# Typical Strutting Calculation

Straight Strut

AECOM SINGAPORE PTE LTD
DESIGN OF SINGLE AND COMPOUND STRUTS WITH ROLLED STEEL SECTION IN ACCORDANCE TO BS5950 : PART 1 : 2000

Version 6.0 updated on 24-05-2011

TITLE OF PROJECT : KLANG VALLEY MRT PROJECT (SBK LINE) - MERDEKA STATION
DESIGN SECTION : STRUCTURAL CAPACITY OF TWIN LACED STRUT OF STEEL S355 (Grade 50B)
SECTION REF. : STRUT CAPACITY

Direction

1) The benevolent effects of splay (knee strut) is not taken into account.
2) Recommended as per CIRIA Special Publication 95 and CIRIA C517,
a) Allow for eccentricity of axial load due to connection is taken to be approximately
10% of overall dimension of strut in the vertical plane.
b) Accidental loading is considered in the design of proposed temporary strutting system.
=> The accidental loading is assumed as per DC/16/12 Section 16.10 = 50 kN in any direction.
c) Thermal load due to the temperature effects is considered in the design of proposed temporary strutting system.
=> The temperature difference is assumed as per DC/16/12 Section 16.10 = +/- 10 Degrees Celsius.
Proposed laced strut section

=

Proposed strutting interval, Ls
The incidence angle of strut,
Number of struts per laced section

=
=
=
=
=

Steel S275
Steel S355

DESIGNED BY : CWT
CHECKED BY :
DATE : 30-07-2012

Strut Force
Direction

, incidence angle
Lacing Pitch,
of strut
L1

406x260x148.8kg/m

Proposed effective length, Lxx
Proposed effective length, Lyy
Distance between laced section
Lacing Pitch, L1

=
=
=
=

11.50
10.00
1000
2340

Proposed Strut Stiffness, EA

=

7.79E+06

mm per strut
mm per strut
mm per strut
mm per strut

Depth between the fillets, d
Proposed sectional area, Ag
Proposed section mass, Ms

=
=
=
=

10.2
360.6
19000.0
148.8

mm per strut
mm per strut

mm4 per strut
3
mm per strut
3
mm per strut
mm per strut

Section moment of inertia, Iyy
Section plastic modulus, Syy
Section elastic modulus, Zyy

=
=
=
=

7.75E+07
8.99E+05
5.86E+05
63.90

mm4 per strut
3
mm per strut
3
mm per strut
mm per strut

B) PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED DOUBLE LACED STRUT SECTION
Section moment of inertia, Ixx
=
1.24E+09 mm4 per lace section
Section plastic modulus, Sxx
=
6.49E+06 mm3 per lace section
Section elastic modulus, Zxx
=
5.74E+06 mm3 per lace section
=
1.80E+02 mm per lace section
Proposed sectional area, Ag
=
38000
mm2 per lace section

Section moment of inertia, Iyy
Section plastic modulus, Syy
Section elastic modulus, Zyy

=
=
=
=

9.66E+09
1.89E+07
1.53E+07
504.1

mm4 per lace section
3
mm per lace section
3
mm per lace section
mm per lace section

2. MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND SECTION CLASSIFICATION
Section design strength, y
=
345.0
N/mm2
0.5
=
0.893
Value of epsilon, = [ 275/py ]

Elastic modulus of Steel, Esteel

=

205.0

SUMMARY OF DESIGN
Interactive Relationship :

720
1020
6.000
0.000
2

kN/m
kN/m
metres
Degrees
per compound lace section

Local Interactive Relationship
0.53 + 0.183 + 0 = 0.712
Overall Interactive Relationship
0.823 + 0.17 + 0 = 0.993
0.69 + 0.197 + 0 = 0.886

1. PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED STRUT SECTION
Proposed section depth, D
=
Proposed section width, B
=
Section flange thickness, T
=
Section web thickness, t
=

431.0
264.8
25.0
14.9

A) PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED SINGLE STRUT SECTION
Section moment of inertia, Ixx
=
6.18E+08
Section plastic modulus, Sxx
=
3.25E+06
Section elastic modulus, Zxx
=
2.87E+06
=
180.0

Outstand element of compression flange, b/T
Plastic =
Compact =
Semi-compact =

OK!

metres
metres
mm
mm

kN

OK!
OK!

mm2 per strut
kg/m per strut

kN/mm2

r1 = Fc/d x t x yw
=
1.000
r2 = Fc/Ag x yw
=
0.550
Web subject to Axial Compression and Bending (Generally)
Plastic =
35.71
Compact =
35.71
Semi-compact =
51.01

8.035
8.928
13.39

Flange is Plastic.
Proposed section actual b/T =
5.296
Hence, the proposed section is Non-slender, hence no reduction for design strength.
Section is classified as Class 1 &2

Proposed section actual d/t =
Section web reduced strength,

y' =

24.20

Web is Plastic.

