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Sector: AUTOMOTIVE/LAND TRANSPORT SECTOR Qualification: Automotive Servicing NC-II Unit of Competency: Service Automotive Battery Module Title:

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY

PTS-TESDA QA SYSTEM

Date Developed: Nov. 2011

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Servicing Automotive Battery

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Passi Trade School


HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL Welcome to the Competency Based Learning Material/Module on Servicing Automotive Battery. This learning material contains activities for you to complete. The unit of competency Service Automotive Battery covers the knowledge. Skills and attitudes required for a trainees to posses in an Automotive course /qualification. You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each of the learning outcomes of this module. In each learning outcome , there are Information Sheets, and .Job sheets to help you understand better and perform the required activities. Follow these activities and answer the self-check. Get the answer sheet from your trainer to reflect your answers for each self-check. If you have questions, please dont hesitate to ask your trainer/ facilitators for assistance. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) You may have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this learning material because you have: Actual experience on the job Already completed training in this area

If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a particular skill or skills talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so you wont have to do the same training again. If you have qualifications or a Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still relevant to this module, they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL. This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency in Service Automotive Battery. This will be one of the sources of information that will enable you to acquire the knowledge and skills of this particular trade at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from your trainer. Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the training of this module. Read through the Competency Based Learning Material carefully. It is divided into sections which cover all
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the skills and knowledge you need to successfully complete this module. Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He /She is there to support you the correct way to do thing. Ask for help. Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to consider when you are completing the activities and it is important that you listen and take notes. You will be given plenty of opportunities to ask questions and practice on the job Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work shifts. This way you will improve both your speed and memory and also your confidence. Talk to more experienced workmates and ask for their guidance. Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your own progress. When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the activities outlined in this learning material. As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on your progress. Your trainer keeps feedback/pre-assessment reports for this reason. When you have successfully completed each element, ask your trainer to mark on the reports that you are ready for assessment. When you have completed this module and feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, your trainer will arrange an appointment with registered assessor to assess you. The results f your assessment will be recorded in your competency Achievement Record.

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Servicing Automotive Battery

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QUALIFICATION: Automotive Servicing NC-II UNIT OF COMPETENCY: Service Automotive Battery MODULE TITLE: SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY INTRODUCTION: This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes in servicing automotive battery. It identifies the competence required to: service, remove, replace, test and charge automotive batteries. . LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon competition of this module, you must be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Test automotive battery Remove and replace batteries Service and charge batteries Jump-start vehicle.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Battery is tested without causing damage to any workplace property or vehicle. 2. Correct information is accessed and interpreted base on manufacturer specification. 3. Appropriate test equipment is selected. 4. Tests are performed and results analyzed. 5. Findings are reported to direct supervisor. 6. Battery is removed and replaced without causing damage to any workplace property or vehicle. 7. Appropriate tools and equipment are selected and used. 8. Action is taken to prevent loss of vehicles electronic memory if applicable. 9. Battery is charged using the appropriate battery charge. 10. Electrolyte levels are checked and topped up. 11. Battery and its terminals are cleaned. 12. Multiple connectors are repaired and replaced to restore integrity of the involved circuit. 13. Leads are connected/disconnected in sequence as per polarity. 14. Vehicle is jump started without causing damage to any workplace property or vehicle.
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15. Jumper leads are selected and used ensuring spike protection is employed when necessary. 16. Leads are connected/disconnected in correct according to sequence and polarity.

