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Medical Research Institute
Master Degree Examination General Histology (Connective tissue and blood) A) Choose the right answer (s): 1. The following cells are found in connective tissues a. mast cells b. fat cells c. fibroblasts d. undifferentiated mesenchymal cells Correct: a, b & c 2. The following tissues are proper connective tissue a. cartilage b. lymph c. adipose tissue d. blood Correct: c 3. The loose connective tissue is found a. around the mucous membrane of gut b. between muscles c. blood vessels d. in the peritoneum and mesenteries Correct: all 4. The loose connective tissue a. is soft and easily bent b. contains little cavities c. Become filled with fluid in oedema d. is known as lamina propria Correct: all 5. Dense connective tissue a. may be regular as in ligament and joints b. may be irregular as in tendons c. is either white or black d. contains more fibers but fewer cells Correct: c & d 6. Tendon cells a. are fibroblasts in between collagen fibers b. have triangular shape c. have rectangular shape none of the above Correct: a, b & c 7. White fibrous connective tissue constitute a. ligaments of joints b. sclera (the outer tough coat of the eye) c. dura mater (the outer coat protecting brain & spinal cord)
d. the dermis of the skin Correct: all 8. Yellow elastic connective tissue a. is found in large arteries b. is found in heart and lung c. constitutes the elastic ligaments of legamenta flava d. all of the above Correct: d 9. Reticular connective tissue is found in a. lymphoid organs b. liver c. bone marrow d. endocrine glands Correct: all 10. Reticular connective tissue consists of reticulare fibers and a. mast cells b. plasma cells c. fibroblasts d. none of the above Correct: d 11. Adipose connective tissue is widely distributed a. around kidney to form shock absorbing pads b. in mesentery and omentum c. in bone marrow cavities d. in superficial fascia below skin to prevent heat loss Correct: all 12. Mucoid connective tissue has a. no fibers b. fibroblasts of stellate forms c. fibroblasts of elongated shape d. little amount of histeocytes but much in mast cells Correct: b 13. Mucoid connective tissue is found in a. embryo tissue only b. adult tissue only c. both of the above d. umbilical cord of the pregnant women Correct: c &d 14. Fibroblast cells through their activity form a. collagen b. elastin c. reticulin d. mucin Correct: a, b & c
15. Chondriocytes are the only cell type in a. loose connective tissue b. adipose connective tissue c. special type of connective tissue called cartilage d. special type of connective tissue called bone Correct: c 16. Hyaline cartilage is stained with basic dyes for it has a. collagen bundles b. sulfated mucopolysaccharides c. rich glycogen d. collagen and chondroitin sulfate Correct: d 17. The active bone-forming cells produced from osteogenic periosteum and from another osteogenic layer are a. osteoclasts b. chondriocytes c. osteocytes d. chondrioblasts Correct: none 18. Osteoclasts are active where a. there is bone resorption b. there is cartilage formation c. there is bone formation d. none of the above Correct: a & c 19. Haversian cannals a. are found in portal tracts of liver tissues b. are microscopic fine bony channels c. have lumen containing loose connective tissue in which lie small nerve, artery and vein d. are found in glomeruli of kidney tissue Correct: b & c 20. Volkmann's cannals are a. tunnels that supply blood to periosteum and endosteum b. ultrastructural channels appeared in hepatocytes c. found in big artery and vein d. none of the above Correct: a 21. Sharpey's fibers a. serve to fix periosteum to its bone b. are coarse collagen either calcified or non-calcifiesd c. are coarse reticulin extending from periosteum d. none of the above Correct: a & b
22. Plasma is composed of a. water b. proteins c. minerals d. waste metabolic products Correct: all 23. White blood granulocytes are a. lymphocytes b. monocytes c. plasma cells d. mast cells Correct: none 24. Lymph capillaries differ from the blood capillaries in the following a. end blindly b. have irregular shape c. have no Rouget cells (pericytes) d. have poorly developed indistinct basal lamina Correct: all 25. Red blood corpuscles use energy to maintain a. normal electrolyte gradients across plasma membrane b. iron atoms of hemoglobin in divalent form c. iron atoms of hemoglobin in trivalent form d. their enzymes in a reduced form Correct: a, b & d 26. Barr body a. exists as the small appendage of one of leucocytes nuclear lobes b. is known as drumstick chromosome D c. is visible in peripheral blood film d. is the condensed quiescent X-chromosome in female neutrophils Correct: all 27. Romonowsky-type technique includes a. H & E stains b. Giemsa stain c. PAS d. Wright stain Correct: b & d 28. Basophilia is the affinity for basic dyes which is characteristic in a. DNA in nucleus b. RNA in cytoplasm c. Ribosomes d. Mitochondria Correct: all
