The bigger picture
Organisational performance Employee performance

Employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes

Employee education, experience and training


Existing ‡ Skills ‡ Knowledge ‡ Attitudes

Training helps to bridge the gap
TNA is a tool to identify the gap

Required ‡ Skills ‡ Knowledge ‡ Attitudes

TNA in essence«
Start with future organisational goals and challenges


Assess required employee performance to meet the goals and challenges


Assess required employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes to deliver the performance


Identify employee training needs to bridge the gap

Needs Assessment Definition
A needs assessment is the process of identifying performance requirements and the "gap" between what performance is required and what presently exists.

Instructional Design Process



Organizational analysis Objectives, Resources Environment


Operational analysis Expected Performance (EP)

Identify Performance Discrepancy (PD) PD= EP-AP And Causes of PD

Person analysis Actual Performance (AP)

Training needs

Nontraining needs


Step 1: Define the problem
Describe Discrepancy

Step 2: Is it important? 

Why is it important? What if you did nothing? How big is it? (Quantify if possible) ³Is the cost of the discrepancy high enough that it seems worth pursuing a solution?´

If the answer is no«..


Step 3: Determine Cause(s)
Is it a problem of skill or a problem of will?
I don¶t I don¶t wanna! wanna!

I don¶t know how.

If a skill deficiency.. 

Provide training Provide practice Provide feedback Simplify the task Develop a job aid OJT Transfer Terminate

Yes, it is a problem of will...
Reward/ Performance incongruence?

Change contingencies

And other question...
Inadequate feedback or Obstacles? Provide proper feedback/Remove Obstacles

To solve a performance issue 

Training may not be the answer Training may not be the only answer

If training is the answer«. 

Formal training Self study Technology based Job related/workplace approaches

Some questions for TNA 

WHY ? WHEN ? WHERE to look for performance discrepancies?  

Framework for TNA 


Organizational Analysis Operational Analysis Person Analysis 

Determining the nature of PD and its causes. 


Provides us training / training needs.

Organizational Analysis
Provide information about:  Mission & strategies of an organization  Resources & their allocation, given the objectives 

Capital Resources Human Resources 

Organizational environment: Internal factors that may be causing problems Impact of the preceding factors on developing, providing & transferring the KSAa to the job if training is the chosen solution to the PD; where to collect data ± to identify the causes of PD

Operational Analysis
Determines exactly what is required of employees in order for them to be effective: 

required to meet expectations. Characteristics of task environment (work flow, ergonomics, etc) to be able to meet expectations.

Incumbents & supervisors are questioned.

Mission, Goals & Objectives -Is there any general understanding of the above? Social Influences Feeling about meeting goals? Social pressure for achieving goals? Reward System

Top Management Department Managers Incumbents Top Management Department Managers Incumbents Top Management Department Managers Incumbents Supervisors Incumbents Supervisors Incumbents Department Managers Supervisors Incumbents

Job Design Job Performance Methods & Practices

Job Analysis 

What is the Job? Where to collect data? Whom to ask? 

Incumbents Supervisors 


Who should select incumbents? How many to ask? How to select? What to ask about?

Job Analysis Techniques 

Worker oriented approach Task oriented approach
e.g., job-duty task method

Rate KSAs as ³Importance to this job´ as:
Doesn't apply / Minor / Low / Average / High / Extreme &

Its ³Importance at the time of hire´.



WORKER±ORIENTED APPROACH Obtain information from visual displays Use of a measuring device

Garage Checks tire pressure Attendant Machinist Checks thickness of crankshaft Dentist Drills out decay from teeth Loads pallets of washers onto trucks

Use of precision instruments High level of eye-hand coordination

Forklift Driver

Job analysis when no incumbents are present 

Contact the manufacturer & ask if that / similar equipment was used elsewhere. Obtain specifications & operating manuals for the new equipments. Interview engineers responsible for designing the new equipment. Obtain blueprints & layouts of the physical equipment as well as flowcharts of the operating software. Identify two main tasks as per Task & Worker oriented approach.

Job Analysis indicate expected performance
Gives a list of tasks & KSAs required to perform the job. Task information is used to:
Identifying the expected behavior  Developing actual training programs  Evaluations of the training 

Task information leads to identification of KSAs

Competency Modeling
Develop key competencies required for the job. Competency (U.S) is a cluster of related KSAs that differentiate ³high´ performers from average performers. Competency (U.K, Aus.) is what someone needs to be doing to be competent at their job. More generic in nature. Longer-term fit. Include KSAs + feelings & motivation. Tie into corporate goals.


