This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Grade HYSD reinforcement (given) Solution :Provide 6 m x 4 m x 3.5 m tank with free board of 150 mm. Volume = 6 x 4 x 3.35 x 10 3 = 80400 Litres L/B= 6/4= 1.5 <2. The top portion of side walls will be designed as a continuous frame. bottom 1 m or H / 4 whichever is more is designed as cantilever. H/4= 3.5 / 4 = 0.875 m bottom 1 m will be designed as cantilever. 2.5 x YW = 2.5 x 9.8 Water pressure at 3.5 - 1 = 2.5 m height from top = =

3

24.5

KN / m2

where Yw is unit weight of water = 9.8 KN / m To find moment in side walls, moment distribution or kani's method is used. As the frame is symmetrical about both the axes, only one joint is solved

6m A 6m E

2.5 m

F

24.5 KN / m

2

3.5 m

1m

D

34.3 KN / m2

**Elevation Fixed end moments :2 MAB = w x l / 12 =
**

2 = 24.5 x 6 / 12 =

Plan

73.5

KNm

MAD =

w x l2 / 12 =

2 = 24.5 x 4 / 12 =

-32.66

KNm

Kani's Method :-

0 0

D

- 32.66 -12.25 -12.25 0 -57.16

-3/10 40.84 -2/10

A

73.5 -8.17 -8.17 0 57.16

0 0

B

Rotation factor at Joint A

Joint

Member

Relative Stiffness( K )

∑K

Rotation Factor u =(-1/2) k / ∑ K

A

AB AD

I/6 I/4

5 * I / 12

- 2 / 10 - 3 / 10

Sum of FEM MAF = 73.5-32.66 40.84 MAB =

KNm

MABF + 2 MAB' + MBA' = 73.5 + 2 x (- 8.17 ) + 0 = 57.16 MADF + 2 MAD' + MDA' = (- 32.66 ) + 2 x (- 12.25 ) + 0 = -57.16 w x l 2 / 8 - 57.16 2 = 24.5 x 6 / 8 - 57.16 53.09 KNm w x l 2 / 8 - 57.16 2 = 24.5 x 4 / 8 - 57.16 -8.16 KNm Yw ( H - h ) x B / 2 24.5 x 4 / 2 = Yw ( H - h ) x L / 2 24.5 x 6 / 2 =

MAD =

B.M. at centre of long span =

B.M. at centre of short span =

Direct tension in long wall = = Direct tension in short wall = =

49

KN

73.5

KN

Design of Long Walls :At support M= 57.16 KNm T= 49 KN Tension on liquid face. From Table 9-6 Q = 0.306 Assuming d / D = 0.9 D=

**√M / Q x b 6 = √57.16 x 10 / 0.306 x 1000
**

= 432.2 mm, Assuming d / D = 0.9 d = 450 - 25 - 8 = 417 mm

Take D = 450 mm From Table 9-5

Ast1 for moment = M / σst x j x d = = 57.16 x 10 6 / 150 x 0.872 x 417 1048 mm2

Ast2 for direct tension = T / σst = = Total Ast1 + Ast2 = = 49 x 10 3 / 150 327 mm2 1048 + 327 1375 mm2

Provide 16 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 200.96 x 1000 / 1375 = 146.15273 mm Provide 16 mm O bar @ 130 mm C/C…marked(a) = 1546 mm2 / m. Larger steel area is provided to match with the steel of short walls. At centre M= 53.09 KNm tension on remote face T= 49 KN 53.09 / 49 e= M/T= Line of action of forces lies outside the section = 1.08 m i.e.tension is small E= e+D/2-d b = 1080 + 450 / 2 - 417 = 888 mm

D

modified moment = 49 x 0.888 = 43.51 Ast1 for moment = M / σst x j x d = =

d

KNm

d'

E=e+D/2-d 6

43.51 x 10 / 190 x 0.89 x 417 mm2 617

Ast2 for direct tension = T / σst = = Total Ast1 + Ast2 = = 49 x 10 3 / 150 327 617 + 327 944 mm2 mm2

Provide 16 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 200.96 x 1000 / 944 = 212.88136 mm

Provide 16 mm O bar @ 200 mm C/C…marked(b) = 1005 mm2 From Table 9-3 minimum reinforcement 0.16 % Distribution steel = 0.16 / 100 x 1000 x 450 = 720 mm2 On each face = 360 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.24 x 1000 /360 = 139.55556 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 130 mm C/C…marked(d) = 385 mm2 Vertical Steel ( c) Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 78.50 x 1000 /360 = 218.05556 mm Provide 10 mm O bar @ 200 mm C/C…marked(c) = 392 mm2 Horizontal steel :Remote face ( b) - Provide 16 mm O @ 200 mm C/C = 1005 mm2 Liquid face ( d) - Provide 8 mm O @ 130 mm C/C = 385 mm2 Vertical Steel ( c) - Provide 10 mm O @ 200 mm C/C both faces = 392 Design of short walls :At support M= 57.16 T= 73.5 From Table 9-5 Ast1 for moment = M / σst x j x d = =

mm2

KNm KN

tension on liquid face

57.16 x 10 6 / 150 x 0.872 x 417 1048 mm2

Ast2 for direct tension = T / σst = = Total Ast1 + Ast2 = = 73.5 x 10 3 / 150 490 mm2 1048 + 490 1538 mm2

Provide 16 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 200.96 x 1000 / 1538 = 130.6632 mm Provide 16 mm O bar @ 130 mm C/C…marked(b) = 1546 mm2 / m. At centre M= T= 8.16 73.5 KNm KN tension on liquid face

From Table 9-5 Ast1 for moment = M / σst x j x d = = 8.16 x 10 6 / 150 x 0.872 x 417 150 mm2

Ast2 for direct tension = T / σst = = Total Ast1 + Ast2 = = 73.5 x 10 3 / 150 490 mm2 150 + 490 640 mm2

Provide 12 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 113.04 x 1000 / 640 = 176.625 mm Provide 12 mm O bar @ 130 mm C/C…marked(e) = 869 mm2 / m. From Table 9-3 minimum reinforcement 0.16 % Distribution steel = 0.16 / 100 x 1000 x 450 = 720 mm2 On each face = 360 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.24 x 1000 /360 = 139.55556 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 130 mm C/C…marked(d) = 385 mm2 Vertical Steel ( c) Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 78.50 x 1000 /360 = 218.05556 mm Provide 10 mm O bar @ 200 mm C/C…marked(c) = 392 mm2 . Horizontal steel :Remote face ( e) - Provide 12 mm O @ 130 mm C/C = 869 mm2 Liquid face ( d) - Provide 8 mm O @ 130 mm C/C = 385 mm2 Vertical Steel ( c) - Provide 10 mm O @ 200 mm C/C both faces = 392 Bottom 1 m will be designed as cantilever Cantilever moment : Yw x H / 6 , whichever is greater. M= Yw x H x h2 / 6 OR = 9.8 x 3.5 x 1 / 6 = 9.8 x 3.5 / 6 ,tension on liquid face. = 5.72 KNm = 5.72

mm2

Elevation etc.5 m 3.229 / 100 x 1000 x 150 . From table 9-3 Minimum steel = 0. For a water head 3.25 9. Assume 150 mm thick slab.5 = 1.25 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 Dead Load : self 0.16 / 100 x 1000 x 450 = 720 mm2 On each face = 360 mm2 Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 78.5 / 4.24 x 1000 /172 = 292 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 290 mm C/C both ways.15 say 6.positive moment at mid-span. .5 x 6. Top slab may be designed as two-way slab as usual for a live load of 1.15 = 4.72 x 10 6 / 150 x 0.5 m.16 % Distribution steel = 0.4 AS Per IS-456-2000.229% = 0.172 mm2 bothway = 344 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.872 x 417 105 mm2 From Table 9-3 minimum reinforcement 0.5 KN / m 2 Top slab : consider 1 m wide strip.0 1.15 say 4. mm2 Ast = 346 Designed section.75 1.From Table 9-5 Ast for moment = M / σst x j x d 5. top and bottom. lx = 4 + 0.Four Edges Discontinuous.50 x 1000 /360 = 218 mm Provide 10 mm O bar @ 200 mm C/C…marked(c) = 392 mm2 . each face Base slab :Base slab is resting on ground.5 6.15 = 6.15 x 25 = floor finish = Live load = For 1 m wide strip PU = = ly / lx = 1.38 KN / m 6. provide 150 mm thick slab.5 m = = ly = 6 + 0. are shown in fig.

15(cover) .056 My = 2 αy x w x lx2 2 = 0.) = 130 > 76.74) 415 / 20 .50 mm dshort = 150 .5 …………(O.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.085 x 9.64 x 106 / 1000 x 120 x 120 = 0.38 x 4.15 x 106 / 1000 x 130 x 130 = 0.Table 26 Mx = αx x w x lx2 αx = αy = 0. Mu / b x d2 (short) = 16.5 = 16.K.88) x 20 / 415 ] = 0.76 drequired = √M / Q x b 6 = √16.38 x 4.64 KNm = 0. Mu / b x d2 (long) = 10.15 KNm From Table 6-3 .5 = 10.74 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.76 x 1000 = 76.085 0.50 mm dlong = 130 .29 x 1000 x 130 / 100 = 377 mm2 Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 78.056 x 9.6 / 20) x (0.96) 415 / 20 = 50 [(1-0.Q = 2.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.6 / 20) x (0.50 x 1000 /377 = 208 mm Provide 10 mm O bar @ 210 mm c/c = 374 mm2 .96 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.29% Ast (short) = 0.10 = 120 mm Larger depth is provided due to deflection check.15 x 10 / 2.

91) x 20 / 415 ] = 0.= 50 [(1-0.22 x 1000 x 120 / 100 = 264 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50. .24 x 1000 /264 = 190 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 190 mm c/c = 264 mm2 .22% Ast (long) = 0.

B 4m C .

31 0.85 0.272 0.355 0.TABLE 9-6 Balanced Design Factors for members in bending For M20 Grade Concrete Mix Mild steel HYSD bars d/D 2 Q = M / bD Q = M / bD2 Pt Pt 0.295 0.305 0.246 TABLE 9-5 Members in bending ( Cracked condition ) Coefficients for balanced design .314 0.75 0.302 0.335 0.4 0.306 0.8 0.9 0.299 0.37 0.289 0.3 0.258 0.

3 0.271 0.17 For members more than 225mm thickness and tension away from liquid face 2 Grade of concrete Grade of steel σcbc σst M20 Fe250 Fe415 7 7 125 190 0.286 0.229 200 250 300 350 400 0.24 150 0.384 0.89 1.257 0.872 1.243 0. mm Mild Steel HYSD bars 100 0.k j Q N / mm N / mm2 For members less than 225mm thickness and tension on liquid face M20 Fe250 7 115 0.427 0.851 1.445 0.229 0.33 Fe415 7 150 0.03 of forces lies outside the section D/2 e=M/T TABLE 9-3 Minimum Reinforcement for Liquid Retaining Structures % of reinforcement Thickness.214 0.858 0.329 0.217 0.194 0.28 1.183 0.171 .206 0.

2 0.450 or more 0.16 .

.

C.C.10 O @ 210 c/c 150 8 O @ 190 c/c 150 Free board 10 O @ 200 c/c 3500 shape shape A 10 O @ 200 c/c A 1500 8 O @ 290 c/c both ways top and bottom 1500 150 150 150 450 1 : 4 : 8 P. 6000 450 150 Elevation 1500 450 1000 16 O @ 130 c/c (a) 16 O @ 200 c/c (b) 10 O @ 200 c/c both faces (c) (c) (d) 4000 8 O @ 130 c/c (d) 12 O @ 130 c/c (e) 1000 vv (a) (b) (d) ( a ) 1000 vv 450 1500 6000 450 450 1500 Section A-A Table 6-3 .

96 3.44 415 2.07 2.58 3.Limiting Moment of resistance factor Q lim. N / mm2 fck N / mm2 15 20 25 30 fy. N / mm2 250 2.33 3.76 3.23 3.99 550 1.94 2.22 2.00 2.87 .14 500 2.66 3.45 4.70 4.

.

.

ion ) .

Pt.36 0.61 .2 0.bal 1.98 1.

8 x ( 3 .90 KNm Yw x ( H .1 ) x 1 = = 19.0 m high Volume = 3.75 m bottom h = 1 m will be designed as cantilever.8 x 3.1 KNm. in long walls at the base = (1 / 6 ) x Yw x H3 3 = ( 1 / 6 ) x 9.4 = 4.0 m high (given) Grade Concrete Material M20 (given) Grade HYSD reinforcement Fe 415 (given) Solution :Size of tank : 3.8 x 3.h ) x B2 / 12 2 = 9.6 / 2 = 35.Design of Rectangular water tank CASE-2 ( L / B ≥ 2 ) Size of tank : 3. in short walls at centre = Yw x ( H .8 x ( 3 .22 >2.6 x 8 x 3.6 = 2.h ) x 1 9.0 x 10 3 = 86400 Litres L/B= 8 / 3. The short walls are designed as supported on long walls.13 KNm.0 x 1 / 6 = 4.6 m x 8.1 ) x 3. the span of the short wall = 3. in short walls at support = Yw x ( H .0 / 6 = 4. For bottom portion M= Yw x H x h2 / 6 = 9. Moments and tensions : Maximum B.M.ve ) B.6 + 0.M. bottom 1 m or H / 4 whichever is more is designed as cantilever.M.6 KN It is assumed that end one metre width of long wall gives direct tension to short walls.90 KNm Direct tension in long wall = OR Yw x H / 6 .0 m x 3. H/4= 3.28 KN Yw ( H .1 ) x 4 / 12 = 26.8 x ( 3 .8 x 3 = 44.h ) x B / 2 = 9.0 / 4 = 0. Maximum ( .h ) x B2 / 16 2 = 9.6 m x 8.8 x ( 3 . Maximum ( + ve ) B. whichever is greater = 9.0 m.0 m x 3.1 ) x 4 / 16 = 19.60 KNm. The long walls are designed as vertical cantilevers from the base. If thickness of long walls is 400 mm. Direct tension in short wall= .

28 KN From Table 9-6 Assume d / D = 0. Ast = M / σst x j x d Provide 16 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 200. the reinforcement can be curtailed or the thickness of wall can also be reduced as we have done for cantilever retaining wall. Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.171 / 100 ) x 1000 x 400 = 684 mm2 .68 = 218.28 x 10 / 150 = 235 mm2 .6 mm. …………………… ( 1 ) Design of short walls :- . d = 400 .872 x 367 = 918.1 x 10 / 150 x 0. From Table 9-3 Distribution steel = 0.For economy.9 D= ( water face ) ( perpendicular to moment steel ) Q = 0.1 KNm T= 35.1 x 10 6 / 0.68 mm2 Take D = 400 mm From Table 9-5 .171 % for 400 mm depth As = ( 0. …………………… ( 2 ) From ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) . Note : The design is made at the base.306 x 1000 = 379. on each face = 342 Steel required for direct tension = T / σst 3 = 35.9 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 140 mm c/c on each face = 357 mm2 on each face mm2 .25 .306 √M / Q x b = √44.Design of long walls : M(-)= 44.24 x 1000 / 342 = 146. minimum steel is sufficient for resisting direct tension.75 mm Provide 16 mm O bar @ 200 mm c/c = 1005 mm2 .96 x 1000 / 918. The moment reduces from base to top.8 = 367 mm Ast for Moment 6 = 44.

56 D-x= 196.33 .1 ) x Ast = 1000 x 400 + (13.44 checking : modular ratio m = 280 / 3 x σcbc = 13.1 ) x 367 ) ( 1000 x 400 ) + ( ( 13.x )2 .1 ) x Ast ( 1000 x 4002 / 2 ) + ( 706 x ( 13.47 mm Provide 12 mm O bar@160 mm c/c = 706 mm2.33 x= b x D2 / 2 + Ast ( m .33 .13 x 10 / 150 x 0.1 ) x 706 ) mm = = 203.04 x 1000 / 675 = 167.13 19.33 .1 ) x Ast x ( d .1 ) x d b x D + ( m .44 mm AT = b x D + ( m .872 x 367 = 544 mm2 Ast2 for direct tension = T / σst = = Total Ast1 + Ast2 = = Provide 12 mm O bar spacing of bar = 19.6 x 10 3 / 150 131 mm2 544 + 131 675 mm2 Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 113. 1000 203.44 mm d-x= 163.x )3 ) + ( m .56 400 367 163.At support From Table 9-5 Ast1 for moment = M= T= M / σst x j x d 26.6 KNm KN 6 = 26.1 ) x 706 = 408705 mm2 Ixx = ( 1 / 3 ) x b x ( x3 + ( D .

72 mm Provide 12 mm O bar @ 200 mm c/c = 565 mm2.34E+09 + 2.44 ) + ( 13.44 / 5.048 N / mm2 fcbt = M x ( d .171 % for 400 mm depth As = ( 0. …………………… ( 1 ) .33E+08 4 = 5.33 ..13 x 10 x 163.6 19.44 = 5. ( O.767 N / mm2 check : ( fct / σct ) + ( fcbt / σcbt ) ≤ 1 ( 0.1 ) x 706 x 163.767 / 1.048 / 1.171 / 100 ) x 1000 x 400 = 684 mm2 .6 M / σst x j x d 6 = 19. K.6 x 10 3 / 150 131 mm2 408 + 131 539 mm2 Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 113. ) 0.04 x 1000 / 539 = 209. From Table 9-3 Distribution steel = 0.7 ) ≤ 1 From Table 9-2 0.57E+09 mm fct = T / AT 3 = 19.6 x 10 / 408705 = 0.3 3 2 = ( 1 / 3 ) x 1000 x ( 203.4912 ≤ 1 At centre : M= T= From Table 9-5 Ast1 for moment = 19.872 x 367 = 408 mm2 KNm KN Ast2 for direct tension = T / σst = = Total Ast1 + Ast2 = = Provide 12 mm O bar spacing of bar = 19.04 + 0. on each face = 342 mm2 .4512 ≤ 1 ………………….x ) / Ixx 6 9 = 26.6 x 10 / 150 x 0.56 + 196.2 ) + ( 0.57 x 10 = 0.

…………………… ( 2 ) From ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) .15 = 8. provide 150 mm thick slab.24 x 1000 / 342 = 146.Elevation etc. Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50. Top slab may be designed as a one-way slab as usual for a live load of 1. are shown in fig. Provide 8 mm O bar @ 140 mm c/c on each faces = 357 mm2 on each face Base slab :Base slab is resting on ground. mm2 Ast = 346 Designed section.172 mm2 bothway = 344 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.5 KN / m 2 Top slab : consider 1 m wide strip.Steel required for direct tension = T / σst 3 = 19.9 x 10 / 150 x 0.0 1.6 x 10 / 150 = 131 mm2 . For a water head 3 m.229 / 100 x 1000 x 150 .229% = 0. top and bottom.24 x 1000 /172 = 292 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 290 mm C/C both ways.9 KNm From Table 9-5 Ast = M / σst x j x d 6 = 4.75 1.5 m 3.5 6.15 say 8.9 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 140 mm c/c on each face = 357 mm2 on each face Bottom cantilever M = 4. lx = 3.872 x 367 = 102 mm2 Minimum steel = 342 mm2 on each face.4 = 4 say 4 m ly = 8 + 0.15 x 25 = floor finish = Live load = . Assume 150 mm thick slab. From table 9-3 Minimum steel = 0.25 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 Dead Load : self 0. minimum steel is sufficient for resisting direct tension.6 + 0.

44 Larger depth is provided due to deflection check.12 / 100 ) x 1000 x 150 = 180 mm2 Provide 6 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 28.24 x 1000 /439 = 114 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 110 mm c/c = 457 mm2 .K.76 x 10 / 2.25 = 9.13) 415 / 20 = 50 [(1-0.6 / 2 = 16.76 drequired = M / Q x b = √ 6 = √18.76 x 106 / 1000 x 129 x 129 = 1.For 1 m wide strip PU = 1.44 mm dprovided = 150 . Minimum steel is 0.34% Ast = 0.38 KN / m Maximum moment = 9.) = 129 > 82.13 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.34 x 1000 x 129 / 100 = 439 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = mm2 Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 50.6 …………(O. Design for flexure : Mu / b x d2 = 18.6 / 20) x (1.38 x 3.15(cover) .76 x 1000 82.Q = 2.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.5 x 6.26 x 1000 /180 .86) x 20 / 415 ] = 0.76 KNm Maximum shear = 9.12 % for HYSD Fe415 reinforcement Distribution steel = ( 0.38 x 42 / 8 = 18.88 KN From Table 6-3 .15 % for mild steel and 0.

= 157 mm Provide 6 mm O bar @ 150 mm c/c = 188 mm2 . .

.

.

.

ion to short walls. .0 m.+ 0.4 = 4.

For economy. the educed as we have done for .ase to top.

x .

5 1.5 1.0 2.2 1.x 163.3 1.5 M20 1.5 2.6 1.9 M30 M35 M40 1.7 .442 Table 9-2 Permissible concrete stresses in calculations relating to resistance to cracking Permissible stresses in N / mm2 Grade of Direct Tension due to Shear stress concrete ﺡv = V / b j d tension σct bending σcbt M15 1.7 2.4 2.7 1.1 1.7 M25 1.8 1.2 2.2 2.

8 O @ 110 c/c 150 6 O @ 150 c/c 12 O @ 200 c/c 3000 8 O @ 140 c/c shape 8 O @ 140 c/c 8 O @ 290 c/c both ways top and bottom 2000 1 : 4 : 8 P. 150 400 8000 2000 150 150 400 150 Section A-A 2000 400 900 B 8 O @ 140 mm c/c 16 O @ 200 c/c ( chipiya ) 12 O @ 160 c/c(chipiya) 8 O @ 140 c/c (chipiya) 8 O @ 140 c/c 12 O @ 200 c/c 3600 A A 900 900 vv 400 2000 2000 8000 400 Sectional plan vv B 400 8 O @ 110 c/c 150 6 O @ 150 c/c 16 O @ 200 c/c ( chipiya ) 8 O @ 140 c/c 3000 900 900 Base details not shown for clarity .C.C.

900 150 150 150 400 3600 Section B.B 900 Base details not shown for clarity 400 150 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18 x 25 = 4.84) x 15 / 415 ] = 0.2 drequired = 4000 / 25.5 x 8 = 12 KN / m Consider 1 m length of slab Maximum moment = w x l2 / 8 = 12 x 42 / 8 = 24 KNm Maximum shear = w x l / 2 = 12 x 4 / 2 = 24 KN Design for flexure : d = 180 .15 .for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.7 mm D = 158.4 % steel .26 x 20 = 25.5 = 160 mm 6 2 Mu / b x d2 = 24 x 10 / 1000 x (160) = 0.7 mm Assume an overall depth = 180 mm 2 DL = 0.0 KN / m2 Factored load = 1.289% .1 fig-4 . a trial depth by deflection criteria IS 456-2000 clause 23.5 KN / m2 Total 8.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4. basic span / effective depth ratio = 20 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.7 + 15 ( cover ) + 5 ( assume 10 O bar ) = 178.5 KN / m2 ( given ) 1 KN / m2 ( given ) M15 grade concrete ( given ) HYSD reinforcement grade Fe415 ( given ) ( given ) solution : Assume 0.26 for simply supported.2.6 / 15) x (0.0 KN / m2 Live load = 2.94) 415 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.effective span = Live load = Floor finish = material Design of simply supported one way slab 4 m supported on masonry wall of 230 mm thickness 2.2 = 158.5 KN / m Floor finish = 1.94 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.

8 x 15 / 6.277 IS 456-2000 Table 19 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0.12 /100 ) x 1000 x 180 = 216 mm2 Maximum spacing = 5 x 160 = 800 or 450 mm i.85 √ 0.24 x 1000 /216 = 233 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 230 mm c/c = 218 mm2 . half the bars may be bent up. Half the bars are bent at 0. remaining bars provide minimum steel. and remaining bars provide 231 mm2 area 100 x As / ( b x D ) = 100 x 231 / ( 1000 x 180 ) > 0.128 i. but not less than 1. 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 231 / 1000 x 160 = 0.28 N / mm .8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .144 = 12.50 x 1000 /462 = 170 mm Provide 10 mm O bar @ 170 mm c/c = 462 mm2 .289 x 1000 x 160 / 100 = 462 mm2 Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 78.8 x fck / 6.89 Pt .e. 450 mm Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 50.1 = 0.1 ) 6 x 12.144 ﺡc = 0.1 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.1 ) 6xβ β = 0.150 For bars at support d = 160 As = 231 mm mm2 . Distribution steel = ( 0.1 .0 = 0.12 % ( minimum steel for Fe415) = 0. Check for shear : Vu = 24 KN Actual Shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 24 x 10 / 1000 x 160 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( too small ) = 0. Thus.89 x 0.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 12.Ast = 0.85 √ 0.1 l = 400 mm .e.144 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.

K.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.( O.2.3 x ( 12.42 x 20 = 28.289 IS 456-2000 clause 23.875 + 8 O ≥ 56 O 48 O ≤ 693. provide 8 mm O @ 230 mm c/c .3.24 x 0.0399 } = 12.1. 300 mm = 3 x 160 = 480 mm spacing provided = 170 < 300 mm ……………….( fy x Ast / fck x b x d ) } 0.K.3 Main bars : maximum spacing permitted = 3 x effective depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.34 { 1.347 N / mm2 ……………….04 OR Vu = 24 1.81 x 106 / 24 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56 O 693.46 mm ……………….( O.K.e.) The depth could be reduced Check for cracking : IS 456-2000 .05 IS 456-2000 clause 40.812 KNm -0.( O.) mm For tying the bent bars at top .0.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld KN = 56 O ( from Table 7-6 ) Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd 1.88 which gives O ≤ 14.24 ? Design shear strength = 1.1 fig-4 .25 difference -0.87 x fy x Ast x d { 1 .00 < 28.2.K.4 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 4000 / 160 = 25.( O.4 ……………….( O.) Check for deflection : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 20 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 462 / 1000 x 160 = 0.K.28 = 0. clause 26.) mm Distribution bars : maximum spacing permitted = 5 x effective depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is s = 5 x 160 = 800 mm spacing provided = 230 < 450 mm ……………….42 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.(415 x 231 / 15 x 1000 x 160 ) } = = 13.1 for 180 mm slab depth 20 difference k = 1.87 x 415 x 231 x 160 { 1 .) Check for development length : Assuming L0 = 8 O (HYSD Fe415 steel ) For continuing bars mm2 As = 231 Mu1 = 0.

