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Sample Problems

RANKINE CYCLE

Ideal Rankine Cycle


Consider a steam power plant operating
on the simple ideal Rankine cycle. Steam
enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350
degree Celcius and is condensed in the
condenser at a pressure of 75 kPa.
Determine the thermal efficiency of this
cycle.

Qh
Boiler

3 MPa

3 MPa
350 deg. C

2
Turbine

Wp
Pump

Condenser

75 kPa
Qc

75 kPa

Wt

State 1:
P1 = 75 kPa
sat. liquid

h1= 384.44 kJ/kg


V1= 0.001037 m3/kg
T1= 91.76 oC

State 2:

P2 = 3 MPa
s2 = s1
Wp = V1 (P2 - P1)

= 0.001037 m3/kg (3000-75) kPa


= 3.03 kJ/kg
h2 = h1 + Wp
= 384.44 kJ/kg + 3.03 kJ/kg
= 387.47 kJ/kg

State 3:
P3 = 3 MPa
T3= 350 oC

h3= 3116.1 kJ/kg


s3= 6.745 kJ/kg-K

State 4:
P4 = 75 kPa
sl= 1.2132 kJ/kg-K
sat. mixture
sv= 7.4558 kJ/kg-K
s4 = s3
6.745 = x4(7.4558) + (1-x4)(1.2132)
x4 = 0.8861
hl= 388.44 kJ/kg hv= 2662.4 kJ/kg
h4 = 388.44+ 0.8861 (2662.4-388.44)
h4 = 2403. 0 kJ/kg

qh = h3 - h2 = 3116.1 kJ/kg - 387.47 kJ/kg


qh= 2728.6 kJ/kg
qc = h4 - h1 = 2403. 0 kJ/kg -384.44 kJ/kg
qc= 2018.6 kJ/kg
hl= 388.44 kJ/kg hv= 2662.4 kJ/kg
h4 = 388.44+ 0.8861 (2662.4-388.44)
h4 = 2403. 0 kJ/kg
thermal efficiency = [1 - (qc / qh )] * 100%
= 1 - ( 2018.6 kJ/kg / 2728.6 kJ/kg )* 100%
= 26.0 %

Ideal Rankine Cycle


Consider a steam power plant operating on the
simple ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the
turbine at 3 MPa and at a given T and it is
condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10
kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of this
cycle if the given T is a) 350 deg. C, b) 600
deg.C, and compare the thermal efficiency from
the temperature difference.

Qh
Boiler

3 MPa

3 MPa @ T

2
Turbine

Wp
Pump

Condenser

10 kPa
Qc

10 kPa

Wt

State 1 : P1 = 10 kPa (satd liquid) : h1 = 191.81 kJ/kg


v1 = 0.00101 m3/kg

State 2 : P2 = 3 MPa
s2 = s1
Wpump,in = v1(P2 P1)
= (0.00101 m3/kg)[(3000-10) kPa] (1 kJ / 1 kPa m3)
= 3.02 kJ/kg
h2 = h1 + Wpump,in = v1(P2 P1) = (191.81+3.02) kJ/kg
= 194.83 kJ/kg

State 3 : P3 = 3 MPa , T3 = 600C : h3 = 3116.1 kJ/kg


s3 = 6.7450 kJ/kg K

State 4: p4 = 10 kPa (sat. Mixture) , s4 = s3 : sL = 0.6492 kJ/kg.K


sV= 8.1488 kJ/kg.K
hL= 191.81 kJ/kg
hV= 2583.9 kJ/kg
x4 = (s4 - sf)/(sg sf x ) = (6.745 - 0.6492 )/(8.1488 - 0.6492)
= 0.8128
h4 = hf + x4 (hg hf) = 191.81 + 0.8128 (2583.9 - 191.81)
= 2136.1 kJ/kg
qin = h3 h2 = 3116.1 194.83 kJ/kg = 2921.3 kJ/kg
qout = h4 h1 =2136.1 - 191.81 kJ/kg = 1994.3 kJ/kg
th = 1 (qout /qin ) = 1 (1994.3 / 2921.3 ) = 0.334 or 33.4 %

States 1 and 2 remain the same.


State 3 : P3 = 3 MPa , T3 = 600C : h3 = 3681.0 kJ/kg
s3 = 7.5079 kJ/kg K
State 4: p4 = 10 kPa (sat. Mixture) , s4 = s3 : sL = 0.6492 kJ/kg.K
sV= 8.1488 kJ/kg.K
hL= 191.81 kJ/kg
hV= 2583.9 kJ/kg
x4 = (s4 - sL)/(sV sL) = (7.5079 - 0.6492 )/(8.1488 - 0.6492)
= 0.8128
h4 = hL + x4 (hV hL) = 191.81 + 0.915 (2583.9 - 191.81)
= 2380.3 kJ/kg
qin = h3 h2 = 3682.8 194.83 kJ/kg = 3488.0 kJ/kg
qout = h4 h1 = 2380.3 - 191.81 kJ/kg = 2188.5kJ/kg
th = 1 (qout /qin ) = 1 (1994.3 / 2921.3 ) = 0.373 or 37.3 %

Therefore, the thermal efficiency increases


from 33.4 to 37.3 percent as a result of
superheating the steam from 350 to
600C. At the same time, the quality of the
steam increases from 81.3 to 91.5 percent
(in other words, the moisture content
decreases from 18.7 to 8.5 percent).