Learning Experiences Learning Outcome I, 2-and 3 Test Automotive battery, Remove and Replace batteries, Service and charge batteries Learning Activity 1. Read information sheet No.1.1 Testing automotive battery 2. Answer Self Check no. 1.1 Answer job sheet No.1-1 3. Read information Sheet no. 2 for LO2 Remove and replace batteries, LO3 Service and charge batteries . 4.Perform Job Sheet no.1,2,3 5.Answer self- Check no.2 and Self-Check no. 3 Evaluate your own work using the performance criteria. Present your work to your trainer for evaluation and recording. Compare your answers with the answer key. Compare Answers with the answer key. You are required to get all answers correct. If not, read the information sheet again to answer all questions correctly. Special Instructions

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Information Sheet No.1.1

Unit of Service Automotive Battery competency Module Title Servicing Automotive Battery

LO1: Test automotive battery BATTERYTESTING Testing batteries is an important part of electrical system service. Depending on the design of the battery, state of charge and capacity can be determined in several ways; specific gravity tests, visual inspection of batteries with a built-in hydrometer, open circuit voltage tests, capacity test, and capacitance test. SpecificGravityTests On unsealed batteries, the specific gravity of the electrolyte can be measured to give a fairly good indication of the batterys state of charge. A hydrometer (Figure 17-19) consists of glass tube or barrel, rubber bulb, rubber tube, and a glass float or hydrometer with a scale built into its upper stem. The glass encases the float and forms a reservoir for the test electrolyte. Squeezing the bulb pulls electrolyte in to the reservoir for the test electrolyte. Squeezing the bulb pulls electrolyte into the reservoir.

Figure 17-19 Two types of battery hydrometers.


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When filled with test electrolyte, the sealed hydrometer float bobs in the electrolyte. The depth to which the glass floats sinks in the test electrolyte indicates its relative weight compared to water (Figure 17-20). The reading is taken off the scale by sighting along the level of the electrolyte.

Figure 17-20 (A) When the scale sinks in the electrolyte, the specific gravity is low; (B) when it floats high, the specific gravity is high. The electrolyte of a fully charged battery is usually about 64% water and 36% sulphuric acid, which corresponds to a specific gravity of 1 270. Specific gravity is the weight of a given volume of any liquid divided by the weight of an equal volume of water. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1 000, while battery electrolyte should have a specific gravity of 1 260 to 1 280 at 800F (26.70C) in other words, the electrolyte should be 1 260 to 1 280 times heavier than water. The specific gravity of the electrolyte decreases as the battery discharges. This is why measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte with a hydrometer can be good indicator of how much charge a battery has lost. Table 17-1 lists specific gravity readings is various stages of charge with respect to a batterys ability to crank an engine at a temperature of 80oC (26.7oC).

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CAUTION!

Electrolyte is very corrosive. It can cause severe injures if it comes in contact with your skin or eye. If electrolyte gets on you, immediately wash with baking soda and water. If the acid gets in your eyes, immediately flush with cool water. Then get medical help.

Temperature correction It is necessary to correct the reading by adding or subtracting 4 points (0.004) for each 10oF (-12oC) above or below the standard of 80oF (26.7oC). Most hydrometers have a built-in thermometer to measure the temperature of the electrolyte (Figure 17-21) the hydrometer reading can be misleading if the hydrometer is not adjusted properly. For example, a reading of 1 260 taken at 20oF (-6.6oC) would be 1 260 (6x 0.004 or 0.024) = 1 236 this lower reading meaning the cell has less charge than indicated.

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Figure 17-21 Hydrometer with thermometer correction scales make adjusting for electrolyte temperature easy. It is important to make these adjustments at high and low temperatures to determine the batterys true state of charge Interpreting Results The specific gravity of the cells of a fully charged battery should near 1.265 when adjusted for electrolyte temperature. Recharged any battery if the specific gravity drops below an average of 1.230. A specific gravity difference of more than 50 points between cells is a good indication of a defective battery in need of replacement. Built-In Hydrometer On some sealed maintenance-free batteries, a special temperature-compensated hydrometer is built into the battery cover (Figure 17-22). A quick visual check indicates the battery state of charge (Figure 17-23). It is important when observing the hydrometer that the battery has a clean top to see the correct indication. A flashlight may be required in poorly lit areas. Always look straight down when viewing the hydrometer.