NOTE : If clear span = 3.23 = 4 m effective span = 3. effective span = 3.4 % for HYSD Fe415 grade reinforcement NOTE : - .16 ( effective depth ) = 3.6 % for mild steel reinforcement and 0.77 + 0.77 m .3 to 0.93 m OR 0.77 + 0.

15 % .For mild steel minimum reinforcement 0.

K.14 50 1-√1-(4.) . 300 mm ………………. 450 mm ………………. 100 x As / b x d 100 x 231 / 1000 x 160 0.49 2 -6 Mu1 = 0.) ve depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is small or 450 mm i. l0 may be assumed as 8 O for HYSD bars ( usually end anchorage is not provided ) and 12 O for mild steel ( U hook is provided usually whose anchorage length is 16 O.( O. Mu1 / b x d2 = 0.54 KNm 160 180 v v 400 8 O @ 230 c/c 10 O @ 170 c/c ( alternate bent ) v v 400 4000 of slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.K.e.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck For checking development length .( O.49x 1000 x 160 x 10 = 12.Pt = = = From equation Pt = we get .e.

2) For end span with one end free and the other continuous. if all four edge is not supported and ly / lx < 2 .If ly / lx ≥ 2 . whichever is less.called one way slab provided that it is supported on all four edges . the effective span shall be as in (a). If the supports are wider than I/12 of the clear span or 600 mm whichever is less.2 Effective Span ( a ) Simply Supported Beam or Slab The effective span of a member that is not built integrally with its supports shall be taken as clear span plus the effective depth of slab or beam or centre to centre of supports .If ly / lx < 2 . called two-way slab. 3) In the case of spans with roller or rocket bearings. centre to centre distance shall be used. IS 456-2000 clause 22. Note that . the effective span shall be equal to the clear span plus half the effective depth of the beam or slab or the clear span plus half the width of the discontinuous support.In the case of continuous beam or slab. the effective span shall be the clear span between supports. ( d )Frames-In the analysis of a continuous frame. whichever is less. ( c )Cantilever-The effective length of a cantilever shall be taken as its length to the face of the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a continuous beam where the length to the centre of support shall be taken. the effective span shall always be the distance between the centres of bearings. ( b )Continuous Beam or Slab . if the width of the support is less than l/12 of the clear span.provided that it is supported on all four edges. the effective span shall be taken as under: 1) For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous or for intermediate spans. then also it is one-way slab. .

.

. l0 sumed as 8 O for HYSD ally end anchorage is not and 12 O for mild steel ( provided usually whose e length is 16 O.ng development length .

8 KN A 3m B 1.2m C (b) Loads for maximum negative moment.maximum shear for cantilever span and maximum reaction at support B considering fig (a) cantilever moment = wx l2 / 2 = 6 x 1.875 = 2.5 ( 4 + 3 ) = (6 + 4.5 ( 4 + 2 ) = ( Balcony slab ) DL LL 0 0 2 2 KN / m2 LL 0 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 ly = 6m self load = 0.22 / 2 .075 x 25 x 1 = 1. material M15 grade concrete ( given ) mild steel grade Fe250 ( given ) Live Load As per IS 875 Solution : For slab S2 live load = 2 KN /m2 For slab S1 live load = 3 KN /m2 Assume 120 mm thick slab For S2 floor finish = live load = Total 1.12 x 25 = 3 1 0 4 Pu = (6+3) DL self load = 0.5 KN/m S1 2.5) KN / m2 Weight of parapet 0.5 x 1.12 x 25 = 3 For S1 KN / m2 floor finish = 1 0 KN / m2 live load = 0 3 KN / m2 Total 4 3 KN / m2 Pu = 1.Design of Cantilever one way slab used for residential purpose at the free end of slab S1 .8 KN / m Consider 1 m long strip (1) To get maximum positive moment in slab S2 only dead load on slab S1 and total load on slab S2 shall be considered 9 KN/m S S 2 2 6 KN/m S1 A 3m B 1.2m C (a) Loads for maximum positive moment 9 KN/m S2 10.875 KN / m Pu = 1.concrete parapet of 75 mm thick and 1 m high.

08 KNm (2) To get maximum negative moment and maximum shear at B.92 KNm Maximum shear at B Vu. 120 .2 / 2 = 10. the slab is loaded with full loads as shown in fig (b) Maximum negative moment = w x l + w x l2 / 2 2 = 2.K.6 ( assume 12 O bar ) ……………….82) 250 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.92 / 3 = 17.32 KNm Reaction at A = w x l / 2 .405 x 1000 x 99 / 100 = 401 mm2 .08 x 10 / 1000 x (99)2 0.) 99 mm.14 mm.15 .22 x 1000 70.5 x 1.34 m Maximum positive moment = 12.82 50 1-√1-(4.34 / 2 = 8.22 drequired = √M / Q x b = √10.2 + 10.06 x 1.34 . 6 8.06 ( KN ) / 9 ( KN / m ) = 1.06 x 1.06 KN Point of zero shear from A = 12.( O.8 = 15.405% = dprovided = = 2 Mu / b x d ( + ) = = Pt = Ast ( + ) = 0.4 KN Moment steel : Maximum moment = 10.92 KNm From Table 6-3 Q = 2.Moment @ B at distance 3 m shear = = 9 x 3 / 2 .4.= 4.14 KN Vu.865) x 15 / 250 ] = 0.32 / 3 = 12.5 x 1.9 x 1.2 + 2.6 / 15) x (0.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.BC = w x l + 2.W x l2 / 2 2 = 12.92 x 10 6 / 2.34 .BA = w x l / 2 + Moment @ B at distance 3 m = 9 x 3 / 2 + 10.8 = 10.8 x 1.

26 x 1000 / 180 = 157 mm Provide 6 mm O bar@150 mm c/c = 188 mm2.5 x 1000 / 401 = 195. ( bent bars extended ) Area provided = Area of one bar x 1000 / spacing of bar in m = 78.04 x 1000 / 327 = 346 mm Provide 12 mm O bar@340 mm c/c = 332 mm2.812) x 15 / 250 ] = 0.1 l whereas at continuity of slab it is bent at 0. ( alternate bent up ) 6 2 Mu / b x d2 ( .6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.564% Ast ( .15 /100 ) x 1000 x 120 = 180 mm2.2 l For mild steel minimum reinforcement 0.Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 78.11) 250 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.6 / 15) x (1. Provide 6 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 28.5 x 1000 / 340 = 231 mm2 remaining area = 558 .231 = 327 mm2 Provide 12 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 113.76 mm Provide 10 mm O bar@170 mm c/c = 462 mm2.15 % Distribution steel = ( 0. For negative moment reinforcement Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd ( from Table 7-6 ) .) = 10. the bars are bent at 0.11 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.564 x 1000 x 99 / 100 = 558 mm2 Provide 10 mm O bar Provide 10 mm O bar@340 mm c/c = 231 mm2.) = 0.92 x 10 / 1000 x (99) = 1. ( Extra ) 2 2 Total 231 + 332 mm = 563 mm steel provided Note that at simple support .

= O x 0.87 x 250 / 4 x 1 = 54.4 O Ld = 54.4 x ( 10 + 12 ) / 2 say 600 mm = 598 mm. As a thumb rule, a bar shall be given an anchorage equal to the length of the cantilever. Check for development length : Assuming L0 = 12 O (mild steel ) Pt = = = From equation Pt = At A , we get , 100 x As / b x d 100 x 231 / 1000 x 99 0.233 Half bars bent = 462 / 2 = 231 mm2 )

OR 50 1-√1-(4.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d )

2

Mu1 = 0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 - fy x Ast / b = 4.974

**fy / fck Mu1 / b x d = 0.487 Mu1 = 0.487 x 1000 x 99 x 10 = 4.77 KNm Vu = 12.06 KN
**

Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd

2 -6 2

= 0.87 x 250 x 231 x 99 ( 1 - 250 x = 4.78

= O x 0.87 x 250 / 4 x 1

=54.4 O

1.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.3 x ( 4.77 x 106 / 12.06 x 103 ) + 12 O ≥ 54.4 O 514.18 + 12 O ≥ 54.4 O 42.4 O ≤ 514.18 which gives ……………….( O.K.) O ≤ 12.13 mm Half bars bent = 462 / 2 = 231 mm2 ) P = At B , 100 x As / b x d t = 100 x 231 / 1000 x 99 = 0.233 From equation OR 2 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d ) Mu1 = 0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 - fy x Ast / b fy / fck we get , Mu1 / b x d2 = 0.487

2 -6

= 0.87 x 250 x 231 x 99 ( 1 - 250 x = 4.974 = 4.78

**Mu1 = 0.487 x 1000 x 99 x 10 = 4.77 KNm Near point of contraflexure i.e. 0.15 x l from B Vu = 17.14 - ( 0.15 x 3 ) x 9 =
**

Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd

13.09

KN =54.4 O

= O x 0.87 x 250 / 4 x 1

1.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.3 x ( 4.77 x 106 / 13.09 x 103 ) + 12 O ≥ 54.4 O 473.72 + 12 O ≥ 54.4 O 42.4 O ≤ 473.72 which gives O ≤ 11.2 mm

……………….( O.K.)

Check for shear : Span AB : At A , Vu,AB = 12.06 KN ( for maximum loading ) At B , shear at point of contraflexure = 13.09 Use Vu = 13.09 KN Shear stress ﺡv = Vu / b x d

KN

3 = 13.09 x 10 / 1000 x 99 N / mm2 < ﺡc ……………….( O.K.) = 0.132

Pt = 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 231 / 1000 x 99 = 0.233 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β - 1 ) 6xβ β = 0.8 x fck / 6.89 Pt , but not less than 1.0 = 0.8 x 15 / 6.89 x 0.233 = 7.47 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 7.47 - 1 ) 6 x 7.47 = 0.34 IS 456-2000 Table 19 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0.233 ﺡc = 0.34 N / mm IS 456-2000 clause 40.2.1.1 for 120 mm slab depth k = 1.3 Design shear strength = 1.3 x 0.34 N / mm2 = 0.442 Span BC : Vu = 17.14 KN Shear stress ﺡv = Vu / b x d

3 = 17.14 x 10 / 1000 x 99 N / mm2 < ﺡc ……………….( O.K.) = 0.173

0.1 difference 0.02 difference

0.07 ?

0.014

> ﺡv ……………….( O.K.)

Pt = 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 563 / 1000 x 99 = 0.569 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β - 1 ) 6xβ β = 0.8 x fck / 6.89 Pt , but not less than 1.0 = 0.8 x 15 / 6.89 x 0.569 = 3.06 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 3.06 - 1 ) 6 x 3.06 = 0.487 IS 456-2000 Table 19 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0.569 ﺡc = 0.48 N / mm

0.25 difference 0.08 IS 456-2000 clause 40.2.1.1 for 120 mm slab depth 0.181 difference k = 1.3 ? 0.0579 Design shear strength = 1.3 x 0.48 N / mm2 > ﺡv ……………….( O.K.) = 0.624 Check for deflection : For span AB : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 20 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 462 / 1000 x 99 = 0.467 IS 456-2000 clause 23.2.1 fig-4 ,for tension reinforcement modification factor = 2 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 2 x 20 = 40 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 3000 / 99 = 30.30 < 40 ……………….( O.K.) For span BC : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 7 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 563 / 1000 x 99 = 0.569 IS 456-2000 clause 23.2.1 fig-4 ,for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.8 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.8 x 7 = 12.6 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 1200 / 99 = 12.12 < 12.6 ……………….( O.K.) Check for cracking : IS 456-2000 , clause 26.3.3 (1) Main bars : maximum spacing permitted = 3 x effective depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.e. 297 mm = 3 x 99 = 297 mm spacing provided = 170 < 297 mm ……………….( O.K.) mm (2 )Distribution bars : maximum spacing permitted = 5 x effective depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is s = 5 x 99 = 495 mm spacing provided = 150 < 450 mm ……………….( O.K.) mm

S3

Column 300 x 300

1.2m 0.15m

B3

B2

B1 S2

S1

ly = 6m

1m high parapet

0.15m 0.15m

B4

0.15m lx = 3m 1.2m

.

87 x 250 x 231 x 99 ( 1 .250 x 231 / 1000 x 99 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 .0389 ) KNm -6 0.0.0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0.0.0389 ) KNm -6 .87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .250 x 231 / 1000 x 99 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 .fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0.87 x 250 x 231 x 99 ( 1 .

.

e.10 O @ 340 c/c (bent) + 12 O @ 340 c/c (extra) 1200 1200 120 10 O @ 170 c/c 6 O @ 150 c/c 6 O @ 150 c/c 125 300 150 3000 600 150 1200 f slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i. 297 mm ………………. 450 mm ……………….( O.( O.K.) e depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is small or 450 mm i.) .e.K.

.

.

.

.

.

.

07 x 1000 = 81.6 / 15) x (0.625 x 5 = Mu2 ( + ) = αy x w x = From Table 6-3 For M15 mix and Fe415 steel.625 KN / m2 ly / lx = 5 / 5 i.17 x 10 / 1000 x (120) = 0.75 KN / m2 floor finish = 1.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.66 10. Q = 2.208% . two-way slab.5 x 7.) = αx x w x lx2 = 0.5 > 81.885) x 15 / 415 ] = 0.Design of Continuous Two-way slab Banking hall slab is restrained with edge beams Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution : Assume 150 mm thick slab Self load 0.e.07 drequired = lx2 2 13.( O.625 x 52 = Mu1 .035 x 11.10 .) = 130 mm.00 KN / m2 Total 7. dprovided for positive moment reinforcement = 150 .15 .( O. =1 < 2 Middle strip : IS 456-2000 Table -26 Two adjacent edges Discontinuous 0.17 KNm KNm √M / Q x b = √13.23 mm ……………….K.23 mm.75 given = 11.5 ( assume 10 O bar ) > 81.66 x 10 6 / 2.) = 120 mm.706 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4. dprovided for negative moment reinforcement = 150 .15 . Mu3 ( .15 x 25 = 3.706) 415 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.047 x 11.75 KN / m2 Pu = 1.K. 6 2 2 Mu / b x d ( + ) = 10.23 mm ……………….00 KN / m2 Live Load = 3.

240% Ast = 0. For HYSD Fe415 Minimum steel = ( 0. 6 2 Mu / b x d2 ( .24 x 1000 / 180 = 279.867) x 15 / 415 ] = 0. Torsion steel :At corner A .81) 415 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.) = 13.24 x 1000 / 312 = 161 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 150 mm c/c = 335 mm2.96 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 200 mm c/c = 251 mm2.11 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 260 mm c/c = 193 mm2.Ast = 0.24 x 1000 x 130 / 100 = 312 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50. use minimum steel at location 4 and 5 . Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50. More steel is provided to match with the torsion reinforcement.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4. therefore .24 x 1000 / 250 = 200.66 x 10 / 1000 x (130) = 0.81 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4. 50 % of the positive steel is required at top = ( 1 / 2 ) x 251 = 126 mm2 This is less than minimum . steel required = ( 3/4 ) x 250 = 188 mm2. In edge strip .6 / 15) x (0.208 x 1000 x 120 / 100 = 250 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50. minimum reinforcement is provided equal to 8 mm O @ 260 mm c/c. Provide 8 mm O bar .12 / 100 ) x 1000 x 150 = 180 mm2 At discontinuous edges 4 and 5 .

2.) = 0.1.1 0.) OR Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.89 Pt .( O. Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.11 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 260 mm c/c = 193 mm2. the remaining bars do not provide minimum steel.66 / 5 = 31.75 .0 = 6.8 x fck / 6.3 x 0.795 x 10 / ( 1000 x 130 ) N / mm2 < ﺡc ……………….2.3 Design shear strength = 1. ﺡc = 0.F.354 = 0.3 x 0.242 difference ? -0.24 x 1000 / 188 = 267.1 ) 6xβ β = 0.245 .) Actual shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 31.463 N / mm2 ……………….8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .23 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 260 mm c/c = 193 mm2.1065 for 150 mm slab depth k = 1.11 IS 456-2000 clause 40.K.25 difference 0. This will be provided by minimum steel of edge strip.24 x 1000 / 180 = 279.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 6. steel required = ( 1/2 ) x 188 = 94 mm2.356 = 0.spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.1.85 √ 0.795 KN 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 335 / ( 1000 x 130 ) = 0.3 Design shear strength = 1. but not less than 1.85 √ 0.1 ) 6 x 6.625 x 5 / 2 + 13.( O.258 .75 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.75 = 0.354 N / mm 0. This will be provided by minimum steel .K.( O. Check for shear : At point 1 or 3 S.1 for 150 mm slab depth k = 1.258 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0. = w x l / 2 + Moment @ point 1 or 3 in that span = 11. Note that positive reinforcements are not curtailed because if they are curtailed .K.356 IS 456-2000 clause 40. At corner B .460 N / mm2 ……………….

At point 4 or 5 S.F. = w x l / 2 = 11.625 x 5 / 2 = 29.06 KN 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 251 / ( 1000 x 120 ) = 0.209 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0.209 , ﺡc = 0.321 N / mm

IS 456-2000 clause 40.2.1.1 for 150 mm slab depth k = 1.3 Design shear strength = 1.3 x 0.321 = 0.417 N / mm2 OR Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β - 1 ) 6xβ β = 0.8 x fck / 6.89 Pt , but not less than 1.0 = 8.33 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 8.33 - 1 ) 6 x 8.33 = 0.326 IS 456-2000 clause 40.2.1.1 for 150 mm slab depth k = 1.3 Design shear strength = 1.3 x 0.326 = 0.424 N / mm2 Actual shear stress = Vu / b x d

0.07 0.041 difference ?

0.1 difference

-0.0287

3 = 29.06 x 10 / ( 1000 x 120 ) N / mm2 < ﺡc ……………….( O.K.) = 0.242 Check for development length : This is critical at point 4 or 5. Vu = 29.06 At point 4 or 5 , KN No bar is curtailed or bent up.

Assuming L0 = 8 O Pt = = = From equation Pt = we get ,

(HYSD Fe415 steel )

**100 x As / b x d 100 x 251 / 1000 x 120 0.209 OR 50 1-√1-(4.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d )
**

2

Mu1 = 0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 - fy x Ast / b = 10.875

**fy / fck Mu1 / b x d = 0.711
**

2 -6 2

= 0.87 x 415 x 251 x 120 ( 1 - 415

Mu1 = 0.711 x 1000 x 120 x 10 = 10.246 = 10.24 KNm Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd =54.3 O (From Table 7-6 )

1.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.3 x ( 10.246 x 106 / 29.06 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 54.3 O 458.36 + 8 O ≥ 54.3 O 46.3 O ≤ 458.36 which gives ……………….( O.K.) O ≤ 9.90 mm Vu = 11.25 x ( 4.5 / 2 ) = 25.31 KN Short span Assuming L0 = 8 O Pt = = = From equation Pt = we get , (HYSD Fe415 steel ) 100 x As / b x d 100 x 462 / 1000 x 160 0.289 OR 50 1-√1-(4.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d )

2

Mu1 = 0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 - fy x Ast / b = 26.689

**fy / fck Mu1 / b x d2 = 0.9595
**

2 -6

= 0.87 x 415 x 462 x 160 ( 1 - 415 = 24.554 (From Table 7-6 )

Mu1 = 0.9595 x 1000 x 160 x 10 = 24.56 KNm Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd =56 O 1.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld

1.3 x ( 24.56 x 106 / 25.31 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56 O 1261.5 + 8 O ≥ 56 O 48 O ≤ 1261.5 which gives ……………….( O.K.) O ≤ 26.28 mm Note that the bond is usually critical along long direction. Check for deflection : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 26 positive moment steel = 251 mm2. actual d = 150 - 15 -8 - 4 = 123 mm. Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 251 / 1000 x 123 240.7 = 0.204 IS 456-2000 clause 23.2.1 fig-4 ,for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.65 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.65 x 26 = 42.9 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 5000 / 123 ……………….( O.K.) = 40.65 < 42.9 Check for cracking : IS 456-2000 , clause 26.3.3 (1) Main bars : maximum spacing permitted = 3 x effective depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is s = 3 x 130 = 390 mm spacing provided = 200 < 300 mm ……………….( O.K.) mm (2) Distribu. bars : maximum spacing permitted = 5 x effective depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is s = 5 x 120 = 600 mm

spacing provided = 260 < 450 mm ……………….( O.K.) mm Note that the bottom reinforcements are both ways and therefore there is no necessity of secondary reinforcements.However , top reinforcement in edge strip requires the secondary steel for tying the bars. This is minimum (0.12 / 100) x 150 x 1000 = 180 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.24 x 1000 / 180 = 279.11 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 260 mm c/c = 193 mm2. for uniformity in spacing. For clarity , top and bottom reinforcements are shown separately.

B

Edge strip Middle Strip Edge strip

625

3750

625

8 O @ 200 c/c

625

A

8 O @ 260 c/c

A

3750

S1

625

Edge strip 8 O @ 260 c/c

Middle Strip 8 O @ 200 c/c

Edge strip 8 O @ 260 c/c

B 500 8 O @ 200 c/c

8 O @ 150 c/c

8 O @ 260 c/c

150

8 O @ 260 c/c

1500 1500

625

3750

625

Section A-A

8 O @ 260 c/c

lab

5m

5m

S1 -0.047 B

0.035 1

-0.047 3 0.035

Edge strip

Edge strip

5m

S1 Middle Strip

5

2

A

4

B

625

3750

625

5m

ly/8

(3/4)ly

ly/8

.

415 x 251 / 1000 x 120 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 .0579 ) KNm -6 .0.fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0.87 x 415 x 251 x 120 ( 1 .87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .0.

0.0799 ) KNm -6 depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .) depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is small or 450 mm i.K.e.0.fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0. 450 mm .e.415 x 462 / 1000 x 160 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 . 300 mm ……………….( O.87 x 415 x 462 x 160 ( 1 .

) 1000 625 500 1500 S1 1500 1500 3750 Edge strip Middle Strip Edge strip 1000 625 3750 625 625 Edge strip 8 O @ 240 c/c Middle Strip 8 O @ 140 c/c Edge strip 8 O @ 240 c/c 8 O @ 240 c/c 8 O @ 140 c/c 500 8 O @ 240 c/c 150 8 O @ 180 c/c 1500 8 O @ 240 c/c 1500 625 3750 625 8 O @ 240 c/c 1500 8 O @ 240 c/c 8 O @ 140 c/c .K.……………….( O.

-0.047 3 .

5 x 32 5.6 x w x l + 0.38 6.5 x 32 3.5 ) KN / m Consider 1 m wide strip of the slab.Design of Continuous One-way slab A five span continuous one-way slab used as an office floor. ( 6 + 4.4 + 4.38 + 3.05 8.07 .) = ( 1 / 12 ) x 6 x 32 + ( 1 / 10 ) x 4.9 KNm ( 1 / 12 ) x w ( DL ) x l2 + ( 1 / 9 ) x w ( LL ) x l2 2 2 = ( 1 / 12 ) x 6 x 3 + ( 1 / 9 ) x 4.12 x 25 = 3 0 KN / m2 floor finish = 1 0 KN / m2 live load = 0 3 KN / m2 Total 4 3 KN / m2 factored load = 1.5 + 4.5 9.) = 9.75 KNm ( 1 / 10 ) x w ( DL ) x l2 + ( 1 / 9 ) x w ( LL ) x l2 ( 1 / 10 ) x 6 x 32 + ( 1 / 9 ) x 4.6 x 4.50 + 4.) = = = = Mu4 ( .9 KNm From Table 6-3 Q = 2.55 KNm ( 1 / 16 ) x w ( DL ) x l2 + ( 1 / 12 ) x w ( LL ) x l2 ( 1 / 16 ) x 6 x 32 + ( 1 / 12 ) x 4.5 x 3 = 4.5 x 32 4.5 ) KN / m given 1 A 2 B 2 2 1 3m 3m C 3m D 3m E 3m F The factored moments at different points using the coefficients are as follows : 2 2 Mu1 ( + ) = ( 1 / 12 ) x w ( DL ) x l + ( 1 / 10 ) x w ( LL ) x l = = = Mu2 ( + ) = = = = Mu3 ( .5 x 3 = 18. The centre-to-centre distance of supporting beams is 3 m Live load 3 KN / m2 and floor finish 1 KN / m2 Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution : Try 120 mm thick slab DL LL Dead load 0.9 KN Maximum moment is Mu3 ( .50 =9 KNm Maximum shear is Vu(BA) = 0.5 ( 4 + 3 ) 2 = ( 6 + 4.6 x w x l = 0.6 x 6 x 3 + 0.

