1. INTRODUCTION
Many analysts and policy makers have argued that building more highways is an Ineffective response to congestion: specifically, that it is infeasible to add enough highways Capacity in large urban areas to provide much relief. But this making of highways is just showing the path for accidents because of no speed limits in these highways. In order to overcome this problem we have designed equipment called as SPEED CHECKER ON HIGHWAYS. This kit investigates differentiated design standards as a source of capacity additions that are more affordable. Here we consider the average speed and high speed with which the vehicles are moving. We also consider the implications of differing accident rates. All these consideration were taken and the design of this equipment is done. This design helps to find the vehicles which are moving with high speed in spite of a speed limit board is present in that highway. The cops then can take necessary action on that culprit. The design mainly uses a timer, counter, logic gates and 7segment display. Using these components we design the speed checker on highways and observed that it is working more efficiently than expected.
operation and leading the logical addition between the signal and system clock and the logical multiplication between the signal and counter write signal to the direct reset input of a transparent latch 7 and for realizing readonthefly or writeonthefly operation even if timer input does not synchronize with the system clock is called as Timer & Control circuit. A circuit or network in which the output changes abruptly with an infinitesimal change in input at a predetermined operating point. Also known as trigger. A circuit in which an action is initiated by an input pulse.
The kit mainly consists of two laser transmitterLDR sensor pairs which are installed on the highway 100m apart such that the transmitter and LDR sensor of each pair on the opposite sides of the road. This kind of arrangement is shown in the figure below.
Fig 2.4 Circuit Operation When any vehicle crosses the first laser beam LDR1 goes high for the time set to cross 100mts with the selected speed (60KMPH) and LED1 glows during this period. When the vehicle crosses the second laser light beam, the output of IC2 goes high and LED2 glows for this period. Pezo buzzer sounds an alarm if the vehicle crosses the distance between the laser setups at more than selected speed(lesser period than preset period).The counter starts counting when the first laser beam is intercepted and stops when the second laser beam is intercepted. The time taken by the vehicle to crop both the laser beams is displayed on the 7segment display.
Fig 3.1 Transformer A transformer is an energy device it has an input side (primary) and an output side (secondary).electrical energy applied to the primary is converted to a magnetic field which in turn, induces a current in the secondary which carries energy to the load connected to the load connected to the secondary. The alternating current that flows through the primary winding establishes a time varying magnetic flux, some of which links to the secondary winding and induces a voltage across it. The magnetic of this voltage is proportional to the number of turns on the primary winding to the number of turns on the secondary winding this is known as turns ratio. The basic working principle of transformer is based on mutual induction between two coupled coils. According to this principle by changing flux creates on induced emf in turn equal to the derivative of the flux so that the total induced emf across N turns is
E= N d@/dt
: (@=fi)
A transformer consists of at least two sets of windings wound on a single magnetic core. There are two main purposes for using transformers. The first is to convert the energy on the primary side to a different voltage level on the secondary side. This is accomplished by using differing turns counts on primary and secondary windings. The voltage ratio is the same as the turns ratio. The second purpose is to isolate the energy source from the destination, either for personal safety, or to allow a voltage offset between the source and load.
Fig 3.1.1 Step Down Transformer A step down transformer has less turns of wire on the secondary coil which makes a smaller induced voltage in the secondary coil. Decreasing the voltage does not decrease the power. As the voltage goes down, the current goes up. It is called a step down transformer because the voltage output is smaller than the voltage input. If the secondary coil has half as many turns of wire then the output voltage will be half the input voltage.
3.2 Rectifier
Rectifier circuits are found in all dc power supplies that operate from an ac voltage source. They convert the ac input voltage to a pulsating dc voltage. The most basic type of rectifier circuit is the halfwave rectifier. Although halfwave rectifiers have some applications,
the fullwave rectifiers are the most commonly used type in dc power supplies. These are two types of fullwave rectifiers: (1) fullwave centertapped rectifier (2) fullwave bridge rectifier Here in this particular design we are using a bridge rectifier which is discussed as follows.
D3 Vin D2
D1
D4
Vout
+
0
RL

Fig 3.2 Fullwave Bridge Rectifier During positive halfcycles of the input, D1 and D2 are forwardbiased and conduct current, D3 and D4 are reversebiased. When the input cycle is negative as shown in below figure, diodes D3 and D4 are forwardbiased and conduct current in the same direction through RL as during the positive
halfcycle. During the negative halfcycle, D1 and D2 are reversebiased. A fullwave rectifier output voltage appears across RL as a result of this action.
