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Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Kharagpur .Lesson 6 Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles Version 2 CE IIT.
e. 6. State and prove Crotti-Engesser theorem. Derive simple expressions for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to mechanical loading using unit-load method. 2.2 Crotti-Engesser Theorem The Crotti-Engesser theorem states that the first partial derivative of the complementary strain energy U * expressed in terms of applied forces F j is ( ) equal to the corresponding displacement. In the end. Derive equations for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to temperature loads. 4. When the complementary strain energy is equal to the strain energy (i.1 Introduction In the previous lesson.2) Note that Engesser’s theorem is valid for both linear and non-linear structures. ∂U * =0 ∂F j (6. is discussed. we discussed the principle of virtual work and principle of virtual displacement. In this lesson. the unit load method is employed to calculate displacements of trusses due to external loading. we derived unit – load method from the principle of virtual work and unit displacement method from the principle of virtual displacement.1) is nothing but the statement of Castigliano’s first theorem in terms of complementary strain energy.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. Also. few examples are solved to demonstrate the power of virtual work. n ∂U * = ∑ a jk Fk = u j ∂Fj k =1 (6. Version 2 CE IIT. in case of linear structures) the equation (6. the reader will be able to: 1. Initially the Engesser’s theorem. 6. which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem.1) For the case of indeterminate structures this may be stated as. Compute deflections in trusses using unit-load method due to fabrication errors. Kharagpur . 3.
Kharagpur . U * = ∫ u dF 0 F (6.4) This is the statement of Castigliano’s second theorem.5) Differentiating complementary strain energy with respect to force F .6) Version 2 CE IIT. dU =F du (6.3) Differentiating strain energy with respect to displacement.In the above figure the strain energy (area OACO) is not equal to complementary strain energy (area OABO) Area OACO = U = ∫ F du 0 u (6. dU * =u dF (6. Now the complementary energy is equal to the area enclosed by OABO.
u j are the actual deflections of the truss.1 External Loading In case of a plane or a space truss. the truss members either expand or shrink. In the unit load method.7) wherein. Hence. uj = ∑ i =1 m (δPv ) ij Pi Li Ei Ai (6. In the above equation L.3. 6.3 Unit Load Method as applied to Trusses 6. δ F j is the external virtual load. A respectively represent length of the member.. then member i due to unit virtual load at j and ( u j = ∑ (δPv ) ij Δ i i =1 m (6.7) may be written as. P ds 0 EA is the actual internal deformation of the frame due to real forces.2 Temperature Loading Due to change in the environmental temperature... If we represent total deformation by Δ i . equation (5. the only internal forces present are axial as the external loads are applied at joints. This in turn produces joint deflections in the truss. 6.. the above equation coincides with the Castigliano’s first theorem given in equation (3. Δ i is the true change in length of member i due to real loads.. and all other components of virtual forces δF j = 1 δ Pv is the virtual stress resultant in the frame due to the virtual load and ∫ L δFi (i = 1.9) where.3..8). then integration may be replaced by summation and hence equation (6. j − 1.7) may be written as. (δPv ) ij is the internal virtual axial force in Pi ) Li is the total deformation of Ei Ai member i due to real loads. Also. j + 1. E . cross-sectional area of a member and modulus of elasticity of a member. When the load displacement relationship is linear.. ∑ δF j u j = ∫ j =1 0 n L δPv Pds EA (6. n) are zero.. if the cross sectional area A of truss remains constant throughout.8) where m is the number of members.2.This gives deflection in the direction of load. Kharagpur . This may be Version 2 CE IIT.
The application of equation (6. evaluate the j-th joint deflection u j . Usually camber is provided in bridge truss so that its bottom chord is curved upward by an equal to its downward deflection of the chord when subjected to dead. 3.9). calculate the real forces in the member of the truss either by method of joints or by method of sections due to the externally applied forces. Calculate virtual forces (δPv )ij in each member due to the applied unit load at the j-th joint. 6.10) where α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion member. In such instances. From this PL determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation i i . ei is taken as positive when the member lengths are fabricated slightly more than the actual length otherwise it is taken as negative. Now. there will be errors in fabricating truss members. In some cases.11) where.9). using equation (6. the change in length of member Δ i is calculated from the relation. Δi = ei (6. Δ i = αTLi (6. If deflection of a joint needs to be calculated due to temperature change.8) is shown with the help of few problems. Now. 6.9). In this case. the truss joint deflection is calculated by equation (6. where the deflection is sought. 2. Kharagpur . consider the virtual load system such that only a unit load is considered at the joint either in the horizontal or in the vertical direction. Here.3 Fabrication Errors and Camber Sometimes. also. ei is the fabrication error in the length of the member. 4. the truss members are fabricated slightly longer or shorter in order to provide camber to the truss. Li is the length of member and T is the temperature change. First. then determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation Δ i = αTLi . Version 2 CE IIT.calculated by equation (6.3. Ei Ai Assume tensile forces as positive and compressive forces as negative.4 Procedure for calculating truss deflection 1.
arrows have been drawn indicating the direction in which the force in the member acts on the joint.2b along with member forces which are determined by equations of static equilibrium. Kharagpur . Assume that. The given truss is statically determinate one.1 Find horizontal and vertical deflection of joint C of truss ABCD loaded as shown in Fig.2a. The magnitudes of internal forces are also shown in the respective figures. The tensile forces are shown as +ve and compressive forces are shown as –ve. 6. At each end of the bar.Example 6. Version 2 CE IIT. The reactions are as shown in Fig 6.2c and evaluate the virtual forces δPv in each member. apply a unit load as shown in Fig 6. all members have the same axial rigidity. To evaluate horizontal deflection at ‘C’.