( O. Note that the positive bars cannot be curtailed as the remaining bars in the internal spans ( + ve moment ) will not provide minimum area.248 0. mild steel Fe250 reinforcement minimum steel area = ( 0.11 0.55 6. Try 110 mm overall depth dprovided = 110 .15 / 100 ) x 1000 x 110 = 165 mm2 Use 6 mm O spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 28.322 0.2 mm.) = 90 mm. 292 / 2 = 146 mm 2 .HYSD Fe415 reinforcement minimum steel area = ( 0.24 x 1000 /146 = 344 Use 8 mm O @ 340 mm c/c = 148 mm2.0 1. Check for shear : Maximum shear = 18.K.9 KN .5 ( assume 10 O bar ) ……………….12 / 100 ) x 1000 x 110 = 132 mm2 For Distribution steel .06 0. Provide 50 % Ast at end support top bars i. Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.75 9.e.9 9.drequired = √M / Q x b = √9.34 290 223 342 306 10 mm O @ 440 c/c + 8 mm O @ 440 c/c = 178 +114 = 292 mm2 (Half 10 O+half 8 O) 8 mm O @ 220 c/c = 228 mm2 10 mm O @ 220 c/c = 357 mm2 10 mm O @ 220 c/c = 357 mm2 For Main steel .15 .9 x 10 6 / 2.07 x 1000 = 69.38 0. Use 8 mm O spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50.22 1.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck Ast = Pt x b x d / 100 spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m Table Factored Ast moment Mu/(b x d2 ) Pt point Steel Provided KNm mm2 1(+) 2(+) 3(-) 4(-) 8.26 x 1000 /165 = 171 Use 6 mm O @ 160 mm c/c = 177 mm2.83 1.

18 KN Actual Shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 14.210 For bars at support d = 90 As = 357 mm mm2 .) At point of contraflexure i.89 x 0.89 Pt .2.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 4.397 = 4.9 x 10 / 1000 x 90 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( too small ) = 0.( O.15 x l from B with positive moment reinforcement ( 292 mm 2 ) Vu = 18.4 .85 √ 0. 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 292 / 1000 x 90 = 0.324 = 5. 0.89 Pt .85 √ 0.Actual Shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 18.K.4 = 0.1.0453 Design shear strength = 1.8 x fck / 6.1 ) 6xβ β = 0. 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 357 / 1000 x 90 = 0.158 For bars at support d = 90 As = 292 mm mm2 .8 x 15 / 6.8 x 15 / 6.0 = 0.3 ? 0.1 for 110 mm slab depth 0.89 x 0.1 ) 6 x 4.11 IS 456-2000 clause 40.397 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.42 IS 456-2000 Table 19 from table 7-1 N / mm2 for Pt = 0.5 = 14.397 ﺡc = 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .3 x 0.e.103 difference k = 1. but not less than 1.85 √ 0.0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .42 = 0.4 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.0 = 0.1 ) 6xβ β = 0. but not less than 1.8 x fck / 6.25 difference 0.4 .42 0.324 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.18 x 10 / 1000 x 90 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( too small ) = 0.15 x 3 x 10.9 .546 N / mm2 ……………….

67 x 415 / 4 x 1 =56.1 ) 6 x 5.783 + 8 O ≥ 56.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 5.) .87 x 415 x 292 x 90 ( 1 .( O.K.0.102 + 12 O ≥ 56.1.3 ? 0.45 x w x l = 0.4 O 845.28 KN Pt = 100 x As / b x d At A .K.78 which gives ……………….( O.( O.15 x 3 x 10.2.64 Mu1 = 1. 90 mm whichever is greater ) 1.4 O ≤ 845.4 .324 ﺡc = 0.38 = 0.4 O 48.1 which gives O ≤ 17.3 x 0.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.0774 Design shear strength = 1.4 O ≤ 792.) Check for development length : Span AB is critical for checking this requirement At support A Vu = 0.e.47 mm At support B.84 mm Check for deflection : - ……………….64 KNm as before L0 = 12 O ( actual anchorage is more than 12 O but L 0 is limited to 12 O or d .4884 = 8.5 x 3 = 13.11 IS 456-2000 clause 40.39 IS 456-2000 Table 19 from table 7-1 N / mm2 for Pt = 0.4 O 792.3 x ( 8.415 = 9.064 x 1000 x 90 x 10 = 8.494 N / mm2 ……………….4 OR = 0.176 difference k = 1.3 x ( 8.18 x 103 ) + 12 O ≥ 56.064 2 -6 = 0.85 √ 0.9 . Mu1 / b x d2 = 1.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.fy x Ast / b fy / fck we get .62 KNm Assuming L0 = 8 O (HYSD Fe415 steel ) Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd = O x 0.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d ) Mu1 = 0.28 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56.4 O 1.64 x 106 / 14.15 x l from B Vu = 18.1 for 110 mm slab depth 0.18 KN Mu1 = 8. point of contraflexure is assumed at 0.4 x 6 x 3 + 0.45 x 4. i.) O ≤ 17.Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.5 = 14. = 100 x 292 / 1000 x 90 = 0.4 O 44.324 From equation OR 2 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.25 difference 0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .4 x w x l + 0.38 0.64 x 106 / 13.K.

6 ……………….84 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 3000 / 90 = 33.2.Maximum positive moment occurs in span AB.) mm . 270 mm = 3 x 90 = 270 mm spacing provided = 220 < 270 mm ……………….( O.2.6 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 3000 / 90 = 33.( O.3 (1) Main bars : maximum spacing permitted = 3 x effective depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.1 fig-4 .K.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.) For span BC : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 26 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 228 / 1000 x 90 = 0.34 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.6 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1. this check is critical in span AB Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 26 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 292 / 1000 x 90 = 0.84 ……………….34 x 26 = 34. Therefore.3.1 fig-4 .) Check for cracking : IS 456-2000 .33 < 41.K.6 x 26 = 41. clause 26.33 < 34.253 IS 456-2000 clause 23.( O.K.( O.) mm (2 )Distribution bars : maximum spacing permitted = 5 x effective depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is = 450 mm = 5 x 90 spacing provided = 160 < 450 mm ……………….e.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.324 IS 456-2000 clause 23.K.

Table 12 Bending Moment coefficients Span moments Support moments Type of load Dead load and imposed load ( fixed ) imposed load not fixed ) ( Near middle of end span + 1 / 12 + 1 / 10 At middle of At support next to interior span the end support + 1 / 16 + 1 / 12 -1 / 10 -1 / 9 NOTE -For obtaining the bending moment. or such other restraining moment as may be shown to be applicable. redistribution referred to in 22. the member shall be designed to resist a negative moment at the face of the support of Wl / 24 where W is the total design load and I is the effective span.IS 456-2000 Clause -22.6 0. (22.1 ) Unless more exact estimates are made. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load and effective span.6 Inner side 0. Table 13 Shear Force coefficients Type of load Dead load and imposed load ( fixed ) imposed load not fixed ) ( At end support 0. For moments at supports where two unequal spans meet or in case where the spans are not equally loaded. Where coefficients given in Table 12 are used for calculation of bending moments. for beams of uniform cross-section which support substantially uniformly distributed loads over three or more spans which do not differ by more than 15 percent of the longest.55 0.6 .4 0.45 At support next to the end support Outer side 0.2 ) Beams and Slabs Over Free End Supports Where a member is built into a masonry wall which develops only partial restraint.7 shall not be permitted. the bending moments and shear forces used in design may be obtained using the coefficients given in Table 12 and Table 13 respectively.5 ( 22.05. For such a condition shear coefficient given in Table 13 at the end support may be increased by 0.5. the average of the two values for the negative moment at the support may be taken for design.5.

15 l1 ) 450 8 O @ 340 c/c 110 ( 0.( 0.3 l1 ) 900 10 O @ 220 c/c 90 6 O @ 160 c/c 8 O @ 440 c/c + 10 O @ 440 c/c 3000 8 O @ 220 c/c 3000 .3 l1 ) 900 ( 0.3 l1 ) 900 ( 0.

t reinforcement ( 292 mm 2 ) .

87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .87 x 415 x 292 x 90 ( 1 .0898 ) KNm -6 .0.415 x 292 / 1000 x 90 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 .0.fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0.

) e depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is small or 450 mm i.( O. 270 mm ……………….( O.e.s critical in span AB f slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.) .K. 450 mm ……………….e.K.

5 0.efficients Support moments At other interior supports -1 / 12 -1 / 9 shall be multiplied by the total icients At all other interior supports 0.6 .

( 0.3 l1 ) 900 10 O @ 220 c/c 3000 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 Total 7.046 x 11.7 x 10 / 1000 x (160) = 0.75 / 4.926) .48 say 4.52 = Mux = αx x w x lx = Muy = αy x w x lx2 = From Table 6-3 drequired = 0.3 + 0.15 .75 m Dead load : self 0.25 x 4. > 107 mm Larger depth is provided due to deflection check.K. > 107 mm dlong provided = 160 .Design of Simply supported two way slab residential building drawing room 4.926 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.5 = 1.55+0.5 = 11.55 m It is supported on 350 mm thick walls on all four sides.7 x 10 6 / 2.5 ( assume 10 O bar ) = 160 mm.3 m x 6.5 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 KN / m2 For 1 m wide strip Pu = 1.18 = 4.07 2 23.7 10.07 x 1000 ……………….73 say 6.5 = Q = 2.5 floor finish = 1.10 = 150 mm.) = 107 mm.25 x 4.6 / 15) x (0.5 m ly = 6. given material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution : Consider 1 m wide strip.5 x 7.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.0 Live load ( residence ) = 2.18 x 25 = 4. lx = 4.25 KN / m ly / lx = 6.48 KNm KNm √M / Q x b = √23.18 = 6. Assume 180 mm thick slab. 6 2 Mu / b x d2 ( short ) = 23.104 x 11.( O.5 IS 456-2000 Table -27 2 0. dshort provided = 180 .

31 KN Long span Assuming L0 = 8 O (HYSD Fe415 steel ) .6 / 15) x (0.926) x 15 / 415 ] = 0.12 /100 ) x 1000 x 180 = 216 mm2.466 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.28% Ast ( short ) = 0. provide 50 % of bars of respective span to take into account negative moment due to slab nature.5 x 1000 / 448 = 175.134% Ast ( long ) = 0.466 415 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.28 x 1000 x 160 / 100 = 448 mm2 Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 78.5 / 2 ) = 25. Check for development length : Vu = 11. The bars cannot be bent or curtailed because if 50 % of long span bars are curtailed .25 x ( 4.415 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.24 x 1000 / 216 = 232.846) x 15 / 415 ] = 0.22 mm Provide 10 mm O bar@170 mm c/c = 462 ( short span ) mm2.12 % Minimum steel = ( 0. Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 50. 6 2 Mu / b x d2 ( long ) = 10.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4. the remaining bars will be less than minimum At top on support .48 x 10 / 1000 x (150) = 0.59 mm Provide 8 mm O bar@ 230 mm c/c = 218 ( long span ) mm2.134 x 1000 x 150 / 100 = 201 mm2 For HYSD Fe415 minimum reinforcement 0.

31 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56 O 1261.fy x = 0.289 OR 50 1-√1-(4.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d ) 2 Mu1 = 0.28 mm Note that the bond is usually critical along long direction.689 fy / fck Mu1 / b x d = 0.3 x ( 11. 100 x As / b x d 100 x 218 / 1000 x 150 0.( O.31 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56 O 580. (HYSD Fe415 steel ) 100 x As / b x d 100 x 462 / 1000 x 160 0.) O ≤ 12.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d ) 2 Mu1 = 0.K.( O.Pt = = = From equation Pt = we get .5 + 8 O ≥ 56 O 48 O ≤ 1261.331 (From Table 7-6 ) 1.5023 x 1000 x 150 x 10 = 11.9595 x 1000 x 160 x 10 = 24.25 x ( 4.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .56 KNm Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd =56 O 1.403 which gives ……………….56 x 106 / 25.31 KN Shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 25.9595 2 -6 2 Mu1 = 0.87 x 415 x 462 x 160 ( = 26.806 fy / fck Mu1 / b x d = 0.fy x = 0.3 x ( 24.31 x 10 / 1000 x 150 .145 OR 50 1-√1-(4.) O ≤ 26. Check for shear : This is critical along long span Vu = 25.4 + 8 O ≥ 56 O 48 O ≤ 580.09 mm Vu = 11.554 (From Table 7-6 ) 1.31 KN Short span Assuming L0 = 8 O Pt = = = From equation Pt = we get .30 x 106 / 25.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld = 24.K.5 / 2 ) = 25.5023 2 -6 2 Mu1 = 0.48 which gives ……………….3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld = 11.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .87 x 415 x 218 x 150 ( = 11.30 KNm Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd =56 O 1.

24 x 0.1 fig-4 .8 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 4480 / 160 ……………….1 25 difference -0.0 = 12.04 Design shear strength = 1.) = 28.011 Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.2.1.011 = 0.( O.44 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.85 √ 0.345 N / mm2 ……………….) mm . clause 26.K.1 20 difference ? -0.K.1 ) 6 x 12. bars : maximum spacing permitted for long span steel = 5 x effective depth of slab or 450 m = 5 x 150 = 750 spacing provided = 230 < 450 mm ……………….24 x 0.278 IS 456-2000 clause 40.05 for 180 mm slab depth k = 1.1 ) 6xβ β = 0.169 N / mm 2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( too small ) 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 218 / 1000 x 150 = 0.145 ﺡc = 0.04 for 180 mm slab depth k = 1.) OR Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.278 = 0.289 IS 456-2000 clause 23.24 20 difference ? -0.8 Check for cracking : IS 456-2000 .3.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .145 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0.05 IS 456-2000 clause 40.K.28 N / mm 25 difference -0.347 N / mm2 ……………….1. but not less than 1.8 x 15 ( √ 1 + 5 x 12.44 x 20 = 28.( O.K.2.00 < 28.3 (1) Main bars : maximum spacing permitted for short span steel = 3 x effective depth of slab or 300 m = 3 x 160 = 480 spacing provided = 170 < 300 mm ……………….01 .28 = 0.( O.K.89 Pt .( O.85 √ 0.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.2.= 0.) mm (2) Distribu.( O.8 x fck / 6.) Check for deflection : This check shall be done along short span Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 20 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 462 / 1000 x 160 = 0.24 Design shear strength = 1.

.

051 0.037 0.043 0.048 0.043 0.033 0.024 0.047 0.057 0.036 0.032 0.076 0.037 0.059 0.039 2 5 6 0.079 9 Table .040 0.028 1.065 0.048 0.035 0.056 0.27 Bending moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions at right angles .032 1.047 0.032 0.035 0. 1 Type of Panel and Moments considered Interior Panels: Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span One Short Edge Discontinuous: Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 3 One long Edge Discontinuous: Negative moment at continuous edge 4 Positive moment at mid-span Two Adjacent Edges Discontinuous: Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span Two Short Edges Discontinuous: Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span Two Long Edges Discontinuous: Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span 7 Three Edges Discontinuous (One Long Edge Continuous): Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span Three Edges Discrmntinuous (One Short Edge Continuous) : Negative moment at continuous edge Positive moment at mid-span Four-Edges Discontinuous: Positive moment at mid-span 0.052 0.3 1.045 0.056 0.028 0.057 0.051 0. simp ly / lx 1.2 0.064 0.057 0.049 0.1 0.072 0.4 .036 ( Values of ly / lx ) 1.064 0.040 0.053 0.2 1.053 0.037 0.1 1.Table .060 0.044 0.071 0.3 0.057 8 0.065 0.043 short span coefficient αx 1.043 0.028 0.035 0.044 0.26 Bending moment coefficients for rectangular panels supported on four sides with provi Case No.043 0.045 0.043 0.037 0.0 0.049 0.039 0.052 0.051 0.0 1.

062 0.061 0.084 0.062 0.099 0.093 0.055 0.αx αy 0.059 0.051 .074 0.

0.87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .87 x 415 x 462 x 160 ( 1 .fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0.0402 ) KNm -6 0.0799 ) KNm -6 A 350 350 460 10 O @ 340 c/c 10 O @ 170 c/c 4300 690 8 O @ 230 c/c 690 4650 6550 350 .415 x 462 / 1000 x 160 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 .0.0.415 x 218 / 1000 x 150 x 15 ) x 10 ( 1 .87 x fy x Ast x d ( 1 .fy x Ast / b x d x fck ) 0.87 x 415 x 218 x 150 ( 1 .

K.8 O @ 460 c/c 460 350 6900 A PLAN 10 O @ 340 c/c 460 180 v v v v 10 O @ 170 c/c v v 460 8 O @ 230 c/c 350 4300 350 Section A-A ctive depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is small or 300 mm i.e. 450 mm mm ……….( O.e. 300 mm mm ……….) .K.( O.) ctive depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is small or 450 mm i.

.

057 0.0 .063 1.028 0.051 0.052 0.049 0.041 0.044 0.065 0.0 0.068 1.057 0.039 0.080 2.n four sides with provision for torsion at corners Long span coefficient αy for all values of ly / lx ort span coefficient αx ( Values of ly / lx ) 1. simply supported on Four sides 1.045 0.056 0.071 0.080 0.091 0.064 0.063 0.069 0.049 0.5 1.047 0.060 0.084 0.5 0.035 0.051 0.069 0.024 0.085 0.75 0.084 0.047 0.75 2.069 0.045 0.060 0.107 0.5 3.068 0.053 0.088 0.035 0.037 0.053 0.097 0.076 0.043 0.060 0.075 0.055 0.0 2.043 0.100 0.091 0.096 0.4 0.045 0.059 0.067 0.037 0.056 s at right angles .044 0.065 0.087 0.035 0.085 0.073 0.052 0.064 0.041 0.065 0.048 0.089 0.063 0.032 0.059 0.028 0.077 0.071 0.

0.020 0.118 0.113 0.014 .122 0.124 0.037 0.029 0.046 0.104 0.

( 1 ) .58 + 0 KN / m Total 14.5 ( 14.Design of Continuous Beam An R. Case ( a ) Maximum moment at B 36 KN / m 36 KN / m 22 KN / m B10 6m A 6m B 6m 6m C D Using three moment equation for span ABC MA ( L1 / I1 ) + 2MB ( L1 / I1 + L2 / I2 ) + MC ( L2 / I2 ) = . floor is used as a banking hall Design the beams B10-B11-B12.45 x 25 = 2.58 + 9 ) = 21.12 x 25 = 3 + 0 KN / m2 Floor finish = 1 + 0 KN /m2 Live load = 0 + 3 KN / m2 Total 4 + 3 KN / m2 Load on beam = 3 ( 4 + 3 ) = 12 + 9 KN / m Self wt. Solution : ( a ) Load calculations and analysis : Slab 120 mm thick 0.C.23 x 0.87 + 13.[ 1944 ] .[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6 ) ] .[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] 6MA + 24MB + 6MC = .6 A1a1 / ( I1 L1 ) -6 A2a2 / ( I2L2) 36 KN / m 36 KN / m A 162 B B C 162 A1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 = 648 a1 = 3 m A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 = 648 a2 = 3 m MA ( 6 / I ) + 2MB ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + MC ( 6 / I ) = . = 0.648 As MA = 0 …………………….[ 1944 ] 4MB + MC = .58 + 9 KN / m Factored Load = 1.5 say ( 22 + 14 ) KN /m . Live load = 3 KN / m2 6m (Given ) Floor finish = 1 KN / m2 Rib size = 230 mm x 450 mm Column = 300 mm x 300 mm Main beams = 300 mm x 570 mm overall .C. Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 . The Slab thickness is 120 mm .

522 .522 4(.1440 MC = .2088 .96 KNm By putting Value of MC into Equation ( 1 ) 4MB + ( .( 2 ) By putting Value of MB from Equation ( 2 ) into Equation ( 1 ) A 6m 162 (+) B 138 (-) 6m 6m C 96 (-) 99 (+) D 162 93 (+) (-) 45 (+) (-) 96 51 (+) 6 m Distance 3 m Distance 6 m Distance 3 m Distance 6 m Distance 3 m Distance 138 KNm (?) 96 KNm (?) 42 KNm (?) 138 .648 15 MC = .96 ) = .4MC ) + MC = .648 .[ 1944 ] .552 MB = .522 4MB + MC = .6 A2a2 / ( I2 L2 ) -6 A3a3 / ( I3L3) 36 KN / m 22 KN / m B 162 C C 99 D A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 = 648 a2 = 3 m A3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 99 = 396 a3 = 3 m MB ( 6 / I ) + 2MC ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + MD ( 6 / I ) = .648 MB + 4MC = .[ 1188 ] MB + 4MC = .( 2 ) …………………….[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6 ) ] .16 MC + MC = .Using three moment equation for span BCD MB ( L2 / I2 ) + 2MC ( L2 / I2 + L3 / I3 ) + MD ( L3 / I3 ) = .138 KNm 36 KN / m 36 KN / m 22 KN / m As MD = 0 …………………….( 1 ) …………………….648 4 MB = .[ 6 x 396 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] 6MB + 24MC + 6MD = .

36 x 6 x 9 . Note ) = 1650 mm > 3000 mm . The beam acts as a flanged beam For T-beams .K.22 x 6 x 9 = -138 Vc = 183 KN VC + 82 = 183 VC = 101 KN MC = . Factored maximum moments : B or C . ( b ) Design for flexure : Span AB or CD Mu ( + ) = 111.7 x 138 KNm ………………( O. negative moment = 138 KNm AB ( + ) = CD ( + ) = 110 KNm BC ( + ) = 58 KNm BC ( minimum .The same moment shall be used at C also because of symmetry.138 KNm VA x 6 -36 x 6 x 3 = -138 VA = 85 KN VA + VB = 36 x 6 50 101 2.6 KNm > 0.) AB or CD ( + ) = 111. reduce it by 20 % .85 VB = 131 KN 131 MC = .Clause 23.7 x 110 KNm BC ( . For all the cases .7 x 58 KNm.138 85 115 82 MB = .96 VB = 246 KN VB + 131 = 246 VB = 115 KN Three cases are considered for getting maximum values of moments.6 KNm > 0.4 KNm ( Hogging ). Maximum negative moment = 138 KNm.138 KNm 50 x 12 + VC x 6 .36 x 6 x 3 . Maximum design moments : Support B or C = 110. Case ( a ) gives maximum negative moment at B.50 VC = 82 KN MB = .4 KNm > 0.) = 11.7 x 6000 / 6 ) + 230 + 6 x 120 ( As per IS456-2000 .ve ) = 5 KNm The moment redistribution shall be now carried out. Note that after redistribution . the design positive moments also have been reduced.6 KNm.96 KNm VD x 6 -22 x 6 x 3 = -96 VD = 50 KN VC + VD = 22 x 6 VC = 132 .36 x 6 x 3 = .6 KNm BC ( + ) = 51. redistribute ( increase or decrease ) the moment at B or C = 110.4 KNm. Case ( b ) gives the maximum positive moment in span BC while the case ( c ) gives maximum positive moments in span AB and CD. Then Mu = 0.8 x 138 = 110.36 m VB = 216 . bf = ( l0 / 6 ) + bw + 6 Df bf = ( 0.2 .96 KNm 85 x 12 + VB x 6 .1.

6 / fck) x ( Mu / bd2 ) fy / fck ( From Table 6-3 ) Pt = 50 1 .6 x 106 / 0.Df / 2 6 Ast = 111.60 Ast = Mu / 0.87 x 415 x ( 535 .0084 0.60 ) = 651 mm2 . Pt = 50 1 . Support B or C : Mu ( . curtail 3 .12 O at 300 mm ( 0.17 Df / d = 120 / 535 = 0.0864 0.87 x 415 x ( 535 .224 If Mu < Mu.549 2 Ast = ( 0.√ 1 . Continue 3 .05 ℓ ) from A and at 900 mm ( 0.lim / fck bw d = 0.√ 1 .15 ℓ = 900 mm from centre of support B and remaining 2 .12 O in span BC as required for flexure. one of which may be curtailed at 0.4 KNm Mu / bd2 = 110.12 mm O = 339 mm2 .6 KNm For 0. = 301 Provide 3 .68 ) 415 / 15 = 0.01 diff.014 ? -0. In span AB .596564 KNm > 111.05 ℓ ) from A and at 900 mm ( 0.15 ℓ ) from B.83 diff ? design as under-reinforced section (singly reinforced beam) as explained below. In span AB .16 mm O extra at top = 603 mm 2 . Span BC : Mu ( + ) = 51. Provide 6 .Clause 26.lim = 0. curtail 3 .224 Mu.5( a ) For bf /bw = 7 0.( 4.12 mm O = 678 mm2 . ( As per SP:16 . provide 3 .Table 58 ) 0.549 / 100 ) x 230 x 535 = 676 mm 20 % of steel should be carried through the span = 0.10 = 535 mm .6 KNm Ast = 51.16 mm O at 0. .25 ℓ = 1500 mm from B .4 x 106 / 230 x 5352 = 1.671 x 15 x 230 x 535 x 10 = 662.15 ℓ ) from B.07.2 x 676 = 135 mm 2 Provide 2.68 < 2.) = 110. Minimum Ast = ( 0. -6 0.Assuming one layer of 20 mm diameter bars d = 450 + 120 -25 .671 2 2 ( As per IS456-2000 .10 mm O anchor bars = 157 mm 2 .60 ) mm2 .( 4.6566 Mu.lim : 1 diff 0.6 / 15 ) x ( 1. The section is under-reinforced.6 x 10 / 0.120 / 2 = 535 .12 O at 300 mm ( 0. = 535 .006 diff.87 x fy x lever arm where lever arm = d . At support .205 / 100 ) x 230 x 535 = 252 mm2 bf / bw = 1650 / 230 = 7.

