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Date _________ 6! (2""7-23 +(e or'anisms in a typica& ,ac1yar- are &i1e&y to inc&u-e ,acteria, 'rass, s(ru,s, trees, insects, spi-ers, ,ir-s, an- sma&& mamma&s! +o'et(er, a&& t(ese or'anisms ma1e up / a! a popu&ation ,! an e.perimenta& 'roup c! a community -! a 1in'-om

BIO Review 11 - Environments - Biomes, Ecosystems, Human impact (26 1! (2""6-#$ %ome p&ant roots 'row wit( mycorr(i)a& *un'i! +(e *un'i a,sor, water an- minera&s an- pass t(em on to t(e p&ant an- receive car,o(y-rates *rom t(e p&ant! +(is is an e.amp&e o* / a! mutua&ism ,! competition c! pre-ation -! parasitism 2! (2""1-16 0 sym,iotic re&ations(ip in w(ic( one or'anism ,ene*its w(i&e one or'anism is (arme- is 1nown as2 a! anta'onism ,! commensa&ism c! parasitism -! mutua&ism

$! (2""6-$3 +(e c(art s(ows t(e types o* or'anisms ant(e num,ers o* species co&&ecte- *rom a &oca& ecosystem! 0ccor-in' to t(ese -ata, t(is ecosystem was most &i1e&y a2 a! savanna ,! -esert c! tun-ra -! mars( #! (2""$-#3 In w(ic( ,iome -o t(e evaporation rates e.cee- t(e precipitation rates4 a! Har-woo- *orest ,! Desert c! 5rass&an-! +ropica& 6un'&e 7! (2""$-#$ 8(ic( o* t(ese is t(e 'reatest &imitin' *actor *or p&ants t(at 'row on t(e *&oor o* a rain *orest4 a! Her,ivores ,! 8ater c! %un&i'(t -! %pace

9! (2""6-3 0ccor-in' to t(is map, w(ic( anima& wou&most &i1e&y avoi- co&- waters4 a! Bott&enose -o&p(in ,! Ri'(t w(a&e c! 8a&rus -! :anatee

;! (2""7-$9 +(is 'rap( su''ests t(at *rom 1;#" to 132", t(e carryin' capacity *or s(eep in +asmania was appro.imate&y / a! "!97 mi&&ion ,! 1!"" mi&&ion c! 1!97 mi&&ion -! 2!27 mi&&ion

3! (2""1-#; 8(ic( or-er o* -ia'rams wou&- s(ow primary succession in an area t(at (a- never ,e*ore ,een occupie- ,y &ivin' or'anisms4 a! D, B, <, 0 ,! <, 0, B, D c! 0, <, B, D -! B, 0, <, D

12! (2""#-1# 0n e.periment is -esi'ne- to c&ear an oa1(ic1ory *orest an- rep&ant t(e area wit( pines! 8(ic( o* t(e *o&&owin' species wou&- ,e most t(reatene- ,y t(is e.periment4 a! <ar-ina& ,! %ummer tana'er c! Hoo-e- war,&er -! =ie&- sparrow 1$! (2""7-$$ 8et&an-s are very specia&i)e- ecosystems! O* t(e *o&&owin' causes o* wet&an- &oss, w(ic( -o peop&e (ave t(e &east contro& over4 a! Drou'(ts ,! Drainin' an- *i&&in' c! Disc(ar'e o* po&&utants -! Over'ra)in' 1#! (2""6-$1 In an a>uatic (a,itat, an e.amp&e o* or'anisms *rom t(e pioneer community wou&- ,e / a! 'rass ,! water &i&ies c! water ree-s -! a&'ae 17! (2""6-17 0nima&s t(at are t(e &east specia&i)e'enera&&y stan- t(e ,est c(ance o* surviva& w(en t(e environment su--en&y an- -rastica&&y c(an'es ,ecause t(ey are a,&e to2 a! a-apt to -i**erent con-itions ,! move *rom p&ace to p&ace c! mutate rapi-&y -! repro-uce a,un-ant&y 16! (2""2-1$ +(e is&an- o* 0&-a,ra &ies #"" 1i&ometers o** t(e coast o* 0*rica an- is (ome to t(e 0&-a,ra Rai&, a &on'-&e''e- wet&an- ,ir-! +(e 0&-a,ra Rai& is *&i'(t&ess an- muc( -i**erent *rom t(e rai&s &ivin' on t(e main&an-! +(is ,ir- ,ecame a -istinct&y -i**erent species t(rou'( / a! repro-uctive iso&ation ,! conver'ence c! 'eo'rap(ic iso&ation -! a-aptive ra-iation

1"! (2""2-#; In t(e 'rap( a,ove, w(at is t(e popu&ation o* -eer at t(e carryin' capacity o* t(e environment4 a! 7" ,! 1" c! 9" -! $" 11! (2""2-2# 8(at is t(e main cause o* *is( 1i&&s in rivers po&&ute- ,y *erti&i)ers4 a! Decrease- o.y'en &eve&s ,! Increase- water temperatures c! Decrease- minera& sources -! Increase- water &eve&s