29. A particular feature of hemoglobin filling the cytoplasm of RBCs is a. eosinophilia b. azurophilia c. neutrophilia d. basophilia Correct: a 30. B) Fill in the spaces: (underlined words are correct) 1. Connective tissue is classified into proper and special connective tissues 2. Proper connective tissue includes loose, dense, adipose, reticular and mucoid tissues 3. Special connective tissue includes supporting tissues as cartilage and bone and vascular tissues as blood and lymph. 4. Unlike epithelium, connective tissue has a great amount of intercellular substances 5. While epithelium is avascular tissue , connective tissue is highly vascularized 6. Matrix of connective tissue is consisting of carbohydrates and mucoproteins 7. Some of mucopolysaccharides in connective tissue matrix are stained with basic dyes while others are neutral 8. Connective tissue fibers are three types namely collagenous, elastic and reticular fibers. 9. Collagenous fibers are called white fibers as they have no color when fresh 10. Elastic fibers are called yellow fibers for they appear yellow when fresh 11. Young fibroblast elaborate a substance called tropocollagen which is a precursor of collagen while old fibroblasts are called fibrocytes which are inactive 12. Mast cell is packed with granules which mask a central small nucleus. These granules are metachromatic 13. Mast cell granules appear red with toluidin blue, a phenomenon known as metachromasia 14. Mast cells secret heparin which is anticoagulant and histamine which is a vasodialator 15. The cytoplasm of the plasma cells is stained with HE except the central part where Golgi apparatus is located but the nucleus appeared as car-wheel pattern 16. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells have remained undifferentiated since their embryonic life 17. Plasma cells produce specific proteins called antibodies 18. The role of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells is the ability to develop into other connective tissue cells. 19. Dense connective tissue is either white fibrous or yellow elastic 20. Tendon cells between collagenous bundles characterized by their triangular or rectangular shape 21. Reticular cells have cytoplasmic processes and a large pale nucleus 22. Mucoid connective tissue contains a large amount of jelly-like ground substance which is rich in mucin
23. The body requires a rigidity to support its massive weight which is provided by cartilage and bone 24. Cartilage is unique among the various connective tissue types in that it is avascular so perichondreum supplies it nutrients and oxygen 25. There are three types of cartilage, hyaline, white fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage 26. White fibrocartilage lacks perichondoreum to avoid crushing of blood capillaries during movement of joints 27. Pinna of ear, end of nose and Eustachian tube contains elastic cartilage to can bent and easy return to its former shape 28. Cartilage keeps the passages of respiratory system permanently open for continuous respiration 29. Matrix of bone is consists of mucopolysaccharides, organic substances called ossen and inorganic minerals chiefly different calcium salts 30. Osteoblasts secret an organic substance called ossen particularly in bone matrix 31. Cytoplasm of osteoblast is basophilic due to abundant rER 32. Periosteum is outer bone surface while perichondreum is the outer cartilage surface 33. Endosteum is the inner surface of bone 34. Osteocytes are arranged in lamellae of hard ossified matrix between periosteum and endosteum 35. Bone connects each parts together by fine cytoplasmic processes of all osteocytes through the canaliculi of lacuna 36. Connective tissue has important metabolic roles such as fat storage in its type white adipose tissue 37. The regulation of body temperature in new born is regulated by brown adipose tissue 38. Each Haversian canal has a narrow lumen containing delicate loose connective tissue in which lie a small artery, vein and nerve 39. Blood is derivative of connective tissue and is considered as a special modified connective tissue 40. Unlike cartilage, bone is vascularized tissue 41. Sharpey's fibers serve to fix periosteum to its bone 42. Yellow marrow is an inactive soft fatty tissue found in marrow cavity of long bones 43. Red marrow is an active soft fatty tissue found in spongy bone 44. Cellular components of blood are erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets 45. Life span of RBCs is short for it lacks nucleus and organoids 46. Microphages are neutrophils while macrophages are connective tissue cells but both have phagocytic function 47. Basophils have antagonists as they secret serotonin which is vasodialator and histamine which is vasoconstrictor 48. The two main differences that distinguished agranular WBCs from granular ones are that they don not contain granules in their cytoplasm and their nuclei are not lobulated
49. The greater part of platelets is more or less clear and is called hyalomere while the central part is called chromatomre 50. Platelets in mammals are not true cells 51. Tissue fluid transports dissolved nutrients and oxygen from blood to tissue and collect wastes from tissue to blood 52. Biconcave disc shape of RBCs provides a greater surface area than a sphere relative to cell volume to enhance gaseous exchange 53. Energy required for activity of EBCs is derived from anaerobic metabolism of glucose 54. Neutrophils are the most common WBCs having function in acute inflammation 55. Several histochemical methods can be used to highlight neutrophils in tissue section, among them is chloroacetate esterase 56. Basophilic cytoplasm granules contain proteoglycans that are a variable mixture of heparin and chondriotin sulfate Key words: Histology, Connective tissue MCQs
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