345.0

N/mm2

(Clause 3.6.5)

Axial Strut Force, Fc (Normal)
=
4320.0
Axial Strut Force, Fc (Redundancy)
=
6120.0

3.2 BENDING ABOUT MAJOR AXIS, Mx
3.2.1 Bending due to self-weight, Mx1
Self weight of proposed strut

Mx1

=
=

3.0
49.2

kN
kN

Thermal coeff. of expansion,
Degree of restraint against wall
Variation in strut temperature, T

=
=
=
=

1.20E-05
0.800
10.00
747.8

per Degree Celsius
Degree Celsius
kN

kN/m
kNm

3.2.2 Bending due to imposed load, M x2

1.5
=
kN/m
49.6
=
kNm
3.2.3 Bending due to eccentricity waler to strut connection, M x3
The minimum strut eccentricity, 1
=
43.10
mm
Mx3a (Normal)
=
186
kNm

Mx2

Mx3a (Redundancy)

=

264

kNm

3.2.4 Bending due to deflection induced by selfweight (P-delta effect)+ imposed load, M x4
Self weight + imposed load onto section, Pv,s
=
5.976
kN/m per lace section
=
5.37
mm
Strut deflection, 2=5wL4/384EI
strut capacity 2X406X260X148.8

Allowable deflection based on L/1000

Mx4 (Normal)
3.2.5 Bending due to accidental load, M x5
Accidental load in major directions, Facc,x

Mx5
3.3 BENDING ABOUT MINOR AXIS, M y
3.3.1 Bending due to accidental load, M x6
Accidental load in minor directions, Facc,y

Mx6

=
=

12
0

mm
kNm

=
=

50.00
143.8

kN
kNm

50.00
125.0

kN
kNm

=
=

2< L/1000, No need to consider P-delta effect

Mx4 (Redundancy)

=

0 kNm

LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
LC3 : Redundancy (1-strut Failure)

Excavation Temperature
1.40
1.20
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx1
1.40
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx2
1.60
0.50
0.50
0.50

Mx3
1.40
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx4
1.40
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx5
0.00
1.05
0.00
0.00

My1
0.00
0.00
1.05
0.00

LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
LC3 : Redundancy (1-strut Failure)

Excavation Temperature
6048
897
4536
785
4536
785
6426
785

Mx1
69
52
52
52

Mx2
79
25
25
25

Mx3
261
196
196
277

Mx4
0
0
0
0

Mx5
0
151
0
0

My1
0
0
131
0

Single:

Axial

Mx

My

3473
2661
2661
3606

204
211
136
177

0
0
66
0

OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.712
LC1 governs!

4.3 SUMMARY OF FORCES
Compound:
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
LC3 : Redundancy (1-strut Failure)

Axial

Mx

My

6945
5321
5321
7211

409
423
272
353

0
0
131
0

5. LACED STRUT SECTION CAPACITY CHECK
Compression resistance, Pc
Section moment capacity, Mcx
Section moment capacity, Mcy

=
=
=

LACED
13110
2240
5267

SINGLE
6555
1120
5267

kN
kNm
kNm

I) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
The Interaction expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1.0
Fc/Pc
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
=
0.530
=
0.406
=
0.406
LC3 : 1-strut Failure
=
0.550

Mx/Mcx
0.183
0.189
0.121
0.158

My/Mcy
0.000
0.000
0.025
0.000

kN
kNm
kNm

0.712
0.595
0.552
0.708

II) THE OVERALL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
A) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.7.4)

The strut slenderness, xx
The Robertson constant,
The limiting slenderness, LO
The section Perry factor,
Section Euler strength, pE
The value of strength
Compressive strength, pcx
Compression resistance, Pcx (Laced)
Compression resistance, Pcx (Single)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

63.75
5.500
15.32
0.266
497.9
487.7
230.6
8762
4381

B) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.3.6.7)
The equivalent slenderness, LT
= u
(

The value of parameter w
Section torsional index, x
Section buckling parameter, u
The value of slenderness, /x
Section slenderness factor,
Equivalent slenderness, LT,y
The limiting slenderness, LO
The Robertson constant, LT
Section Perry coefficient, LT
Section Euler strength, pE
The value of strength LT
Section bending strength, pb
Buckling resistance moment,Mb

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

w)

0.884
17.24
0.887
2.974
0.913
39.01
30.63
7.00
0.059
1329
876
320.2
2079

Based on BS5950-1:2000, Section 4.7.8 (g) Laced Strut Requirement
The strut slenderness, yy
=
19.84
Lacing slenderness, c
=
36.62
CHECK: c <50
36.62
*(max( yy, 1.4 c)
Design Strut Slenderness, yy
=
51.27
5.500
The Robertson constant,
=
Curve (c)
The limiting slenderness, LO
=
15.32
The section Perry factor,
=
0.198
2
Section Euler strength, pE
=
770
N/mm
2
The value of strength
=
633.5
N/mm
Compressive strength, pcy
=
265.1
N/mm2
Compression resistance, Pcy (Laced)
=
10072
kN
Compression resistance, Pcy (Single)
=
5036
kN

Curve (c)

2

N/mm
2
N/mm
N/mm2
kN
kN

0.5

where
For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections, w = 1.00
For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section, If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.3.6.4, where
If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.3.6.4, where
For Class 4 Slender cross section, w = Zx,eff / Sx

N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
kNm

The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 -------------------- Equation (1)
Fc/Pc
mxMx/PyZx myMy/PyZy
For Major axis In-plane Buckling
=
0.989
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
=
0.793
0.196
0.000

w
w

= Zx/Sx
= Zx/Sx

The moment coefficient, mLT
The moment coefficient, mx
The moment coefficient, my

=
=
=

1.000
0.950
0.900

OK!
strut capacity 2X406X260X148.8

LC3 : 1-strut Failure

0.810
0.740
0.993

OK!
OK!
OK!