14 KNm Note that lever arm assumed here is d .75 KN at 1.07 Minimum design shears at cut off points.4 KN Negative moment reinforcement 20 % of steel should be carried through the span = 0. For negative moment top is tension and bottom is compression. one of which may be curtailed at 0. Moment at 0. The third rule that the continuing bars provide double the area required for flexure at cut off point and the shear does not exceed 3 / 4 th that permitted. 535 mm From A .98 x + 3.23 / 2 ) x 36 KNm < ( 1 / 2 ) x 58.e.K.66 Moment at 4.Df / 2 Theoretical cut off point can be found out from case ( c ) as 58. Vu = 4 / 3 [ 81.6 x 0.982 .23 m from A < 89.3.10 mm O anchor bars = 157 mm 2 .98 . The theoretical cut-off points and actual positions for curtailing 40 % bars i.) = 19.98 + 3. 1245 mm from B say 300 mm ).23 / 2 or = ( 4. = 0.) = 19.60 ) x 10 = 58.87 fy Ast ( d . = 0.755 m from A 2 = 89.36 x2 / 2 i.20 x 475 = 95.45 ) / 2 x = 4.535 = 230 mm ( i.4 x 1 x 3.45 ) / 2 = ( 4. e.The moment of resistance of remaining bars = 0. < 126. The curtailment rules are to be satisfied .43 KN at 0.755 .6 KN .√ 4.15 ℓ = 900 mm from centre of support B and remaining 2 . The strength of section is controlled by top reinforcement only and is given approximately by M.6 x .755 / 2 ) x 36 KNm < ( 1 / 2 ) x 58.12 O bars at 765 .R.32 ] = 108. curtail 3 .6 x .( 0.87 x 415 x 339 ( 535 .23 ) / 2 -6 = ( 4.( 4.25 ℓ = 1500 mm from B .14 KNm ………….56 ] = 108.R.Df / 2 ) M.765 According to curtailment rules.00 KNm The theoretical cut off can be given by an equation 89.87 x 415 x 559 ( 535 .6 x 4.23 = 0 x = ( -b + √ b2 .2 x 676 = 135 mm 2 Provide 2.230 m from A 2 = 89.23 .4.14 = 89.take 81.K.32 KN Vu = 4 / 3 [ 81. provide 3 .Df / 2 ) = 0. 230 .98 .16 mm O extra at top = 603 mm 2 . At support .22 m x = 0. x2 . referring to design shear diagram .4ac ) / 2 a = 4.4 x 1 x 3.e. 2 .14 KNm ………….36 x2 / 2 = -95 [ case ( a ) ] .( O.98 + √ 4.60 ) x 10-6 = 0.16 mm O at 0.( O.115 = 115 mm from face of support say 300 m and at 4220 + 535 = 4755 mm ( i.245 m from B.87 fy Ast ( d . the bars are cut off at 12 O or d eff whichever is greater i.e.e.16 O may now be determine Remaining bars 2-10 O & 2-16 O provide 157 + 402 = 559 mm 2 area.982 .

12 m from B Cut off 3 .87 fy Ast ( d .08 x2 . table 19 table 7-1 ) Actual shear strength ﺡv = Vu / bd 3 = 81.32 KN upto 0.88 m from A i.e. ) Note that shear capacity will be increased as per positive reinforcement curtailment check.28 / 2 = ( 4.11 ? -0.25 diff.e.5. Let us now determine the point of curtailment of 80 % of bars.32 x 10 / ( 230 x 535 ) 0.98 x .22 ) = . 0.36 N / mm2 .98 + √ 4.1 m from A . These will be used as anchor bars.Df / 2 ) = 0. 20 % bars shall be continued throughout the span.1.6 KN also Vu = 81.98 + √ 4.60 ) x 10-6 = 0.08 KNm Distance from A for this moment 89.22.95 KNm ………………( O.K. Cut off the bars at 730 + 535 ( deff ) = 1265 mm say 1500 mm from B.98 + 6.98 + 5. the moment is 89.e. Note that this is required for case ( c ) in span BC where point of contraflexure lies at 3 m from B.e. Remaining bars are 2-10 O .73 m from B .55 ) / 2 m from A x = 5.28 ( From IS 456-2000 .22 diff.4ac ) / 2 a 2 = 4.776 ) / 2 x = 5.1 .4.98 + 4 x 1 x 5.6 x .16 O bars at 120 + 535 ( deff ) = 655 mm say 900 mm from B .50 = 0 x = ( -b + √ b2 .10 Design ( permissible )shear strength of concrete . ﺡC. Vu = 89. 157 mm2 Moment capacity = 0. at 5. At 900 mm from B i.22 KNm Moment capacity required at actual cut off point as per curtailment rules = 2 ( -11.23 m from A 100 As / bd = 100 x 3 x 113 / 230 x 535 = 0. at 0.50 / 2 = ( 4.4.12 / 2 = -11.27.057 x 475 = 27. Continue 2 no.28 = 0 x = ( -b + √ b2 . ( c ) design for shear reinforcement : At A .36 x 5. = 0.98 x .4ac ) / 2 a 2 = 4.98 + 4 x 1 x 1.44 KNm Moment capacity of the section = .27 i. i.87 x 415 x 157 ( 535 . 0.x2 . 10 mm O bars giving Ast = 157 mm2 area . 0.36 x2 / 2 = .6 x 5.

ﺡC.( O.5.298 = 37.525 = 47.75 x 10 / ( 230 x 535 ) N / mm2 > ﺡc = 0.87 fy Asv d / Vus = 0.661 .02 x 10 = 179 mm From IS 456-2000 clause 26. table 19 table 7-1 ) Actual shear strength ﺡv = Vu / bd 0.32 .0.ﺡc b d -3 = 108.K. 3 = 157 + 603 = 760 mm2 2-10 O + 3-16 O 100 As / bd = 100 x 760 / 230 x 535 = 0. capacity of section with minimum shear reinforcement Vus = 0. Vus = Vu .02 KN Assuming 6 mm O two .legged stirrups . Sv = 0.245 m from B. 0. Asv = 57 mm2 .) = 51 KN At B .75 KN upto 1.0.8 mm ( minimum ) ( iv ) 179 mm ( designed ) Minimum shear reinforcement of 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c will be used .23 KN OR Vus = ( 0. Vu = 126.25 diff.13 diff.6 Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement using 6 mm O stirrups = 0.ﺡc b d N / mm2 > ﺡc OR Vus = ( 0. fy = 415 N / mm2 .4 x 230 = 134.36 ) 230 x 535 x 10-3 = 81.884 shear design is necessary .36 x 230 x 535 x 10-3 = 37.8 mm spacing should not exceed ( i ) 450 mm ( ii ) 0.4 b = 0.= 0.1.75 x 535 = 401.50 x 230 x 535 x 10 = 108.02 KN ………………….62 ( From IS 456-2000 .32 44.75 61.87 fy Asv d / Sv -3 = ( 0.0.87 Asv fy / 0. Vus = Vu .87 x 250 x 57 x 535 / 37.08 ? -0.50 ) 230 x 535 x 10-3 = 47. At support .661 shear design is necessary .4 KN also Vu = 108.87 x 250 x 57 x 535 / 130 ) x 10 > 37.0.75 .50 N / mm2 3 = 108.04 Design ( permissible )shear strength of concrete . = 0.884 . 0.75 d = 0.251 KN .038 KN = 81. At support .25 mm ( iii ) ≤134.87 x 57 x 250 / 0.

87 x 250 x 57 x 535 / 130 ) x 10 > 47.4 O check 1. capacity of section with minimum shear reinforcement Vus = 0.245 x 36 = 81.K.K.25 KN = 51 KN ( d ) Check for development length : At A.) . It can be taken equal to deff.245 m from B Mu1 = 58.1 fig-4 .14 x 106 / 89.2.4 O O ≤ 21 mm ………………….) At point of contraflexure i.14 < 0.6 KN L0 = 12 O Ld = 56. Asv = 57 mm2 .) ( e ) Check for deflection : Basic span / d ratio = 26 100 Ast / b d = 100 x 678 / 1650 x 535 = 0.However to permit the lapping of bars we shall consider 12 O .6 Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement using 6 mm O stirrups = 0. Sv = 0.4 .1. 1.75 d = 0.6 x 103 + 12 O ≥ 56.87 fy Asv d / Sv = ( 0.3 IS 456-2000 clause 23.87 fy Asv d / Vus = 0.4 x 230 = 134.14 KNm ( Calculated previously ) Vu = 89.5.8 mm ( minimum ) ( iv ) 140 mm ( designed ) Minimum shear reinforcement of 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c will be used . Mu1 = 58.K.2.( O.14 KNm Vu = 126.87 x 57 x 250 / 0.3 x 58.077 modification factor = 2 IS 456-2000 clause 23.58 KN 115.for flanged beam -3 3 ………………….( O.Assuming 6 mm O two .477078 ≥ 44.4 O O ≤ 19 mm ………………….8 mm spacing should not exceed ( i ) 450 mm ( ii ) 0.25 mm ( iii ) ≤134.3 Mu1 / Vu + L0 ≥ Ld 1.4 O 926.legged stirrups .e.1 fig-6 . ) check 1.( O. fy = 415 N / mm2 .58 x 103 + 12 O ≥ 56.14 x 106 / 81.75 x 535 = 401.87 Asv fy / 0.549107 ≥ 44.for tension reinforcement bw / bf = 230 / 1650 = 0.3 x 58.87 x 250 x 57 x 535 / 47.4 b = 0.3 Mu1 / Vu + L0 ≥ Ld 1.6 L0 = 12 O ( L0 is much more than this .1.23 x 10 = 140 mm From IS 456-2000 clause 26.4 O 843.

IS 456-200 . Maximum clear distance permitted ( cracking .10 O 300 6.16 O 1500 900 1500 900 2 .16 O ( Extra ) 1500 1500 900 900 2 .12 O 6000 A 300 3 . 25 mm .Reduction factor = 0.e.10 O 2 .B .6 Actual span / d = 6000 / 535 = 11.table 8-1 .8 = 41.10 O 2 .50 .10 O 120 120 2-10 O + 3 450 20 O pin 6 .10 O + 2 .A 450 3230 Section B .12 O 6000 300 6.3 x 12 ) / 2 = 72 mm Minimum clear distance permitted = hagg + 5 mm = 20 + 5 = 25 mm or 12 mm ( O of bar ) i.8 Span / d permissible = 26 x 2 x 0.10 O + 3 .21 ………………………( safe ) ( d ) Check for cracking (spacing of bars ) : Clear distance between bars = ( 230 .12 O 6000 B D N S D N S 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c D N S 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c 2 . table 15 ) ………………………( safe ) = 180 mm A B 2 .12 O 230 Section A .

[ 1944 ] 4MB + MC = .522 As MA = 0 .[ 6 x 396 x 6MA + 24MB + 6MC = .6 A1a 22 KN / m A 99 B B A1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 99 = 396 a1 = 3 m ) ] .[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 = = a2 = 3 m MA ( 6 / I ) + 2MB ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + MC ( 6 / I ) = .3m B11 B12 3m 6m 6m Case ( b ) Maximum positive moment in span BC 22 KN / m 36 KN / m 22 KN / m A 6m B 6m 6m C ) -6 A2a2 / ( I2L2) Using three moment equation for span ABC MA ( L1 / I1 ) + 2MB ( L1 / I1 + L2 / I2 ) + MC ( L2 / I2 ) = .[ 1188 ] .

( 2 ) By putting Value of MB from Equation ( 2 ) into Equation ( 1 4(.522 .522 4 MB = .522 As MD = 0 …………………….522 .( 96 + 21 ) = 45 KNm ) 47 (+) (-) 58 47 (+) (-) (+) 104 104 .[ 1944 ] .[ 6 x 648 x 6MB + 24MC + 6MD = .[ 6 x 396 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] MB ( 6 / I ) + 2MC ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + MD ( 6 / I ) = .104 KNm By putting Value of MC into Equation ( 1 ) 4MB + ( .418 MB = .522 MB + 4MC = .( 1 ) …………………….522 4MB + MC = .69 = 93 KNm ) ( 99 .[ 1188 ] MB + 4MC = .16 MC + MC = .522 15 MC = .104 ) = .2088 .6 A2a 36 KN / m B 162 C C A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h2 A3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 = = 648 = a2 = 3 m a3 = 3 m ) ] .48 = 51 KNm ) ( 162 .104 KNm 22 KN / m 36 KN / m 22 KN / m A 99 6m B 104 (-) 6m 6m C104 (-) 99 (+) 162 69 48 21 ( 162 .) -6 A3a3 / ( I3L3) Using three moment equation for span BCD MB ( L2 / I2 ) + 2MC ( L2 / I2 + L3 / I3 ) + MD ( L3 / I3 ) = .1566 MC = .4MC ) + MC = .

67 VC = 83. -2000 .2 Effective width of f In the absence of more accurate determination . redistribute ( increase or ( As per IS 456-2000 .Clause 23. covering all appropriate combination of IS 456-2000 .36 m 2.33 MC = .X dist.104 KNm 48. Case ( b ) ) gives maximum positive ative moment = 138 KNm.48.2 .21 m 108 83. 6 .Clause 37.33 = 191.1.33 X dist.36 x 6 x Vc = 191.Clause 23.67 x 12 + VB x 6 .X ) 216 X = 510 X = 2.67 108 131 X =85 ( 6 .33 KN VB + 83.1 ) ve been reduced.33 KN VC + 83. 85 131 48.33 KN MB = .104 104 83. ases . Note ) IS 456-2000 .104 KNm VD x 6 -22 x 6 x 3 = -104 VD = 48. Clause 37. width of flange may be taken as the following but greater than the breadth of the web plus half the distances to the adjacent beams on either side : .1.33 VC = 108 KN MC = .36 x 6 x VB = 191.67 x 12 + VC x 6 .1 Redistribution of m Continuous Beams and Frames ( b ) The ultimate moment of resistance provided member is not less than 70 percent of the mome obtained from an elastic maximum moment diagr appropriate combinations of loads.33 = 191. Case ( a ) gives maximum ecause of symmetry.1.104 KNm 48.67 KN VC + VD = 22 x 6 VC = 132 .33 VB = 108 KN ts. ( c ) The elastic moment at any section in a m particular combination of loads shall not be re than 30 % of the numerically largest moment giv the elastic maximum moments diagram for member .1.

0.34 For HYSD steel .15 ℓ ) from B.17 2 3 .1 Beams 26. shall not be less than that given by the following : where . width of flange may be taken as the following but greater than the breadth of the web plus half the distances to the adjacent beams on either side : ( a ) For T-beams .85 / fy mm ( 0.16 mm O extra at top = 603 mm .The maximum ar reinforcement shall not exceed 0. bf = ( l0 / 6 ) + bw + 6 Df ( b ) For L-beams .205 For HYSD steel . Minimum steel % For mild steel 100 As / b d = 100 x 0.85 / 415 = 0.04 b D.85 / 250 = 0. Fe500 grade 100 As / b d = 100 x 0.( As per IS456-2000 . l0 = distance between points of zero moments in bw = breadth of the web .1. and b = actual width of the flange.16 mm O mm ( 0.5( a ) ) For bf /bw = 8 0. bf = effective width of flange .5.0096 0. Df = thickness of flange . and fy = characteristic strength of reinforcement in N / b ) Maximum reinforcement .For continuous beams and frames .5 Requirements of Rein Structural Members 26.1 Tension Reinforcement a ) Minimum reinforcement . b = breadth of the beam or the breadth of the we d = effective depth . pport B and remaining 2 .0717 0.7 times the effective span.Clause 26.016 ? -0.5.743 In the absence of more accurate determination . IS 456-2000 Clause 26. Fe415 grade 100 As / b d = 100 x 0. ' l0 ' assumed as 0. bf = ( l0 / 12 ) + bw + 3 Df Where . Table 6-3 Limiting Moment of resistance factor Q lim.85 / 500 = 0.The minimum are As / b d = 0. N / mm2 For singly reinforced rectangular sections .671 ced beam) as explained below.15 ℓ ) from B. NOTE . As = minimum area of tension reinforcement .

60 1.96 3.64 1.07 2.take 81.50 0.00 0.5 IS 456-2000 Clause 26.25 0.e.32 KN Design shear strength of conc Concrete Pt = 100 x As bxd M15 ≤ 0.√ 4.75 0.15 0.e.35 0.6 KN 3. 2 .14 15 20 25 30 check for shear ( 4. % bars i.16 O may now be determined .49 m 126.fck N / mm2 fy.45 ) / 2 m hichever is greater i.4 KN 6 KN . 535 mm 5 = 115 mm from face of support say 300 mm) tinuing bars provide double the area 3 / 4 th that permitted.00 0.16 mm O extra at top = 603 mm2 .22 2.23 ) / 2 2 IS 456-2000 .75 0.51 m 2.68 1.75 0.46 0.28 0.44 415 2.71 2.4 x 1 x 3. pport B and remaining 2 .71 2.71 2.54 1.4 KN 110.98 . 0.45 4.6 KN 126. Tab Table 7-2 Maximum shear stress .745 110. IS 456-2000 .50 0.71 The above given table is based on the f Design shear strength ﺡc = β= 3 .98 .76 3.70 4.71 2.16 mm O p is tension and bottom is compression.6 Minimum Minimum shear reinforcement in the for such that : .5.50 0.25 0.4 KN 3. Concrete grade s given approximately by ( ﺡc )max N/mm 2 M15 2.1.00 0.3.4 KN 89. Tab Table 7-1 ( 4.25 0. N / mm2 250 2.98 .71 89.

2.1 Table 7-5 Design bond stress (ﺡbd ) for plain bars in tension M15 1.87 x fy For mild steel Fe250 σs = 0. whichever is greater if ends of the reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction M1 / V increased by 30 % ( 1. σs = 0.3 M1 / V ) Table 7-6 Development length for single mild steel bars required for case ( c ) in span BC ll be used as anchor bars. Asv = total cross-sectional area of st Sv = stirrup spacing along the leng b = breadth of the beam or breadt fy = characteristic strength of the s which shall not be taken great rules = 2 ( -11.1.2. the value of ﺡbd shall be increased by 60 %.0 M20 1.67 x fy For Fe415 IS 456-2000 clause 26. check for development length IS 456-2000 clause 26.2 M25 1.2.9 Concrete grade ( ﺡbd N / mm 2 Note-1 : ﺡbd shall be increased by 25 % for bars in compression Note-2 : In case of deformed bars confirming to IS : 1786-1985 .where.22.44 KNm ment curtailment check.5 M35 1.1 Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd IS 456-200 clause 26.3.4 M30 1.3 Ld ≤ M1 / V + L0 L0 = effective depth of the members or 12 O .22 ) = . fy N / mm2 250 415 Tension bars M15 55 O 56 O M20 26 O 47 O Compression bars M15 44 O 45 O M20 37 O 38 O .7 M40 1.

36 ) 230 x 535 x 10 -3 check for deflection Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans upto 10 m : cantilever simply supported continuous 7 20 26 For spans above 10 m.3.50 ) 230 x 535 x 10-3 .3 ) % redistribution to or from section considered fy N / mm2 250 415 500 -30 mm 215 125 105 -15 0 +15 +30 Clear distance between bars mm 260 155 130 mm 300 180 150 mm 300 210 175 mm 300 235 195 0.3. the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10 / span in metres . except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made. check for cracking IS 456-2000 26.3 Maximum distance between bars in tension Table 15 Clear distance Between Bars ( Clause 26.500 69 O 58 O 54 O 46 O 0.

for flanged beam . .1 fig-6 ./ mm2 .However to permit or tension reinforcement 2.

ar ) i.1ℓ1 ℓ1 0.25ℓ1 10 O 0.15ℓ1 0. 25 mm . ………………………( safe ) At least 20 % of steel placed over support B to be continued through beam Cut off not more than 40 % of steel placed over support B 0.12 O .25ℓ2 0.e.15ℓ1 0.15ℓ2 Cut off not more than 40 % of steel at B 12 O 300 0.15ℓ2 ℓ2 Cut off not more than 70 % of steel required at mid span 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c D N S 10 O + 3-16 O Extra at top 3 .

[ 6 x 396 x 3 / ( I x 6 ) ] .[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] As MA = 0 …………………….[ 1188 ] .m positive moment in span BC 22 KN / m Case ( c ) Maximum positive mom 36 KN / m 6m D A 6m t equation for span ABC L1 / I1 + L2 / I2 ) + MC ( L2 / I2 ) = .[ 1944 ] 4MB + MC = .6 A1a1 / ( I1 L1 ) -6 A2a2 / ( I2L2) 36 KN / m Using three moment equation for MA ( L1 / I1 ) + 2MB ( L1 / I1 + L2 / I C A 162 A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 648 a2 = 3 m / I + 6 / I ) + MC ( 6 / I ) = .[ 1944 ] .522 = .( 1 ) A1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 = = a1 = 3 m MA ( 6 / I ) + 2MB ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + 6MA + 24MB + 6MC = .

1566 MC = .104.t equation for span BCD L2 / I2 + L3 / I3 ) + MD ( L3 / I3 ) = .104 ) = 58 KNm 110 (+) .( 2 ) MB from Equation ( 2 ) into Equation ( 1 ) By putting Value of MB from Equa MC into Equation ( 1 ) By putting Value of MC into Equa 22 KN / m 36 KN / m 6m D A 6m 99 (+) 162 (+) 47 (+) 6 m Distance 104 KNm ( 99 .417.522 .[ 1944 ] .104.[ 1188 ] …………………….[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6 ) ] .522 15 MC = .4MC ) + MC = .4 KNm = .4 ) = .522 4(.( 1 ) …………………….( 2 ) A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h2 = = a2 = 3 m MB ( 6 / I ) + 2MC ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + 6MB + 24MC + 6MD = .52 = 47 KNm ) 3 m Distance (?) 52 Moment in span BC = ( 162 .522 4MB + MC = .522 .6 A2a2 / ( I2 L2 ) -6 A3a3 / ( I3L3) 22 KN / m Using three moment equation for MB ( L2 / I2 ) + 2MC ( L2 / I2 + L3 / I D 99 B A3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h3 ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 99 396 a3 = 3 m / I + 6 / I ) + MD ( 6 / I ) = .[ 6 x 396 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] As MD = 0 …………………….104.4 KNm 4MB + ( .522 MB + 4MC = .522 4 MB = .[ 1188 ] MB + 4MC = .2088 .16 MC + MC = .6 MB = .

48.02 X = 2.104 KNm VD x 6 -36 x 6 x 3 = -104 VD = 90.67 83.104 KNm 48. the effective ange may be taken as the following but in no case an the breadth of the web plus half the sum of the clear to the adjacent beams on either side : .22 x 6 x 9 = -104 Vc = 191.104 KNm 48.48.104 KNm VA x 6 -22 x 6 x 3 = -104 VA = 48.1.Clause 37.52 m VB = 132 .33 KN 00 .67 ( 6 .Clause 23.33 VB = 108 KN MC = .36 x 6 x 3 .33 KN MB = . elastic moment at any section in a member due to a combination of loads shall not be reduced by more of the numerically largest moment given anywhere by c maximum moments diagram for the particular covering all appropriate combination of loads.33 KN VC + 83.2 Effective width of flange ence of more accurate determination .33 = 191.X dist. 6 .21 m 2.67 KN VC + VD = 36 x 6 VC = 216 .67 VC = 125.67 x 12 + VB x 6 .33 90.67 VB = 83.104 VB = 191.X ) 132 X = 292. 00 .36 x 6 x 3 .33 KN VB + 83.67 X dist.33 VC = 108 KN MC = .67 x 12 + VC x 6 .MB = .67 83.33 X = 48.90.1.22 x 6 x 9 = .67 KN VA + VB = 22 x 6 48.33 = 191.1 Redistribution of moments in us Beams and Frames ltimate moment of resistance provided at any section of a not less than 70 percent of the moment at that section rom an elastic maximum moment diagram covering all e combinations of loads.

205 steel .04 b D. ' l0 ' may be as 0. the effective ange may be taken as the following but in no case an the breadth of the web plus half the sum of the clear to the adjacent beams on either side : -beams . um reinforcement .34 steel . ce between points of zero moments in the beam . h of the beam or the breadth of the web of T. Fe415 grade d = 100 x 0.85 / 500 = 0.85 / 250 = 0. and width of the flange.beam . cteristic strength of reinforcement in N / mm 2 .The minimum area of tension reinforcement e less than that given by the following : mum area of tension reinforcement . 00 Clause 26. bf = ( l0 / 6 ) + bw + 6 Df -beams .85 / 415 = 0. d = 100 x 0.The maximum area of tension ment shall not exceed 0. bf = ( l0 / 12 ) + bw + 3 Df ve width of flange . ess of flange .17 Table 6-3 ment of resistance factor Q lim. Fe500 grade d = 100 x 0.7 times the effective span. or continuous beams and frames .ence of more accurate determination .5 Requirements of Reinforcement for l Members ension Reinforcement um reinforcement . N / mm2 nforced rectangular sections .

fy, N / mm2 500 2.00 2.66 3.33 3.99 550 1.94 2.58 3.23 3.87

IS 456-2000 , Table 19 Table 7-1 Design shear strength of concrete , ﺡC, N / mm2 Concrete grade M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.50 0.51 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.67 0.70 0.71 0.73 0.74 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.78 0.79 0.75 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.79 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.81 0.85 0.88 0.90 0.92 0.82 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.82 0.90 0.94 0.96 0.98

0.82 0.92 0.96 0.99 1.01 The above given table is based on the following formula Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.85 √ 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β - 1 ) 6xβ 0.8 x fck / 6.89 Pt , but not less than 1.0 IS 456-2000 , Table 20 Table 7-2 Maximum shear stress , ﺡC, N / mm2 M20 2.8 M25 3.1 M30 3.5 M35 3.7 M40 4.0

S 456-2000 Clause 26.5.1.6 Minimum shear reinforcement Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided Asv / b sv ≥ 0.4 / 0.87 fy

total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs effective in shear , stirrup spacing along the length of the member , breadth of the beam or breadth of the web of flanged beam , and characteristic strength of the stirrup reinforcement in N / mm 2 which shall not be taken greater than 415 N / mm 2 .

ever is greater

of steel placed over support B

Cut off not more than 40 % of steel at B

n 70 % of steel required at mid span

522 As MA = 0 …………………….( 1 ) .[ 1188 ] 4MB + MC = .[ 6 x 396 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] 6MA + 24MB + 6MC = .[ 1944 ] .Case ( c ) Maximum positive moment in span AB and CD 36 KN / m 22 KN / m 36 KN / m 6m B 6m 6m C D Using three moment equation for span ABC MA ( L1 / I1 ) + 2MB ( L1 / I1 + L2 / I2 ) + MC ( L2 / I2 ) = .6 A1a1 / ( I1 L1 ) -6 A2a2 / ( I2L2) 36 KN / m 22 KN / m B 162 B C 99 A1 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h1 ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 99 648 = 396 a1 = 3 m a2 = 3 m MA ( 6 / I ) + 2MB ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + MC ( 6 / I ) = .[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6 ) ] .

