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THE CONDITIONAL

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I- There are mainly 4 types of the conditional : Type 0,Type 1,Type 2 , and Type 3.But the most important ones are type 1 ,2 and 3. TYPE 1 : It is mainly about a possible or probable situation in the future hich may or may not ta!e place."or e#ample,$mine ill study at the uni%ersity if he &ets his Bac diploma.The present situation is that $mine has not &ot his Bac diploma yet because he is still studyin& at the lycee.'o,his future study at the uni%ersity depends on the possibility of &ettin& his Bac diploma. The (rammatical 'tructure of Type 1 is as follo s : IF+SIMPLE PRESENT+SIMPLE FUTURE IF +Amine gets his Bac diploma+he ill st!d" at the !ni#e$sit"% SIMPLE FUTURE+IF+SIMPLE PRESENT Amine ill st!d" at the !ni#e$sit"+i&+he gets his Bac diploma . TYPE ' : This type is concerned ith a present situation."or e#ample,)*+1030,- .eila is at a clothes shop.'he ants to buy a dress.The price of the dress is /00dh.But .eila has &ot only 300dh.'o,she cannot buy the dress because she doesnot ha%e /00dh no . I& Leila had ())dh*she co!ld +!" the d$ess% I& Leila had ())dh*she o!ld +!" the d$ess% The (rammatical 'tructure of type 2 is : IF+SIMPLE PAST+,-N.ITI-NAL TENSE/co!ld o$ o!ld + #e$+ in the in&initi#e0 IF+Leila had ())dh*she co!ld +!" the d$ess% ,-N.ITI-NAL TENSE/co!ld o$ o!ld + #e$+ in the in&initi#e0+IF+SIMPLE PAST Leila co!ld +!"+ the d$ess+ i&+ she had ())dh% TYPE 1 2 The situation of type 3 is in the past.The action of this situation started and ended in the past.'o,it is impossible to chan&e that situation."or e#ample,)*+1030,*+1030,*+1030,$hmed didnot &o to school yesterday because he as ill.)reality sentence: hat happened-. I& Ahmed had not +een ill *he o!ld ha#e gone to school% )ima&ination sentence: hat didnot happen or hat e ished it had happened-. The (rammatical 'tructure of type 3 is the follo in&:

PRA..he didn�t as! you... 32If he had as!ed you.. 42The ?oroccan football team didnot Cualify for the 200> 9orldcup because they ere unluc!y a&ainst Tunisia...-N.. 426e could ha%e understood you if you )spea!..and )1didn �t &o12ne&ati%e. If. 22I )&i%e..T% Ahmed+co!ld ha#e gone to school+IF+he hadnot +een ill 0otice that the forms of the %erbs)affirmati%e or ne&ati%e..E E5ER.......you his address if I !ne it.....are ne&ati%e . )accepted.... @20oura ill &et married in case she reaches the a&e of 2A.atifa....T+PERFE............into an iceber&..That as hy he crashed into a tree. 22. A2If you don�t or! %ery hard..in conditional type 2 and type 3 are re%ersed.T .becomes )hadnot been 2ne&ati%e.to our city if it had nice hotels..... Thus..IPLE0% IF+Ahmed hadnot +een ill+he co!ld ha#e gone to school% PERFE........you.. $mal. If.. If. /2$mal as punished because she for&ot to do her home or!.... 45T T67 378B' B7T9770 B8$:.)1 as1 2affirmati%e. ..IF+PAST PERFE..8798IT7 T67'7 '70T70:7' 'T$8TI0( 9IT6 T67 '5((7'T7G 9<8G'Es2F 12I can�t &i%e you 10dh because I don�t ha%e any money no .if it )crash-. 102=ou )buy-.. /26e )be-..$lso.daily bombs e#plosions in the country..successful..TI..on it..late for the train if he doesnot start at once.-N..ITI-NAL/co!ld o$ o!ld+3A4E+PAST PARTI....'aid must be a millionnaire...chan&e to affirmati%e in )II.ISES $.becomes )1 ould ha%e &one12affirmati%e.there )be-.... ..=ou spo!e too fast.But..T .I don�t !no his address for the moment.in )I3...7T' I0 T67 :<887:T T70'7 12The table ill collapse if you )stand...you )be-.in )I3. A2In order to buy a lar&e %illa. @2Titanic )sin!-. >2?ore tourists )come...IPLE0+IF+PAST PERFE.... in type 2 )1cannot buy1 and 1doesn�t ha%e1 in )I....he is not...the %illa if you li!e itD EsFB. >28achid couldnot buy the Heans because he didnot ha%e enou&h money....IraC...atifa didnot %isit you because she didnot !no you ere in hospital.. If. 328achid as careless hile dri%in& his car. If.5nfortunately.in )III. B2If 5'$ )attac!-.more slo ly.in )III...ITI-NAL/co!ld o$ o!ld +3A4E+PAST PARTI.....