Vin +
D3
D1
D2
D4
Vout
+
0
RL

During negative halfcycles of the input, D3 and D4 are forwardbiased and conduct current D1 and D2 are reversebiased. The above two figures explain the fullwave Bridge Rectifier. The output graph of a fullwave rectifier is as shown
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Fig 3.2.2 IN4007 Diode The number and voltage capacity of some of the important diodes available in the market are as follows:
Diodes of number IN4001, IN4002, IN4003, IN4004, IN4005, IN4006 and IN4007 have maximum reverse bias voltage capacity of 50V and maximum forward current capacity of 1 Amp.
Diode of same capacities can be used in place of one another. Besides this diode of more capacity can be used in place of diode of low capacity but diode of low capacity cannot be used in place of diode of high capacity. For example, in place of IN4002; IN4001 or IN4007 can be used but IN4001 or IN4002 cannot be used in place of IN4007.The diode BY125made by company BEL is equivalent of diode from IN4001
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to IN4003. BY 126 is equivalent to diodes IN4004 to 4006 and BY 127 is equivalent to diode IN4007.
Fig 3.3 Voltage Regulator With the exception of passive shunt regulators, all modern electronic voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback servo control loop; increasing the openloop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing during step changes). There will also be a tradeoff between stability and the speed of the response to changes. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output
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voltage  by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and buck switching regulators), or to draw input current for longer periods (boosttype switching regulators); if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower voltage. However, many regulators have overcurrent protection, so entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if the output current is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range (see also: crowbar circuits). The voltage Regulator used in this design is LM 7812.
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transient response. Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply. For output voltage other than 5V, 12V and 15V the LM117 series provides an output voltage range from 1.2V to 57V.
Features  Output current in excess of 1A  Internal thermal overload protection  No external components required  Output transistor safe area protection  Internal short circuit current limit  Available in the aluminum TO3 package Voltage Range LM7805C 5V
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designed in 1970 and introduced in 1971 by Signe tics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555/NE555 and was called "The IC Time Machine". The 555 gets its name from the three 5kohm resistors used in typical early implementations. It is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, 1 billion units are manufactured every year. Depending on the manufacturer, it includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8pin mini dualinline package (DIP8). The 556 is a 14pin DIP that combines two 555s on a single chip. The 558 is a 16pin DIP that combines four slightly modified 555s on a single chip (DIS & THR are connected internally; TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). Also available are ultralow power versions of the 555 such as the 7555 and TLC555. The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. The 555 has three operating modes: Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "oneshot". Applications
include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulsewidth modulation (PWM) etc Astable  free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED
and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flipflop, if the DIS pin is
not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches, etc.
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3.4.3 APPLICATIONS
The timer, since introduction, has spurred the imagination of thousands. Thus, the ways in which this device has been used are far too numerous to present each one. A review of the basic operation and basic modes has previously been given.
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a) Missing Pulse Detector b) Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) c) Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) d) Tone Burst Generator e) Sequential Timing
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technology that can create an inverter and a twoinput AND/ OR gate. Hence the NAND and NOR gates are called the universal gates. For an input of 2 variables, there are 16 possible Boolean algebraic functions. These 16 functions are enumerated below, together with their outputs for each combination of inputs variables. The four functions denoted by arrows are the logical implication functions. These functions are generally less common, and are usually not implemented directly as logic gates, but rather built out of gates like AND and OR.
18 0 0 0 1 1 Meaning 1
0 0
Whatever A and B, the output is false. Contradiction. Output is true if and only if (iff) both A and B are true. A doesn't imply B. True iff A but not B. True whenever A is true. A is not implied by B. True iff not A but B. True whenever B is true. True iff A is not equal to B. True iff A is true, or B is true, or both. True iff neither A nor B. True iff A is equal to B. True iff B is false. A is implied by B. False if not A but B, otherwise true. True iff A is false. A implies B. False if A but not B, otherwise true. A and B are not both true. Whatever A and B, the output is true.
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
1 1
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The IC used in this design is CD4011 which is discussed as follows in the form of datasheet.
3.6 Counters:
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In general, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. In practice, there are two types of counters: In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. Up counters which increase (increment) in value Down counters which decrease (decrement) in value
In electronics, counters can be implemented quite easily using registertype circuits such as the flipflop, and a wide variety of designs exist, e.g. Image File history File links Tflipflop. In digital circuits, the flipflop, latch, or bistable multivibrator is an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory.