0.993
LC4 governs!

III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 -------------------- Equation (2)
Fc/Pcy
mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy
For Lateral-Torsional Buckling
=
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
0.886
=
0.690
0.197
0.000
=
0.528
0.203
0.000
0.732
0.682
=
0.528
0.131
0.022
LC3 : 1-strut Failure
0.886
=
0.716
0.170
0.000

OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.886
LC1 governs!

=
=
=

0.607
0.607
0.823

0.203
0.131
0.170

0.000
0.002
0.000

strut capacity 2X406X260X148.8

Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.010 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.198 0.893 = 0.998 OK! OK! OK! 0.891 = 0.000 strut capacity 3X406X260X148.001 0.3.171 0.000 0.132 0.170 0.713 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.612 0.998 LC4 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.695 0.674 = 0.8 .000 0.131 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.720 0.744 0.828 0.8.180 0.180 0.792 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.532 0.532 0.0 -------------------.3.893 LC1 governs! = = = 0.612 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.

731 0.000 0.000 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.204 0.771 0.002 0.0 -------------------.000 strut capacity 2X610X305X179 .592 0.592 0.796 0.219 0.154 0.180 0.3.978 LC4 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.994 = 0.978 OK! OK! OK! 0.138 0.592 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.3.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.999 = 0.792 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.201 0.775 0.999 LC4 governs! = = = 0.019 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.765 = 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.592 0.182 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.8.796 0.

773 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.607 0.176 0.995 = 0.607 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.776 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.000 0.000 strut capacity 3X610X305X179 .949 = 0.000 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.200 0.009 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.169 0.142 0.8.749 0.178 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.0 -------------------.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.795 0.3.773 0.951 OK! OK! OK! 0.607 0.997 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.777 0.756 = 0.140 0.995 LC1 governs! = = = 0.001 0.170 0.607 0.3.

788 0.000 0.0 -------------------.001 0.3.137 0.166 0.8.981 = 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.3.602 0.000 0.180 0.753 = 0.174 0.997 LC4 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.608 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.1 .767 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.602 0.980 = 0.809 0.191 0.014 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.801 0.752 0.000 strut capacity 2X610X324X241.143 0.781 0.981 LC4 governs! = = = 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.997 OK! OK! OK! 0.188 0.608 0.

998 LC4 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.790 0.802 0.810 0.191 0.982 LC4 governs! = = = 0.982 = 0.3.000 0.603 0.603 0.759 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.1 .000 0.3.189 0.006 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.8.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.746 = 0.001 0.000 strut capacity 3X610X324X241.609 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.137 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.772 0.998 OK! OK! OK! 0.753 0.143 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.180 0.981 = 0.0 -------------------.156 0.609 0.164 0.

0 -------------------.169 0.976 LC1 governs! = = = 0.187 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.3.8.797 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.000 strut capacity 2X610X324X341 .011 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.776 0.000 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.602 0.998 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.000 0.602 0.3.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.607 0.755 0.178 0.997 OK! OK! OK! 0.194 0.975 = 0.748 = 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.758 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.147 0.607 0.156 0.001 0.789 0.976 = 0.804 0.135 0.

000 strut capacity 3X610X324X341 .005 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.805 0.789 0.769 0.799 0.147 0.187 0.602 0.999 LC4 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.162 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.999 OK! OK! OK! 0.3.976 = 0.978 LC4 governs! = = = 0.179 0.755 0.978 = 0.8.602 0.3.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.135 0.000 0.149 0.607 0.000 0.000 0.751 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.0 -------------------.607 0.194 0.742 = 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.

000 0.0 -------------------.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.150 0.009 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.186 0.601 0.168 0.136 0.3.3.745 = 0.197 0.606 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.757 0.8.000 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.001 0.774 0.800 0.999 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.152 0.753 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.601 0.787 0.998 OK! OK! OK! 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.972 = 0.178 0.606 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.793 0.973 = 0.000 strut capacity 2X610X324X415 .973 LC1 governs! = = = 0.

973 = 0.000 0.186 0.999 OK! OK! OK! 0.3.768 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.000 0.8.0 -------------------.000 strut capacity 3X610X324X415 .974 LC4 governs! = = = 0.198 0.795 0.747 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.136 0.3.999 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.756 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.601 0.147 0.740 = 0.162 0.179 0.787 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.606 0.601 0.004 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.606 0.974 = 0.150 0.000 0.802 0.

199 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.604 0.000 0.599 0.972 LC4 governs! = = = 0.3.136 0.756 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.179 0.785 0.151 0.800 0.146 0.793 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.000 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.604 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.767 0.599 0.745 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.972 = 0.739 = 0.004 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.162 0.999 OK! OK! OK! 0.000 strut capacity 3X610X324X455 .999 LC4 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.186 0.971 = 0.3.8.0 -------------------.000 0.

Typical Strutting Calculation Diagonal Strut .

235 0.997 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.944 = 0.0 -------------------.798 0.184 0.3.3.219 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.729 = 0.000 0.542 0.709 0.602 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.995 OK! OK! OK! 0.602 0.000 DS capacity 2X610X305X179 .205 0.542 0.028 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.747 0.761 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.000 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.811 0.159 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.003 0.196 0.731 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.8.936 = 0.142 0.944 LC1 governs! = = = 0.