and the tense in the main clause is the si#ple future 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE . The 'zero' on!itional.he could buy the Heans.atifa ould ha%e %isited you if she had !no n you ere �23. ouldn�t ha%e sun!�. and the 'unreal past'..if the ?oroccan football team hadn�t been unluc!y. ould you ha%e accepted24.they ould ha%e Cualified2/. ill you B. 1.had spo!en2/. when we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to past time. that is.2A. where the tense in the 'if clause is the si#ple present...24. Ans e$s $. the time is no' or al'a(s and the situation is real an! possi"le. where the tense in "oth parts of the sentence is the si#ple present$ 'IF' CLAUSE If & si#ple present If you heat ice If it rains %AIN CLAUSE si#ple present it melts.2@.'aid ..If 8achid had enou&h money..I could &i%e you 10dh22.I had any money.said ould buy the %illa if he ere a millionnaire 'IF' SENTENCES AND THE 'UNREAL' PAST In this section you will find information on sentences containing the word 'if'. IF AND THE CONDITIONAL There are four main types of 'if' sentences in English: 1.If 0oura reaches the a&e of 2A.she ill &et married. 1 tand22. you get wet In these sentences..2>..$mal ouldn�t ha%e been punished if she hadn�t for&otten . ouldn�t ha%e been210. ould &i%e23.he ouldn�t ha%e crashed into a tree. on�t be2B.hadn�t crashed2A. ould come2@. They are often used to refer to general truths.if 8achid hadn�t been careless. The T(pe ) on!itional. ill be2>.hadn�t attac!ed��. 2. the use of conditional tenses.

the time is no' or an( ti#e. The T(pe . the time is the present or future and the situation is real. where Type 2 and Type 3 are mi#ed. They are notbased on fa t. and they refer to an unreal past on!ition and its pro"a"le past result. the time is past.If & si#ple present If it rains If you don't hurry Si#ple future you will get wet we will miss the train. on!itional. and they refer to an unli+el( or h(potheti al on!ition and its pro"a"le result. and the situation is unreal. They refer to a possi"le on!ition and its pro"a"le result. The T(pe * on!itional. THE '-ERO' CONDITIONAL . 3. and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional: 'IF' CLAUSE If & past perfe t If I had wor!ed harder at school If we had loo!ed at the map %AIN CLAUSE Present on!itional I would ha"e a better %ob now. The fa ts they are based on are the opposite of what is e#pressed. In these sentences. They refer to an unreal past on!ition and its pro"a"le result in the present. . The tense in the'if' clause is the past perfect. and the tense in the main clause is the present on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE If & si#ple past If it rained If you went to bed earlier %AIN CLAUSE Present on!itional you would get wet you wouldn't be so tired. where the tense in the 'if' clause is the si#ple past. and the tense in the main clause is the perfe t on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE If & past perfe t If it had rained If you had wor!ed harder %AIN CLAUSE Perfe t on!itional you would ha"e got wet you would ha"e passed the e#am. and the situation is ontrar( to realit(. where the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfe t. the time is past in the 'if' clause. In these sentences. In these sentences. In these sentences. we wouldn't be lost. and present in the main clause. $ further type of 'if' sentence e#ists.

They are used to ma!e statements about the real world. the tense in "oth parts of the sentence is the si#ple present$ 'IF' CLAUSE /CONDITION0 %AIN CLAUSE /RESULT0 If & si#ple present If you heat ice If it rains si#ple present it melts. and the tense in the main clause is the si#ple future 'IF' CLAUSE /CONDITION0 %AIN CLAUSE /RESULT0 . such as scientific facts. For# In '&ero' conditional sentences. Examples • • • • • If you freeze water. you get wet NOTE: The order of the clauses is not fi#ed ' the 'if' clause can be first or second: Examples • • Ice melts if you heat it. Ask (ete if you're not sure what to do. tell him to meet me at the cinema. *. the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. If my husband has a cold. the tense in the 'if' clause is the si#ple present. You get wet if it rains.). I usually catch it. (lants die if they don't get enough water. If public transport is efficient. Fun tion In these sentences. using the imperati"e in the main clause: Examples • • If )ill phones. it becomes a solid. T1PE ) CONDITIONAL 1. you get purple. If you mix red and blue. Form In a Type 1 conditional sentence. and often refer to general truths. This structure is often used to gi"e instructions. people stop using their cars.