Training based on task analysis can be dated quickly as work undergoes dynamic changes. Nature of work is changing & employees are expected to involve in decision making & customer satisfaction. Corporate downsizing is changing tightly defined jobs to a more flexible work design. Competencies help HRD focus its training.

How is it done? 

Meet upper management 

Determine strategies/goals specific challenges or specific focus. Generate some tentative competencies. 

Identify specific jobs. Meet high performers from those jobs and their supervisors to: 

Determine critical incidents that distinguishes ³high performers´. Focus on the aspects that tie into the strategic direction of the company. Formulate some tentative competencies. 


Determine the competencies that overlap with upper management competencies. Verify the preceding information with another group pf high performers and their supervisors. Link this information to job analysis information obtained from the job to articulate specific KSAs that make up the competency.

Person Analysis
Methodology to identify those incumbents who don¶t meet the performance requirements (PD = EP ± AP) In the proactive analysis, EP is what is needed in the future and AP is the current performance level.

Where to collect data from? 

Performance Appraisal 

Supervisor Ratings Self Ratings 360 Degree Performance Review
Used to judge likelihood of Deficiency being a KSA issue: Low Distinctiveness (in many areas) High Distinctiveness (in one area) Low Unsure 

Performance Data

High Consensus (with many people) Low Consensus (with less people)

Unsure High


Proficiency Tests 

Cognitive Tests: 

Measure levels of knowledge Paper & pencil Test in groups. 

Behavioral Tests: 

Determine needs related to skills required on the job. Incorporate work samples. Assessment Centers. 


To judge attitude.

Gathering TNA Data Final Thoughts
For conceptual understanding, divide the TNA into 3 distinct factors:
1. 2. 3. Organization Operation Person

For the TNA to be effective, ensure that the organization:  Allows developmental appraisals.  Allows self ± appraisal.  Places high value on developing subordinates. Provide opportunities for training & mentoring.

Outcomes of TNA
Identification of PDs.  Identification of their causes.  Deciding whether they are important enough to be fixed up. ---------------------------------------------------------- Training Needs -PDs that are due to lack of KSAs & for which training is a 


Non-Training Needs

Non Training Needs
Where training is not the best solution. No KSA Deficiency. Caused by:
Reward / punishment  Inappropriate / inadequate feedback  Obstacles in the system 

KSA Deficiency. Solutions could be:
Job Aids  Practice  Changing the job 

Approaches to TNA 

Proactive TNA 

Focuses on future HR requirements. Prepare for future promotions/transfers. Prepare for changes in the current job. e.g., Succession Planning Begins with existing PD. Focus mainly on one department. Those who show PD are the key trainees. Focuses on a particular part of the job. 

Reactive TNA (Repair Act) 

Teamwork in conducting training need analysis

Teamwork is all about performing a task in a team, where in all the members contribute to achieve a specified goal.

Training need analysis (TNA)   

Investigation forms the basis of training need analysis and effective investigation leads to effective TNA. It involves observing the day-to-day operations of the organization and interact with people at all levels, from production line to management Maintain informal contacts with individuals throughout the organization

TNA (contd)   

Regularly assess the attitudes and feelings of the organization¶s staff Stay abreast of all policies, procedures and standards relating to work performance Formally and informally gathering input from various constituencies

Formation of task force in conducting TNA    

To do an effective TNA, a permanent task force is essential Task force should include representatives from each department for effective TNA Choose those who know and care about the situation Identify a contact person or ³champion´ who is committed to training and whom you can call upon for support and resources

TNA and Design 

Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly identified, the design phase of the training and development process is initiated: 

‡ Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the training. ‡ Select and design the program content. ‡ Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture, role play, simulation, etc.). ‡ Select the appropriate setting (on the job, classroom, etc.). ‡ Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books, videos, etc.). ‡ Identify and train instructors (if internal). 



The outcome of Analysis phase creates blueprint for the design phase.
Suppose a TNA is completed and identified that supervisors need training in effective communication skills. We then need to make some decisions, such as 

What method of training to use How much time to allot for the training How many trainees to train at the same time Whether training be on company time Whether training be voluntary or mandatory On or off-site location for training

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