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3/31/2013

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my

CHAPTER 3

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Construct a frequency table from raw data  Organize and graph qualitative data using pie, bar and component bar charts  Use information contained in various charts to make decisions  Organize and graph quantitative data such as stem-and-leaf plot, histogram, ogive and use these graphs to understand the problem and make decisions

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DATA PRESENTATION
SEEING IS BELIEVING!

PREPARED BY SANIZAH AHMAD

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my

INTRODUCTION

ORGANIZING AND GRAPHING DATA
QUALITATIVE DATA
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Data can be summarized in tabular forms and presented in pictorial form using graphs so that important features can be grasped quickly and effectively.

QUANTITATIVE DATA
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Frequency distribution Pie chart Bar chart

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Vertical (or horizontal) bar chart Cluster bar chart Stacked bar chart

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Contingency table

Stem-and Leaf plots Frequency distribution for ungrouped data Frequency distribution for grouped data Histogram/polygon Cumulative frequency distribution and Ogive
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3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.uitm. 8 2 . tables and graphs can be used. organized and presented.uitm. The data set is PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING FREQUENCY TABLE  Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Make a table with four columns ( Column A = Class. Tally the data and place the result in column B.edu. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION (TABLE)  Table consisting of columns and rows. d. Count the tallies and place the results in column C. it will be processed.edu.edu. Column C = Frequency.my sanizah@tmsk.  In order to enhance the presentation. Indicate the title Draw the axes properly Use proper size and scale Use colours/shading if needed 6 sanizah@tmsk.uitm. some charts.my sanizah@tmsk.edu. c.  Step 5 Construct a frequency distribution for the data Find the totals for columns C (frequency) and D (percent). D = Percent). Find the percentage of values in each class by using the formula    A O B A AB B O B O A B B O O O AB AB A O B O B O AB A 7 % f 100% n where f = frequency of the class and n = total number of values.  Some considerations in drawing charts/graphs:  a. b.my 1. Column B = Tally. Example 1 Twenty-five army inductees were given a blood test to determine their blood type.uitm.my ORGANIZING & GRAPHING QUALITATIVE DATA ORGANIZING & GRAPHING QUALITATIVE DATA Nominal and Ordinal Data 5 After data is collected.

11 12 degrees  f  360 n 3 .  9 10 sanizah@tmsk.my sanizah@tmsk.edu. Note: If possible.uitm.  The sectors show the percentage of frequencies of each category of the distribution.uitm.uitm. using formula • • Step 2 : Find the percentages.uitm.  It is a circle that is divided into sectors.edu.edu.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk. construct the pie chart so that %s are either in ascending or descending order (helps in the interpretation of the data).my sanizah@tmsk.edu. Step 3: Using a protractor.my PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING A PIE CHART • Pie Chart using data in Example 1 Step 1: Find the number of degrees for each class.my 2. PIE CHART Class A B O AB Tally Frequency Percent Pie chart can be used to represent categorical data. graph each section and write its name and corresponding percentage.

my sanizah@tmsk. BAR CHART  I) BAR CHART       A graph of bars whose heights represent the frequencies of respective categories.my sanizah@tmsk.my II) CLUSTER BAR CHART One graph presents more than one subject • Colour/shading needed • 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Urban Suburban Rural III) STACKED BAR CHART Each bar contains more than one information  Shading is needed  40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Rural Suburban Urban No College 15 8 6 Four-year degree 12 15 8 Advanced Degree 8 9 7 5 0 No College 15 Four-year degree Advanced Degree 16 4 .uitm.uitm.edu.edu.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.edu. Types of Bar Charts: i) Vertical/horizontal bar chart (single/simple) ii) Cluster bar chart (multiple) iii) Stacked bar chart (component) One chart present only one subject Using the data in Example 1 13 14 sanizah@tmsk.uitm.my 3.edu.uitm.

