You are on page 1of 7

DU HC NHT BN NGAY T CP 3?

Bn hc Nht ng 1 nm v mun du hc Nht Bn ngay sau khi kt thc lp 9? Xem chi tit ti y
TH BA, NGY 23 THNG 10 NM 2012

S m trong ting Nht - Cch m vt, ngi


>> Phn 2: nh s th t trong ting Nht

m t 1 ti 10
Chc cc bn ai cng bit m t 1 ti 10:

ichi - ni - san - shi/yon - go - roku - shichi/nana - hachi - kyuu (ku) - juu

Ch l s 4 v s 7 c ti 2 cch c, vy khi no dng "yon" ("bn"), khi no dng "shi" ("t")?


Phn ln trng hp bn s ch dng "yon" cho s :
yon-kai = bn ln

yon-kai = lu bn, tng bn

yon-hyaku = bn trm

S by (m cc bn c thy s ny l s 7 ln ngc khng nh?) cng vy, phn ln dng "nana":


nana-kai = by ln

nana-kai = lu by

nana-hyaku = by trm

Vy "shi" v "shichi" dng th no? thng l dng khi n thun l m, nh trong quyn anh
hay m s ng tc bn thc hin (karate chng hn) th s m l "ichi ni san shi go roku shichi
hachi kyuu juu".
Bn cng nn nh l s chn c th c l "ku" na, v d:
19 juu-ku nichi = ngy 19
19 juu-kyuu nichi = ngy 19
S 10 () cng c th c l "ju" thay v "juu" hay "" vi m lp ("tsu" nh):
juppun = 10 pht
juu-fun = 10 pht
jippun = 10 pht
Nhn chung, c nhiu cch c v s m th quan trng nht l c nhanh v d dng, ngi Nht
s c sao cho thun ming nht c th. Bn cng phi lm quen vi vic ny khi hc s m ting
Nht.

S 0

S 0 khng phi l th d dng ngi ta pht minh ra, bng chng l s La M khng c s 0. So
vi cc con s khc th s 0 mi sau ny mi ra i. Trong ting Nht, s 0 thng c mn t
ting Anh l "Zero" thnh . Ngoi ra cn dng ch kanji "LINH" c l "Rei". Tuy nhin, trong
s m th ngi Nht dng "zero", cn "rei" s dng nhiu trong t ghp kanji ( jukugo thc
ng) nh:
reido (linh ) = 0 (nhit khng C)

Khi vit thnh vn t, s 0 ("rei") s vit l ( vit s khng ny th bn g "zero"), v d:


Ba mi = (san-juu)

Ch s trong vn t, kh c

Trong vn t, kh c bn khng th dng cc con s . V d, bn vay tin Takahashi


v li giy vay tin nh sau:

"Ti c vay ca anh Takahashi s tin l lng vng v lng bc" (tc l mt
lng vng v mi lng bc)
Anh Takahashi ny, vn rt gii lm gi giy t, s cha li bng cch thm vi nt thnh:
"Ti c vay ca anh Takahashi s tin l lng vng v lng bc" (tc ba lng
vng v ngn lng bc)
Th l t nhin s n ca bn b i ln gp nhiu ln, thm ch cn khin bn ph sn. trnh nh
vy, ngi Nht (v ngi China) s dng thay th cc ch trn thnh cc ch sau:
thnh

thnh

thnh

thnh
Nhn tin ni lun, ch "man" (vn) c ch c l , trong cc bi th c ca Vit Nam u dng
ch "vn" ny.