[ 6 x 396 x 3 / ( I x 6 ) ] .417.2088 .522 MB + 4MC = .522 4 MB = .Using three moment equation for span BCD MB ( L2 / I2 ) + 2MC ( L2 / I2 + L3 / I3 ) + MD ( L3 / I3 ) = .4 ) = .99 ) = 5 KNm 104 104 .104.104.522 15 MC = .1566 MC = .( 2 ) By putting Value of MB from Equation ( 2 ) into Equation ( 1 ) 4(.6 A2a2 / ( I2 L2 ) -6 A3a3 / ( I3L3) 22 KN / m 36 KN / m C C 162 D 99 A2 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h2 ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 99 396 a2 = 3 m A3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x Base x h3 = ( 2 / 3 ) x 6 x 162 = 648 a3 = 3 m MB ( 6 / I ) + 2MC ( 6 / I + 6 / I ) + MD ( 6 / I ) = .52 = 110 KNm ) 3 m Distance (?) 52 Moment in span BC = ( 104 .0 6 m Distance 104 KNm ( 162 .522 .6 MB = .( 2 ) …………………….16 MC + MC = .4MC ) + MC = .522 As MD = 0 …………………….[ 1944 ] MB + 4MC = .522 .( 1 ) …………………….[ 6 x 648 x 3 / ( I x 6) ] 6MB + 24MC + 6MD = .522 4MB + MC = .4 KNm By putting Value of MC into Equation ( 1 ) 4MB + ( .4 KNm 36 KN / m 22 KN / m 36 KN / m 6m B 104 (-) 6m 6m C 104 (-) 162 D (+) 162 99 110 (+) (-) 110 (+) (-) 5.104.[ 1188 ] .

67 125.67 ( 6 .33 = 191.33 X =90.104 VB = 191.22 x 6 x 3 .67 VC = 125.104 KNm VD x 6 -36 x 6 x 3 = -104 VD = 90.33 KN VB + 125.90.33 = 191.104 104 125.33 KN MB = .67 x 12 + VB x 6 .33 KN MC = .33 VC = 66 KN MC = .36 x 6 x 9 = -104 Vc = 191.90.02 X = 2. 6 .104 KNm 90.67 x 12 + VC x 6 .33 MB = .67 KN VC + VD = 36 x 6 VC = 216 .104 KNm 90.33 KN VC + 125.X ) 216 X = 544.104 KNm VA x 6 -36 x 6 x 3 = -104 VA = 90.22 x 6 x 3 = .67 VB = 125.33 VB = 66 KN . 66 90.33 125.67 125.36 x 6 x 9 .52 m 66 90.67 KN VA + VB = 36 x 6 X dist.33 VB = 216 .X dist.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

( 162 .52 = 110 KNm ) .

125.33 X =90.67 ( 6 .X ) .

g.71 ) 250 / 15 = 0. Provide anchorage of 1200 mm .45 KN / m Total load = 12 + 3.71 x 20 = 954 mm The bar shall extend into the support for a straight length of 954 mm .( 4.45 KN / m Factored load = 1.23 x 0. Check for development length : Ld = 1102 / 1256 = 55 O ( From Table 7-6 ) IS 456-2000 clause 26. Material M15 grade concrete mild steel reinforcement.Design of Cantilever Beam Span = 3 m Characteristic U.M. = 12 KN /m Assume that sufficient safety against overturning is there ( Given ) and reinforcement anchorages are also available.10 = 515 mm OR 6 2 2 = 104.√ 1 .22 x 230 x 5152 x 10-6 < 2.6 x 25 = 3.√ 1 .45 = 15.D.42 KNm The section is singly reinforced ( under-reinforced ) Mu < Mu. = w x ℓ2 / 2 = 23.20 mm O giving Ast = 4 x 314 = 1256 mm2 .87 x 250 x 1102 ) / ( 1256 x 4 x 1.4 KNm = √( 104.( 4.4 x 10 / ( 230 x 515 ) Mu / b d = Mu.22 x 230 ) ( From Table 6-3 ) = 452 mm Using one layer of 20 mm O bars and overall depth of 550 mm 104.6 / 15 ) x ( 1.lim Depth required = √M / Q b Pt = 50 1 . If in some case the bars are to be bent e.71 = 135.2.F.6 / fck) x ( Mu / bd2 ) fy / fck Pt = 50 1 .2 x 3 = 69. The self-weight = 0. Check for shear : Vu = 69.22 ( Table 6-3 ) = 1.25 .1 ( From Table 7-5 ) Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd = O ( 0.71 O = 47.lim = 2.2 KN / m Factored S.2 x 32 / 2 = 104. = w x ℓ = 23.93 / 100 ) x 230 x 515 = 1102 mm Provide 4 .45 = 23.4 x 106 ) / ( 2. anchored in column .6 KN .4 KNm d = 550 .93 2 Ast = ( 0. Solution : Assume an initial trial section of 230 mm x 600 mm overall depth to consider self-weight.6 KN Factored B.L. the bearing stress around the bend has to be checked as discussed in the next example .0 ) = 47.5 x 15.

4 mm ( minimum ) ( iv ) 569.4 = 9.8 Actual span / d = 3000 / 515 = 5. table 15 ) ………………………( safe ) The design beam is shown in fig.19 difference design ( permissible ) shear strength ﺡc = 0.8 ………………………( safe ) Check for cracking (spacing of bars ) : Clear distance between bars = ( 230 . From IS 456-2000 clause 26.1 fig-4 .588 N / mm2 100 x As / b d = ( 100 x 1256 ) / ( 230 x 515 ) ( From IS 456-2000 .2.75 x 515 = 386 mm ( iii ) ≤132.87 x 56 x 250 / 0.for tension reinforcement Span / d permissible = 7 x 1.6 Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement using 6 O stirrups = 0.6 x 10 / ( 230 x 515 ) = 0. 4 -20 O v v v v 550 Fixed end support 2-12 O 3000 Stirrups 6 O @ 130 c/c 1200 6 O @ 130 c/c v 230 v Design of Cantilever Beam A cantilever rectangular bracket projects from a column of size 230 mm x 500 mm . IS 456-2000 .75 d = 0.5.2 mm ( designed ) Provide 6 mm O two-legged stirrups @ 130 mm c/c Check for deflection : Basic span / d ratio = 7 100 Ast / b d = 100 x 1256 / 230 x 515 = 1. table 19 table 7-1 ) 0.50 .4 IS 456-2000 clause 23.1.06 modification factor = 1.25 difference = 1.4 mm spacing should not exceed ( i ) 450 mm ( ii ) 0.Actual shear strength ﺡv = Vu / bd 3 = 69.4 x 20 ) / 3 = 10 mm Maximum clear distance permitted = 300 mm ( cracking .61 Provide minimum shear reinforcement .06 2 N / mm > ﺡv 0.table 8-1 .4 x 230 = 132.87 Asv fy / 0.4 b = 0. For 230 mm wide beam .83 < 9.

464 / 100 ) x 230 x 517 = 552 mm Provide 16 mm O .2. and is equivalent to an anchorage of 1127 mm.25 ( Cover ) -8 OR = 517 mm Mu.( 4.in the direction of 500 mm for a length of 3 m Factored load of 20 KN / m inclusive of self .( 4.26 = 1. The bearing stress inside the bend is now checked .64 O = 51. = 603 mm2. Solution : Vu = w x ℓ = 20 x 3 = 60 KN 2 2 Mu = w x ℓ / 2 = 20 x 3 / 2 = 90 KNm ( a ) Moment steel : Take size of Beam 230 mm x 550 mm overall.3 No. ( = cover + dia of bar ) 33 The bearing stress is critical in external bar .√ 1 .87 x 415 x 552 / 603 = ( ﺡbd = 1.lim = 2. Design bearing stress = 1. O = 16 mm a = 82 mm for internal bar ( centre to centre distance between bar ) ( = ( 230 . ( b ) Check for development length : IS 456-2000 clause 26.464 2 Ast = ( 0.50 .1 ( From Table 7-5 ) Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd = O 330.6 x 1 = 1.weight Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 .6 N / mm 2 330.10 mm O as bottom anchor bars .1 Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd Stress in bar σs = 0.5 / ( 4 x 1.2.64 x 16 = 826 mm The arrangement of anchoring the bars is shown in fig.07 x 230 x 5172 x 10-6 KNm 90 x 106 / ( 230 x 5172) Mu / b d2 = = 127. Assuming 16 mm diameter bars in one layer d = 550 . Check for this stress for a = 41 mm.6 / fck) x ( Mu / bd2 ) fy / fck Pt = 50 1 .5 x fck / [1 + ( 2O/a ) ] = 1.5 x 15 / [ 1 + ( 2 x 16 / 41 ) ] 550 .√ 1 .46 ) 415 / 15 = 0.6 / 15 ) x ( 1.07 ( Table 6-3 ) Mu < Mu.lim The section is singly reinforced ( under-reinforced ) Beam Pt = 50 1 .5 N / mm2 IS 456-2000 clause 26. Use 2.46 < 2.87 x fy = 0.6 ) = 51.3 x 16 ) / 2 + 16 = = 25 + 16 = 41 mm for external bar .

4 mm ( minimum ) ( iv ) 1188 mm ( designed ) Provide 6 mm O two-legged stirrups @ 130 mm c/c ( d ) Check for deflection : 3 .0. From IS 456-2000 clause 26.78 N / mm2 = 12.64 N /mm The arrangement is thus satisfactory.75 x 517 = 388 mm ( iii ) ≤132.46 shear design is necessary . Vus = Vu .4 mm spacing should not exceed ( i ) 450 mm ( ii ) 0. Vus = ( 0.35 = 60 54.25 difference = 0.46 x 230 x 517 x 10 = 5.699 = 5.243 difference design ( permissible ) shear strength ﺡc = 0. Asv = 28 x 2 = 56 mm2 .6 Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement using 6 O stirrups = 0.0.5 x ( 826 . fy = 250 N / mm2 Sv = 0.16 x 10 / 180 x 16 2 2 = 11.75 d = 0.87 x 56 x 250 / 0.5 / 1. ( c )Check for shear : Vu = 60 KN 550 N / mm2 ( area of 16 O bar = 201 mm2 ) …………………….5. table 19 table 7-1 ) 0..16 KN Bearing stress = Fbt / r O 3 = 32.16 N / mm < 12.507 2 N / mm < ﺡv 0.ﺡc b d OR -3 = 60 .( safe ) Actual shear strength ﺡv = Vu / bd 3 = 60 x 10 / ( 230 x 517 ) = 0. For 230 mm wide beam .87 fy Asv d / Vus = 0.1.505 .87 Asv fy / 0. the anchorage available = 279 + 147 = 426 mm Stress in bar at centre of the bend = 330.87 x 250 x 56 x 517 / 5.46 ) x 230 x 517 x10-3 At support .3 KN Using 6 mm O ( mild steel ) Two legged stirrups .505 N / mm2 100 x As / b d = ( 100 x 603 ) / ( 230 x 517 ) ( From IS 456-2000 .= 22.4 b = 0.3 x 10 = 1188 mm Provide minimum shear reinforcement .4 x 230 = 132.64 At the centre of bend .426 ) / 826 = 160 -3 Fbt = 160 x 201 x 10 = 32.

8 ………………………( safe ) < 8.507 modification factor = 1.3 x 16 ) / 2 = 66 mm Minimum clear distance permitted = hagg + 5 mm = 20 + 5 = 25 mm or 16 mm ( O of bar ) i.1 fig-4 .for tension reinforcement Span / d permissible = 7 x 1.2 = 8.2 IS 456-2000 clause 23. 25 mm .2. Maximum clear distance permitted = 180 mm ( cracking .50 .table 8-1 .4 ( e ) Check for cracking (spacing of bars ) : Clear distance between bars = ( 230 . table 15 ) ………………………( safe ) The design beam is shown in fig.e.Basic span / d ratio = 7 100 Ast / b d = 100 x 603 / 230 x 517 = 0. 50 295 279 3-16 O r 108 r 295 150 500 internal radius r = 180 550 2-10 O 3000 mm 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c Stirrups . IS 456-2000 .4 Actual span / d = 3000 / 517 = 5.

6 KN 104. Table 19 Table 7-1 Pt = Design shear strength of concrete . 23.4 KNm - 2.22 x 230 x 5152 x 10-6 IS 456-2000 .consider self-weight. N / mm2 Concrete grade 100 x M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 As . ﺡC.2 KN /m 3m 69.

78 1.75 0.75 0.36 0.96 0.28 0.54 0.50 0.90 2.67 1.37 0.82 0.25 0.57 0.76 0.99 The above given table is based on the following formula Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.35 0.60 0.49 0.89 Pt .56 0.85 0.29 0.71 0.62 0.28 0.50 0.96 3.78 0.50 0.75 0.64 0.80 0.71 0.0 nsion reinforcement ………………………( safe ) 4-20 O v v 2-12 O .72 0.71 0.00 0.79 0.84 0.00 0.92 0.82 0.04 ? -0.71 0. but not less than 1.81 0.59 0.8 x fck / 6.93 2.86 2.91 0.71 0.82 0.25 0.64 0.48 0.75 0.00 0.25 0.36 0.82 2.88 0.29 .66 0.50 0.85 √ 0.88 0.15 0.70 0.0304 0.≤ 0.74 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .73 1.67 0.37 0. table 19 table 7-1 ) 0.94 0.50 0.90 0.1 ) 6xβ β = 0.82 0.68 0.46 0.71 0.29 0.59 1.71 0.

3 x 16 ) / 2 + 16 = 82 mm ) 33 82 82 33 16 25 IS 456-2000 Clause 26.07 x 230 x 5172 x 10-6 alent to an anchorage ( = ( 230 .( given ) 2.50 .2. The bearing stress inside a bend in any other bend shall b calculated as given below : .2.5 Bearing stresses at bends The bearing stress in concrete for bends and hooks described in IS : 2502-1963 need not be checked .

46 ) x 230 x 517 x10-3 KN . in bundle . for a bar or gro of bars adjacent to the face of the member a shall be taken as the cover plus size bar ( O ) . Fbt = tensile force due to design loads in a bar or group of bars. r = internal radius of the bend . the size of bar of equivalent area Where. and O = size of the bar or .08 ? -0. table 19 table 7-1 ) 0.0778 Vus = ( 0.0.5 f ck / [ ( 1+ 2O/a a is the centre to centre distance between bars or group of bars . The bearing stress inside a bend in any other bend shall b calculated as given below : Bearing stress = Fbt / r O Where . this stress shall not exceed 1.16 25 The bearing stress in concrete for bends and hooks described in IS : 2502-1963 need not be checked . fck is the characteristic strength of concrete and 230 For Limit state method of design .505 .

nsion reinforcement ………………………( safe ) 3-16 O 2-10 O 230 .

ble 19 crete . ﺡC. N / mm2 e grade M40 .

51 0.79 0.84 0.38 0.74 0.1 ) ut not less than 1.88 0.60 0.30 0.0 .98 1.95 0.92 0.01 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .68 0.0.

stresses at bends ds and hooks described in IS : 2502-1963 ess inside a bend in any other bend shall be .

ize of bar of equivalent area stress shall not exceed 1.5 f ck / [ ( 1+ 2O/a ) ] een bars or group of bars .ds and hooks described in IS : 2502-1963 ess inside a bend in any other bend shall be n a bar or group of bars. for a bar or group mber a shall be taken as the cover plus size of .

07 x 230 x 5452 x 10-6 KNm = 141.45 KN / m Factored load = 1.41 = 62.40 ) mm2 = 349 Corresponding tension steel Ast2 = Asc fsc / 0.41 = 2. fsc = 353 N / mm2 ( refer to table 6-6 ) Asc = Mu2 / ( fsc x ( d .87 fy ( d .05 ( 435.141.lim = Mu > Mu.60 x 25 = 3.87 fy = 349 x 353 / ( 0.23 x 0. = 0.07 Stress in compression steel .Mu.45 = 65.max ) ) 6 = 141.98 > 2.688 KNm Vu = w x ℓ / 2 = 65.0.42 Xu.13 ) = 900 mm2 .lim / ( 0. d' / d = 40 / 545 consider d' / d = 0.41 Mu2 = Mu .18 x 52 / 8 = 203.07 ( Table 6-3 ) The section is Doubly reinforced ( over-reinforced ) Mu.87 x 415 ( 545 .d' ) ) 6 = 62.69 .lim = 2.28 x 10 / 353 ( 545 .lim = Mu.0.lim = 203.45 KN / m super-imposed load = 40 KN / m Total 43.Design of Simply supported Doubly reinforced Beam Span = 5 m ( simply supported rectangular beam ) super-imposed load = 40 KN / m Beam section = 230 mm x 600 mm ( Given ) Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution : DL of beam 0.18 x 5 / 2 = 162.48 x 545 ) ) 6 = 141.25 ( Cover ) .41 x 10 / ( 0.28 KNm Let the compression reinforcement be provided at an effective cover of 40 mm .18 KN / m 2 Mu = w x ℓ / 8 = 65.1 .2 Ast.10 = 545 mm 6 2 Mu / b d2 = 203.46 x 10 / 361.5 x 43.87 x 415 ) mm2 = 341.lim KNm 2.42 x 0.69 x 10 / ( 230 x 545 ) OR Mu.07 x 230 x 5452 x 10-6 = 141.95 KN ( a ) Moment steel : Assuming 20 mm diameter bars in two layer d = 600 .20 .

93 mm Oprovided = 20 mm …………………….75 x 545 = 408 mm ( iii ) ≤392.75 d = 0. fy = 415 N / mm2 .0.87 fy Asv d / Vus = 0.4 mm spacing should not exceed ( i ) 450 mm ( ii ) 0.95 .legged stirrups .27 . At 545 mm .87 x 415 x 100 x 545 / 64.545 x 43.Ast = Ast.95 x 103 +12 O ≥ 56 O 1625.95 x 10 / ( 230 x 545 ) = 1.2 mm = 1241.. Asv = 100 mm2 .06 x 10 = 307 mm From IS 456-2000 clause 26.6 Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement using 8 mm O stirrups = 0.0 N / mm2 < ﺡv design ( permissible ) shear strength ﺡc = 0.4 b = 0.5.2 mm2 Provide mm2 Asc = 2-16 O = 402 mm2 Ast = 4-20 O = 1256 ( all straight ) ( b ) Check for development length : As all the bars are taken into support .3 x 203.lim + Ast2 .6 As the ends are confined with compressive reaction .3 N / mm2 100 x As / b d = ( 100 x 1256 ) / ( 230 x 545 ) ( From IS 456-2000 .27 KN Ld = 56 O ( From Table 7-6 ) Vus = Vu .45 = 139.6 x 230 x 545 x 10 = 64.0. shear is equal to Vu = 162. table 19 table 7-1 ) = 1.( safe ) ( c ) Check for shear Vu = 162.69 x 106 / 162. Assume L0 = 12 O 1.4 x 230 = 392.ﺡc b d -3 = 139.02 ≥ 44 O O ≤ 36.4 mm ( minimum ) ( iv ) 307 mm ( designed ) 3 .95 KN Actual shear strength ﺡv = Vu / bd 3 = 162.87 x 100 x 415 / 0.1. Sv = 0. shear at distance d will be used for checking shear at support .06 KN Assuming 8 mm O two .87 Asv fy / 0. 2 = 900 + 341. Mu1 may be taken as Mu .3 x M1 / V + L0 ≥ Ld 1.

97 IS 456-2000 clause 23.08 IS 456-2000 clause 23.32 modification factor = 1. SPA.86 say 4 Provide 8 mm O two-legged stirrups @ 300 mm c/c upto 4 no.97 x 1. ( d ) Check for deflection : Basic span / d ratio = 20 100 Ast / b d = 100 x 1256 / 230 x 545 = 1.6 x 230 x 545 x 10 = 50. 25 mm .95 Actual span / d = 5000 / 545 = 9. Shear resistance of beam with minimum shear reinforcement = ( 0.1 fig-4 .87 fy Asv d / Sv )+ ﺡc b d -3 -3 = (0.125.2.66 KN Designed shear reinforcement is required from face of the support upto the distance equal to 162.e.66 / 43.21 = 125.1 fig-5 .for tension reinforcement 100 Asc / b d = 100 x 402 / 230 x 545 = 0.45 + 75. from face of the support and 8 mm O @ 390 mm c/c in remaining central portion . 2-16 O 2-16 O 545 600 4.17 ………………………( safe ) ( d ) Check for cracking (spacing of bars ) : Clear distance between bars = ( 230 .0 modification factor = 0.50 .45 = 0. IS 456-2000 . of stirrups = ( 858 / 300 ) + 1 = 3. table 15 ) ………………………( safe ) The design beam is shown in fig.Minimum shear reinforcement of 8 mm O @ 390 mm c/c will be used .20 O ( straight ) 600 600 bearing 230 4. 8O 4 300 8O rest 390 8O 4 300 .table 8-1 . Maximum clear distance permitted = 180 mm ( cracking .87 x 415 x 100 x 545 x 10 / 390 ) + 0.95 . At support provide 8 mm O @ 300 mm c/c .4 x 20 ) / 3 = 10 mm Minimum clear distance permitted = hagg + 5 mm = 20 + 5 = 25 mm or 20 mm ( O of bar ) i.08 = 20.2.20 O 5000 c/c DIA NO.858 m No.for compression reinforcement Span / d permissible = 20 x 0.

87 fy Ast = Ast.53 x d ( for Fe250 mild steel ) Xu.15 0. Xu.max = 0.d' ) ) Ast2 = Asc fsc / 0.max the section is under-reinforced ( singly reinforced ) If Xu = Xu.36 fck b ) .lim : design the section either increasing the dimensions of section o Over reinforced section ( doubly-reinforced beam ).87 fy ( d .46 x d ( for Fe500 HYSD steel ) Xu.87 fy Ast ) / ( 0. Ast.44 x d ( for Fe550 HYSD steel ) Xu =( 0. If Xu < Xu.lim + Ast2 . Mu2 = Mu .2.max the section is balanced If Xu > Xu. N / mm2 IN DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS d'/d fy N / mm2 0.max the section is over-reinforced ( doubly reinforced ) where .lim as explained below .lim / ( 0.max = 0.max = 0.48 x d ( for Fe415 HYSD steel ) Xu.2 250 217 217 217 217 415 355 353 342 329 500 424 412 395 370 550 458 441 419 380 If Mu > Mu.05 0.1 0.42 Xu.Mu.max = 0.07 x 230 x 5452 x 10-6 Table 6-6 STRESS IN COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT fsc .0.lim = Mu.max ) ) Asc = Mu2 / ( fsc x ( d .The additional moment of res needed is obtained by providing compression( top ) reinforcement and additional reinforcement.

. table 19 table 7-1 ) nce d will be used for .

face of the support nsion reinforcement mpression reinforcement ………………………( safe ) .

her increasing the dimensions of section or deign as rced beam ). rced ( singly reinforced ) ced ( doubly reinforced ) .The additional moment of resistance M u2 ession( top ) reinforcement and additional tensile ained below .

columns. ( b ) Check for development length : ( 1 ) A bar can be bent up at a distance greater than L d = 56 O ( Table 7-6 ) From the centre of the support .lim = 1.√ 1 . Solution : Factored load = 1. = 804 mm2.Design of Simply supported Singly reinforced Beam Span = 6 m ( simply supported rectangular beam ) characteristic load = 20 KN / m inclusive of its self-weight Beam section = 230 mm x 600 mm Material M15 grade concrete ( Given ) HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 The beam is resting on R.e. i.84 ) 415 / 15 = 0.lim = 2.1 ( a ) Minimum steel .4 No.84 < 2. Let 2 bars are bent at 1.6 / fck) x ( Mu / bd2 ) fy / fck 1 .1.6 / 15 ) x ( 1.C.5.25 ( Cover ) -10 = 565 mm 6 2 Mu / b d2 = 135 x 10 / ( 230 x 565 ) OR Mu.25 x 600 = 750 mm .√ 1 .614 2 Ast = ( 0.5 x 20 = 30 KN /m.( 4.( 4.lim = 0.983 KNm Mu < Mu.07 ( Table 6-3 ) The section is singly reinforced ( under-reinforced ) Pt = 50 Pt = 50 1 .C.07 x 230 x 5652 x 10-6 = 151. from the face of the support . As = ( 0. 56 x 16 = 896 mm .25 D = 1.205 / 100 ) x 230 x 565 = 266 mm2 From Table 6-4 Ast. . Provide 16 mm O . 2 Mu = w x ℓ / 8 2 = 30 x 6 / 8 = 135 Vu = w x ℓ / 2 = 30 x 6 / 2 = 90 ( a ) Moment steel : KNm KN Assuming 20 mm diameter bars in one layer d = 600 .614 / 100 ) x 230 x 565 = 798 mm As per IS 456-2000 clause 26.72 / 100 x 230 x 565 = 936 mm2.