175 0.000 DS capacity 2X610X324X241 .8.183 0.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.3.135 0.195 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.997 OK! OK! OK! 0.173 0.608 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.535 0.751 0.708 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.000 0.717 0.999 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.181 0.3.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.021 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.535 0.895 LC1 governs! = = = 0.895 = 0.142 0.608 0.789 0.000 0.814 0.892 = 0.0 -------------------.700 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.002 0.692 = 0.

539 0.145 0.753 0.189 0.998 LC1 governs! III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.000 0.Equation (2) Fc/Pcy mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = LC1 : Normal Working Conditions 0.1 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.606 0.8.3.000 DS capacity 2X610X324X341 .689 = 0.894 LC1 governs! = = = 0.188 0.705 0.997 OK! OK! OK! 0.0 -------------------.893 = 0.606 0.894 = 0.539 0.000 LC2a: Accidental Load (x-direction) = 0.719 0.000 0.3.174 0.000 OK! OK! OK! OK! 0.160 0.015 LC3 : 1-strut Failure 0.780 0.134 0.809 0.173 0.002 0.699 LC2b: Accidental Load (y-direction) 0.

LC3 : 1-strut Failure

0.776
0.754
0.999

OK!
OK!
OK!

0.999
LC4 governs!

III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 -------------------- Equation (2)
Fc/Pcy
mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy
For Lateral-Torsional Buckling
=
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
0.892
=
0.705
0.186
0.000
=
0.539
0.155
0.000
0.694
0.686
=
0.539
0.134
0.013
LC3 : 1-strut Failure
0.893
=
0.719
0.174
0.000

OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.893
LC4 governs!

=
=
=

0.605
0.605
0.807

0.171
0.148
0.192

0.000
0.001
0.000

DS capacity 2X610X324X415

AECOM SINGAPORE PTE LTD
DESIGN OF SINGLE AND COMPOUND STRUTS WITH ROLLED STEEL SECTION IN ACCORDANCE TO BS5950 : PART 1 : 2000

Version 6.0 updated on 24-05-2011

TITLE OF PROJECT : KLANG VALLEY MRT PROJECT (SBK LINE) - MERDEKA STATION
DESIGN SECTION : STRUCTURAL CAPACITY OF TWIN LACED STRUT OF STEEL S355 (Grade 50B)
SECTION REF. : DIAGONAL STRUT CAPACITY

Direction

1) The benevolent effects of splay (knee strut) is not taken into account.
2) Recommended as per CIRIA Special Publication 95 and CIRIA C517,
a) Allow for eccentricity of axial load due to connection is taken to be approximately
10% of overall dimension of strut in the vertical plane.
b) Accidental loading is considered in the design of proposed temporary strutting system.
=> The accidental loading is assumed as per DC/16/12 Section 16.10 = 50 kN in any direction.
c) Thermal load due to the temperature effects is considered in the design of proposed temporary strutting system.
=> The temperature difference is assumed as per DC/16/12 Section 16.10 = +/- 10 Degrees Celsius.
Proposed laced strut section

=

Proposed strutting interval, Ls
The incidence angle of strut,
Number of struts per laced section

=
=
=
=
=

Steel S275
Steel S355

DESIGNED BY : CWT
CHECKED BY : LKW
DATE : 30-07-2012

Strut Force
Direction

, incidence angle
Lacing Pitch,
of strut
L1

610x324x415.0kg/m

Proposed effective length, Lxx
Proposed effective length, Lyy
Distance between laced section
Lacing Pitch, L1

=
=
=
=

14.70
14.70
1000
2340

Proposed Strut Stiffness, EA

=

3.26E+07

mm per strut
mm per strut
mm per strut
mm per strut

Depth between the fillets, d
Proposed sectional area, Ag
Proposed section mass, Ms

=
=
=
=

16.5
539.8
53000.0
415.0

mm per strut
mm per strut

mm4 per strut
3
mm per strut
3
mm per strut
mm per strut

Section moment of inertia, Iyy
Section plastic modulus, Syy
Section elastic modulus, Zyy

=
=
=
=

3.43E+08
3.16E+06
2.03E+06
80.40

mm4 per strut
3
mm per strut
3
mm per strut
mm per strut

B) PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED TRIPLE LACED STRUT SECTION
Section moment of inertia, Ixx
=
1.20E+10 mm4 per lace section
Section plastic modulus, Sxx
=
4.12E+07 mm3 per lace section
Section elastic modulus, Zxx
=
3.54E+07 mm3 per lace section
=
2.75E+02 mm per lace section
Proposed sectional area, Ag
=
159000
mm2 per lace section

Section moment of inertia, Iyy
Section plastic modulus, Syy
Section elastic modulus, Zyy

=
=
=
=

1.07E+11
1.09E+08
9.16E+07
820.5

mm4 per lace section
3
mm per lace section
3
mm per lace section
mm per lace section

2. MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND SECTION CLASSIFICATION
Section design strength, y
=
335.0
N/mm2
0.5
=
0.906
Value of epsilon, = [ 275/py ]

Elastic modulus of Steel, Esteel

=

205.0

SUMMARY OF DESIGN
Interactive Relationship :

