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THE CONDITIONAL

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I- There are mainly 4 types of the conditional : Type 0,Type 1,Type 2 , and Type 3.But the most important ones are type 1 ,2 and 3. TYPE 1 : It is mainly about a possible or probable situation in the future hich may or may not ta!e place."or e#ample,$mine ill study at the uni%ersity if he &ets his Bac diploma.The present situation is that $mine has not &ot his Bac diploma yet because he is still studyin& at the lycee.'o,his future study at the uni%ersity depends on the possibility of &ettin& his Bac diploma. The (rammatical 'tructure of Type 1 is as follo s : IF+SIMPLE PRESENT+SIMPLE FUTURE IF +Amine gets his Bac diploma+he ill st!d" at the !ni#e$sit"% SIMPLE FUTURE+IF+SIMPLE PRESENT Amine ill st!d" at the !ni#e$sit"+i&+he gets his Bac diploma . TYPE ' : This type is concerned ith a present situation."or e#ample,)*+1030,- .eila is at a clothes shop.'he ants to buy a dress.The price of the dress is /00dh.But .eila has &ot only 300dh.'o,she cannot buy the dress because she doesnot ha%e /00dh no . I& Leila had ())dh*she co!ld +!" the d$ess% I& Leila had ())dh*she o!ld +!" the d$ess% The (rammatical 'tructure of type 2 is : IF+SIMPLE PAST+,-N.ITI-NAL TENSE/co!ld o$ o!ld + #e$+ in the in&initi#e0 IF+Leila had ())dh*she co!ld +!" the d$ess% ,-N.ITI-NAL TENSE/co!ld o$ o!ld + #e$+ in the in&initi#e0+IF+SIMPLE PAST Leila co!ld +!"+ the d$ess+ i&+ she had ())dh% TYPE 1 2 The situation of type 3 is in the past.The action of this situation started and ended in the past.'o,it is impossible to chan&e that situation."or e#ample,)*+1030,*+1030,*+1030,$hmed didnot &o to school yesterday because he as ill.)reality sentence: hat happened-. I& Ahmed had not +een ill *he o!ld ha#e gone to school% )ima&ination sentence: hat didnot happen or hat e ished it had happened-. The (rammatical 'tructure of type 3 is the follo in&:

IF+PAST PERFE,T+PERFE,T ,-N.ITI-NAL/co!ld o$

o!ld +3A4E+PAST PARTI,IPLE0%

IF+Ahmed hadnot +een ill+he co!ld ha#e gone to school% PERFE,T ,-N.ITI-NAL/co!ld o$ o!ld+3A4E+PAST PARTI,IPLE0+IF+PAST PERFE,T%

Ahmed+co!ld ha#e gone to school+IF+he hadnot +een ill 0otice that the forms of the %erbs)affirmati%e or ne&ati%e- in conditional type 2 and type 3 are re%ersed. Thus, in type 2 )1cannot buy1 and 1doesnt ha%e1 in )I- are ne&ati%e ,chan&e to affirmati%e in )II- and )1didn t &o12ne&ati%e- in )III- becomes )1 ould ha%e &one12affirmati%e- in )I3- .$lso,)1 as1 2affirmati%e- in )III- becomes )hadnot been 2ne&ati%e- in )I3- . PRA,TI,E E5ER,ISES $. 45T T67 378B' B7T9770 B8$:;7T' I0 T67 :<887:T T70'7 12The table ill collapse if you )stand- ...on it. 22I )&i%e...you his address if I !ne it.I dont !no his address for the moment. 32If he had as!ed you, )accepted...you...But,he didnt as! you. 426e could ha%e understood you if you )spea!...more slo ly.=ou spo!e too fast. /26e )be-...late for the train if he doesnot start at once. >2?ore tourists )come- ....to our city if it had nice hotels. @2Titanic )sin!-...........if it )crash-........into an iceber&. A2If you dont or! %ery hard,you )be-......successful. B2If 5'$ )attac!-........IraC,there )be-....daily bombs e#plosions in the country. 102=ou )buy-.......the %illa if you li!e itD EsFB.8798IT7 T67'7 '70T70:7' 'T$8TI0( 9IT6 T67 '5((7'T7G 9<8G'Es2F 12I cant &i%e you 10dh because I dont ha%e any money no . If... 22.atifa didnot %isit you because she didnot !no you ere in hospital. .atifa.... 328achid as careless hile dri%in& his car.That as hy he crashed into a tree. If........... 42The ?oroccan football team didnot Cualify for the 200> 9orldcup because they ere unluc!y a&ainst Tunisia. If...... /2$mal as punished because she for&ot to do her home or!. $mal...... >28achid couldnot buy the Heans because he didnot ha%e enou&h money. If..... @20oura ill &et married in case she reaches the a&e of 2A. If................ A2In order to buy a lar&e %illa,'aid must be a millionnaire.5nfortunately,he is not.