4.edu.  A table can provide greater insight than single statistic.my sanizah@tmsk. construct: i.uitm.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.edu.  Some data can be grouped according to two or more criteria of classification or variables.  Single(simple) bar chart for the year 2000 Cluster(multiple) bar chart for the year 2000 and 2001 Stacked(component) bar chart for the year 2000 and 2001 Pie chart for the year 2001 Program A B C D E Number of Students Year 2000 450 1200 800 300 650 Year 2001 600 1500 1100 400 800 17 18 sanizah@tmsk. ordinal. ii. iii. CROSS TABULATION/CONTINGENCY TABLE A cross tabulation (often abbreviated as cross tab) or cross-classification table is often used to examine the categorical response in terms of two qualitative variables simultaneously. or ratio .uitm.my EXAMPLE 3 Cross tabs are frequently used because:  They are easy to understand. 19 Location Urban Suburban Rural Total No College 5 8 6 29 Four-year degree 12 15 8 35 Advanced Degree 8 9 7 24 Total 35 32 21 88 Cross tabulation between location and education level 20 5 .my EXAMPLE 2 From the following table.my sanizah@tmsk. iv.uitm.edu.cross tabs treat all data as if it is nominal.  They can be used with any level of data: nominal.edu. interval.uitm. They appeal to people who do not want to use more sophisticated measures.  It solves the problem of empty or sparse cells  They are simple to conduct.

 Quantitative data can be divided into ungrouped and grouped data.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.edu.my sanizah@tmsk. Present this data in the form of a 2 x 2 table.uitm.my sanizah@tmsk.uitm.  Display of data: Stem-and leaf plot  Frequency Distribution (table)  Histogram  Frequency polygon  Ogive  23  It has the advantage over grouped frequency distribution of retaining the actual data while showing them in graphic form.uitm. STEM-AND-LEAF PLOTS  A stem-and-leaf plot is a data plot that uses part of a data value as the stem and part of the data value as the leaf to form groups or classes.edu. summarized in tabular forms. ORGANIZING & GRAPHING QUANTITATIVE DATA Interval and Ratio Data 21 22 sanizah@tmsk. Out of 145 professional staff.my ORGANIZING AND GRAPHING QUANTITATIVE DATA  Normally 1.edu. 40 are women whereas 140 non-professional staff are men.edu.my EXAMPLE 4  A group of researchers surveyed 530 staff working with Company Y. 24 6 .uitm.

my sanizah@tmsk.edu. The raw data are shown.edu. and the second (or trailing) set of digits is the leaf. 122 130 120 131 117 132 119 138 114 117 114 137 114 124 128 128 132 117 135 127 125 116 128 126 28 52 58 75 79 57 65 62 77 56 59 51 53 51 66 55 68 63 78 50 53 67 65 69 66 69 57 73 72 75 55 27 110 134 123 113 123 121 7 . EXAMPLE 7  The IQs of 30 students are listed below.my EXAMPLE 5 (UNGROUPED DATA)  At an outpatient testing center. 70-74 and 75-79. 25 14 36 32 31 43 32 52 20 02 33 44 32 57 32 51 13 23 44 45 26 sanizah@tmsk. 65-69. 12 and 13. Construct a stem-and-leaf plot. 55-59.my EXAMPLE 6 (GROUPED DATA) An insurance company researcher conducted a survey on the number of car theft in a large city for a period of 30 days last summer. using two lines per stem and stems of 11. 25 sanizah@tmsk. STEP 3 For each score in the dataset.uitm. The first (or leading) set of digits is the stem.edu.my sanizah@tmsk.3/31/2013 PROCEDURE OF CONSTRUCTING STEM-ANDLEAF PLOT STEP 1 Split each score or value into two sets of digits.uitm.edu. Construct a stem-and-leaf plot by using classes 50-54.uitm. 60-64. STEP 2 List all the possible stem digits from the lowest to highest. Construct a stem-and-leaf plot for the data. write down the leaf numbers on the line labeled by the appropriate number.uitm. the number of cardiograms performed each day for 20 days is shown.