Figure 17-22 Slight glass in a maintenance-free battery.

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Figure 17-23 Design and operation of built-in hydrometers on maintenance-free scaled batteries. Many maintenance-free batteries do not have a built-in hydrometers. A voltage check is the only way to check this type of batterys state of charge. The specific gravity of these batteries cannot be checked because they are sealed. Never pry off the sell caps to check the electrolyte levels of condition of a sealed battery. A few battery design s incorporated a charge indicator into the top of the battery (Figure 17-24). Rather than built-in hydrometer, these batteries use a color display to note the batters state of charge. The color green stands for OK gray for check or recharge, and white for change or replace.

Figure 17-24 A battery with a built-in charge indicator Open Circuit Voltage Test An open circuit voltage check can be used as a substitute for the hydrometer specific test. As the battery is charged or discharged, slight changes occur in the batterys voltage. So battery voltage with no load applied can give some indication of the state of charge. The batterys temperature should be between 60o and 100oF (15.5o and 37.7oC). The voltage must be allowed to stabilize for at least 10 minuets with no load applied. On vehicles with high drains (computer controls, clocks, and accessories that always draw a small amount of current), it may be necessary to disconnect the battery ground cable. On batteries that have just been recharged, apply heavy load for 15 seconds to remove the surface charge. Then allow the battery to stabilize. Once voltage has stabilized, use a voltmeter to measure the battery voltage to the nearest one-tenth of a volt (Figure 17-25). Use Table 17-2 to interpret the results. As you can see, minor changes in battery open circuit voltage can indicate major changes in state of charge.

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Figure 17-25 Measure open circuit voltage across battery terminals using voltmeter If the open circuit voltage test indicates a charges of below 75% of full charge, recharge the battery and perform the capacity test to determine battery condition. TABLE 17-2 BATTERY OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE AS AN INDICATOR OF STATE OF CHARGE Open Circuit Voltage 12.6 or greater 12.4 to 12.6 12.2 to 12.4 12.2 to 12.4 11.7 to 12.0 11.7 or less State of Charge 100% 75-100% 50-75% 25-50% 0-25% 0%

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Battery Leakage Test To perform a battery leakage test, set volt meter on a low DC volt range. Connect the negative test lead to the battery negative terminal. Then move the meters positive lead across the top and sides of the battery case (Figure 17-26) If some voltage is read on the voltmeter, current is leaking out of battery cells. The battery should be cleaned, then rechecked. If the battery again has some leakage, it should be replaced because the case is excessively porous or is cracked.

Figure 17-26 Performing a battery leakage test Battery Drain Test If a vehicles battery is dead after is has not been used for a short while, the problem may be a current drain caused by one of the electrical system. The most common cause for this type of drain is a light that is not turning off---such as a light in the grove box, trunk, or engine compartment. Constant drains on the battery due of accessories that draw small amounts of current called parasitic drains. These drains on the battery can cause various drive ability problems. With low battery voltage several problems can result; the computer may go into backup mode of operation, the computer may set false codes, or the computer may set false codes, or the computer may raise idle speeds to compensate for the low battery voltage.

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The procedure for performing a battery drain test varies according to the manufacturer. However, battery drain can often be observed by connecting an ammeter in series with the negative cable or by placing the inductive ammeter lead around the negative cable. If the meter reads 0.25 or more amps, there is excessive drain. Visually checked the trunk, glove box, and under hood lights to see if they are on. If they are, remove the bulb and watch the battery drain. If the drain is now within specifications, find out why the circuit is staying on and repair the problem. If the cause of the drain is not the lights, go to the fuse panel or distribution center and remove one fuse at a time while watching the ammeter. When the drain decreases, the circuit protected by the fuse you removed last is the source of the problem. To test for battery drains using s high-current tester, follow these steps.