4060
5610
3.500
45.000
3

kN/m
kN/m
metres
Degrees
per compound lace section

Local Interactive Relationship
0.599 + 0.187 + 0 = 0.785
Overall Interactive Relationship
0.793 + 0.206 + 0 = 0.999
0.707 + 0.187 + 0 = 0.894

1. PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED STRUT SECTION
Proposed section depth, D
=
Proposed section width, B
=
Section flange thickness, T
=
Section web thickness, t
=

679.0
338.0
53.1
29.5

A) PROPERTIES OF PROPOSED SINGLE STRUT SECTION
Section moment of inertia, Ixx
=
4.01E+09
Section plastic modulus, Sxx
=
1.37E+07
Section elastic modulus, Zxx
=
1.18E+07
=
275.0

Outstand element of compression flange, b/T
Plastic =
Compact =
Semi-compact =

OK!

metres
metres
mm
mm

kN

OK!
OK!

mm2 per strut
kg/m per strut

kN/mm2

r1 = Fc/d x t x yw
=
1.000
r2 = Fc/Ag x yw
=
0.914
Web subject to Axial Compression and Bending (Generally)
Plastic =
36.24
Compact =
36.24
Semi-compact =
38.46

8.154
9.060
13.59

Flange is Plastic.
Proposed section actual b/T =
3.183
Hence, the proposed section is Non-slender, hence no reduction for design strength.
Section is classified as Class 1 &2

Proposed section actual d/t =
Section web reduced strength,

y' =

18.30

Web is Plastic.

335.0

N/mm2

(Clause 3.6.5)

Axial Strut Force, Fc (Normal)
=
20096.0
Axial Strut Force, Fc (Redundancy)
=
27768.1

3.2 BENDING ABOUT MAJOR AXIS, Mx
3.2.1 Bending due to self-weight, Mx1
Self weight of proposed strut

Mx1

=
=

12.5
336.3

kN
kN

Thermal coeff. of expansion,
Degree of restraint against wall
Variation in strut temperature, T

=
=
=
=

1.20E-05
0.800
10.00
3129.1

per Degree Celsius
Degree Celsius
kN

kN/m
kNm

3.2.2 Bending due to imposed load, M x2

1.5
=
kN/m
121.6
=
kNm
3.2.3 Bending due to eccentricity waler to strut connection, M x3
The minimum strut eccentricity, 1
=
67.90
mm
Mx3a (Normal)
=
1365
kNm

Mx2

Mx3a (Redundancy)

=

1885

kNm

3.2.4 Bending due to deflection induced by selfweight (P-delta effect)+ imposed load, M x4
Self weight + imposed load onto section, Pv,s
=
16.950
kN/m per lace section
=
4.18
mm
Strut deflection, 2=5wL4/384EI
DS capacity 3X610X324X415

Allowable deflection based on L/1000

Mx4 (Normal)
3.2.5 Bending due to accidental load, M x5
Accidental load in major directions, Facc,x

Mx5
3.3 BENDING ABOUT MINOR AXIS, M y
3.3.1 Bending due to accidental load, M x6
Accidental load in minor directions, Facc,y

Mx6

=
=

15
0

mm
kNm

=
=

50.00
183.8

kN
kNm

50.00
183.8

kN
kNm

=
=

2< L/1000, No need to consider P-delta effect

Mx4 (Redundancy)

=

0 kNm

LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
LC3 : Redundancy (1-strut Failure)

Excavation Temperature
1.40
1.20
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx1
1.40
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx2
1.60
0.50
0.50
0.50

Mx3
1.40
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx4
1.40
1.05
1.05
1.05

Mx5
0.00
1.05
0.00
0.00

My1
0.00
0.00
1.05
0.00

LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
LC3 : Redundancy (1-strut Failure)

Excavation Temperature
28134
3755
21101
3286
21101
3286
29156
3286

Mx1
471
353
353
353

Mx2
194
61
61
61

Mx3
1910
1433
1433
1980

Mx4
0
0
0
0

Mx5
0
193
0
0

My1
0
0
193
0

4.3 SUMMARY OF FORCES
Compound:
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
LC3 : Redundancy (1-strut Failure)

Axial

Mx

My

31889
24386
24386
32442

2576
2040
1847
2394

0
0
193
0

Single:

Axial

Mx

My

10630
8129
8129
10814

859
680
616
798

0
0
64
0

OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.785
LC1 governs!

5. LACED STRUT SECTION CAPACITY CHECK
Compression resistance, Pc
Section moment capacity, Mcx
Section moment capacity, Mcy

=
=
=

LACED
53265
13789
30671

SINGLE
17755
4596
30671

kN
kNm
kNm

I) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
The Interaction expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1.0
Fc/Pc
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
=
0.599
=
0.458
=
0.458
LC3 : 1-strut Failure
=
0.609

Mx/Mcx
0.187
0.148
0.134
0.174

My/Mcy
0.000
0.000
0.006
0.000

kN
kNm
kNm

0.785
0.606
0.598
0.783

II) THE OVERALL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
A) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.7.4)

The strut slenderness, xx
The Robertson constant,
The limiting slenderness, LO
The section Perry factor,
Section Euler strength, pE
The value of strength
Compressive strength, pcx
Compression resistance, Pcx (Laced)
Compression resistance, Pcx (Single)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

53.48
5.500
15.54
0.209
707.5
595.1
252.9
40210
13403

B) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.3.6.7)
The equivalent slenderness, LT
= u
(