the data can be grouped into class intervals before the frequency distribution is constructed. Class boundary Value that falls mid/half way between the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class. When the data set contains many different and repetitive values.  TERMINOLOGIES OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION 1 3 5 1 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 0 1 2 1 2 4 0 2 This set of ungrouped data can be summarized in tabular form known as the frequency distribution.edu.uitm.uitm.edu. Example: 80 – 90  Lower limit is 80 and upper limit is 90 ii. UNGROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION    2.5 – 69.my sanizah@tmsk.5 30 – 50 50 – 70 70 – 90 31 TERMINOLOGIES OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION iii. Total frequency for the particular class and all the prior classes. Class midpoint The middle value of a class interval. Example 8: The following data record the number of children in 20 families chosen at random. 32 Type 3 8 .5  39. Cumulative frequency e.uitm.5 2 2 iv.edu. Class limit The end values of each class interval.5  49. i.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.my 2.uitm. GROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION  The frequency distribution is a table that contains a list of data values and its frequency.my CLASS BOUNDARY Class interval/class limit 30 – <50 50 – <70 70 . averaging the upper limit and lower limit or upper boundary and class boundary.5 or  39.5 – 89. Frequency is the number of times a value occurs.5 – 49.g. 30 and less than 50 50 and less than 70 70 and less than 90 30 – 49 50 – 69 70 – 89 30 – 50 50 – 70 70 – 90 Type 2 30  49 29.5 49.edu. 30 29 sanizah@tmsk.5 69.<90 Type 1 or 30 50 70 Class boundary 30 – 50 50 – 70 70 – 90 30 – 50 50 – 70 70 – 90 29.my sanizah@tmsk.

H and lowest value. R. k = 1 + 3.my SOLUTION Range : R = H – L = 134 – 100 = 34  Number of class interval: k = 1 + 3. R=H–L c) Find the number of classes.6  7  Width = R/k = 34/7 = 4.9  5  QMT412 Business Statistics 35 36 These data represent the record of high temperatures in F for each of the 50 states in the United States. Keep adding until k classes.uitm.3/31/2013 QMT412 Business Statistics QMT412 Business Statistics CONSTRUCTING A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE  Step 1 Determine the classes a) Find the highest value. k. b) Find the range.edu. 33 R Number of classes  (Extra step for cumulative frequency distribution/ogive) 34 EXAMPLE 9: sanizah@tmsk. g) Find the class boundaries. L.3 log 50 = 6. 112 100 127 120 134 118 105 110 109 112 110 118 117 116 118 122 114 114 105 109 107 112 114 115 118 117 118 122 106 110 116 108 110 121 113 120 119 111 104 111 120 113 120 117 105 110 118 112 114 114 9 . Construct a grouped frequency distribution for the data.  Step 2 Tally the data  Step 3 Find the numerical frequencies from the tallies Step 4 Find the cumulative frequencies e) Select a starting point for the lowest class limit f) Add the width to the lowest class limit.3 log n = 1 + 3.3 log n d) Find the class width: Width  CONSTRUCTING A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE…CONT.

HISTOGRAM Frequency PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING HISTOGRAM 8 6 4 2 0 0 10.my Refer textbook pg. draw vertical bars for each class.edu. sanizah@tmsk.3/31/2013 QMT412 Business Statistics TABLE: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE Temperature in F (Class interval) 100 – 104 105 – 109 110 – 114 115 – 119 120 – 124 Frequency (No of States) Class frequency GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION sanizah@tmsk. 58 Q1 & Q2  40 39 10 . Histogram   Y-axis: frequency X-axis: class boundary Y-axis: frequency X-axis: class midpoint Y-axis: cumulative frequency X-axis: less than class boundary 38 ii. i. Frequency polygon   125 – 129 130 – 134 NOTE: iii.5 60.edu.uitm.5 40.5 30.  Step 2 Represent the frequency on the y-axis and the class boundaries on the x-axis. Ogive/Cumulative frequency curve(less than)   37 1. 53 ii) pg.5 80. ****Exercises: i) Example 7 pg. Each observation must be assigned to one and only one class.5  Histogram – graph that displays the data by using continuous vertical bars (unless the frequency of a class is 0) of various heights to represent the frequencies of the classes.5 50.my sanizah@tmsk. Class Boundaries Step 1 Draw and label the x-axis(horizontal) and y-axis (vertical). 2.my 3.  Step 3 Using the frequencies as the heights.5 70.uitm.5 20.edu. Both the smallest and largest observations must be included in a class interval. 53–56.uitm.