PROCEDURE Battery Drain Test STEP 1 Turn off all accessories and close the doors. STEP 2 Remove the under hood lamp, if equipped. STEP 3 Disconnect the negative battery cable. STEP 4 Attach the multiplying coil between the negative battery cable and the battery terminal post (Figure 17-27). ST EP 5 Zero the ammeter. ST EP 6 Connect the inductive pick-up probe around the multiplying coil. ST EP 7 Read the ammeter.

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Figure 17-27 Using a multiplying coil to obtain accurate readings when measuring parasitic drains with a VAT -40 similar tester The maximum permissible current drain is 0.05 ampere. If the current drain exceeds this limit, remove the fuses, one at a time, as discussed earlier. Capacity Test The load or capacity test determines how well any type of battery, sealed or unsealed, functions under a load. In other words, it determines the batterys ability to furnish starting current and still maintain sufficient voltage to operate the ignition system. The load or capacity test can be performed with the battery either in or out of the vehicle. The battery must be at or very near a full state of charge. For best results, the electrolyte should be as close to 80o F (26.7o C) as possible. Cold batteries show considerably lower capacity. Never load test a sealed battery if its temperature is below 60o F (15.5o C). On batteries with side terminals, obtaining a sound connection can be a problem. The best solution is to screw in the appropriate manufacturers adapter (Figure 17-28). If an adapter is not available, use a 3/8 inch (9.54mm) coarse bolt with a nut on it. Bottom out the bolt. Back it off a turn. Then lighten the nut against the contact. Now, attach the lead to the nut.

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A battery tester with a carbon pile should be used to check the capacity of a battery the typical connection for this type of meter are shown in Figure 17-29.

Figure 17-28 Adapters may be needed to test and charge batteries with sidemount terminals

Figure 17-29 Typical tester hook-up for conducting a battery load test When performing a battery load test, follow these guidelines

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PROCEDURE Battery Load Test The inductive pickup must surround the negative cable of the tester. Observe the correct polarity and make sure the test leads are making good contacts with the battery posts. Turn the load control knob ( if the tester is so equipped) to draw current at the rate of three times the batterys ampere-hour rating or one-half of its CCA rating. Maintain the load for 15 seconds of current draw. At 70o F (21o C) or above or on testers that are temperature compensated, voltage at the end of 15 seconds, use table 17-3 to determine he adjusted minimum voltage reading for a particular temperature. Interpreting Results If the voltage reading exceeds the specifications by a volt or more, the battery is supplying sufficient current with a good margin of safety. If the reading is right on the spec, the battery might not have the reserve necessary to handle cranking during low temperatures. If the battery was at 75% charge and fell right on the load specifications, it is probably in god shape.

TABLE 17-3 MINIMUM LOAD TEST VOLTAGES AS AFFECTED BT TEMPERATURE Battery Temperature (F) 70o (21oC) 60o(15.5oC) 50o(10oC) 40o(4.4oC) 30o(-1oC) 20o(-6.6oC) 10o(-12.2oC) Minimum Test Voltage 9.6 volts 9.5 volts 9.4 volts 9.3 volts 9.2 volts 8.9 volts 8.8 volts
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0o(-17.7oC)