562 N / mm2 100 x As / b d = ( 100 x 402 ) / ( 230 x 565 ) ( From IS 456-2000 .( safe ) ( c ) Check for shear : At support .01 x 0.87 x 415 x sin 45º x 10 ( 0.25 difference = 0. Sv = 0.0.17 .ﺡc b d OR = 73.6 KN Bent bars share 50 % = 12.05 48.09 KN Stirrups share 50 % = 12. the distance is ( 3000 .376 < ﺡv 0.565 x w = 90 .6 Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement using 6 O stirrups 3 = 24.750 ) = 2250 mm ……………….91 74.86 = 24.87 fy Asv d / Vus = 0.562 . table 19 table 7-1 ) 0.05 KN Actual shear strength ﺡv = Vu / bd 3 = 73.87 fy Ast d ( 1 .19 KN Capacity of bent bars to resist shear -3 = 2 x 201 x 0.05 x 10 / ( 230 x 565 ) = 0. Vu = 90 .3 x M1 / V + L0 ≥ Ld 1.87 x 250 x 56 x 565 / 12.99 KNm 90 KN .[( fy Ast ) / ( fck b d ) ] ) = = = Vu = 0. Vus = Vu .309 2 N / mm design ( permissible ) shear strength ﺡc = 0. shear at distance d will be used for checking shear at support.62 mm Oprovided = 16 mm …………………….05 .1. Vu = 90 KN As the ends of the reinforcement are confined with compressive reaction .376 ) x 230 x 565 x10-3 At support . L0 = 12 O ( assume ) As the reinforcement is confined by compressive reaction 1.0.99 x 106 / 90 x 103 +12 O ≥ 56 O 1083.191 difference shear design is necessary .( safe ) ( 2 ) For the remaining bars . Ast = 402 mm2 Mu1 = 0.[ ( 415 x 402 ) / ( 15 x 230 x 565 ) ] ) x 10 -6 82.565 x 30 = 73.3 x 74. Asv = 28 x 2 = 56 mm2 ..87 fy Asv sin α ) = 102.87 x 415 x 402 x 565 ( 1 .09 KN Using 6 mm O ( mild steel ) Two legged stirrups .0.376 x 230 x 565 x 10-3 = 73.09 x 10 = 569.2 mm From IS 456-2000 clause 26. Vus = ( 0.5.0.19 ≥ 44 O O ≤ 24.in this case .

5 48.2.4 mm spacing should not exceed ( i ) 450 mm ( ii ) 0.2 mm ( designed ) Provide 6 mm O two-legged stirrups @ 130 mm c/c At 1. 25 mm .50 .87 x 56 x 250 / 0.4 mm ( minimum ) ( iv ) 569. ( d ) Check for deflection : Basic span / d ratio = 20 100 Ast / b d = 100 x 804 / 230 x 565 = 0.16 O 6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c . two -legged stirrups @ 130 mm c/c throught the beam.1 fig-4 .S.86 = 18. Maximum clear distance permitted = 180 mm ( cracking .75 d = 0.4 x 230 = 132.table 8-1 .ﺡc b d = 67.for tension reinforcement -3 Span / d permissible = 20 x 1.376 x 230 x 565 x 10 = 67.62 modification factor = 1.75 x w = 90 .5 .16 O ( 2 straight + 2 bent ) 230 6000 c/c 600 4.e.75 x 30 = 67. IS 456-200 .5 KN Vus = Vu . table 15 ) ………………………( safe ) The design beam is shown in fig.0.0. 2-10 O 2-10 O 565 750 4.4 b = 0.87 Asv fy / 0.62 ………………………( safe ) ( d ) Check for cracking (spacing of bars ) : Clear distance between bars = 230 .1 = 22 Actual span / d = 6000 / 565 = 10.64 KN Provide minimum 6 mm O M.25 D = 750 mm from face of the support where contribution of bent bars is not available Vu = 90 .1 IS 456-2000 clause 23.0.2 x 16 = 148 mm Minimum clear distance permitted = hagg + 5 mm = 20 + 5 = 25 mm or 16 mm ( O of bar ) i.75 x 565 = 423 mm ( iii ) ≤132.= 0.

6 mm O @ 130 mm c/c .

.

SP : 16 .Mu.46 x d ( for Fe500 HYSD steel ) Xu. Ast. If Mu < Mu.max the section is over-reinforced ( doubly reinforced ) where .lim + Ast2 .max the section is under-reinforced ( singly reinforced ) If Xu = Xu.lim = Mu.Consider width of the beam equal to 230 mm.( 4.max = 0.width and depth of section .lim as explained below .6 / fck) x ( Mu / bd2 ) fy / fck Pt = 50 If Mu = Mu.lim .lim : design as under-reinforced section (singly reinforced beam) as explained 1 .3 ( 2 ) For a given factored moment . find out d from equation d = √ Mu / Qlim b This is a balanced section and steel area may be found out from table P t. To find steel area ( 1 ) For a given ultimate moment ( also known as factored moment ) and assumed width of section . The depth may be assumed as 1 / 10 to 1 / 8 of the span.lim : design as balanced section as explained in ( 1 ).√ 1 .max ) ) Asc = Mu2 / ( fsc x ( d .87 fy Ast ) / ( 0.max the section is balanced If Xu > Xu.44 x d ( for Fe550 HYSD steel ) Xu =( 0. Mu2 = Mu .07 x 230 x 5652 x 10-6 If Mu > Mu.42 Xu.lim / ( 0.lim = Qlim bd2 . Xu.max = 0.lim : design the section either increasing the dimensions of section or deign a Over reinforced section ( doubly-reinforced beam ).87 fy ( d . Obtain Mu.0.36 fck b ) Table 6-2 Limiting Moment of Resistance and Reinforcement Index for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections .53 x d ( for Fe250 mild steel ) Xu. 2. If Xu < Xu.2.87 fy Ast = Ast.max = 0.max = 0.48 x d ( for Fe415 HYSD steel ) Xu.d' ) ) Ast2 = Asc fsc / 0.The additional moment of resistance M needed is obtained by providing compression( top ) reinforcement and additional tensile reinforcement.

b = breadth of the beam or the breadth of the web of T.1 Tension Reinforcement a ) Minimum reinforcement .85 / fy where .94 2. Minimum steel % For mild steel KN .138 19.14 Table 6-4 500 2.562 .07 2.5.lim / fck b d Pt.76 0.133 19. d = effective depth .1.The minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than that given by the following : As / b d = 0. N / mm2 250 1.04 b D.084 -3 Vus = ( 0.129 18.96 3.0.66 3.63 415 0. N / mm2 Mu. and fy = characteristic strength of reinforcement in N / mm 2 .70 4.03 550 0.5 Requirements of Reinforcement for Structural Members 26.14 550 0.148 21.45 4.32 1.5.72 0.76 3. As = minimum area of tension reinforcement . N / mm For singly reinforced rectangular sections 2 fck N / mm2 fy.93 Table 6-3 415 0.2 Limiting Moment of resistance factor Q lim. table 19 table 7-1 ) 0.1 Beams 26.The maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed 0.44 415 2.99 15 20 25 30 . b ) Maximum reinforcement .23 3. shear at distance d Limiting Percentage of Reinforcement Pt.83 0.fy .00 2.beam .lim fy / fck 2 250 0. N / mm2 250 2.lim For singly reinforced rectangular sections fck N / mm2 fy.20 1.96 1.66 0.376 ) x 230 x 565 x10 IS 456-2000 Clause 26.50 0.58 3.57 0.22 2.99 550 1.11 ? -0.86 500 0.19 2.33 3.87 15 20 25 30 n .95 1.44 500 0.75 2.

17 For checking development length . l0 may be assumed as 8 O for HYSD bars ( usually end anchorage is not provided ) and 12 O for mild steel ( U hook is provided usually whose anchorage length is 16 O.85 / 415 = 0.2 M25 1.9 Note-1 : ﺡbd shall be increased by 25 % for bars in compression Note-2 : In case of deformed bars confirming to IS : 1786-1985 .2.2.34 For HYSD steel .67 x fy For Fe415 IS 456-2000 clause 26.1.7 M40 1.3.0 M20 1. check for development length IS 456-2000 clause 26. Fe500 grade 100 As / b d = 100 x 0.4 M30 1.87 x fy For mild steel Fe250 σs = 0.3 M1 / V ) Table 7-6 Development length for single mild steel bars ………………………( safe ) fy N / mm2 250 415 500 Tension bars M15 M20 55 O 26 O 56 O 47 O 69 O 58 O Compression bars M15 44 O 45 O 54 O M20 37 O 38 O 46 O check for shear .3 Ld ≤ M1 / V + L0 L0 = effective depth of the members or 12 O .100 As / b d = 100 x 0.2.5 M35 1.85 / 250 = 0.1 Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd IS 456-200 clause 26.1 Table 7-5 Design bond stress (ﺡbd ) for plain bars in tension Concrete grade ( ﺡbd bars is not available on reinforcement M15 2 N / mm 1. σs = 0. whichever is greater if ends of the reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction M1 / V increased by 30 % ( 1. the value of ﺡbd shall be increased by 60 %.205 For HYSD steel .85 / 500 = 0. Fe415 grade 100 As / b d = 100 x 0.

01 The above given table is based on the following formula Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.75 0.62 0. b = breadth of the beam or breadth of the web of flanged beam .67 0.80 0.57 0.84 2.70 0.78 0. but not less than 1. N / mm2 Concrete grade ( ﺡc )max N/mm 2 M15 2.28 0.95 2.73 0.88 0. Sv = stirrup spacing along the length of the member .50 0.82 0.92 2.49 0.6 Minimum shear reinforcement Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided such that : Asv / b sv ≥ 0.85 0.67 0.72 0.74 0.37 0.71 0.91 0.99 1.36 0.64 0.35 0.50 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .37 0. Table 20 Table 7-2 Maximum shear stress . Asv = total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs effective in shear .30 0.71 0.56 0.36 0.64 0.79 0.8 x fck / 6.51 0.IS 456-2000 .50 0.54 0.50 0.89 Pt .00 0.82 0.82 0.84 0.82 0.79 1.29 0.92 0. Table 19 Table 7-1 Design shear strength of concrete .96 0.25 0.1 M30 3.71 0.50 0.78 0.81 0.1 ) 6xβ β = 0. N / mm2 Pt = 100 x As Concrete grade bxd M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 ≤ 0.5 M20 2.38 0.5.15 0.98 3. ﺡC.28 0.93 0.90 0.74 1.82 0.68 0.71 0.66 0.94 0.1.87 fy where.71 0.75 0.85 √ 0.68 1.0 IS 456-2000 .88 2. and 2 fy = characteristic strength of the stirrup reinforcement in N / mm which shall not be taken greater than 415 N / mm 2 .59 0.76 0.8 M25 3.88 0.25 0.71 0.5 M35 3.60 0.86 0.4 / 0.00 0.90 0.25 0.7 M40 4. check for deflection Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans upto 10 m : cantilever 7 simply supported 20 . ﺡC.71 0.60 1.96 0.29 0.48 0.46 0.29 0.75 0.00 0.59 0.0 IS 456-2000 Clause 26.75 0.

3 ) % redistribution to or from section considered fy N / mm2 250 415 500 -30 mm 215 125 105 -15 0 +15 +30 Clear distance between bars mm 260 155 130 mm 300 180 150 mm 300 210 175 mm 300 235 195 .continuous 26 For spans above 10 m.3 Maximum distance between bars in tension Table 15 Clear distance Between Bars ( Clause 26.3. check for cracking IS 456-2000 26.3. the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10 / span in metres . except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made.

3 tion (singly reinforced beam) as explained below.The additional moment of resistance M u2 op ) reinforcement and additional tensile ow . . asing the dimensions of section or deign as m ).lim . explained in ( 1 ).2.he depth may be assumed s factored moment ) e found out from table P t. SP : 16 .

a of tension reinforcement

ea of tension

hichever is greater

ups shall be provided

s effective in shear ,

web of flanged beam , and nforcement in N / mm 2

Design of slender ( Long ) columns ( with biaxial bending ) Size of column 400 x 300 mm Column is restrained against sway. Concrete grade M 30 Characteristic strength of reinforcement 415 N/mm 2 Effective length for bending parallel to larger dimension ℓ ex = 6.0 m Effective length for bending parallel to shorter dimension ℓ ey = 5.0 m Unsupported length = 7.0 m Factored load 1500kN Factored.moment in the direction of larger dimension = 40 kNm at top and 22.5 KNm at bottom. Factored.moment in the direction of shorter dimension = 30 kNm at top and 20 KNm at bottom. Solution : About x axis : β1 and β2 are the same For Beam : bf = l0 / 6 + bw + 6 Df = 0.7 x 5000 / 6 + 230 + 6 x 120 = 1533.3333 bf / bw = 1533.3 / 230 = 6.67 Df / D = 120 / 600 = 0.2 Kt from chart 88 , SP : 16 = 2.07 Beam stiffness Kb = 1.5 x Ib / l = 1.5 x ( 2.07 x ( 1 / 12 ) x 230 x 6203 ) / 5000 = 2836699 mm3 Column stiffness Kc = Ic / l = 1/12 x 230 x 4003 / 7000 = 175238.1 mm3 β1 = β2 = ∑ Kc / ( ∑Kc + ∑Kb ) = 2 x 175238 / 2 ( 175238 + 2836699 ) = 0.0582 as per IS 456-2000 fig. 27 lef / l = 1.035 < 1.2 ……………….consider 1.2 lex = 1.2 x unsupported length = 1.2 ( 7000 - 620 ) = 7656 mm lex / D = 7656/400 = 19.14 > 12 The column is long about x direction. About Y axis : Beam stiffness

Kb = 1.5 x Ib / l

3 = 1.5 x ( ( 1 / 12 ) x 230 x 420 ) / 5000 = 426006 mm3 Column stiffness Kc = Ic / l = 1/12 x 400 x 2303 / 7000

= 57938.095 mm3 β1 = β2 = ∑ Kc / ( ∑Kc + ∑Kb ) = 2 x 57938.1 / 2 ( 57938.1 + 426006 ) = 0.1197 as per IS 456-2000 fig. 27 lef / l = 1.06 < 1.2 ……………….consider 1.2 ley = 1.2 x unsupported length = 1.2 ( 7000 -420 ) = 7896 mm ley / b = 7896/300 = 26.32 > 12 The column is long about Y direction. The column is bent in double curvature. Reinforcement will be distributed equally on four sides. ℓex / D = 6000 / 400 = 15.0 > 12 ℓey / b = 5000 / 300 = 16.7 > 12 Therefore the column is slender about both the axes. Additional moments Max = ( Pu D / 2000 ) x ( ℓex / D )2

2 -3 = ( 1500 x 400 / 2000 ) x (15) x 10 = 67.5 KNm May = ( Pu b / 2000 ) x ( ℓey / b )2 2 -3 = ( 1500 x 300 / 2000 ) x (16.7) x 10 = 62.75 KNm The above moments will have to be reduced in accordance with clause 39.7.1.1 of the IS 456-2000 but multiplication factors can be evaluated only if the reinforcement is known. For first trial , assume p = 3.0 ( with reinforcement equally on all the four sides ). Ag = 400 x 300 Puz = 0.45 fck Ac + 0.75 fy Asc 2 mm Ac = 400 x 300 - 120000*3/100 = 120000

**From chart 63 , puz / Ag = 22.5 N/mm2
**

-3

OR

2 = 116400 mm

Puz = 22.5 x 120000 x 10 Puz = 0.45 x 30 x 116400 x 10-3 + 0.75 x 415 x 36 = 2700 KN = 1571.4 + Calculation of Pb : = 2692 KN Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 40 mm cover d' / D ( about xx-axis ) = 52.5 / 400 = 0.13 ……………use d' / D = 0.15

0.0 KNm Total moments for which the column is to be designed are : Mux = 41.6 x 30 .625 Ky = ( Puz .4 x 22.4 of the code ) and greater value is to be taken as the initial moment for adding the additional moments.333 ey = ( ℓ / 500 ) + ( b / 30 ) = ( 7000 / 500 ) + ( 300 / 30) = 24 Moments due to minimum eccentricity : -3 Mux = 1500 x 27.203 x 3 /30 ) 30 x 300 x 400 x10 -3 = 779 KN Pb ( about yy-axis ) = ( k1 + k2 p / fck ) fck b D Pby = ( 0.7.6 x 40 .2 From Table 60 .0 + 37.2 = 83.Pu ) / ( Puz .5 / 300 = 0. .5 ) = 15.15 KNm The section is to be checked for biaxial bending 3 Pu / fck b D = 1500 x 10 / ( 30 x 300 x 400 ) = 0.10 referring to chart 45 (d' / D = 0.625 = 42.0 KNm > 15.2 KNm Muy = 36.592 The additional moments calculated earlier .18 ……………use d' / D = 0. SP 16 Pb ( about xx-axis ) = ( k1 + k2 p / fck ) fck b D Pbx = ( 0.Pby ) = ( 2700 .1500 ) / ( 2700 .Pu ) / ( Puz .5 x 0.196 + 0.1500 ) / ( 2700 .779 ) = 1200 / 1921 = 0. will now be multiplied by the above values of k .1 of the code IS 456-2000 ) Mux = ( 0.4 x 20 ) = 10. Max = 67.15 ) .2 KNm May = 62.75 x 0.0 + 42.0 KNm -3 Muy = 1500 x 24 x 10 = 36. ex = ( ℓ / 500 ) + ( D / 30 ) = ( 7000 / 500 ) + ( 400 / 30) = 27.15 = 73.592 = 37.672 ) = 1200 / 2028 = 0.33 x 10 = 41.d' / D ( about yy-axis ) = 52.15 KNm The additional moments due to slenderness effects should be added to the initial moments after modifying the initial moments as follows ( see note 1 under 39.Pbx ) = ( 2700 .184 + 0.028 x 3 /30 ) 30 x 300 x 400 x10 -3 = 672 KN Kx = ( Puz .0.417 p / fck = 3 / 30 = 0.0 KNm > 10.0 KNm Muy = ( 0.0 KNm The above actual moments should be compared with those calculated from minimum eccentricity consideration ( see 25.

602 check : Mux Mux1 1. Clause 39.104 x 30 x 300 x 400 = 149. Mu / fck b D2 = 0. for Pu / Puz = 0.71 Pu / Puz = 1500 / 2700 = 0.04 difference ≤1 1. the maximum allowable value of Mux / Mux1 corresponding to the above values of Muy / Muy1 and Pu / Puz is 0.577 …………………….58 which is slightly higher than the actual value of 0.2 difference 0.602 ( 0.8 = 0.) As = p x b x D / 100 = 3.71 ) 0. IS 456-2000 .6 αn + + + Muy Muy1 αn 0.8 KNm referring to chart 46 (d' / D = 0.. The assumed reinforcement of 3.S.096 2 Muy1 = 0.34 ? From .104 2 Mux1 = 0.395 = 0.602 ( 0.972 ≤1 αn = 1.602 0.K.0 x 300 x 400 / 100 = 3600 mm2 Provide 25 mm diameter bar ( 3600 / 491 ) = 8 no. = 3928 mm 2 Ties : O min = 25 / 4 = 6.25 Provide 8 mm O M.S.0 % is therefore satisfactory. ties @ 300 mm c/c 500 Note that the distance between corner bars in one face is more than 48 O tr .2 / 149.7 = 0. Spacing should not exceed lesser of ( i ) 300 mm ( ii ) 16 x 25 = 400 mm 300 ( iii ) 48 x 8 = 384 mm Provide 8 mm O M.15 / 103.56 .( O.Mu / fck b D2 = 0.56 Muy / Muy1 = 73.56 referring to chart 64 .7 KNm Mux / Mux1 = 83. ties.56 ) 0.56 . αn = 1.2 ) .096 x 30 x 400 x 300 = 103.

Solution : Assume adjustment factor k = 0.6 ) x 10 = 28 KNm About XX Pu = 1000 KN Muxx = Mi = = = = Take .2 = 63. About YY Pu = 1000 KN Muyy = Mi + k x May < 80 KNm .2 ) x 10 = 39.6 Mu2 + 0. open ties for internal bars would be sufficient.( 500 .moment in the direction of shorter dimension Muyy = 40 kNm at top and 30 KNm at bottom.4 x 80 = 32 KNm 24 KNm Mi = 32 KNm Note that Mu1 is considered negative as the column bends in double curvature . Therefore two sets of closed ties shall be used .xx = 80 KNm Take . Factored.0.4 x 60 48 .4 Mu1 0.moment in the direction of larger dimension Muxx = 80 kNm at top and 60 KNm at bottom. Note that if this distance would be less than ( 48 x 8 ) mm .0 m Factored load Pu = 1000 kN Factored.36 KNm.8 for the first trial . The column is bent in double curvature and is slender about both the axis. Mu. Additional moments Max = ( Pu D / 2000 ) x ( ℓex / D )2 2 -3 = ( 1000 x 450 / 2000 ) x (13. The slenderness ratios ℓex / Ixx and ℓey / Iyy are respectively 13. Mu.2 KNm May = ( Pu b / 2000 ) x ( ℓey / b )2 2 -3 = ( 1000 x 230 / 2000 ) x (15.8 x 39.80 -25 = 395 > 48 x 8 = 384 ). Design of slender ( Long ) columns ( with Uniaxial bending ) Size of column 230 x 450 mm Column of a braced frame Concrete grade M 20 Characteristic strength of reinforcement 415 N/mm 2 HYSD reinforcement Unsupported length in both the direction = 5.2 and 15.6 Assume that the moments due to minimum eccentricities about both the axes are less than applied moments.xx = 32 + 0.24 < 0.6 x 80 . Mi + k x Max 0.

022 from table 60 .6 Mu2 + 0.4 KNm. P'u = 1000 KN M'uy = ( 230 / 450 ) ( 80 + 40 ) = 61.12 < 0. Let us try 4 .yy = 16 + 0.6 x 40 .2 .33 KNm d' / D = 50 / 230 = 0.0.24 ( 3.33 x 10 / 20 x 450 x 230 = 0. 0. Mu.184 and k2 = -0.156 For d' / D = 0.022 x 0.SP : 16 Pb = ( 0.22 Say 0.xx = 80 KNm Mu.yy = 40 KNm For the first trial .24 /100 ) x 230 x 450 0.184 .45 x 20 x 100280 x 10-3 + 0.162 x 20 3. Finally design the column for Pu = 1000 KN Mu. assume uniaxial bending about y axis for the following values .0.8 x 28 = 38.75 fy Asc Ac = 230 x 450 .48 P'u / fck b D = 6 2 M'uy / fck b D2 = 61.23 = 1904.129 p / fck = p= = Asc = from chart 46 .25 O + 4 .156 ) x 20 x 230 x 450 x 10 -3 = 0.181 x 2070 = 373.Mi = = = = Take .3220 = 100280 mm2 Puz = 0.8 and for uniaxial moment to find out first trial steel are usually conservative .162 = 3353 mm2 Assumptions made above for k = 0.4 Mu1 0.52 + 1002.45 fck Ac + 0.20 O = 3220 mm 2 Now check the assumed section as follows : Puz = 0.4 x 30 24 .7 KN Pb = ( k1 + k2 p / fck ) fck b D Asc = ( p / 100 ) x b x D p / fck = ( 3220 x 100 ) / ( 230 x 450 x 20 ) = 0.8 KN .75 x 415 x 3220 x 10-3 = 902.yy = 40 KNm Take . k1 = 0.4 x 40 = 16 KNm 12 KNm Mi = 16 KNm < 40 KNm Mu. SP : 16 = 0.2 3 1000 x 10 / 20 x 230 x 450 = 0.

15 From chart 45 .K.) 0. Muy = 40 KNm For p / fck = 0.S.145 2 -6 Mux1 = 0.162 and Pu / fck b D = 0.956 ≤1 230 Provide 4 .145 x 20 x 230 x 450 x 10 = 135.25 O + 4 .Pb ) = ( 1904.075 difference 0.2 From chart 46 .Pu ) / ( Puz .525 From .59 x 39.542 check : αn Mux Mux1 2 -6 + + + Muy Muy1 40 61.59 Design for Pu = 1000 KN Mux = 32 + 0. IS 456-2000 .34 ? ≤1 1.20 O equally distributed.52 KNm < 40 Take .6 αn = 1.2 difference 0.542 …………….13 Muy1 = 0.51 αn 0. Spacing should not exceed lesser of ( i ) 230 mm ( least lateral dimension ) ( ii ) 16 x 25 = 400 mm ( 16 times least longitudinal diameter of bar ) .48 . SP : 16 Mux1 / fck b D2 = 0. SP : 16 Muy1 / fck b D2 = 0.59 x 28 = 32.446 1.8 ) = 904.373.542 80 135.22 ≈ 0.7 . the moment capacities can be found out as follows : About XX d' / D = 50 / 450 = 0.2 = 55.( O. ties.11 ≈ 0. Clause 39.07 KNm About YY d' / D = 50 / 230 = 0.89 0.7 = 0.7 .k = ( Puz .13 KNm < 80 Muy = 16 + 0.1000 ) / ( 1904.7 / 1530. Ties : Minimum diameter Otr = 25 / 4 = 6.07 0.13 x 20 x 450 x 230 x 10 = 61.9 = 0. Mux = 80 KNm Take . the reinforcement being equally distributed .25 mm Use 8 mm diameter M.89 KNm Check : Pu / Puz = 1000 / 1904.

Note that if this distance would be more than ( 48 x 8 ) mm . closed ties for internal bars would be sufficient. . Therefore two sets of Opened ties shall be used .( iii ) 48 x 8 = 384 mm ( 48 times diameter of tie ) Provide 8 mm O M.S. ties @ 230 mm c/c Note that the distance between corner bars in one face is less than 48 O tr ( 450 .80 -25 = 345 < 48 x 8 = 384 ).