'aid ...... Ans e$s $. 1 tand22. ould &i%e23. ould you ha%e accepted24.had spo!en2/. ill be2>. ould come2@. ouldnt ha%e sun!.hadnt crashed2A. ont be2B.hadnt attac!ed.. ouldnt ha%e been210. ill you B. 1.I had any money,I could &i%e you 10dh22..atifa ould ha%e %isited you if she had !no n you ere 23.if 8achid hadnt been careless,he ouldnt ha%e crashed into a tree.24.if the ?oroccan football team hadnt been unluc!y,they ould ha%e Cualified2/.$mal ouldnt ha%e been punished if she hadnt for&otten .2>.If 8achid had enou&h money,he could buy the Heans.2@.If 0oura reaches the a&e of 2A,she ill &et married.2A.said ould buy the %illa if he ere a millionnaire

'IF' SENTENCES AND THE 'UNREAL' PAST


In this section you will find information on sentences containing the word 'if', the use of conditional tenses, and the 'unreal past', that is, when we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to past time.

IF AND THE CONDITIONAL


There are four main types of 'if' sentences in English: 1. The 'zero' on!itional, where the tense in "oth parts of the sentence is the si#ple present$ 'IF' CLAUSE If & si#ple present If you heat ice If it rains %AIN CLAUSE si#ple present it melts. you get wet

In these sentences, the time is no' or al'a(s and the situation is real an! possi"le. They are often used to refer to general truths. 2. The T(pe ) on!itional, where the tense in the 'if clause is the si#ple present, and the tense in the main clause is the si#ple future 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE

If & si#ple present If it rains If you don't hurry

Si#ple future you will get wet we will miss the train.

In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real. They refer to a possi"le on!ition and its pro"a"le result. 3. The T(pe * on!itional, where the tense in the 'if' clause is the si#ple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE If & si#ple past If it rained If you went to bed earlier %AIN CLAUSE Present on!itional you would get wet you wouldn't be so tired.

In these sentences, the time is no' or an( ti#e, and the situation is unreal. They are notbased on fa t, and they refer to an unli+el( or h(potheti al on!ition and its pro"a"le result. . The T(pe , on!itional, where the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfe t, and the tense in the main clause is the perfe t on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE If & past perfe t If it had rained If you had wor!ed harder %AIN CLAUSE Perfe t on!itional you would ha"e got wet you would ha"e passed the e#am.

In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is ontrar( to realit(. The fa ts they are based on are the opposite of what is e#pressed, and they refer to an unreal past on!ition and its pro"a"le past result. $ further type of 'if' sentence e#ists, where Type 2 and Type 3 are mi#ed. The tense in the'if' clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional: 'IF' CLAUSE If & past perfe t If I had wor!ed harder at school If we had loo!ed at the map %AIN CLAUSE Present on!itional I would ha"e a better %ob now. we wouldn't be lost.

In these sentences, the time is past in the 'if' clause, and present in the main clause. They refer to an unreal past on!ition and its pro"a"le result in the present.

THE '-ERO' CONDITIONAL

). For#
In '&ero' conditional sentences, the tense in "oth parts of the sentence is the si#ple present$ 'IF' CLAUSE /CONDITION0 %AIN CLAUSE /RESULT0

If & si#ple present If you heat ice If it rains

si#ple present it melts. you get wet

NOTE: The order of the clauses is not fi#ed ' the 'if' clause can be first or second:

Examples

Ice melts if you heat it. You get wet if it rains.