The value of parameter w
Section torsional index, x
Section buckling parameter, u
The value of slenderness, /x
Section slenderness factor,
Equivalent slenderness, LT,y
The limiting slenderness, LO
The Robertson constant, LT
Section Perry coefficient, LT
Section Euler strength, pE
The value of strength LT
Section bending strength, pb
Buckling resistance moment,Mb

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

w)

0.5

0.860
12.79
0.889
3.186
0.902
30.31
31.09
7.00
0.000
2202
1269
335.0
13789

Based on BS5950-1:2000, Section 4.7.8 (g) Laced Strut Requirement
The strut slenderness, yy
=
17.92
Lacing slenderness, c
=
29.10
CHECK: c <50
29.10
*(max( yy, 1.4 c)
Design Strut Slenderness, yy
=
40.75
5.500
The Robertson constant,
=
Curve (c)
The limiting slenderness, LO
=
15.54
The section Perry factor,
=
0.139
2
Section Euler strength, pE
=
1219
N/mm
2
The value of strength
=
861.3
N/mm
Compressive strength, pcy
=
283.7
N/mm2
Compression resistance, Pcy (Laced)
=
45114
kN
Compression resistance, Pcy (Single)
=
15038
kN

Curve (c)

2

N/mm
2
N/mm
N/mm2
kN
kN

where
For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections, w = 1.00
For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section, If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.3.6.4, where
If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.3.6.4, where
For Class 4 Slender cross section, w = Zx,eff / Sx

N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
kNm

The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 -------------------- Equation (1)
Fc/Pc
mxMx/PyZx myMy/PyZy
For Major axis In-plane Buckling
=
0.999
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
=
0.793
0.206
0.000

w
w

= Zx/Sx
= Zx/Sx

The moment coefficient, mLT
The moment coefficient, mx
The moment coefficient, my

=
=
=

1.000
0.950
0.900

OK!
DS capacity 3X610X324X415

LC3 : 1-strut Failure

0.770
0.755
0.999

OK!
OK!
OK!

0.999
LC1 governs!

III) THE LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8.3.3.1
The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 -------------------- Equation (2)
Fc/Pcy
mLTMx/Mb myMy/PyZy
For Lateral-Torsional Buckling
=
LC1 : Normal Working Conditions
0.894
=
0.707
0.187
0.000
=
0.541
0.148
0.000
0.688
0.680
=
0.541
0.134
0.006
LC3 : 1-strut Failure
0.893
=
0.719
0.174
0.000

OK!
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.894
LC1 governs!

=
=
=

0.606
0.606
0.807

0.163
0.148
0.192

0.000
0.001
0.000

DS capacity 3X610X324X415

Typical Strutting Calculation Waler .

Waler Capacity Table Straight Waler Proposed Waler Sizes No.8 172. Waler Normal.5 2.0 Nominal Size 406 400 610 610 610 X X X X X 260 400 305 324 324 Lxx (m) Lyy (m) 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 No. 1 2 3 4 5 Section No W18 W18 W18 W18 W18 Proposed Waler Arrangement X X X X X Weight (kg/m) 148.1 341.0 241.5 2. Waler Normal.0 X X X X X X Weight (kg/m) 148.8 172. Redundancy.99 capacity 2.0 241.5 2.0 179. Forces shown are at 0.0 179. Redundancy. Forces are in increment of 10s 260 400 305 324 324 324 Lxx (m) Lyy (m) 2. (kN/m) (kN/m) 1670 1250 1490 1110 1820 2430 2440 3250 3360 4490 4180 5570 .5 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 No.0 415.5 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Section No W18 W18 W18 W18 W18 W18 Proposed Waler Arrangement Nominal Size 406 400 610 610 610 610 X X X X X X 1.5 2. (kN/m) (kN/m) 2160 1620 1860 1390 2300 3070 3050 4070 4210 5610 Diagonal Waler Proposed Waler Sizes No.1 341.

Typical Strutting Calculation Waler (Straight Strut) .

Typical Strutting Calculation Waler (Diagonal Strut) .

Typical Strutting Calculation Splay .

(kN/m) Redundancy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Section No W18 W18 W18 W18 W18 W18 Nominal Size 406 400 610 610 610 610 X X X X X X Notes: 1.0 241.0 415.) 2.0 341.83 6 45 2.99 capacity 2.Splay Capacity Table Proposed Splay Sizes No.83 2.83 2.83 6 45 2.83 6 45 2. Forces shown are at 0. (kN/m) 250 380 520 750 940 1000 360 510 700 1000 1240 1360 .8 172.83 2.83 2.83 2.83 6 45 2.83 6 45 2.83 2.83 6 45 Normal.0 455.0 Proposed Splay arrangement Lxx Lyy Spacing Angle (m) (m) (m) (deg. Forces are in increment of 10s 260 400 324 324 324 324 X X X X X X Weight (kg/m) 148.