. and 20 KNm at bottom.bending ) IS 456-2000 clause 25 Note :.A column may be considered as short when both slenderness ratios lex / D and ley / b ≤ 12 OR lex / ixx < 40 where. ( Given ) and 22. restrained against rotation at one ends Effectively held in position at both ends .5 KNm at bottom. Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end . IS 456 : 2000 Table 28 Effective Length of Compression Members ( C Degree of End Restraint of Symbol Compression members Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation in both ends Effectively held in position at both ends . For Circular column / D ≤ 10 . iyy = radius of gyration in respect of the minor axis. and at the other end restrained against rotation but not held in position Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end . lex = effective length in respect of the major axis D = depth in respect of the major axis ley = effective length in respect of the minor axis b = width of the member ixx = radius of gyration in respect of the major axis. and at the other partially restrained against rotation but not held in position Effectively held in position at one end but not restrained against rotation and at the other end restrained against rotation but not held in position Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end but not held in position nor restrained against rotation at the other end. but not restrained against rotation .

75 x 415 x 3600 x 10-3 1120.120000*3/100 x 30 x 116400 x 10-3 + 0.75 fy Asc 400 x 300 .ℓ is the unsupported length of compression member.Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end but not held in position nor restrained against rotation at the other end. 39.Values of P b .1 of the IS 456-2000 0. ( i + 1 ) th floor slab Beam ℓ ( i ) th floor ed equally on four sides.Table 60 Slender compression members. Effective length of column ( ℓef ) : It is the distance between the points of zero moment column height .7.45 fck Ac + 0.1.5 SP : 16 . NOTE .

and 0.410 0.215 0. 2 ) In the case of a braced column without any transverse loads occurring in its height. the additional moment shall be added to an initial moment equal to sum of 0.082 0.6 Mu2.219 0.172 d' / D 0. It should otherwise be considered unbraced. D = depth of the cross .096 0. and b = width of the member NOTES : 1) A column may be considered braced in a given plane if lateral stability to the structure as a whole is provided by walls or bracing or buttressing designed to resist all lateral forces in that plane.323 0.196 0. ℓex = effective length in respect of the major axis .045 0.05 -0. Pu = axial load on the member.149 d' / D 0. equal reinforcement on four sides Circular the initial moments of the code IS 456-2000 ) e above values of k .193 0.7.425 0. p / fck Values of k1 Section Rectangular Circular Values of k2 Section fy N/ mm 2 0. > 20 mm > 20 mm ℓey = effective length in respect of the minor axis .146 0.173 0.4 Mu1.424 0.section at right angles to the major axis .1 The additional moments Max and May shall be calculated by the following formula Max = ( Pu D / 2000 ) x ( ℓex / D )2 May = ( Pu b / 2000 ) x ( ℓey / b )2 Where .543 IS 456-2000 clause 39.545 0. p / fck Circular sections : Pb / fck D2 = k1 + k2 .443 Rectangular . where Mu2 is the larger end moment and Mu1 is the smaller from minimum eccentricity as the initial moment for mm mm .045 0.Rectangular sections : Pb / fck b D = k1 + k2 .10 -0.160 0.15 0.213 0.10 0.148 0. equal reinforcement on two opposite sides Rectangular .328 0.05 0. 250 415 500 250 415 500 250 415 500 0.207 0.

Puz = as defined in 39.0035 in concrete and tensile strain of 0.Pb ) ≤1 where . -0.1. IS 456-2000 clause 39. In no case shall the initial moment be less than 0. In such cases slenderness ratio for each column may be taken as the average for all columns acting in the same direction. subject to lateral load are usually constrained to deflect equally. Pu = axial load on compression member.75 fy Asc Pb = axial load corresponding to the condition of maximum compressive strain of 0.45 fck Ac + 0. 8-25 O O tr 8O@ 300 c/c (two sets ) .7.068 Puz = 0. 3 ) Unbraced compression members.002 in outer most layer of tension steel.1 The values given by equation 39. at any given level or storey. For unbraced columns. the additional moment shall be added to the end moments.6.Pu ) / ( Puz .1 may be multiplied by the following factor : K = ( Puz .7.4 Mu2 nor the total moment including the initial moment be less than Mu2.end moment (assumed negative if the column is bent in double curvature).

r internal bars would be (two sets ) bending ) top and 60 KNm at ( Given ) at top and 30 KNm at e axes are less than .shall be used .

ut first trial steel are .

1275 4-25 O + 4 -20 O 450 8 O @ 230 mm c/c ( three sets ) gitudinal diameter of bar ) .-0.

for internal bars would be .O tr s shall be used .

0 ℓ 2.7 ℓ 0.0 ℓ 2.65 ℓ 0.5 ℓ 2.sidered as short when both slenderness OR lex / ixx < 40 where. ect of the minor axis.0 ℓ 1.5 ℓ 0.8 ℓ 1.0 ℓ 1.0 ℓ 1.2 ℓ - 1. ve Length of Compression Members ( Clause E-3 ) Symbol Theoretical Value of effective length Recommended Value of effective length 0.0 ℓ .0 ℓ 2. For Circular column lex ct of the major axis ct of the minor axis ect of the major axis.

0 ℓ ength of compression member.Values of P b . slab Beam s the distance between the points of zero moment (contraflexure ) along the members.2.0 ℓ 2.

077 0.256 0.291 0.028 0.045 -0. out any transverse loads oment shall be added 4 Mu1.040 -0. and 0. espect of the minor axis .046 0.138 d' / D 0. p / fck d' / D 0. section at right angles to d in a given plane if lateral rovided by walls or st all lateral forces in dered unbraced.20 -0. p / fck D2 = k1 + k2 .104 0.020 0.022 -0. nd Mu1 is the smaller .20 0.201 0.203 0.045 0.6 Mu2.061 0.15 -0.001 -0.056 ck hall be calculated by the following formulae : espect of the major axis .184 0.011 0.036 0./ fck b D = k1 + k2 .

75 fy Asc . rained to deflect o for each column may s acting in the same ay be multiplied by the following factor : Puz = 0.column is bent in double moment be less than the initial moment be he additional moment at any given level or storey.45 fck Ac + 0.

3220 2 = 246780 mm Puz = 0.8 = 2668 KN + 1002.Biaxial bending.17 x b x D = 1. Size 500 mm x 500 mm Axial factored load 1500 KN Factored moment Mux = 90 KNm ( Given ) Muy = 120 Knm moment due to minimum eccentricity is less than the applied moment. The reinforcement being equally distributed .44 .Design of short eccentrically loaded square columns . Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution :Assume an axial load P'u of 1500 KN and a uniaxial moment M'ux = 90 + 120 = 210 KNm .108 x 15 x 500 x 5002 x 10-6 = 202.086 The assumed section is now checked.4 .108 Mux1 = Muy1 = 0.288 p / fck = 1.1 From chart 32 .288 / 15 = 0. For p / fck = 0. SP-16 Mux1 / ( fck x b x D2 ) = Muy1 / ( fck x b x D2 ) = 0.45 fck Ac + 0.078 x 15 = 1.75 x 415 x 3220 x 10-3 = 1665. 3 P'u / ( fck x b x D ) = 1500 x 10 / ( 15 x 500 x 500 ) = 0.17 As = 1.4 6 2 2 M'ux / ( fck x b x D ) = 210 x 10 / ( 15 x 500 x 500 ) = 0.078 p = 0.086 and Pu / ( fck x b x D ) = 0.45 x 15 x 246780 x 10-3 + 0. the moment capacities from Chart .5 Ac = 500 x 500 . SP-16 p / fck = 0. equally distributed p = 3220 x 100 / ( 500 x 500 ) p = 1.2 KNm Puz = 0.17 x 500 x 500 / 100 = 2925 mm2 Provide 4-25 mm O + 4-20 mm O = 3220 mm2 .75 fy Asc Pu / Puz = 1500 / 2668 .112 d' = 40 + 10 = 50 mm d' / D = 50 / 500 = 0.

2 difference 0.433 ≤1 1. Spacing should not exceed lesser of ( i ) 500 mm ( ii ) 16 x 25 = 400 mm 500 ( iii ) 48 x 8 = 384 mm Provide 8 mm O M.167 ……………….2 From chart 34 . IS 456-2000 .34 ? -0.5 x 300 x 500 / 100 .67 6 2 2 M'u / ( fck x b x D ) = 72 x 10 / ( 15 x 500 x 300 ) = 0. Clause 39. ties.= 0.. ties @ 350 mm c/c 500 4-25 O + 4-20 O 8O@ 350 c/c Design of short eccentrically loaded rectangle columns .602 1.use 0.5 x b x D = 2.602 check : αn Mux Muy Mux1 90 202. 3 P'u / ( fck x b x D ) = 1500 x 10 / ( 15 x 300 x 500 ) = 0.167 x 15 = 2.706 ≤1 Ties : Minimum diameter Otr = 25 / 4 = 6.068 + + + Muy1 120 202. SP-16 p / fck = 0.25 mm Use 8 mm diameter M.6 αn = 1.5 0. Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution :Assume an axial load P'u of 1500 KN and a uniaxial moment M'uy = 300 / 500 ( 60 + 60 ) = 72 KNm .Biaxial bending.56 From .04 difference 0.167 p = 0.273 αn 0. Size 300 mm x 500 mm Axial factored load 1500 KN Factored moment Mux = 60 KNm ( Given ) Muy = 60 KNm moment due to minimum eccentricity is less than the applied moment.S.5 0.107 d' = 40 + 10 = 50 mm d' / D = 50 / 300 = 0.5 As = 2.S.602 0.

SP-16 Mux1 / ( fck x b x D2 ) = 0.6 = 2208.46 .75 x 415 x 3928 x 10-3 = 985.97 ≤1 Ties : Minimum diameter Otr = 25 / 4 = 6. Chart .2 60 69. About X d' / D = 50 / 500 = 0. Clause 39.67 .25 mm 500 . SP-16 Muy1 / ( fck x b x D2 ) = 0.198 + + + ≤ 1.75 fy Asc Ac = 300 x 500 .68 From .1 .25 KNm About Y d' / D = 50 / 300 = 0.103 Muy1 = 0.175 and Pu / ( fck x b x D ) = 0.2 difference 0.13 Mux1 = 0.802 60 146.53 KNm Pure axial load capacity Puz = 0.6 = 0. IS 456-2000 .44 .13 x 15 x 300 x 5002 x 10-6 = 146.175 and Pu / ( fck x b x D ) = 0.= 3750 mm2 Provide 8-25 mm O = 3928 mm2 . For p / f ck = 0. Chart .62 p / fck = 2.12 difference check : αn αn Mux Muy 1 Mux1 Muy1 0.45 fck Ac + 0.2 .53 0.62 / 15 = 0.802 0. equally distributed p = 3928 x 100 / ( 300 x 500 ) p = 2.103 x 15 x 500 x 3002 x 10-6 = 69.6 KN Pu / Puz = 1500 / 2208.6 αn = 1.45 x 15 x 146072 x 10-3 + 0. For p / fck = 0.175 The assumed section is now checked.77 1.167 say 0.99 + 1222.67 .3928 = 146072 mm2 Puz = 0.802 0.25 0.33 ? -0.

Spacing should not exceed lesser of ( i ) 300 mm ( ii ) 16 x 25 = 400 mm ( iii ) 48 x 8 = 384 mm Provide 8 mm O M. .S.S. ties @ 300 mm c/c 500 300 Note that the distance between corner bars in one face is more than 48 O tr ( 500 .Use 8 mm diameter M. ties. Note that if this distance would be less than ( 48 x 8 ) mm . Therefore two sets of closed ties shall be used .80 -25 = 395 > 48 x 8 = 384 ). open ties for internal bars would be sufficient.

0 to 2.2.67 .0 ) For values less than 0. ( 0.45 fck Ac + 0.8.33 .8. 1. αn Mux Mux1 αn Mux .4 .2 .0. 1. 0. α n is 1 .( 1.6 Members Subjected to Combined Axial Load and Biaxial Bending where .O.0 . 0. 39.6 . Muy = + Muy Muy1 ≤1 Mux1. .0. αn is 2.8 )the values of αn vary linearly from 1 . 2.75 fy Asc For values of Pu / Puz = 0.90 + 120 = 210 KNm .2 to 0. for values greater than 0. Muy1 = αn is related to Pu/Puz where Puz = 0. 0.

.25 O + 20 O ( least lateral dimension ) ( 16 times least longitudinal diameter of bar ) ( 48 times diameter of tie ) 8O@ 350 c/c 300 / 500 ( 60 + 60 ) = 72 KNm .

8-25 O .

( least lateral dimension ) ( 16 times least longitudinal diameter of bar ) ( 48 times diameter of tie ) 8O@ 300 c/c (two sets ) ies shall be used . .

4 .2. α n is .0 ) For values less than 0. Muy1 = maximum uniaxial moment capacity for an axial load of Pu. bending about x and y axes respectively. and . 0.Mux . 0. 2. 0.6 . Muy = moments about x and y axes due to design loads.8 )the values of αn vary 67 . Mux1.

12 mm O at centre of long sides of the column.5 = 52.uniaxial bending.S. ties.Design of short eccentrically loaded columns . SP : 16 p / fck = 0. Therefore two sets of closed ties shall be used .25 mm Use 8 mm diameter M. open ties for internal bars would be sufficient.25 O + 2 .80 -25 = 495 > 48 x 8 = 384 ).222 6 2 2 Mu / ( fck x b x D ) = 300 x 10 / ( 15 x 300 x 600 ) = 0.1 x 15 = 1.185 From chart 32 . Material M15 grade concrete HYSD reinforcement of grade Fe415 Solution :Using 25 mm diameter bars with 40 mm clear cover d' = 40 + 12. provide 2. Size 300 mm x 600 mm Axial factored load 600 KN Factored moment 300 KNm ( Given ) moment due to minimum eccentricity is less than the applied moment. Spacing should not exceed lesser of ( i ) 300 mm 300 ( ii ) 16 x 25 = 400 mm ( iii ) 48 x 8 = 384 mm Provide 8 mm O M.12 O = 4151 mm2 600 Ties : Minimum diameter Otr = 25 / 4 = 6.1 3 Pu / ( fck x b x D ) = 600 x 10 / ( 15 x 300 x 600 ) = 0.) = 3041 mm 2 As the distance between two opposite corner bars is more than 300 mm . Note that if this distance would be less than ( 48 x 8 ) mm .5 x 300 x 600 / 100 = 2700 mm2 Provide 22 mm O ( 2700 / 380 = 8 no. Provide 8.5 x b x D = 1.5 As = 1.5 mm d' / D = 52. .088 .say 0.1 p = 0.S. ties @ 300 mm c/c ( two sets ) Note that the distance between corner bars in one face is more than 48 O tr ( 600 . which may be tied by open ties.5 / 600 = 0.

ay be tied by open ties. . 8-25 O + 2-12 O 8 mm O @ 300 mm c/c ( two sets ) ( least lateral dimension ) ( 16 times least longitudinal diameter of bar ) ( 48 times diameter of tie ) ies shall be used .

67 x 415 x 0. Asc = 0. Therefore Pu = 1.Design of short circular column Working load = 1200 KN Assume emin < 0.2244 Ag 1800 x 103 = Ag 2 Ag = 177165 mm If D is the diameter of the column ( ¶ / 4 ) x D2 = 177165 D = √ 225688 D = 475 mm Use 475 mm diameter column.Asc = 0.4 x 20 x 0. Provide 16 mm diameter bars ( 1417 / 201 ) = 8 no. Asc = 8 x 201 = 1608 mm2 Use 6 mm O lateral ties .992 Ag + 0.008 x 177165 10.05 [ 0.4 fck Ac + 0.936 2.992 Ag Substituting .67 fy Asc ] 1800 x 103 = Given . we have 0.05 times the load of a similar member with lateral ties.05 D ( a ) lateral ties & ( b ) helical reinforcement Material M20 grade concrete HYSD steel Fe415 For Lateral reinforcement mild steel Fe250 Solution : Factored load = 1.008 Ag 1800 x 103 = Ag + 7.5 x 1200 = 1800 KN ( a ) lateral ties : Pu = 0. Spacing shall be lesser of ( i ) 475 mm ( least lateral dimension ) ( ii ) 16 x 16 = 256 mm ( 16 times least longitudinal diameter of bar ) ( iii ) 48 x 6 = 288 mm ( 48 times diameter of tie ) Provide 6 mm O lateral ties @ 250 mm c/c .67 fy Asc Assume 0.8 % minimum steel. ( b ) Helical reinforcement : The column with helical reinforcement can support 1.008 Ag Then . Asc = 0.4 fck Ac + 0. Ac = Ag .1604 = 1417 mm2 Minimum 6 bars shall be used.

bars for helix at 40 mm clear cover .05 [0.1800 x 103 = 1.1 ) x 20 / 250 = 0.4792 x 20 / 250 = 0..4 + 291. provide 8 mm O helix @ 35 mm pitch.67 x 415 x 0.3. Asc mm2 .3356 Ag 1800 x 103 = 8.008 Ag ] Ag + 2.95 3 1800 x 103 = 10.4 x 20 x (158963 . Asc = 6 x 314 = 1884 mm2 Assume 8 mm O M.1 ) fck / fy 2 2 = 0.17 mm As per IS 456-2000 clause 26.67 mm ) > 25 mm > 3 x dia of helix bar = 3 x 8 = 24 mm ……………( 2 ) From ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) .5.9 / 314 =) 6 No.36 x 0. Dc = 450 .36 ( ( 450 / 370 ) .Asc ) + 0.3328 Ag 2 Ag = 168729 mm If D is the diameter of the column ( ¶ / 4 ) x D2 = 168729 D = √ 214941 D = 463 mm Use 450 mm diameter column.55 Asc = 1638.40 . ( 1 ) p = 39.9 provide 20 mm diameter bars ( 1638.0138 ρs = 4 x asp / p x Dc Now 0.992 Ag + 0.6684 Asc 464711 = 283.2 ( d ) The pitch < 75 mm < Dc / 6 ( = 370 / 6 = 61.0138 = 4 x 50 / p x 370 …………………….S.40 = 370 mm 2 asp = ( ¶ / 4 ) x 8 = 50 mm2 Minimum ρs = 0.05 [0.4 x 20 x 0.36 ( (Ag / Acr) . 2 Ag = ( ¶ / 4 ) x 450 Then .67 x 415 x Asc ] Asc = 1335289 8. = 158963 mm2 1800 x 10 = 1.

gitudinal diameter of bar ) .

6 .20 O 35 8 mm O @ 35 mm c/c .20 O 450 6 .

992 Ag + 0.4 x 15 x ( 450 x 450 .5 2 mm Asc = 1765 Provide 20 mm diameter bars = ( 1765 / 314 ) = 6 No. 20 mm diameter bars plus 4 no. Ac = Ag .952 Ag + 1.67 fy Asc = 0. But emin = 20 mm Therefore . Then .Asc )+ 0.67 x 250 x 0. 16 mm diameter bars giving Asc = 4 x 314 + 4 x 201 = 1256 + 804 2 mm = 2060 Lateral ties : Use 6 mm O lateral ties.67 x 250 x Asc Asc + 167. Spacing should be lesser of : ( i ) 450 mm ( least lateral dimension ) ( ii ) 16 x 16 = 256 mm ( 16 times least longitudinal diameter of bar ) (iii) 48 x 6 = 288 mm .008 Ag Then .05 = 400 ) Assume 0.05 D .6 Asc Asc 285000 = 161. size of column shall be minimum ( 20 / 0.Design of short column Factored load = 1500 KN Assume emin < 0. Note that the distance between corner bars in one face is more than 48 O tr 400 mm x 400 mm Given .992 Ag Pu = 0. 1500 x 103 = 0.292 Ag 1500 x 10 = 2 Ag = 205705 mm If the column is to be a square . Asc = 0. giving . emin < 0.5 1500 x 103 = 1215000 .Asc = 0.4 fck Ac + 0. Asc = 6 x 314 = 1884 mm2 Note that the distance between the bars exceeds 300 mm on two parallel sides .4 x 15 x 0. Provide then 4 no.8 % minimum steel.05 D Material M15 grade concrete mild steel Fe250 Solution : Here . ( 48 times diameter of tie ) Provide 6 mm O ties about 250 mm c/c . the arrangement of reinforcement should be changed. the side of column = √205705 = 453 mm Adopt 450 mm x 450 mm size column .008 Ag Ag 5.34 1500 x 103 = 3 7.

20 O + 4 .20 O 450 4 . Therefore two sets of closed ties shall be used .( 450 . 450 6 .16 O 450 450 6 mm O @ 250 mm c/c (double ties ) wrong arrangement correct arrangement . open ties for internal bars would be sufficient.80 -20 = 350 > 48 x 6 = 288 ). Note that if this distance would be less than ( 48 x 6 ) mm .

subject to a minimum of 20 mm.3.4 fck Ac + 0. IS 456-2000 clause 39. iyy = radius of gyration in respect of the minor axis. Asc = Area of longitudinal reinforcement for columns.05 D .5. the column shall be designed for moment also.8 percent nor more than 6 percent of the gross crosssectional area of the column. If emin > 0. hence lower percentage is recommended.5.67 fy Asc Ac = Area of concrete .1 The cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement .5.The use of 6 percent reinforcement may involve practical difficulties in placing and compacting of concrete. the percentage of steel shall usually not exceed 4 percent 26. shall be not less than 0. lex = effective length in respect of the major axis D = depth in respect of the major axis ley = effective length in respect of the minor axis b = width of the member ixx = radius of gyration in respect of the major axis.1 Longitudinal reinforcement a) The cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement. Where bars from the columns below have to be lapped with those in the 400 mm x 400 mm .3. NOTE . Where bars from the columns below have to be lapped with those in the column under consideration. hence lower percentage is recommended. shall be not less than 0. NOTE . the column shall be designed by the following equation: Pu = 0.8 % nor more than 6 % of the gross cross-sectional area of the column.05 D . For bi-axial bending this eccentricity exceeds the minimum about one axis at a time. IS 456-2000 clause 26.3 columns 26. All columns shall be designed for minimum eccentricity equal to the unsupported length of column / 500 plus lateral dimension / 30 .3 When emin ≤ 0.IS 456-2000 clause 25 Note :.The use of 6 percent reinforcement may involve practical difficulties in placing and compacting of concrete.A column may be considered as short when both slenderness ratios lex / D and ley / b ≤ 12 OR lex / ixx < 40 where.

20 O 16 O 6 mm O @ 250 mm c/c (double ties ) column under consideration. h )In case of pedestals in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not taken in account in strength calculations. b) In any column that has a larger cross-sectional area than that required to support the load. d )The bars shall not be less than 12 mm in diameter. . c)The minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in rectangular columns and six in circular columns.15 percent of the cross-sectional area shall be provided. the minimum percentage of steel shall be based upon the area of concrete required to resist the direct stress and not upon the actual area.es shall be used . e) A reinforced concrete column having helical reinforcement shall have at least six bars of longitudinal reinforcement within the helical reinforcement. the percentage of steel shall usually not exceed 4 percent. nominal longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0. the longitudinal bars shall be in contact with the helical reinforcement and equidistant around its inner circumference. g )Spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of the column shall not exceed 300 mm. f )In a helically reinforced column.

hen both slenderness re. ntricity equal to the dimension / 30 . shall be not less -sectional area of the . subject to ccentricity exceeds the ed by the following ement .

15 x 25 = 3. ( given ) 2 Live load = 3 KN / m .0 + 0 KN / m2.96 + 0 KN / m2.96 + 0 KN / m2.5 KN / m2. Total 12.5 + 4. Solution : Assume 180 mm thick waist slab. Waist slab self weight in plan = 0. live load 0 + 3 KN / m2. Parapet load is 0.5 ( 12.25 + 0 KN / m2.2 m. parapet 2.67 + 3 ) = 19 + 4. Height of the floor = 3.5 + 0 KN / m2. Loads on landing : waist slab ( 150 mm ) 0. Parapet load 2. floor finish 1. Parapet load is assumed to be uniformly distributed on the slab.67 3 KN / m2.5 + 0 KN / m2. Factored load 1. Building inside 1 230 . Grade concrete Material M15 Fe415 HYSD reinforcement. The total distributed loads on the stair are as follows : Loads on flight : waist slab 5. Weight of steps = (( 0 + 0.96 KN / m2. steps 2.25 + 0 KN / m2.18 x 25 x 304.2 ) / 2 ) x 25 = 2.75 + 0 KN / m2.8 mm.15 x 0. Floor finish length for each step ( 230 tread + 20 nosing ) + = 250 200 ( riser ) = 450 mm. floor finish 1.5 KN / m2. Inclined length of waist slab for one step 2 2 = √ 230 + 200 = 304.96 + 0 KN / m2. Factored load 1.Design of Single flight staircase Riser = 200 mm Tread = 230 mm Nosing is provided to comply with minimum 250 mm tread size.8 / 230 = 5. live load 0 + 3 KN / m2. Floor finish load 2 = ( 450 / 230 ) x 1 KN / m = 1. 7 + 3 KN / m2.75 x 20 / ( 1 x 1 ) = 2.5 ( 7 + 3 ) = 10.25 KN / m2.