13! (2""7-12 %(enan-oa( Nationa& @ar1 is (ome to many -i**erent types o* ecosystems! 0ccor-in' to t(e c(aracteristics s(own a,ove, w(ic( ecosystem wou&most &i1e&y ,e (ome to a mi.ture o* wi&-&i*e species *rom nort(ern, coo&er ran'es an- sout(ern, warmer ran'es4 a! 0ppa&ac(ian <ove *orest ,! Oa1-Hic1ory *orest c! +ransition *orest -! Nort(ern Nee-&e&ea* *orest 2"! (2""1-7 In 1;3$, a one-mi&&ion acre area o* t(e 5ran<anyon Nationa& =orest Reserve was (ome to an estimate- $,""" Roc1y :ountain mu&e -eer! <att&e, s(eep, an- (orses a&so roame- t(e reserve! In 13"6, 'overnment (unters 1i&&e- o** (un-re-s o* mountain &ions, coyotes, an- ,o,cats w(en t(e area was set asi-e as t(e 5ran- <anyon Nationa& 5ame @reserve! +(e num,er o* Roc1y :ountain mu&e -eer rose to over 1"",""" ,y 132$! 8(at was t(e appro.imate -ensity o* t(e mu&e -eer in 132$4 a! 1 *or every 1"" acres ,! 1 *or every acre c! 1 *or every 1,""" acres -! 1 *or every 1" acres 21! (2""2-$$ :any o* t(e *orests o* ?ir'inia (ave ,een c&eare- *or *arm&an-! 8(ic( o* t(ese wou&- &east a**ect t(e time it wou&- ta1e to return a *arm to *orest con-itions4 a! +(e a,i&ity o* t(e *arm&an- to retain moisture ,! +(e num,er o* via,&e tree see-s on t(e &anc! +(e -ensity o* t(e ori'ina& *orest on t(e *arm -! +(e amount o* avai&a,&e nutrients in t(e soi&

19! (2""7-1; Eac( -rawin' represents -i**erent sta'es in community succession wit(in t(e state o* ?ir'inia! 8(ic( o* t(e *o&&owin' -rawin's represents t(e c&ima. community in t(is succession pattern4 a! = ,! 5 c! H -! I 1;! (2""1-12 8i&- cats suc( as c(eeta(s, &ions, an- ti'ers e.perience -ecrease- 'enetic -iversity as t(eir popu&ations -ec&ine an- ,ecome *ra'mente- -ue to (a,itat -estruction! Decrease- 'enetic -iversity &ea-s to popu&ations wit( / a! -isproportionate 'en-er ratios ,! increase- immi'ration rates c! increase- ,irt(rates -! -ecrease- -isease resistance

22! (2""$-26 %cientists (ave note- a -ec&ine in *un'i species -atin' ,ac1 to t(e ear&y 13""s! 0nnua& crops o* e-i,&e mus(rooms in =rance an- 5ermany (ave -ec&ine- since 137"! One (ypot(esis to e.p&ain t(is -ec&ine is t(at e-i,&e *un'i are ,ein' over(arveste-! 5&o,a& warmin' an- air po&&ution (ave a&so ,een consi-ere- as contri,utin' to t(e -ec&ine! 8(ic( o* t(e *o&&owin' wou&- e.c&u-e over(arvestin' as t(e cause o* t(e -ec&ine4 a! %imi&ar -ec&ines amon' e-i,&e Nort( 0merican species ,! Hi'( *un'a& num,ers in nitro'en-poor c! 0 para&&e& -ec&ine in non-e-i,&e species -! =un'a&-popu&ation increases in tropica& re'ions 2$! (2""$-2# +(ere are pro,a,&y *ewer t(an $,""" manatees (+ric(ec(us manatus &e*t in t(e wor&-! 8(ic( wou&- pro,a,&y cause t(e e.tinction o* t(e species4 a! Increases in t(e ran'e o* t(e manatees ,! Increases in noncompetin' species in t(e manateesA (a,itat c! %prea- o* a -isease t(at re-uce- *erti&ity rates in manatees -! 0 su--en *ree)e in t(e nort(ern ran'e o* t(e manatees 2#! (2""#-#6 %ome sp(in. mot( caterpi&&ars are ca&&etomato (ornworms! +(ese &ar'e caterpi&&ars -o a tremen-ous amount o* -ama'e to tomato p&ants! 8(ic( met(o- o* mot( contro& wou&- ,e most -an'erous to t(e (oney,ee, w(ic( is nee-e- *or p&ant po&&ination4 a! Bsin' mot( scents to attract mot(s to traps ,! Re&easin' caterpi&&ar parasites c! @&antin' mot(-repe&&in' p&ants -! %prayin' p&ants wit( insectici-es 27! (2""#-; Or'anisms repro-uce *o&&owin' severa& patterns! %ome or'anisms pro-uce *ew o**sprin' anprovi-e parenta& care! Ot(er or'anisms pro-uce many o**sprin' ,ut provi-e &itt&e or no parenta& care! 8(ic( o* t(e *o&&owin' or'anisms (as t(e 'reatest ris1 o* &osin' a popu&ation -ue to t(e -eat( o* on&y a *ew in-ivi-ua&s4 a! Bacteria ,! =&ies c! E&ep(ants -! Rats 26! (2""1-$3 <&eaner *is( *ee- o** t(e a&'ae, *un'i, anot(er microor'anisms t(at are *oun- on &ar'er *is(! Ot(er species o* *is(, w(ic( &oo1 &i1e t(e c&eaners, are a,&e to approac( t(e &ar'er *is( an- remove &ar'e ,ites o* *&es(! I* t(e &oo1-a&i1e popu&ations outnum,er t(e c&eaner *is(, t(e / a! ,e(avior o* &ar'e *is( wou&- c(an'e ,! c&eaner popu&ations wou&- increase c! microor'anisms on &ar'e *is( wou&-! c&eaners an- mimics wou&- inter,ree-