*. Fun tion
In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. They are used to ma!e statements about the real world, and often refer to general truths, such as scientific facts.

Examples

If you freeze water, it becomes a solid. (lants die if they don't get enough water. If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it. If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars. If you mix red and blue, you get purple.

This structure is often used to gi"e instructions, using the imperati"e in the main clause:

Examples

If )ill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema. Ask (ete if you're not sure what to do.

T1PE ) CONDITIONAL
1. Form
In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the si#ple present, and the tense in the main clause is the si#ple future 'IF' CLAUSE /CONDITION0 %AIN CLAUSE /RESULT0

If & si#ple present If it rains If you !on't hurr(

Si#ple future you 'ill 2et 'et we 'ill #iss the train.

2. Function
In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real. They refer to a possi"le on!ition and its pro"a"le result. They are based on facts, and they are used to ma!e statements about the real world, and about particular situations. *e often use such sentences to gi"e warnings:

If you don't lea e, !'ll call the police. If you don't drop the gun, !'ll shoot! If you drop that glass, it will break. +obody will notice if you make a mista!e. If I ha e time, !'ll finish that letter. *hat will you do if you miss the plane, +-TE: *e can use modals to e#press the degree of certainty of the result:

If you drop that glass, it might break. I may finish that letter if I ha e time.

T1PE * CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


1. Form
In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the si#ple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE

If & si#ple past If it rained If you went to bed earlier Present on!itional3 for#

Present on!itional you would get wet you wouldn't be so tired.

The present conditional of any "erb is composed of two parts ' the modal au#iliary would . the infiniti"e of the main "erb /without 'to'.0 Su"4e w infiniti"e t . ou without to ld

. 1he w learn ou ld

$ffirmati"e

I +egati"e

would

go

I Interrogati"e

wouldn't

as!

*ould Interrogati"e negati"e

she

come,

*ouldn't

they

accept,

5oul!$ Contra tions of 'oul! In spo!en English, 'oul! is contracted to '!.

I'd you'd he'd, she'd

*e'd you'd they'd

The negati"e contraction 2 wouldn't.

Example" to accept# $resent conditional


Affir#ati6e +egati"e Interrogati"e

I would accept 1ou would accept

I wouldn't accept 3ou wouldn't accept

*ould I accept, *ould you accept,

He would accept 5e would accept 1ou would accept The( would accept

She wouldn't accept *e wouldn't accept 3ou wouldn't accept They wouldn't accept

*ould he accept, *ould we accept, *ould you accept, *ould they accept,

*. Fun tion
In these sentences, the time is no' or an( ti#e, and the situation is unreal. They are not based on fa t, and they refer to an unli+el( or h(potheti al on!ition and its pro"a"le result. The use of the past tense after 'if' indicates unrealit(. *e can nearly always add a phrase starting with 4but4, that e#presses the real situation:

If the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the park (...but it is bad, so we can't go0 If I was the ueen of !ngland, I would gi e e"eryone 1##. (...but I'm not, so I won't0

E7a#ples of use$
1. To ma!e a statement about something that is not real at present, but is possible:
2. I would isit her if I had time. ($ I ha"en%t got time but I might ha"e some time& To ma!e a statement about a situation that is not real now and ne"er could be real: If I were you, !'d gi e up smoking (but I could ne"er be you&

E7a#ples$
a. If I was a plant, I would lo e the rain. b. If you really lo ed me, you would buy me a diamond ring. c. If I knew where she li"ed, I would go and see her. d. 3ou wouldn't need to read this if you understood English grammar. e. %ould he go to the concert if I ga e him a tic!et, f. They wouldn't in ite her if they didn't like her g. *e would be able to buy a larger house if we had more money +-TE$ It is correct, and "ery common, to say 4If I 'ere4 instead of 4If I 'as4.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS CONDITIONAL


In type 2 conditional sentences, the continuous form of the present conditional may be used: If I were a millionaire, I wouldn%t be doing this 'ob!

1. $resent continuous conditional & form.