864 My / Mcy 0.2 N/mm2 Compression resistance. w = 1.1 I) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.32 1035 0.626 0. where For Class 4 Slender cross section.0 N/mm2 kNm The moment coefficient. pcy Compression resistance. The value of strength Compressive strength.70 Curve (c) = 5.500 15. u Section slenderness factor. If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.000 1.996 OK! Splay 406x260x148. pb Buckling resistance moment.8. my = = = = = = = = w w 44. LO Section Euler strength.3.166 = 0.Mb = = = = = 1.6.188 0. w = Zx. The limiting slenderness.184 OK! B) OVERALL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.500 The Robertson constant.32 The limiting slenderness.184 = 0.Equation (2) Fc / Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = = 0.7. mx The moment coefficient.7) The equivalent slenderness. 2 = 4287 The value of strength N/mm Compressive strength.0 -------------------. DESIGN OF KNEE STRUT / SPLAY AND ITS CONNECTION A) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.159 772 283.2 995.eff / Sx The value of parameter w Section buckling parameter.1 Compression resistance.931 308. where If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.3.4. LT = u ( w) 0.8 .8.00 For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section.186 0.Equation (1) F c / Pc + mxMx / PyZx + myMy / PyZy For Major axis In-plane Buckling = = 0. Section bending strength.000 0.0 Fc / Pc + Mx / Mcx + = = 0.000 1.3. Mcx = 1113.998 OK! The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1. Pcx = 6512 kN The strut slenderness.4) The strut slenderness.3.000 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1.8 kNm Section moment capacity.626 0.0 -------------------.6.4.5 where For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections.0 5354 Curve (c) N/mm2 2 N/mm N/mm2 kN = Zx/Sx = Zx/Sx = = = 1.6. xx = 15.002 The section Perry factor. LO Section Euler strength.9 kNm The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1.514 0.3. Pc = 6526 kN Section moment capacity. pE The section Perry factor.4. mLT The moment coefficient.3.22 5. pcx = 344. yy The Robertson constant. pE = 8213 N/mm2 = 0. = 15.3.887 0. Pcy II) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.184 = 0. Mcy = 201.

Equation (1) F c / Pc + mxMx / PyZx + myMy / PyZy For Major axis In-plane Buckling = = 0. pcx = 343.Mb = = = = = 1.6.0 1127.4. LT = u ( w) 0. Mcy = 386.005 The section Perry factor.000 1.0 -------------------.6.3. pE The section Perry factor.096 OK! B) OVERALL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4. LO Section Euler strength. pb Buckling resistance moment.4.000 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1. Section bending strength.203 = 0.5 where For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections.21 Curve (c) = 5.686 0.4) The strut slenderness.eff / Sx The value of parameter w Section buckling parameter.203 0.3.7. 2 = 4040 The value of strength N/mm Compressive strength.8. my = = = = = = = = w w 27.3.5 kNm The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1. If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4. xx = 16. Pcy II) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4. u Section slenderness factor.6.686 0.4.000 1.7) The equivalent slenderness.203 0.636 0.00 For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section.096 = 0.8. The limiting slenderness.5 kNm Section moment capacity.0 Fc / Pc + Mx / Mcx + = = 0. = 15.500 15. pcy Compression resistance.1 I) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.2 N/mm2 Compression resistance.32 The limiting slenderness.000 0.0 -------------------. w = 1.068 1582 320. where If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4. pE = 7697 N/mm2 = 0.Equation (2) Fc / Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = = 0.32 2638 0. The value of strength Compressive strength.3. Mcx = 1127. w = Zx.500 The Robertson constant.2 6869 Curve (c) N/mm2 2 N/mm N/mm2 kN = Zx/Sx = Zx/Sx = = = 1. Pc = 7402 kN Section moment capacity. mx The moment coefficient. yy The Robertson constant.3. mLT The moment coefficient.69 5.985 OK! Splay 400x400x172 .5 N/mm2 kNm The moment coefficient.985 OK! The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1. LO Section Euler strength.935 My / Mcy 0.3.975 345.850 0. where For Class 4 Slender cross section.1 Compression resistance.3. Pcx = 7364 kN The strut slenderness.096 = 0. DESIGN OF KNEE STRUT / SPLAY AND ITS CONNECTION A) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.

mx The moment coefficient.3. Section bending strength. Pcy II) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.3.3.096 = 0. The limiting slenderness.991 OK! The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1. pcx = 345. Mcx = 2632. pcy Compression resistance. If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.7. yy The Robertson constant. Mcy = 386.0 -------------------.8 kNm Section moment capacity.612 0.00 For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section. The value of strength Compressive strength.3.180 0.6.000 1. LO Section Euler strength.2 9236 Curve (c) N/mm2 2 N/mm N/mm2 kN = Zx/Sx = Zx/Sx = = = 1. = 15. LO Section Euler strength.096 = 0.1 Compression resistance.1 I) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.4.000 1.0 -------------------.4) The strut slenderness.32 The limiting slenderness.7 kNm The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1.500 15. w = 1.Equation (1) F c / Pc + mxMx / PyZx + myMy / PyZy For Major axis In-plane Buckling = = 0.701 0. where If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.6.172 = 0. LT = u ( w) 0.eff / Sx The value of parameter w Section buckling parameter. where For Class 4 Slender cross section. DESIGN OF KNEE STRUT / SPLAY AND ITS CONNECTION A) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.4. pE = 17659 N/mm2 = 0.096 OK! B) OVERALL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4. Pcx = 10578 kN The strut slenderness.116 1021 301.500 The Robertson constant. my = = = = = = = = w w 36. xx = 10.000 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 2510. pb Buckling resistance moment. pE The section Perry factor.194 0. mLT The moment coefficient. 2 = 9002 The value of strength N/mm Compressive strength.8.000 0.32 1520 0.49 5.6.888 0.8.964 329. w = Zx.000 The section Perry factor. Pc = 10578 kN Section moment capacity.0 N/mm2 Compression resistance.7) The equivalent slenderness.70 Curve (c) = 5.880 My / Mcy 0.3.Mb = = = = = 1.5 N/mm2 kNm The moment coefficient.977 OK! Splay 610x324x241 .4.5 where For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections.0 Fc / Pc + Mx / Mcx + = = 0.3. u Section slenderness factor.Equation (2) Fc / Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = = 0.701 0.3.