Form In a Type 2 conditional sentence. ou without to ld . They are based on facts. The present conditional of any "erb is composed of two parts ' the modal au#iliary would . it will break. 2. +obody will notice if you make a mista!e. If I ha e time.If & si#ple present If it rains If you !on't hurr( Si#ple future you 'ill 2et 'et we 'ill #iss the train. !'ll call the police. T1PE * CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1. Function In these sentences. it might break. If you don't drop the gun. the time is the present or future and the situation is real. *e often use such sentences to gi"e warnings: • • • • • • If you don't lea e.0 Su"4e w infiniti"e t . They refer to a possi"le on!ition and its pro"a"le result. I may finish that letter if I ha e time. and the tense in the main clause is the present on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE If & si#ple past If it rained If you went to bed earlier Present on!itional3 for# Present on!itional you would get wet you wouldn't be so tired. and about particular situations. and they are used to ma!e statements about the real world. the infiniti"e of the main "erb /without 'to'. +-TE: *e can use modals to e#press the degree of certainty of the result: • • If you drop that glass. !'ll shoot! If you drop that glass. the tense in the 'if' clause is the si#ple past. !'ll finish that letter. *hat will you do if you miss the plane.

1he w learn ou ld $ffirmati"e I +egati"e would go I Interrogati"e wouldn't as! *ould Interrogati"e negati"e she come. she'd *e'd you'd they'd The negati"e contraction 2 wouldn't. *ould you accept.. 5oul!$ Contra tions of 'oul! In spo!en English. . 'oul! is contracted to '!. I'd you'd he'd. Example" to accept# $resent conditional Affir#ati6e +egati"e Interrogati"e I would accept 1ou would accept I wouldn't accept 3ou wouldn't accept *ould I accept. *ouldn't they accept.

. and they refer to an unli+el( or h(potheti al on!ition and its pro"a"le result. They wouldn't in ite her if they didn't like her g. If I knew where she li"ed. you would buy me a diamond ring. so I won't0 E7a#ples of use$ 1. we would go to the park (. I wouldn%t be doing this 'ob! . f. The use of the past tense after 'if' indicates unrealit(. b. e. *ould we accept. Fun tion In these sentences. I would gi e e"eryone �1##.He would accept 5e would accept 1ou would accept The( would accept She wouldn't accept *e wouldn't accept 3ou wouldn't accept They wouldn't accept *ould he accept. c.. but is possible: 2. To ma!e a statement about something that is not real at present. PRESENT CONTINUOUS CONDITIONAL In type 2 conditional sentences. I would go and see her. If I was a plant. They are not based on fa t. 3ou wouldn't need to read this if you understood English grammar. and "ery common. *ould they accept. *ould you accept. to say 4If I 'ere4 instead of 4If I 'as4. *. that e#presses the real situation: • • If the weather wasn't so bad. and the situation is unreal. the continuous form of the present conditional may be used: If I were a millionaire. the time is no' or an( ti#e. d.. so we can't go0 If I was the ueen of !ngland. !'d gi e up smoking (but I could ne"er be you& E7a#ples$ a.but it is bad.. I would isit her if I had time. %ould he go to the concert if I ga e him a tic!et. ($ I ha"en%t got time but I might ha"e some time& To ma!e a statement about a situation that is not real now and ne"er could be real: If I were you.but I'm not. *e can nearly always add a phrase starting with 4but4. I would lo e the rain. (. *e would be able to buy a larger house if we had more money +-TE$ It is correct. If you really lo ed me.

Example" to li e# $resent continuous conditional. *ould he be li"ing. Affir#ati6e Ne2ati6e Interro2ati6e I would be li"ing 1ou would be li"ing He would be li"ing 5e would be li"ing 1ou would be li"ing The( would be li"ing I wouldn't be li"ing 3ou wouldn't be li"ing She wouldn't be li"ing *e wouldn't be li"ing 3ou wouldn't be li"ing They wouldn't be li"ing *ould I be li"ing. $resent continuous conditional & form. *ould they be li"ing. . Su"4e t 5e They 'oul! "e would be would be "ase&in2 going li"ing Affir#ati6e *e Ne2ati6e would be coming 3ou wouldn't be wor!ing Interro2ati6e *ould you be sharing. *ould you be li"ing. *ould you be li"ing. Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e *ouldn't they be playing. This form is composed of two elements: the present conditional of the "erb %to be% (would be0 . the present participle of the main "erb /base.in20. *ould we be li"ing.1.