This form is composed of two elements: the present conditional of the "erb %to be% (would be0 . the present participle of the main "erb /base.in20. Su"4e t 5e They 'oul! "e would be would be "ase&in2 going li"ing

Affir#ati6e

*e Ne2ati6e

would be

coming

3ou

wouldn't be wor!ing

Interro2ati6e

*ould

you be

sharing,

Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e

*ouldn't they be

playing,

Example" to li e# $resent continuous conditional.


Affir#ati6e Ne2ati6e Interro2ati6e

I would be li"ing 1ou would be li"ing He would be li"ing 5e would be li"ing 1ou would be li"ing The( would be li"ing

I wouldn't be li"ing 3ou wouldn't be li"ing She wouldn't be li"ing *e wouldn't be li"ing 3ou wouldn't be li"ing They wouldn't be li"ing

*ould I be li"ing, *ould you be li"ing, *ould he be li"ing, *ould we be li"ing, *ould you be li"ing, *ould they be li"ing,

2. $resent continuous conditional & function


This form is common in Type 2 conditional sentences. It e#presses an unfinished or ontinuin2 a tion or situation, which is the probable result of an unreal on!ition:

I would be working in Italy if I spo!e Italian. /but I don't spea! Italian, so I am not wor!ing in Italy. 1he would be li ing with 6ac! if she wasn't li"ing with her parents. /but she is li"ing with her parents so she's not li"ing with 6ac!0. %ore e7a#ples$

I wouldn't be eating this if I wasn't e#tremely hungry. If I had an e#am tomorrow, !'d be re ising now. 3ou wouldn't be smiling if you !new the truth.

NOTE: This form is also found in: mi#ed conditional sentences /1ee section on 7i#ed 8onditional 1entences09 in indirect speech: (he said )I%ll be working in the garden.) /1ee section on Indirect 1peech0 (he said she would be working in the garden.

T1PE , CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


1. Form
In a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfe t, and the tense in the main clause is the perfe t on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE

If & past perfe t If it had rained If you had wor!ed harder

Perfe t on!itional you would ha"e got wet you would ha"e passed the e#am.

$erfect conditional & form


The perfect conditional of any "erb is composed of two elements: would . the perfect infiniti"e of the main "erb /2ha"e * past participle&+ Su"4e t 5e They 'oul! would would perfe t infiniti6e ha"e gone... ha"e stayed...

Affir#ati6e

I Ne2ati6e

would

ha"e belie"ed ...

1he Interro2ati6e

wouldn't

ha"e gi"en...

*ould Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e

you

ha"e left...,

*ouldn't

he

ha"e been...,

Example" to go# $ast conditional


Affir#ati6e Ne2ati6e Interro2ati6e

I would ha"e gone 1ou would ha"e gone He would ha"e gone 5e would ha"e gone 1ou would ha"e gone The( would ha"e gone

I wouldn't ha"e gone 3ou wouldn't ha"e gone She wouldn't ha"e gone *e wouldn't ha"e gone 3ou wouldn't ha"e gone

*ould I ha"e gone, *ould you ha"e gone, *ould it ha"e gone, *ould we ha"e gone, *ould you ha"e gone,

They wouldn't ha"e gone *ould they ha"e gone,

In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is e#pressed. Type 3 conditional sentences, are truly hypothetical or unreal, because it is now too late for the condition or its result to e#ist. There is always an unspo!en 4but...) phrase:

If I had worked harder I would ha e passed the e#am (but I didn't wor! hard, and I didn't pass the e#am0. If !'d known you were coming !'d ha e baked a ca!e (but I didn't !now, and I ha"en't ba!ed a ca!e0.

NOTE$ )oth would and had can be contracted to 'd, which can be confusing. :emember that you NE8ER use would in the !F&clause, so in the e#ample abo"e, 4If I'd !nown4 must be )If Ihad !nown), and )I'd ha"e ba!ed4 must be )I would ha"e ba!ed..4

Examples"
a. If !'d known you were in hospital, I would ha e isited you. b. I would ha e bought you a present if !'d known it was your birthday. c. If they'd had a better goal!eeper they wouldn't ha e lost the game. d. If you had told me you were on the Internet, !'d ha e sent you an e'mail. e. %ould you ha e bought an elephant if you'd known how much they eat,

PERFECT CONDITIONAL3 CONTINUOUS


1. $erfect conditional# continuous & Form
This tense is o#pose! of t'o ele#ents$ the perfe t on!tional of the 6er" 'to "e' /would ha e been' & the present parti iple /base(ing'. Su"4e t I *e Affir#ati6e 'oul! ha6e "een would ha"e been would ha"e been "ase&in2 sitting swimming

I Ne2ati6e

would ha"e been

studying.