75 5. LO Section Euler strength.7. u Section slenderness factor.500 15. Pcy II) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4. my = = = = = = = = w w 35.5 kNm Section moment capacity.177 = 0. w = Zx.000 0.4.0 N/mm2 Compression resistance.068 = 0. mLT The moment coefficient. Mcx = 3693.00 For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section.000 The section Perry factor. 2 = 9435 The value of strength N/mm Compressive strength. where If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.000 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1.0 kNm The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1.6. xx = 10.500 The Robertson constant.3.203 0.3.0 -------------------.0 Fc / Pc + Mx / Mcx + = = 0.726 0. If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.6.068 OK! B) OVERALL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.3. Pcx = 14480 kN The strut slenderness.0 -------------------.Equation (1) F c / Pc + mxMx / PyZx + myMy / PyZy For Major axis In-plane Buckling = = 0.54 The limiting slenderness.4) The strut slenderness. where For Class 4 Slender cross section.184 0. w = 1.978 OK! Splay 610x324x341 .3. pb Buckling resistance moment.726 0.eff / Sx The value of parameter w Section buckling parameter.8.5 where For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections.000 1. Mcy = 545. LT = u ( w) 0. DESIGN OF KNEE STRUT / SPLAY AND ITS CONNECTION A) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.45 Curve (c) = 5.3.890 0.1 Compression resistance.1 I) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.Equation (2) Fc / Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = = 0. Pc = 14480 kN Section moment capacity.0 N/mm2 kNm The moment coefficient. The value of strength Compressive strength.4. LO Section Euler strength.068 = 0.940 322.4.7 12740 Curve (c) N/mm2 2 N/mm N/mm2 kN = Zx/Sx = Zx/Sx = = = 1.111 1047 294.54 1583 0. The limiting slenderness. = 15. yy The Robertson constant.884 My / Mcy 0.997 OK! The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.638 0.3. pcy Compression resistance.8.7) The equivalent slenderness. Section bending strength.Mb = = = = = 1. pE = 18534 N/mm2 = 0.000 1. pE The section Perry factor. pcx = 335.6.3. mx The moment coefficient.7 3558.

pE The section Perry factor.4.7.108 1076 296.7) The equivalent slenderness. The value of strength Compressive strength. 2 = 9704 The value of strength N/mm Compressive strength. u Section slenderness factor.1 15633 Curve (c) N/mm2 2 N/mm N/mm2 kN = Zx/Sx = Zx/Sx = = = 1.648 0.4) The strut slenderness.4.8.973 OK! Splay 610x324x415 .500 The Robertson constant. DESIGN OF KNEE STRUT / SPLAY AND ITS CONNECTION A) LOCAL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.5 where For Class 1 Plastic or Class 2 Compact cross sections. yy The Robertson constant.209 0.0 Fc / Pc + Mx / Mcx + = = 0.0 -------------------. Pcy II) SECTION BENDING STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4.3. xx = 10.1 Compression resistance.3.000 The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + mxMx / Mcx + myMy / PyZy < 1. LT = u ( w) 0.8 kNm Section moment capacity.30 Curve (c) = 5.54 The limiting slenderness.Equation (1) F c / Pc + mxMx / PyZx + myMy / PyZy For Major axis In-plane Buckling = = 0.8 N/mm2 kNm The moment coefficient.3.733 0.000 0.882 My / Mcy 0. = 15.055 = 0.6. where For Class 4 Slender cross section.11 5.733 0.996 OK! The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy < 1.00 For Class 3 Semi-compact cross section.eff / Sx The value of parameter w Section buckling parameter.0 -------------------.889 0.055 OK! B) OVERALL CAPACITY CHECK AS PER CLAUSE 4.8 kNm The Interaction Expression : Fc/Pc + Mx / Mcx + My / Mcy < 1. If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4.5 4429. w = Zx.8.055 = 0. The limiting slenderness.Equation (2) Fc / Pcy + mLTMx / Mb + myMy / PyZy For Lateral-Torsional Buckling = = 0. Mcy = 679. Mcx = 4573. pb Buckling resistance moment. Pc = 17686 kN Section moment capacity.3.186 0. pcy Compression resistance.54 1641 0. Pcx = 17686 kN The strut slenderness.Mb = = = = = 1. Section bending strength. mLT The moment coefficient.000 1. w = 1.0 N/mm2 Compression resistance.3.500 15.180 = 0.923 324. pcx = 335.4. LO Section Euler strength.000 1. pE = 19074 N/mm2 = 0.6.000 The section Perry factor. mx The moment coefficient.1 I) SECTION COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (CLAUSE 4. where If Mb = pbZx in Clause 4. my = = = = = = = = w w 35. LO Section Euler strength.3.3.6.