uitm. 42 Frequency 41 sanizah@tmsk. Use an appropriate scale for the y-axis to represent the cumulative frequencies.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.and y-axis. Label the x-axis with the class boundaries.5 42 52.5 40. Then extend the graph to the first lower class boundary on the x-axis.uitm.5   Class Midpoints  Step 1 Find the midpoints of each class. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.5  Class Boundaries  Step 1 Find the cumulative frequency for each class. Step 3 Using the midpoints for the x values and the frequencies as the y values.5 10.5 50. Step 2 Draw the x and y axis. Step 3 Plot the cumulative frequency at each upper class boundary. connect adjacent points with line segments. Step 2 Draw the x.5 84 94.edu.my sanizah@tmsk. Draw a line back to the x axis at the beginning and end of the graph.edu. 44 43 11 .uitm.5 60. plot the points Step 4 Connect adjacent points with line segments.5 80.5 21 31. Label the x axis with the midpoint of each class and then use a suitable scale on the y axis for the frequencies.5 63 73.5 20.my 4.edu. Upper boundaries are used since the cumulative frequencies represent the number of data values accumulated up to the upper boundary of each class.my 5.5 70. at the same distance that the previous and next midpoints would be located.5 30.edu.uitm. CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION & OGIVE  PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING OGIVE   Ogive – graph that represents the cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution Cumulative Frequency 30 20 10 0 0 10.my sanizah@tmsk. FREQUENCY POLYGON  PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING FREQUENCY POLYGON  Frequency Polygon – graph that displays the data by using lines that connect points plotted for the frequencies at the midpoints of the classes. Step 4 Starting from the first upper class boundary.

95 101 126 114 134 117 148 103 110 125 144 112 83 136 116 129 114 132 105 118 122 110 136 124 91 148 125 89 133 95 105 135 108 123 108 137 114 124 118 119 117 93 115 117 100 106 104 115 128 105 47 48 12 .5 84 94.my EXAMPLE 10 i.5 20.uitm.edu.5 45 Ogive Class Boundaries QMT412 Business Statistics sanizah@tmsk.104 105 .5 40.3/31/2013 Frequency 8 6 4 2 0 0 sanizah@tmsk.5 20. ii.114 115 .my TABLE: CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION Histogram 10.129 130 . construct the: Histogram Frequency Polygon ‘Less than’ Ogive Amount received (RM) by 50 children for Hari Raya.edu.119 120 .5 50.109 110 .5 60. EXAMPLE 10: HISTOGRAM & FREQUENCY POLYGON Given the following data.5 70.5 80.5 40.5 63 73.5 30.5 42 52.5 30.5 50.134 46 Cumulative Frequency 30 20 10 0 0 10. iii.124 125 .5 21 31.5 80.5 Class Boundaries Class Limit (Temp. F) Frequency Class Boundary Class Midpoint (X) Cumulative frequency 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.5 60.uitm.5 Frequency Frequency polygon Class Midpoints 100 .5 70.5 10.

61-64 51 13 .edu.my EXAMPLE 10: HISTOGRAM & FREQUENCY POLYGON Amount received (RM) (class limit) 80 and less than 90 90 and less than 100 No.5 Less than 149.5 Less than 99.my HOMEWORK  Do Review Questions 3 pg.uitm.5 Less than 109.5 Less than 129.uitm. of children Class boundary (frequency.5 Less than 119.edu.5 Cumulative frequency 0 Total 49 50 sanizah@tmsk.edu.my sanizah@tmsk.uitm.5 Less than 89.3/31/2013 sanizah@tmsk.5 Less than 139. f) Class midpoint (x) Cumulative frequency ‘LESS THAN’ OGIVE Amount received (RM) Less than 79.