3ou Interro2ati6e

wouldn't ha"e been

li"ing.

*ould Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e

we ha"e been

tra"elling,

*ouldn't

it ha"e been

wor!ing,

Examples to work# $ast continuous conditional


Affir#ati6e Ne2ati6e

I would ha"e been wor!ing

I wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing

1ou would ha"e been wor!ing He would ha"e been wor!ing 5e would ha"e been wor!ing 1ou would ha"e been wor!ing The( would ha"e been wor!ing Interro2ati6e

3ou wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing. She wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing *e wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing 3ou wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing They wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e

*ould I ha"e been wor!ing, *ould you ha"e been wor!ing, *ould he ha"e been wor!ing, *ould we ha"e been wor!ing, *ould you ha"e been wor!ing, *ould they ha"e been wor!ing,

*ouldn't I ha"e been wor!ing, *ouldn't you ha"e been wor!ing, *ouldn't she ha"e been wor!ing, *ouldn't we ha"e been wor!ing, *ouldn't you ha"e been wor!ing, *ouldn't they ha"e been wor!ing,

2. Function
This tense can be used in Type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to the unfulfille! result of the action in the if'clause, and e#presses this result as an unfinishe! or ontinuous a tion. $gain, there is always an unspo!en 4but..4 phrase:

Examples

If the weather had been better /but it wasn't0, !'d ha e been sitting in the garden when he arri"ed /but I wasn't and so I didn't see him0. If she hadn't got a %ob in ;ondon /but she did0, she would ha e been working in (aris /but she wasn't0. If I'd had a ball I would ha e been playing football. If I'd had any money !'d ha e been drinking with my friends in the pub that night. If I had !nown it was dangerous I wouldn't ha e been climbing that cliff. 1he wouldn't ha e been wearing a seat'belt if her father hadn't told her to.

%I9ED CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a 4mi#ed conditional4 sentence. There are two types of mi#ed conditional sentence:

A. Present result of past on!ition$ 1. Form


The tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE

If & past perfe t If I had wor!ed harder at school If we had loo!ed at the map

Present on!itional I would ha"e a better %ob now. we wouldn't be lost.

2. Function
In these sentences, the time is past in the 'if' clause, and present in the main clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. They e#press a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present: 'If I had worked harder at school% is contrary to past fact ' I didn't wor! hard at school, and 'I would ha"e a better 'ob now% is contrary to present fact ' I ha"en't got a good %ob. If we had looked at the map /we didn't0, we wouldn%t be lost /we are lost0.

Examples

I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that %ob. If you'd caught that plane you'd be dead now. If you hadn't spent all your money on 8<s, you wouldn't be broke.

:. Past result of present or ontinuin2 on!ition. 1. Form


The tense in the !f&clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE

If & si#ple past If I wasn't afraid of spiders If we didn't trust him

Perfe t on!itional I would ha"e pic!ed it up. we would ha"e sac!ed him months ago.

2. Function
In these sentences the time in the !f&clause is now or always, and the time in the main clause is before now. They refer to an unreal present situation and its probable /but unreal0 past result:

%If I wasn%t afraid of spiders% is contrary to present reality ' I a# afraid of spiders, and 'I would ha"e picked it up% is contrary to past reality ' I !i!n't pic! it up. %If we didn%t trust him% is contrary to present reality ' we !o trust him, and %we would ha"e sacked him% is contrary to past reality ' we ha6en't sac!ed him.

Examples
a. If she wasn't afraid of flying she wouldn't ha e tra elled by boat. b. !'d ha e been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better. c. If I was a good coo!, !'d ha e in ited them to lunch. d. If the elephant wasn't in lo"e with the mouse, she'd ha e trodden on him by now.