Asynchronous (ripple) counters Synchronous counters Johnson counters Decade counters UpDown counters Ring counters
Each is useful for different applications. Usually, counter circuits are digital in nature, and count in binary, or sometimes binary coded decimal. Many types of counter circuit are available as digital building blocks, for example a number of chips in the 4000 series implement different counters. A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or nonnumeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (i.e., as in an analog system). ... The term binary code can mean several
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different things: There are a variety of different methods of coding numbers or symbols into strings of bits, including fixedlength binary numbers, prefix codes such as Huffman code, and other arithmetic coding. The 4000 series is the general classification used to refer to the industry standard integrated circuits which implement a variety of logic functions using CMOS technology. .
Fig 3.6 Asynchronous (ripple) counters The simplest counter circuit is a single Dtype flip flop, with its D (data) input fed from its own inverted output. This circuit can store one bit, and hence can count from zero to one before it overflows (starts over from 0). This counter will increment once for every clock cycle and takes two clock cycles to overflow, so every cycle it will alternate between a transition from 0 to 1 and a transition from 1 to 0. Notice that this creates a new clock with a 50% duty cycle at exactly half the frequency of the input clock. If this output is then used as the clock signal for a similarly arranged D flip flop (remembering to invert the output to the input), you will get another 1 bit counter that counts half as fast. Putting them together yields a two bit counter: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In digital circuits, the flipflop, latch, or bistable multivibrator is an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory.
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You can continue to add additional flip flops, always inverting the output to its own input, and using the output from the previous flip flop as the clock signal. The result is called a ripple counter, which can count to 2n1 where n is the number of bits (flip flop stages) in the counter. Ripple counters suffer from unstable outputs as the overflows "ripple" from stage to stage, but they do find frequent application as dividers for clock signals, where the instantaneous count is unimportant, but the division ratio overall is. (To clarify this, a 1bit counter is exactly equivalent to a divide by two circuit  the output frequency is exactly half that of the input when fed with a regular train of clock pulses). A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another.
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Synchronous counters
A Johnson counter is a special case of shift register, where the output from the last stage is inverted and fed back as input to the first stage. A pattern of bits equal in length to the shift register thus circulates indefinitely. These counters are sometimes called "walking ring"
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counters, and find specialist applications, including those similar to the decade counter, digital to analogue conversion, etc. In digital circuits a shift register is a group of registers set up in a linear fashion which have their inputs and outputs connected together in such a way that the data is shifted down the line when the circuit is activated. Decade counters Decade counters are a kind of counter that counts in tens rather than having a binary representation. Each output will go high in turn, starting over after ten outputs have occurred. This type of circuit finds applications in multiplexers and demultiplexers, or wherever a scanning type of behavior is useful. Similar counters with different numbers of outputs are also common. Schematic of a 2to1 Multiplexer. UpDown Counters It is a combination of up counter and down counter, counting in straight binary sequence. There is an updown selector. If this value is kept high, counter increments binary value and if the value is low, then counter starts decrementing the count. Ring Counters Instead of counting with binary numbers, a ring counter counts with words that have a single high bit. These are ideal for timing a sequence of digital operations.
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computer science, computability theory is the branch of the theory of computation that studies which problems are computationally solvable using different models of computation. In mathematics, a natural number can mean either an element of the set {1, 2, 3 ...} (i. ... 0 (zero) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
Check whether the counter is zero Increment the counter by one Decrement the counter by one (if it's already zero, this leaves it unchanged).
The following machines are listed in order of power, with each one being strictly more powerful than the one below it: 1. Deterministic or Nondeterministic FSM plus two counters
2. Nondeterministic FSM plus one stack
3. Nondeterministic FSM plus one counter 4. Deterministic FSM plus one counter 5. Deterministic or Nondeterministic FSM For the first and last, it doesn't matter whether the FSM is deterministic or nondeterministic (see determinism). They have equivalent power. The first two and the last one are levels of the Chomsky hierarchy. Simple representation of a stack in computer science, a stack is a temporary abstract data type and data structure based on the principle of Last In First Out (LIFO). In the theory of computation, a deterministic finite state machine or deterministic finite automaton (DFA) is a finite state machine where for each pair of state and input symbol there is one and only one transition to a next state. The Chomsky hierarchy is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars that generate formal languages. The first machine, an FSM plus two counters, is equivalent in power to a Turing machine. An artistic representation of a Turing
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Machine. In theoretical computer science a register machine is an abstract machine used to study decision problems, similar to how a Turing machine is used.The Counter used in this design is a CMOS decade counter/divider which is discussed as follows in the form of datasheet.