Provide 12 mm O bar Area of one bar = 113 spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 113 x 1000 /685 = 165 mm Provide 12 mm O bar @ 160 mm c/c = 706 mm2 .) = = 13.61 KNm.68 ) = 43.33 + 0 ) = 23. Vu( BA ) = w x ℓ / 2 + Moment @ B = ( 23.68 ) A KNm.72 / 2 ( moment is maximum when shear is zero ) = 69.2.15 ( cover ) .72 m.91 KN.75 x 1.5 x 3.51 KNm.67 = 46.48 KN.115 / 2 + 3.61 KNm.431 x 1000 x 159 / 100 = 685 mm2.6 = 159 mm.5 x 1.1 fig-4 . Vu( AB ) = 40.1152 / 2 + 3. Maximum ( .115 = 6.24 2.51 / 3.75 x 1.5 x ( x ) ) 1.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d ) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4. Positive moment reinforcement : Mu = 34.5 = ( 40.( 10. The loading diagram is shown in fig.71 / 3. = 43. Q = 2. 6 2 2 Mu / b x d = 34.37) 415 / 15 = 0. 2 Mu ( + ) = 40.. for 1 m wide stair.75 = 20.68 / 2 ) .07 For M15 Fe415 . Vu( BC ) = w x ℓ + P = 15 x 1. ( RA + Rx ) = 23.37 < 2.33 x 1.444 IS 456-2000 clause 23.5 x ( x ) ) Point of zero shear at x = 40.68 / 2 ) + ( 13.6 / 15) x (1.Moment @ B = ( 23.33 KN.Also the end parapet point load 2.25 x 1.33 / 23.5 ( factored Value ) = 3.71 RA = w x ℓ / 2 .) ve moment at point B 2 w x ℓ / 2 + P x ℓ = 15 x 1.115 Mu ( .76 = 34.37 34.07 2 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.for tension reinforcement .61 x 10 / 1000 x 159 = 1.431 Ast = 0. Maximum ( + ) ve moment When cantilever has only dead load 2 2 MBC = w x ℓ / 2 + P x ℓ = 10.33 KN.115 + 3.5 x 1.91 = 40.24 + 3.18 = 10.72 .53 + 4. Check for deflection : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 20 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 706 / 1000 x 159 = 0.23.5 x 3. d = 180 .38 CD = KN / m.

) mm. d = 150 .6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck 50 1-√1-(4.42 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.25 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.07 = 308 mm2.33 At A .94 Check for shear : Vu = 40.33 x 10 / 1000 x 159 = 0.5 = 130 6 2 2 Mu / b x d = 13.51 KNm.444 from table 7-1 N / mm2 for Pt = 0.2.07 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.444 ﺡc = 0.5 x 1000 /308 = 255 mm Provide 10 mm O bar @ 200 mm c/c = 392 mm2 .237 x 1000 x 130 / 100 = 25 ……………….42 x 7 = 9.15 ( cover ) . KN Shear stress ﺡv = Vu / b x d 3 = 40.1.8 < 2.1 fig-4 . For M15 Fe415 .435 IS 456-2000 clause 40. Q = 2. Check for deflection : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 7 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 392 / 1000 x 130 = 0.14 < Negative moment reinforcement : Mu ( .51 x 10 / 1000 x 130 = 0.056 diff.) = 13.5 spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 78.) = 8. Provide 10 mm O bar Area of one bar = 78.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.modification factor = 1.25 x 20 = 25 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 3680 / 159 = 23. 0.94 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 1150 / 130 ……………….302 IS 456-2000 clause 23.85 < 9.254 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( as calculated below ) 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 706 / 1000 x 159 = 0.( O.( O.K.11 ? . 0.2.6 / 15) x (0.8) 415 / 15 = 0.K.237 Ast = 0.1 0.25 diff.

6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck 0.15 x 3.25 diff. Vu = 20.373 N / mm2 = 0.24 x 0.for 180 mm slab depth k = 1.24 Design shear strength = 1.6 / 15) x (Mu / b x d2 ) 415 / 15 ( Mu / b x d2 ) = = 35.91 .K. Shear stress ﺡv = Vu / b x d 0.( 0.) 3 = 33.158 ( as calculated below ) 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 392 / 1000 x 130 = 0.05 20 diff.2.) -6 Mu1 = 1.444 .3 x 0.302 ﺡc = 0.198 diff.48 KN Shear stress ﺡv = Vu / b x d 25 diff.485 At point of contraflexure ( 0.435 N / mm2 = 0.1.373 IS 456-2000 clause 40.24 Design shear strength = 1.539 Check for development length : At A .24 x 0.444= 50 1-√1-(4.) 3 = 20.435 N / mm2 = 0.1.94 KN.302 from table 7-1 N / mm2 for Pt = 0. -0. 0.K.539 At B .( O.1 k = 1.405 x 1000 x 159 x 159 x 10 .405 KNm.11 ? > ﺡv ………………. 0.48 x 10 / 1000 x 130 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 = 0.68 x 23.444 from table 7-1 N / mm2 for Pt = 0. 0.K. Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.3 for 150 mm slab depth Design shear strength = 1.5 ) = 33.25 diff. Pt = 0.94 x 10 / 1000 x 159 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 = 0.( O.2.( O.213 ( as calculated below ) 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 706 / 1000 x 159 = 0.1 for 150 mm slab depth k = 1.198 diff.11 ? > ﺡv ………………. 0.15 ℓ from B ) Vu = 46. 0. ? > ﺡv ……………….444 ﺡc = 0.52 1.435 IS 456-2000 clause 40.

2 spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 50.4 x 10 = 564 mm Anchorage beyond point of contraflexure = 12 diameter i.4 O ≤ 1360. From ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) anchorage required = 672 mm.3 x ( 35..52 x 106 / 40.15 x 3680 + 12 x 10 mm from B …………………………………. equal to the cantilever. As a thumb rule provide anchorage of 1000 mm i. 1000 Sketch : 1000 15 16 .( 2 ) = 672 mm.52 O ≤ 28.4 O ≥ 56. 0.12 / 100 ) x 1000 x 150 = 180 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar Area of one bar = 50.2 x 1000 /216 = 232 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 230 mm c/c = 218 mm2 .) At point of contraflexure ( 0.52 KNm.52 + 8 O 48.2.94 KN.( O.Vu = 40. Distribution steel : According to IS 456-2000 clause 26. The negative moment reinforcement is placed in the form of alternate chipiya as shown in fig.e. 33. In BC portion Minimum steel = ( 0.K.) Development length for negative moment reinforcement ………………………………….4 O ≥ 56.4 O 1360.95 O ≤ 23. 48.15 ℓ from B ) 1.e.33 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56.94 x 103 ) + 8 O ≥ 56.15 % for Fe250 and 0.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.52 x 106 / 33.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.5.12 % for Fe415 In AB portion Minimum steel = ( 0.2 spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 50.12 / 100 ) x 1000 x 180 = 216 mm2 Provide 8 mm O bar Area of one bar = 50.66 mm ……………….95 + 8 O which gives Mu1 = Vu = 35.11 which gives mm ……………….( O.4 O 1144..K.( 1 ) = 56.4 O ≤ 1144. 1.1 Minimum steel 0.3 x ( 35.2 x 1000 /180 = 279 mm 10 mm O @ 200 c/c ( alternate Chipiya ) Provide 8 mm O bar @ 250 mm c/c = 200 mm2 .33 KN.

1000 15 14 13 16 Chipiya Beam at slab level 16 12 230 10 200 8 9 11 8 mm O @ 230 mm c/c 12 mm O @ 160 mm c/c 180 mm thick waist slab 7 6 5 4 3 Plinth level 1 v Beam with minimum reinforcements 2 Wall from foundation Note : At plinth level a small beam over the masonry is usually provided with minimum reinforcement and with minimum 230 mm x 230 mm size to give proper seating to the stair .

75 + 0 ) KN .75 m high 3450 Beam at slab level 16 Landing at slab level 1000 230 ( 3.Building inside 230 mm thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 150 mm thick masonry parapet 0.

45 4.5 x ( x ) ) um when shear is zero ) Table 6-3 Limiting Moment of resistance factor Q lim.115 m RA + Rx ) = 23.5 x ( x ) ) 40.87 15 20 25 30 check for deflection Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans upto 10 m : cantilever 7 simply supported 20 .75 + 0 ) KN ( 19 + 4.68 m B C 1.5 ) KN / m (10.44 415 2. N / mm2 250 2.99 550 1.( 3.94 2.14 500 2.70 4.5 ) A 3.23 3.66 3. N / mm For singly reinforced rectangular sections 2 fck N / mm2 fy.00 2.22 2.5 + 4.33 + 0 ) = 23.96 3.33 3.07 2.76 3.58 3.

N / mm2 Pt = 100 x As bxd ≤ 0.54 M20 0.0246 .37 0.36 0. check for shear IS 456-2000 .38 0.28 0. Table 19 Table 7-1 Design shear strength of concrete .57 M30 0.15 0.29 0.59 M35 0.30 0.49 0.50 0. except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made. ﺡC.48 0.37 0.60 0.75 Concrete grade M15 0.51 0.50 0.59 M40 0.29 0.46 0.36 0.50 0.28 0. the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10 / span in metres .56 M25 0.35 0.29 0.continuous 26 For spans above 10 m.25 0.

88 0.82 0.00 1.20 175 1.60 0.087 IS 456-2000 Clause 40.71 0.62 0.90 0.00 1.71 0.1 Overall depth of 300 or slab .78 0.70 0.79 0.25 0.2.74 0.64 0.-0.80 0.1 Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd IS 456-200 clause 26.25 1.1.71 0.00 2.81 0.1 Table 7-5 Design bond stress (ﺡbd ) for plain bars in tension Concrete grade M15 2 M20 1.01 0.4 M30 1.82 0.84 0.10 225 1.7 ( ﺡbd N / mm 1.82 0.64 0.84 0.67 0.75 3.087 check for development length IS 456-2000 clause 26.5 M35 1.75 2.2.96 0.98 1.82 0.91 0.86 0.25 2.66 0.92 0.15 200 1.90 0.71 0.93 0.85 0.04 1.79 0.74 0.67 0.88 0.88 0.76 0.2.50 2.95 0.72 0.94 0.71 0.00 0.68 0.78 0.1.82 0.73 0.0 Note-1 : ﺡbd shall be increased by 25 % for bars in compression .75 0.96 0.71 0.50 1. mm 275 250 more k 1.2 M25 1.05 1.71 0.92 0.68 0.99 0.

3 M1 / V ) Table 7-6 Development length for single mild steel bars fy N / Tension bars Compression bars mm2 250 415 500 M15 55 O 56 O 69 O M20 26 O 47 O 58 O M15 44 O 45 O 54 O M20 37 O 38 O 46 O chipiya as shown in fig.2.3.Note-2 : In case of deformed bars confirming to IS : 1786-1985 .67 x fy For Fe415 IS 456-2000 clause 26. the value of ﺡbd shall be increased by 60 %.3 Ld ≤ M1 / V + L0 L0 = effective depth of the members or 12 O . 10 mm O @ 200 c/c ( alternate Chipiya ) 1000 150 . whichever is greater if ends of the reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction M1 / V increased by 30 % ( 1. For mild steel Fe250 σs = 0.87 x fy σs = 0.

150 Chipiya 8 O @ 250 mm c/c Beam at slab level 16 8 mm O @ 230 mm c/c provided with minimum er seating to the stair .

.

spans upto 10 m : .

.

30 26.2.150 or less 1.1 plain bars in tension M40 1.9 for bars in compression .1.

0 %. 12 O .irming to IS : 1786-1985 . whichever is greater ed by a compressive 3 M1 / V ) .

468) 250 / 15 > 200 mm < 230 mm 175 mm to 200 mm . Assuming 12 mm O bars d = 150 .75 KN / m2 Floor finish = 1.75 KN / m2 2 PU = 1.Design of dog-legged staircase 230 1 5 9 10 UP Floor A 20 v 900 B 19 15 11 150 900 230 230 1950 vv 300 900 2250 Rise 900 Rise of step = 160 mm Tread = 250 mm Tread 250 mm to 280 mm Nosing is not provided ( given ) Material M15 Grade concrete mild steel reinforcement Fe250 Solution : Assume 150 mm thick waist slab.63 KN / m Span = 1950 + 150 = 2100 i.00 KN / m2 Total 7.1 m Consider 1 m length of slab M = w x l2 / 8 2 = 11.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4. Q = 2.41 KNm Reinforcement will be in second layer.00 KN / m2 Live load ( residence ) = 3. 2.41 x 10 / 1000 x 117 = 0.63 x 2.6 = 117 mm From table 6-3 .1 / 8 = 6. Both the landings can span on walls.e.6 / 15) x (0.22 Pt = 50 1-√1-(4.22 for M15 Fe250 6 2 Mu / b x d2 = 6.75 = 11.468 < 2. Landing A or B Self-load 0.15 (cover ) -12 .5 x 7.15 x 25 = 3.

2.499 2 -6 Mu1 = 0.28 < 0.( O.= 50 [(1-0.224 ﺡc = 0.15 / 100 ) x 1000 x 150 = 225 mm2 Provide 10 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 78.83 KNm Vu = 12.104 mm ……………….K.K.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.224% Ast = 0.50 x 1000 /262 = 300 mm mm2 .239 50 1-√1-(4.15 % for Fe250 and 0.( O.1 / 2 = 12.5.) Check for development length : Assuming L0 = 12 O (mild steel ) Pt = = = From equation Pt = 100 x As / b x d 100 x 280 / 1000 x 117 0.28 ( from table 7-1 ) ……………….21 x 103 ) + 12 O ≥ 55 O .1 Minimum steel 0.21 x 10 / 1000 x 117 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( too small ) = 0.21 KN 2 1.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck Mu1 / b x d = 0.3 x ( 6.93) x 15 / 250 ] = 0.) for Pt = 0.83 x 106 / 12.63 x 2.499 x 1000 x 117 x 10 = 6. Provide 10 mm O bar @ 280 mm c/c = 280 Maximum spacing = 3 x d = 3 x 117 = 351 Check for shear : Vu = w x l / 2 = 11.21 KN Shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 12.12 % for Fe415 Minimum steel = ( 0.224 x 1000 x 117 / 100 = 262 mm2 According to IS 456-2000 clause 26.

63 KN / m RA = 24.( O.) 250 160 296. Loads : Inclined length of waist slab for one step = √ 2502 + 1602 = 296.2 Landing is spanning in transverse direction.525 x 11.64 KN / m2 Weight of step ( ( 0 + 160 ) / 2000 ) x 25 = 2.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 2 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 2 x 20 = 40 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 2100 / 117 = 17.09 = 2 < 40 ……………….191 + 12 O ≥ 55 O 43 O ≤ 727. clause 33.64 KN / m 11.83 KN 525 = 900 / 2 +75 RA = RB = 0.) Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 280 / 1000 x 117 = 0.45 + 1.8 3.64 + 2. 16.00 KN / m2 Live load = Total = = Pu = 1.09 16.00 KN / m 4.K.00 + 3. The span of stair according to discussion made in art 13-1 and loading for 1 m width of stair is shown in fig below.64 KN / m2 IS 456-2000 .8 mm Assuming 150 mm thick waist slab KN / m2 self-load in plan = ( 296.45 Floor finish length for one step = 160 + 250 = 410 mm floor finish = ( 410 / 250 ) x 1 = 1.5 x 11.95 Design of flight : Span and loading on both the flights are the same.1 fig-4 . Therefore same design will be adopted.K.239 IS 456-2000 clause 23.63 KN / m RB = 24.15 x 25 = 4.19 which gives O ≤ 16.63 + 16.25 / 2 .00 KN / m2 11.8 / 250 ) x 0.91 Check for deflection : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 20 mm ……………….2.83 KN 525 2250 3300 525 11.64 x 2.( O.727.

6 ……………….3/2 .63 x (3.25/2 ) ) / 2 = 40.17 = 21.97 . 6 21.32) 250 / 15 = 50 [(1-0.687 x 1000 x 129 / 100 = 886 mm2 Provide 12 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 / m = 113.( ( 16.97 x 10 6 / 2.( O.3.04 x 1000 / 886 = 127.83 KN 2 2 Mu = 24.15.32 50 1-√1-(4.15 / 100 ) x 1000 x 150 mm2 = 225 Provide 8 mm O bar spacing of bar = Area of one bar x 1000 / required area in m 2 /m = 50.687% Ast = 0.6 / 15) x (1.3/2) / 2 .12 % for HYSD Fe415 reinforcement Distribution steel = ( 0.22 x 1000 99.15 % for mild steel and 0.15 .64 .22 drequired = = = dprovided = = Mu / b x d2 = = Pt = √M / Q x b √21.11 + 18.77) x 15 / 250 ] = 0.63 ) x ( 2.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck = 50 1-√1-(4.83 x 10 / 1000 x 129 .72 = 24.97 KNm From Table 6-3 Q = 2.83 KN Shear stress = Vu / b x d 3 = 24.K.83 x 3.11.83 . Minimum steel is 0.24 x 1000 /225 = 223 mm Provide 8 mm O bar @ 220 mm c/c = 228 mm2 .97 x 10 / 1000 x (129)2 1.585 mm Provide 12 mm O bar@125 mm c/c = 904 mm2.) 129 mm.11.= 6.48 mm. 150 . Check for shear : Vu = 24.

4 O ≤ 1171.( O.3 .2 + 12 O ≥ 54.62 mm From Crossing of bars.83 x 103 ) + 12 O ≥ 54.58 < 32.( O.for tension reinforcement modification factor = 1.K.4 The depth could be reduced Check for cracking : IS 456-2000 .3 x ( 22.4 x 12 = 653 say 700 mm.37 x 106 / 24.) O ≤ 27.K. 100 x As / b x d 100 x 904 / 1000 x 129 0.3 x ( Mu1 / Vu ) + L0 ≥ Ld 1.) = 25.192 N / mm2 < ( ﺡC ) N / mm2 ( too small ) 100 x As / b x d = 100 x 904 / 1000 x 129 = 0.1 fig-4 .K. the bars must extend upto 54.3 x 0.83 KN 2 Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd = O x 0.( O.87 x 250 / 4 x 1 =54.344 x 1000 x 129 x 10 = 22.524 = 0.= 0.70 from table 7-1 2 for Pt = 0.524 N / mm IS 456-2000 clause 40.344 2 -6 Mu1 = 1. Check for deflection : Basic ( span / d ) ratio = 20 Pt = 100 x Ast / b x d = 100 x 904 / 1000 x 129 = 0.3 Design shear strength = 1.70 50 1-√1-(4.62 x 20 = 32.7 ﺡc = 0.) Check for development length : Assuming L0 = 12 O (mild steel ) Pt = = = From equation Pt = we get .4 Actual (span / d ) ratio = 3300 / 129 ……………….37 KNm Vu = 24.6 / fck) x (Mu / b x d2) fy / fck Mu1 / b x d = 1.4 O 42.2 which gives ……………….70 IS 456-2000 clause 23.2.1 for 150 mm slab depth k = 1.4 O 1171.3.62 ( span / d ) ratio permissible = 1.4 O 1.2.1.681 N / mm2 ………………. clause 26.

K.) mm Distribution bars : maximum spacing permitted = 5 x effective depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is = 5 x 129 = 645 mm spacing provided = 220 < 450 mm ……………….Main bars : maximum spacing permitted = 3 x effective depth of slab or 300 mm whichever is small = 3 x 129 = 387 mm or 300 mm spacing provided = 125 < 300 mm ……………….K.( O.) mm .( O.

23 15 20 25 .66 3.96 3.07 2.45 500 2.94 2. N / mm2 250 2.70 415 2. N / mm2 For singly reinforced rectangular sections fck N / mm 2 fy.Rise Tread > 200 mm < 230 mm 175 mm to 200 mm 250 mm to 280 mm 175 mm to 200 mm 250 mm to 280 mm Table 6-3 Limiting Moment of resistance factor Q lim.33 550 1.22 2.00 2.58 3.76 3.

94 3.15 0.50 0.96 The above given table is based on the following formula 6xβ Design shear strength ﺡc = 0.99 3.67 0. N / mm2 Concrete grade Pt = 100 x As M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 bxd ≤ 0.82 0.59 0.35 0.00 1.71 0.37 0.75 2.54 0.64 0.1 ) β = 0.75 0. ﺡC.92 0.90 0.88 0.44 4.25 0.71 0.80 0. ﺡC.56 0.71 0.36 0.64 0.86 0.78 0.28 0.66 0.50 0.62 0.71 0.96 0.48 0.8 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .78 0.50 0.29 0.99 2.85 √ 0.71 0.71 0.37 0.49 0.88 2.81 0.85 0.67 0.36 0.00 0.82 0.28 0.29 0.46 0.90 0.57 0.82 0.93 0. Table 19 Table 7-1 Design shear strength of concrete .29 0.75 0.60 0.50 1. N / mm2 .25 0.76 0.68 0.75 1.25 1.79 0.00 0. Table 20 Table 7-2 Maximum shear stress .30 4.91 2.70 0.59 0.73 0.82 0.8 x fck / 6.0 IS 456-2000 .72 0.87 check for shear IS 456-2000 .14 3.89 Pt .84 0. but not less than 1.74 0.50 0.82 0.71 0.

3.1 3. the value of ﺡbd shall be increased by 60 %.7 Note-1 : ﺡbd shall be increased by 25 % for bars in compression Note-2 : In case of deformed bars confirming to IS : 1786-1985 . check for cracking (a)The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement bars ( spacing )shall not be more than three times the effective depth of solid slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made. σs = 0.2 M25 1.2.4 M30 1.5 M35 1.1.3 Ld ≤ M1 / V + L0 σs = 0. .3 M1 / V ) Table 7-6 Development length for single mild steel bars Tension bars Compression bars fy N / mm2 M15 M20 M15 M20 250 415 500 55 O 56 O 69 O 26 O 47 O 58 O 44 O 45 O 54 O 37 O 38 O 46 O check for deflection Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans upto 10 m : cantilever 7 simply supported 20 continuous 26 For spans above 10 m. the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10 / span in metres .8 3.5 2.1 Table 7-5 Design bond stress (ﺡbd ) for plain bars in tension Concrete grade ( ﺡbd N / mm 2 M15 1.87 x fy For mild steel Fe250 For Fe415 IS 456-2000 clause 26.2.1 Development length of bars Ld = O σs / 4 x ﺡbd 2 M35 3.2.7 IS 456-200 clause 26.0 M20 1.67 x fy L0 = effective depth of the members or 12 O .5 check for development length IS 456-2000 clause 26. whichever is greater if ends of the reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction M1 / V increased by 30 % ( 1.Concrete grade M15 M20 M25 M30 ( ﺡc )max N / mm 2.

05 250 1.00 1.1 300 or Overall depth of slab . mm 275 more k 1.20 sketch : The reinforcements for both the flights are shown in fig.10 225 1.(b)The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars ( spacing ) provided against shrinkage and temperature (distribution bar) shall not be more than five times the effective depth of a solid slab or 450 mm whichever is smaller.15 200 1. IS 456-2000 Clause 40.2. 700 700 10 O @ 280 c/c ( Landing ) 12 O @ 125 c/c 150 mm thick waist slab v v v v v v v v 8 O @ 220 c/c 12 O @ 125 c/c v v v v .1.

12 O @ 125 c/c Flight-B vv v v v v v v v v v v v v v v 12 O @ 125 c/c 8 O @ 220 c/c 150 mm thick waist slab 10 O @ 280 c/c ( Landing ) Flight-A .

K.( O.( O. 450 mm ……………….) .e.) ve depth of slab or 450 mm whichever is small or 450 mm i.K. 300 mm or 300 mm ……………….of slab or 300 mm whichever is small i.e.

.

74 0. N / mm2 e grade M40 0.01 x fck ( √ 1 + 5 x β .60 0.95 0.92 0. ﺡC.51 0.79 0.68 0.1 ) ut not less than 1.84 0.19 e .30 0.38 0.98 1. N / mm2 .0 20 .88 0.

the whichever is greater & compressive reaction M1 For checking development length .1. or spans upto 10 m : be multiplied by hich case deflection .9 rs in compression o IS : 1786-1985 . l0 may be assumed as 8 O for HYSD bars ( usually end anchorage is not provided ) and 12 O for mild steel ( U hook is provided usually whose anchorage length is 16 O.M40 4.1 n bars in tension M40 1.0 2.

30 .25 150 or less 1.175 1.

v v v v v 150 v vv vv vv vv v v v v v v v 10 O @ 280 c/c ( Landing ) 12 O @ 125 c/c 8 O @ 220 c/c .

- Bhandardara Travel Guide
- BTECH_Chemical Engineering_CH4001_December - 2011.doc
- UGC_Approval_Letter.pdf
- AffiliationofCollegesbyUniversitiesregulation.pdf
- State Univ Updated 020710
- Sample11_Drawing.pdf
- Internals_for_packed_columns.pdf
- Passport.docx
- 123
- material_selection.pdf
- Amine_Contactor
- Welding Consumables-stainless Steel
- Piping engineering design basics
- Conversion table
- Horizintal Vessel 1 Sample Only
- Pressure vessel design & Stresses
- Stresses in Pressure Vessel
- Structural Design Summary
- Seismic design.pdf
- Seismic Design
- Holidays List - Maharashtra Govt Holidays List for 2013
- Process Control Fundamentals
- The Stars Our Destination
- Kavala Destination
- Holidays List - Maharashtra Govt Holidays List for 2013

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulDesign calculation of rectangular tank

Design calculation of rectangular tank

- Ractangular Ground Water Tank
- Water Tank Exclusive
- Example 6 1 Rectangular Water Tank Design
- Rectangular Water Tank Design
- Water Tank Design ( Aci 318-05 & 350-01)
- Rectangular Tank Design.pdf
- ACI-350-3-06-Appendix-BRev00-29-Sep-2013.xlsx
- Design of Rectangular RC Tank
- Design of Water Tanks-CE 05014 p3 6
- Underground Water Tank Design
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Water Tanks
- Analysis of Underground Using SAP2000
- Water-Tank-Design.pdf
- Admin.. Water Tank
- ACI Rectangular Tanks2010
- 4 Rectangular Concrete Tanks
- Water Tank Design Calc
- water tank design
- design of water tank
- Design & Detailing of Water Retaining Structures & Pre Cast Water Tank Floor System
- Rectangular Tank Calculation
- PCA Teoria-Rectangular Concrete Tanks
- Rectangular Tank_Design Exel
- Rectangular Tank Calculation
- Rectangular Tank
- Water Retaining Structure
- Rectangular Tank Calculation
- PCA Rectangular Concrete Tanks
- Water Tank
- Structural Design of Swimming Pools[1]
- Design of Rectangular Water Tank

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.