8.5 volts

If the voltage read below the temperature-corrected minimum, continue to observe the voltmeter of the tester after removing the load. If it rises above 12.4 volts, the battery is bad. It can hold a charge but has insufficient cold-cranking amperes. The battery can be recharged and retested, but the results are likely to be the same. If the voltage test below the minimum and the voltmeter does not rise above 12.4 volts when the load is removed, the problem may only be a low state of charge. Recharge the battery and lead test again. If a volt-ampere tester is not available, the starter motor can be used as a loading device to conduct a capacity test. By observing a voltage reading before and after the starting motor has run, the condition of the battery can be determined. Connect the voltmeter across the battery. Make sure ignition is disabled to prevent engine starting. Battery Capacitance Test Many manufacturers recommend that a capacitance or conductance test be performed on batteries. Conductance describes a batterys ability to conduct current. It is a measurement of the plate surface available in a battery for chemical reaction. Measuring conductance provides a reliable indication of a batterys condition and is correlated to the battery capacity. Conductance can be used to detect cell defects, shorts, normal aging, and open circuits which can cause the battery to fail. A fully charged new battery will have a high conductance reading, anywhere from 110% to 140% of its CCA rating. As a battery ages, the plate surface can sulfate or shed active material, which will lower its capacity and conductance. When a battery has lost a significant percentage of its cranking ability, the conductance reading will fall well below its rating and the test decision will be to replace the battery. Because conductance measurements can track the life of the battery, they are also effective for predicting end of the life before the battery fails. To measure conductance, the tester (Figure 17-30) creates a small signal that is sent through the battery and then measure a portion of the AC current response. The tester displays the service condition of the battery. The tester indicates that the battery is good, needs to be recharged and tested again, has failed, or will fail shortly.

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Figure 17-30 A conductance (capacitance) battery tester. Self Check No.1.1 Unit Module Service Automotive Battery Servicing Automotive Battery

LO1: Test automotive battery REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. What is a parasitic load? What design characteristics determine the current capacity of a battery? How is a battery leakage test conducted? A battery is also called a deep-cycling battery.

Job Sheet no. 1.1

Unit of competency Module Title

Service Automotive Battery

Servicing Automotive Battery

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Servicing Automotive Battery

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LO1: Test Automotive Battery Testing Automotive Battery Objective: After completion of this job sheet, you will have demonstrated the ability to test automotive battery. You must know how to perform this task in order to pass the Competency Assessment in Service Automotive Battery. Tools and Materials Service manual Battery Basic Hand Tools Battery Charger Testing Instrument PPE Fender Cover

Follow the following procedures in testing automotive battery. PROCEDURE Battery Leakage Test Step 1. Set a voltmeter on a low DC volt range. Step 2. Connect the negative test lead to the battery negative terminal. Step 3. Then move the meters positive lead across the top sides of the battery Case. Note; If some voltage is read on the voltmeter, current is leaking out of battery Cells. The battery should be cleaned, then rechecked. If the battery again has some leakage, it should be replace because the case is excessively porous or cracked. Battery Drain Test Step Step Step Step Turn off all accessories and close the doors. Remove the underhood lamp, if equipped. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Attached the multiplying coil between the negative battery cable and the battery terminal post. Step 5. Zero the ammeter.
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1. 2. 3. 4.

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Step 6. Connect the inductive pickup probe around the multiplying coil. Step 7. Read the ammeter. Note: Use a multiplying coil to obtain accurate readings when measuring parasitic drains with a VAT- 40 similar tester. The maximum permissible Current drain is 0.05 ampere. If the current drain exceeds this limit, remove the fuses, one at a time. < TASK COMPLETED.>

Battery load test


Step 1. The inductive pickup must surround the negative cable of the tester. Step 2. Observe the correct polarity and make sure the test leads are making Good contact with the battery posts. Step 3. Turn the load control knob ( if the tester is so equipped) to draw current At the rate of three times the batterys ampere- hour rating or one- half To its CCA rating. Step 4. Maintain the load for 15 seconds. Observe the testers voltmeter. Step 5. Discontinue the load for after 15 seconds of current draw. Step 6. At 70 degrees F or above or on tester that are temperature compensated, Voltage at the end of 15 seconds should not fall below 9.6 volts. If the tester is not temperature compensated, use table 17-3 to determine the adjusted minimum voltage reading for a particular temperature. Note: If the voltage reading exceeds the specification by a volt or more, the battery is supplying sufficient current with a good margin of safety. If the reading is right On the spec, the might not have the reserve necessary to handle cranking during low temperatures. If the battery was at 75% charge and fell right on the load specifications, it is probably is good shape. ( Task Completed)

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