UNLESS
Unless #eans the sa#e as if...not. Li+e if3 it is follo'e! "( a present tense3 a past tense or a past perfe t /ne6er "( 'would'0. It is use! instea! of if & not in on!itional senten es of all t(pes$ Type 1: /=nless . present0

3ou'll be sic! unless you stop eating. /2 3ou will be sic! if you don't stop eating0 I won't pay unless you pro ide the goods immediately. /2 If you don't pro"ide them I won't pay0 3ou'll ne"er understand English unless you study this grammar carefully. /2 3ou'll ne"er understand if you don't study...0

Type 2: /=nless . past0



=nless he was "ery ill, he would be at wor!. I wouldn't eat that food unless I was really hungry. 1he would be here by now unless she was stuc! in the traffic.

Type 3: /=nless . past perfect0



-ur mar!eting director would not ha"e signed the contract unless she'd had the company legal e#pert present. I wouldn't ha"e phoned him unless you'd suggested it. They would ha"e shot her unless she'd gi en them the money.

Con!itional $ Unreal Past

The past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an 'unreal' situation. 1o, although the tense is the past, we are usually tal!ing about the present, e.g. in a Type 2 conditional sentence: If an elephant and a mouse fell in lo"e, they would ha"e many problems. $lthough fell is in the past tense, we are tal!ing about a hypothetical situation that might e#ist now or at any time, but we are not referring to the past. *e call this use the unreal past. -ther situations where this occurs are:

after other words and e#pressions li!e %if% /supposing, if only, what if&, after the "erb %to wish%, after the e#pression %!'d rather..%

Expressions like 'if'


The following e#pressions can be used to introduce hypothetical situations: ' supposing# if only# what if. They are followed by a past tense to indicate that the condition they introduce is unreal:

1upposing an elephant and a mouse fell in lo"e, /2 but we !now this is unli!ely or impossible0 *hat if we painted the room purple, /2 that would be "ery surprising0 If only ! had more money. /2 but I ha"en't0. These e#pressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past and then they are followed by the past perfect.

Examples

If only I hadn't kissed the frog /2 I did and it was a mista!e because he turned into a horrible prince, but I can't change it now.0 *hat if the elephant had trodden on the mouse, /1he didn't, but we can imagine the result>0 1upposing I had gi en that man my money> /I didn't, so I'"e still got my money now.0

)he erb to wish


The "erb to wish is followed by an 'unreal' past tense when we want to tal! about situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannot change:

I wish I had more money /2but I ha"en't0 1he wishes she was beautiful /2 but she's not0

*e wish we could come to your party /but we can't0 *hen we want to tal! about situations in the past that we are not happy about or actions that we regret, we use the "erb to wish followed by the past perfect: I wish I hadn't said that /2 but I did0

5e wishes he hadn't bought the car /2 but he did buy it.0 I wish I had taken that %ob in +ew 3or! /2 but I didn't, so I'm stuc! in )ristol0 NOTE: *hen we want to tal! about situations we are not happy about and where we wantso#eone else to change them, we use to wish followed by would ( infiniti e"

I wish he would stop smo!ing. /2 I don't li!e it, I want hi# to change it0 I wish you would go away. /2 I don't want you here, I want (ou to ta!e some action0 I wish you wouldn't s*ueeze the toothpaste from the middle> /2 I want you to change your habits.0

!'d rather and it's time...


These two e#pressions are also followed by an unreal past. The "erb is in the past tense, but the situation is in the present. *hen we want to tal! about a course of action we would prefer someone else to ta!e, we use !'d rather ( past tense:

I'd rather you went 5e'd rather you called the police I'd rather you didn't hunt elephants. +-TE: the stress can be important in these sentences, to show what our preference is:

I%d rather you went 2 not me, I%d rather you went $ don't stay -e%d rather you called the police 2 he doesn't want to -e%d rather you called the police 2 not the ambulance ser"ice 1imilarly, when we want to say that now is a suitable moment to do something, either for oursel"es or for someone else, we use it's time ( past tense:

It's /high0 time I went. It's time you paid that bill. <on't you thin! it's time you had a haircut,