S m thun Nht

"Mt, hai, ba, bn, nm, su, by, tm, chin, mi" thc ra l cch m thun Vit. Cn cch m
mn phi l "nht, nh, tam, t, ng, lc, tht, bt, cu, thp". Cn ngi Nht li thng dng cch
m mn l "ichi, ni, san, shi, go, roku, shichi, hachi, kyuu, juu". Tuy nhin, ngi Nht cng dng
cch m thun Nht trong nhiu trng hp m vi lng t ch m, v d m "ci" (mt ci, hai
ci, ba ci, ...). Cch m thun Nht l nh sau:
hito-tsu = mt ci

futa-tsu = hai ci

mi-tsu = ba ci

yo-tsu = bn ci

itsu-tsu = nm ci

mu-tsu = su ci

nana-tsu = by ci

ya-tsu = tm ci

kokono-tsu = chn ci

too = mi

m s t 11 ti mt trm triu ngn t!


Cng thc m t 11 ti 19:

juu + [ichi, ni, san, yon, go, roku, nana, hachi,


kyuu/ku]

Khng dng "shi" cho 4 v t dng "shichi" cho 7. V d, "mi chn" s l "juukyuu" hay "juuku", vit
l "19" hoc "". "" l cch vit ging nh vit bng ch "mi chn" trong ting Vit vy.
Cng thc m 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90:

[ni, san, yon, go, roku, nana, hachi, kyuu] + juu

V d: kyuujuu = chn mi
Cng thc m 21 => 29:

nijuu + [ichi, ni, san, yon, go, roku, nana, hachi,


kyuu/ku]

V d 25 () = nijuu-go
m hng 30, 40, .... cng khng khc.

m "trm":
Mt trm: hyaku (kanji: bch)
Hai trm, bn trm, nm trm, by trm, chn trm:

[ni, yon, go, nana, kyuu] + hyaku

Ba trm: = = sanbyaku, v "san" kt thc bng "n" nn c bin m t "h"


thnh "b".

Su trm: = = roppyaku, v "roku" kt thc l "ku" nn bin thnh lp cho d


c

Tm trm: = = happyaku, v "hachi" kt thc l "tsu/chi" nn bin thnh lp


cho d c
m con s c hng trm: C m hng trm trc ri hng chc ri hng n v
V d: 325 s m l "ba trm" (san-byaku) "hai mi lm" (nijuu-go) => sanbyaku nijuu-go.
Hon ton chng c g kh khn ng khng?
m hng ngn
Mt ngn: sen (kanji: thin), ch l khng c "ichi" nh
Hai ngn, bn ngn, nm ngn, su ngn, by ngn, chn ngn:

[ni, yon, go, roku, nana, kyuu] + sen

Ba ngn: sanzen (bin m "s" => "z" do i sau "n")

Tm ngn: hassen (bin m thnh lp do "chi" i trc "s")


m s hng ngn: C m tng hng mt
V d 6230 => "su ngn" (rokusen) "hai trm" (nihyaku) "ba mi" (sanjuu) => "roku-sen ni-hyaku
sanjuu". Vit ch:

m hng VN
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] + man
Ch l "mt vn" m l "ichi man" ch khng phi l "man" khng nh trng hp m mt ngn
(sen) nh. Ngoi ra, ting Nht s m theo c bn l "vn" (bn s 0) ch khng phi hng ngn
(ba s 0) nh Vit Nam nn c s "mi vn (juuman)", trong khi ting Vit phi m l "mt trm
ngn".
V d: 39674 => san-man kyuu-sen roppyaku nana-juu yon, vit ch:

Ting Nht: m hng 4 con s # Ting Vit: m


hng 3 con s

Cc bn cn ch l ting Nht m hng 4 con s, cn ting Vit m hng 3 con s. Ting Vit s
dng n v m l "ngn, triu, t, ngn t, triu t, t t". Tt nhin l s t hng trm tr xung hay
cc s l xen k th m l "trm, mi, [n v]".
Cn ngi Nht s m theo hng cc hng sau:
man = vn, 10^4 (chc ngn)

oku = c, 10^8 (trm triu)

chou = triu, 10^12 (triu triu)

Cc hng ln hn: Tham kho wekipedia

Di y ti tng kt cch m cc s ln t ting Vit sang tng ng ting Nht:


Ngn: sen

Mi ngn (chc ngn, 10^4): man

Trm ngn (10^5): juu-man

Triu (10^6): hyaku-man

Mi triu (chc triu): sen-man

Trm triu (10^8): oku

T: juu-oku

Mi t (chc t): hyaku-oku

Trm t: sen-oku

Ngn t (10^12): chou

Mi ngn t: juu-chou

Trm ngn t: hyaku-chou

Triu t: sen-chou
Mt trm triu ngn t s l 10^16, l (ikkei, nht kinh).

m ngy, m tui, m ngi

m ngy y l ngy my, mng my, ch khng phi l "my ngy". Ngi Nht s dng con s
thun Nht m t "mng mt" cho ti "mng mi".
Mng mt: tsuitachi

Mng hai: futsuka

Mng ba: mikka

Mng bn: yokka

Mng nm: itsuka

Mng su: muika

Mng by: nanoka

Mng tm: youka

Mng chn: kokonoka

Mng mi: tooka


Bn c th thy ngy bn v ngy tm d nhm vi nhau (yokka vi youka), "ngy nm" itsuka
cng d nhm vi "itsuka" = "khi no " (Ch thi im khng xc nh c th nh trong cu
"

Kanarazu itsuka furusato e kaeru yo" = "Nht nh c mt ngy ti s v qu


y").
T ngy 11 tr i: m nh s m thng thng

[S m] + nichi

V d ngy 14 l "juu yon nichi".


Tuy nhin ring ngy 20 l c bit:
Ngy hai mi: hatsuka

m ngy, m thng, m nm

"Nm 2012" th s l "2012 " (ni-sen juu-ni NEN), cn "8 nm" s l 8 = "hachi
nenkan". "Nm th tm" s l " hachi-nen ME" ("me" dng m th my). "Ngy th hai"
(khng phi Monday nh) s l " futsuka-me".
m s th t thng th dng " gatsu", v d "Thng 12" = 12 juu-ni gatsu.
"Mi hai thng" th dng " ka getsu" (hay c th vit l ), ch l mc d vit
l ch "ke" katakana nh nhng c l "ka" (c l l do vit ch "ka" nh nhn gin "ke" qu nn vit
thnh "ke" cho nhanh).
Tun s l " shuukan". m ngy th nh ni bn trn.
V d v ni ngy thng nm:
Ngy 15 thng 9 nm 2010, 10 nm k t khi ti bc chn ra i.
2010 9 15 10
Ni-sen-juu-nen ku-gatsu juu-go-nichi, tabi ni dete kara m juu-nenkan.
Ngay t nm th hai c bin c ln.

2
Ni-nen-me kara kina dekigoto ga atta.
Bin c ny ko di sut hai nm.
2
Kono dekigoto wa zutto ni-nenkan tsudzuite ita.
N lm ti nh gi i hng chc tui.

Sore wa watashi ni nan j-sai mo toshi o toraseta you da.

m tui
Th cng khng c g c bit, ch cn "[S m] + sai" (kanji: TU), v d "mt tui" l "issai".
Ring "hai mi tui" th c bit:
Hai mi tui: hatachi
m ngi
Mt ngi, hai ngi th m theo thun Nht thnh " hitori", " futari" cn
t 3 ngi tr ln th l "[S m] + nin".

m s ngy
Mt ngy: ichi-nichi

Hai ngy: futsukakan

Ba ngy ~ mi ngy: Nh m ngy my thm "kan"

11 ngy tr ln: Nh m ngy my

Hai mi ngy: hatsukakan

Din t s lng hng trm, hng ngn, hng vn


(s ln khng m xu)
V d "Hng ngn ngi tp trung qung trng": Dng cng thc di y.

[S m] + [Lng t ] + mo

Hng ngn ngi tp trung qung trng = Nan-sen


nin mo no hito wa hiroba ni atsumatta

Hng chc xe hi gp s c = Jidousha wa nanjuu-dai-motoraburu ni atta


V lng t th cc bn xem di y, y lng t m ngi l " nin", lng t m xe / my
mc l " dai".

