Xe + Xr = 1/S1^2 Ws C = 0 At S = S1 the peak torque occurs Hence at S = S1 =n (C) becomes T . (Rr + Rext)/S1>>Re.) / S . (2) Series RC Control In this case R(S) = Rext/S X(s) = -j 1/SWs C Now. Ws = (Ee)^2 . ( Rr + Rext . T. ( Rr + Rext . (4) Two field rheostats (5) High current resistances (6) Two single phase or one three phase wattmeters (7) AC voltmeter (Two) (8) DC voltmeter (9) AC ammeter (10) DC ammeter(three) .(E) (Rr + Rext)/S1 It is evident that the value of external resistance decides the peak the peak value of the torque. The starting torque also increases. The value of the maximum torque is independent of the rotor resistance & the speed at which the Tmax occurs can be adjusted using the rotor resistance.In this case R(s) = Rext. It shows that the value of the torque can be varied for a particular speed of the rotor by varying the external resistance rotor resistance. Ws = (Ee)^2 . Ws = .speed. Re.) / S . (Ee)^2. From the above discussion it is clear that the value of series resistance decides the value of maximum torque & the series capacitance decides the speed at which maximum torque occurs. ………. ( Rr + Rext .

Determine Xe & Re & for a particular value of slip Find out the value of C. (2) Conduct light running test & blocked rotor tests to determine the equivalent circuit parameters.Check the direction of rotation of test machine & Ward Leonard prime mover. (3) Make connections as shown in Fig.Run the motor and take observations to determine the characteristics.No Motor I/P Current I(ac) Input Power(W1. (6) Repeat the experiment for various values of rotor resistances. (4) Short circuit the rotor of the test motor. Measure the rotor resistance. (8) Repeat the experiment with various values of series s RC in rotor circuit.(11) Double pole single throw knife switch Experimental Procedure (1) Decide the values & ranges of rheostats & measuring devices from the machine name plate ratings.W2) Speed N Torque T DC voltage Vdc DC current Idc field current (If)M Field current I(f)D . (5) Choose value of external resistance & connect the resistance to the rotor terminals of the test motor . (9) The full experiment should be performed at half the rated voltage as at low speed current level is high.(3). Run the motor to determine the its characteristics with series RC in rotor circuit. Check the polarity of the voltage generated by DC generator. Impedance Control OBSERVATION TABLE: Sl. (7) From equivalent circuit parameters choose an approximate value of series capacitance & resistance . Run the rotor at reduced voltage(preferably half the rated voltage & using the Ward Leonard take observations starting from low speed to determine the characteristics of INDUCTION MOTOR.

jXs Rs R(s)/S Re jXe jXr R(s)/S jXm E1 Z(s)/S Z(s)/S Fif(1) Fig(2) M W 1 L A Iac Idc A AUTO TRAN SFOR MER V Vab TEST IM V Vbc DC M/C V L M W2 A If1 IM DC M/C A Fig (3) + Vf - If2 .