SOFTWARE The software used in our project to obtain the schematic layout is MICROISM. PANELISATION Here the schematic transform in to the working positive/negative films .The circuit is repeated conveniently to accommodate economically as many circuits are possible in a panel, which can
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be operated in every sequence of subsequent steps in the PCB process. This is called panelisation. For the PTH boards, the next operation is drilling. RESISTORS A resistor is a twoterminal passive electronic component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. This constant of proportionality is called conductance, G. The reciprocal of the conductance is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law:
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well asresistance wire (wire made of a highresistivity alloy, such as nickelchrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybridand printed circuits. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are
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physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. Practical resistors include a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in highfrequency applications. In a lownoise amplifier or preamp the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.
First find the tolerance band, it will typically be gold ( 5%) and sometimes silver (10%). Now 'read' the next color, here it is red so write down a '2' next to the six. (you should have '62' so far.)
Now read the third or 'multiplier exponent' band and write down that as the number of zeros.
In this example it is two so we get '6200' or '6,200'. If the 'multiplier exponent' band is Black (for zero) don't write any zeros down.
If the 'multiplier exponent' band is Gold move the decimal point one to the left. If the 'multiplier exponent' band is Silver move the decimal point two places to the left. If the resistor has one more band past the tolerance band it is a quality band.
Read the number as the '% Failure rate per 1000 hour' This is rated assuming full wattage
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being applied to the resistors. (To get better failure rates, resistors are typically specified to have twice the needed wattage dissipation that the circuit produces). Some resistors use this band for temco information. 1% resistors have three bands to read digits to the left of the multiplier. They have a different temperature coefficient in order to provide the 1% tolerance.
At 1% the temperature coefficient starts to become an important factor. at +/200 ppm a change in temperature of 25 Deg C causes a value change of up to 1%
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A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated by a nonconductor. Capacitors used as parts of electrical systems, for example, consist of metal foils separated by a layer of insulating film. A capacitor is a passive by electronic component When consisting there is of a pair
of conductors separated
a dielectric (insulator).
a potential
difference (voltage) across the conductors, a staticelectric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes.
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The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor; hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates," referring to an early means of construction. In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and lead sintroduce an undesired inductance and resistance.
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Check correct polarity of the power supply before connecting power to the circuit. In the circuit use long wires for connecting the two LDRs, so that we can take them out and install on highway 100mts apart easily.
Install the two laser light transmitters exactly opposite to the LDRs so that the laser light falls on them exactly.
Reset the circuit by pressing the preset button , S2, so that the display shows 0000. Using S1, select the speed limit on the highway, say 60KMPH. For 60Kmph setting with frequency set at 100Hz,if the display count is less than 600 then it indicates that vehicle has crossed the speed limit and simultaneously the buzzer sounds.
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5 RESULT:
Thus the design has tested the speed of a vehicle when the vehicle is passed through those two pairs of transmitterLDR pairs. Here it can check the speed of a single vehicle only.
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www.wikipedia.com www.electronicslab4u.com Electronic devices and circuits By Louis boylsted and Naschalsky. Switching Theory and Logic Design By Jain,RP Linear Integrated circuits By Roy choudhary
COMPONENT Resistors 1,4 Resistors 2,5,6,810,11,14 Resistors 3,7,13,16,17,18,19 Resistor 9 Resistors 12,15 Variable Resistors VR1,VR2 Variable Resistors VR3 Capacitor 1 Capacitors 2,4,6,8,11 Capacitors 3,13,15 Capacitor 5 Capacitor 7 Capacitor 9 Capacitor 10 LDR 1,2 Capacitor 12 Capacitor 14 ICS 1,2,3,4,5 ICS 6,7,8,9 100k ohms 10k ohms 470 ohms 470k ohms 1 k ohms 100 k ohms 20k ohms
VALUE
100 micro farads,25 v 0.01 micro farad, disk 0.1 micro farad, disk 10 micro farad,25v 0.47 micro farad,63v (electrolytic) 0.2 micro farad, disk 1 micro farad, 25v 10 mm(ldr) 47 micro farad,25v 1000 micro farad,35v NE 555 CD 4026
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