Horizontal deflection at joint C is calculated with the help of unit load method. uc .1. The whole calculations are shown in table 6. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .2c. 1 × u cH = ∑ (δPv ) ic Pi Li Ei Ai (1) For calculating horizontal deflection at C. This may be stated as. The calculations are self explanatory. apply a unit load at the joint C as shown in Fig.6.
2d. a unit vertical load is applied at joint C of the truss as shown in Fig.2 Computational details for vertical deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 4 2 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4 2 /AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 5 2 (δPvv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 0 ∑ (Downwards) (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.1 Computational details for horizontal deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 (δPv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.569 = AE AE (Towards right) Vertical deflection at joint C (δPvv ) ic Pi Li (3) E i Ai In this case.m 0 0 60/AE 0 4 2 4 2 /AE 5 2 ∑ 2 40 2 /AE 60 + 40 2 AE (2) H (1)(u C ) →= 60 + 40 2 116. Table 6. v =∑ 1× uc 6. Kharagpur .m 0 0 60/AE 0 0 60 AE (4) v (1)(u C ) ↓= 60 60 = AE AE Version 2 CE IIT.Table 6.
The cross sectional areas of the 75000 members in square centimeters are shown in parentheses.Example 6.3a due to a) Applied loading as shown in figure.00 × 10 5 N / mm 2 .2 Compute the vertical deflection of joint b and horizontal displacement of joint D of the truss shown in Fig. E = 2. b) Increase in temperature of 250 C in the top chord BD. 6. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. Assume 1 α= per °C .
Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.
0 kN -0.750 -0.312 -0.416 0 0 (10-3) kN.0 1.2 0 4.0 1.5 -67.38 -0. Kharagpur .47 0 0 0.05 0.5 +60.51 -0.47 0.12 0. Table 6.0 1.17 0.5 +67.68 (10-3) kN.500 +0.562 +0.13 0.416 +0.312 1 0 kN +0.5 +67.5 +37.13 0.416 +0.13 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.0 2.51 0.5 +37.0 1.17 0.5 +67.0 1.76 0.250 +0.68 0.m 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∑ Version 2 CE IIT.187 -0.0 2.16 -0.562 -0.416 +0.3 Computational details for example 6.35 1.002 0 0 0 0 0 0 (δPvH )i Pi Li Ei Ai (δPvv ) i Δ ti (δPvH ) i Δ ti units aB ab bc Bc BD cD cd de De Bb Dd m (10-5) m/kN 5 3 3 5 6 5 3 3 5 4 4 1.0 2.187 +0.0 1.0 1.937 +0.m 1.2 Mem Li Li / Ai Ei Pi (δPvv ) i (δPvH ) i Δ ti = αtLi (δPvv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai m 0 0 0 0 0.5 -112.0 kN -112.13 (10-3) kN.38 0.750 +0.5 +67.16 0.312 +0.250 -0.12 0.562 +0.The complete calculations are shown in the following table.38 (10-3) kN.m -0.m 0 0 0 0 -1.0 +60.
apply a unit virtual load δ Fb = 1 .00438 KNm = 0.13 mm ↑ b) Horizontal displacement of joint ‘D’ 1) Due to externally applied loads (δPvH ) i Pi Li =∑ E i Ai 1× u H uD →= H b + 0.00068 m 1 KN = 0.m = −0. v =∑ 1× ub (δPvv ) i Pi Li E i Ai (2) 1) Due to external loads + 0. Then the above equation may be written as.00113m 1 KN t ub = 1.00438 m 1 KN = 4.68 mm → Version 2 CE IIT.001125 KN .a) Vertical deflection of joint b Applying principle of virtual work as applied to an ideal pin jointed truss.38 mm ↓ 2) Due to change in temperature t (1)(u b ↓) = ∑ (δPvv ) i Δ ti u b ↓= t ub ↓= − 0.00068 KNm = 0. ∑ δ Fj u j = ∑ j =1 i =1 1 m (δ Pv )ij PL i i Ei Ai (1) For calculating vertical deflection at b . Kharagpur .
001m 1 KN Ht uD = 1. Version 2 CE IIT. temperature loading and fabrication errors.001 KN .2) Due to change in temperature Ht (1)(u D →) = ∑ (δPvH ) i Δ ti Ht uD →= 0. The unit load method is applied statically determinate structure for calculating deflections when the truss is subjected to various types of loadings such as: mechanical loading. Kharagpur .00 mm → Summary In this chapter the Crotti-Engessor’s theorem which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem has been introduced.m = 0.
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