LNG T TING NHT

Gi s bn ni "ba chic xe hi / ba ci xe hi" th bn s ni trong ting Nht l th no? "San


jidousha"? "Mitsu no jidousha"? "Mitsu no kuruma?"
Tht ra ting Nht c lng t ring m my mc, xe c, l: dai.
Ba chic xe hi = kuruma san-dai

Di y ti lit k mt s lng t hay dng:


m ngi: nin

m ngi lch s (khch hng, i phng, v.v...): mei

m my mc, xe c: dai

m t (giy): mai

m s b (b h s): bu

m quyn (sch): satsu

m cy, que (vt di nh , d, que kem): hon (mt cy = ippon)

m s ln: kai, v d "ba ln = sankai"

m lu (tng): kai (kanji: giai (giai cp)), ch "tng ba" s l "" san-gai khc vi "ba
ln sankai" trn, cn cc lu khc th pht m ging

m ca hng, nh mt tin: ken (kanji: hin)

m s kin, s vn : ken

m ba u: chou ("inh")

m gi: jikan ("thi gian")

m pht: fun

m giy: byou

m con vt: hiki (mt con: ippiki)

m g, gia cm: wa ("v" = cnh)

m gia sc: tou ("u")

m s ln ln hn: bai ("bi")

m ci/chic: ko ("c")

m s m thu nh ngh / khch sn: haku (mt m: ippaku)

m s gh (xe hi): seki ("tch")

m s toa xe, toa tu: sharyou ("xa lng")

m s ba n: zen ("thin" = ba n, khc vi "thin" nh)

m git cht lng: teki

m s cch lm: toori

m s th: tsuu

m s im (im, vn ): ten

m s loi: shurui
Tham kho thm: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_counter_word
C phc tp qu vi bn khng? Bn s t hi c cch no n gin hn khng? Takahashi s
hng dn cc bn cch n gin hn.

Cch n gin ha lng t ting Nht

V d bn dng l "ci" ht, tc l "tsu", v d hai xe hi s l:


/ futatsu no kuruma, kuruma futatsu

Mt s ci bn dng s m trc tip, v d:


Hai cng ty: nisha

Ba nh my: san-koujou
Hai loi: ni shurui
Nu cc bn khng chc v lng t thch hp th hy dng " tsu" l an ton nht.
Nu bn nm r lng t, bn s c th din t t nhin hn, v d "Ti mun mua hai ba u" s
l 2 (Toufu wo ni-chou kaitai desu). Cn nu bn ni
(Toufu wo futatsu kaitai desu) th chc ngi bn vn hiu thi, nhng li thnh ra "Ti
mun mua hai ci u ph" mt.
Hay l nu bn hai mi tui m ni l " nijussai" th cng chng c vn g lm, mc d
ng ra phi l " hatachi".

m "na" 1/2 han


Na s m bng "" (han, kanji: BN), v d: 2 ninenhan hai nm ri, 1 ichi-jikan-han
= mt gi ng h ri.
Ch l 1 ichi-ji-han l thi im mt gi ri nh.

Na ngy han-nichi

Na gi han-jikan

Na thng han-tsuki cn han-getsu l "bn nguyt" (mt trng bn nguyt hay hnh
bn nguyt)

Mt na hanbun (BN PHN) / han

Na nm hantoshi

Na i hansei (BN SINH)

Na hnh trn / Bn vin = han-en

Cng thc: han + [Tn]


m hoa

ichi-rin (NHT LUN): m bng hoa n

ippon m bng hoa c cung

isshi (NHT CHI) m cnh hoa

issoku (NHT THC) m b hoa = hitotaba mt b

Bi tp v lng t ting Nht


Nht dng t "mi ngn Yn" (), v d ni "Trong v ti c ba t mi ngn yn" th bn s
ni nh th no?