ha"e stayed. so I am not wor!ing in Italy.. 1he would be li ing with 6ac! if she wasn't li"ing with her parents.. . which is the probable result of an unreal on!ition: • • I would be working in Italy if I spo!e Italian. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1. If I had an e#am tomorrow.) /1ee section on Indirect 1peech0 (he said she would be working in the garden. NOTE: This form is also found in: mi#ed conditional sentences /1ee section on 7i#ed 8onditional 1entences09 in indirect speech: (he said )I%ll be working in the garden. T1PE . Form In a Type 3 conditional sentence.. /but she is li"ing with her parents so she's not li"ing with 6ac!0.. the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfe t. and the tense in the main clause is the perfe t on!itional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE If & past perfe t If it had rained If you had wor!ed harder Perfe t on!itional you would ha"e got wet you would ha"e passed the e#am. /but I don't spea! Italian. It e#presses an unfinished or ontinuin2 a tion or situation. $erfect conditional & form The perfect conditional of any "erb is composed of two elements: would .2. $resent continuous conditional & function This form is common in Type 2 conditional sentences. %ore e7a#ples$ • • • I wouldn't be eating this if I wasn't e#tremely hungry. 3ou wouldn't be smiling if you !new the truth. !'d be re ising now. the perfect infiniti"e of the main "erb /2ha"e * past participle&+ Su"4e t 5e They 'oul! would would perfe t infiniti6e ha"e gone.

..Affir#ati6e I Ne2ati6e would ha"e belie"ed .. If !'d known you were coming !'d ha e baked a ca!e (but I didn't !now.. *ould you ha"e gone. are truly hypothetical or unreal.. 1he Interro2ati6e wouldn't ha"e gi"en.. Type 3 conditional sentences. *ould we ha"e gone. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is e#pressed.) phrase: • • If I had worked harder I would ha e passed the e#am (but I didn't wor! hard. Example" to go# $ast conditional Affir#ati6e Ne2ati6e Interro2ati6e I would ha"e gone 1ou would ha"e gone He would ha"e gone 5e would ha"e gone 1ou would ha"e gone The( would ha"e gone I wouldn't ha"e gone 3ou wouldn't ha"e gone She wouldn't ha"e gone *e wouldn't ha"e gone 3ou wouldn't ha"e gone *ould I ha"e gone. the time is past... There is always an unspo!en 4but. . and I ha"en't ba!ed a ca!e0. and I didn't pass the e#am0. They wouldn't ha"e gone *ould they ha"e gone. *ould it ha"e gone. *ould you ha"e gone.. In these sentences... because it is now too late for the condition or its result to e#ist. and the situation is contrary to reality.. *ouldn't he ha"e been. *ould Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e you ha"e left.

I would ha e bought you a present if !'d known it was your birthday. Su"4e t I *e Affir#ati6e 'oul! ha6e "een would ha"e been would ha"e been "ase&in2 sitting swimming I Ne2ati6e would ha"e been studying. which can be confusing. d. PERFECT CONDITIONAL3 CONTINUOUS 1. $erfect conditional# continuous & Form This tense is o#pose! of t'o ele#ents$ the perfe t on!tional of the 6er" 'to "e' /would ha e been' & the present parti iple /base(ing'. c. %ould you ha e bought an elephant if you'd known how much they eat. *ould Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e we ha"e been tra"elling. :emember that you NE8ER use would in the !F&clause. If you had told me you were on the Internet. 4If I'd !nown4 must be )If Ihad !nown). If they'd had a better goal!eeper they wouldn't ha e lost the game. e. If !'d known you were in hospital. *ouldn't it ha"e been wor!ing. I would ha e isited you.. 3ou Interro2ati6e wouldn't ha"e been li"ing. and )I'd ha"e ba!ed4 must be )I would ha"e ba!ed. so in the e#ample abo"e. b.NOTE$ )oth would and had can be contracted to 'd. !'d ha e sent you an e'mail. Examples to work# $ast continuous conditional Affir#ati6e Ne2ati6e I would ha"e been wor!ing I wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing .4 Examples" a.

*ould he ha"e been wor!ing. !'d ha e been sitting in the garden when he arri"ed /but I wasn't and so I didn't see him0. $gain. She wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing *e wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing 3ou wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing They wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing Interro2ati6e ne2ati6e *ould I ha"e been wor!ing. *ouldn't you ha"e been wor!ing. If I'd had any money !'d ha e been drinking with my friends in the pub that night. *ouldn't we ha"e been wor!ing. *ould you ha"e been wor!ing. If I had !nown it was dangerous I wouldn't ha e been climbing that cliff. there is always an unspo!en 4but. *ouldn't she ha"e been wor!ing.ondon /but she did0. *ould they ha"e been wor!ing. *ould you ha"e been wor!ing. *ould we ha"e been wor!ing. If I'd had a ball I would ha e been playing football. It refers to the unfulfille! result of the action in the if'clause. she would ha e been working in (aris /but she wasn't0. *ouldn't they ha"e been wor!ing.1ou would ha"e been wor!ing He would ha"e been wor!ing 5e would ha"e been wor!ing 1ou would ha"e been wor!ing The( would ha"e been wor!ing Interro2ati6e 3ou wouldn't ha"e been wor!ing. *ouldn't I ha"e been wor!ing. %I9ED CONDITIONAL SENTENCES . 2. If she hadn't got a %ob in . Function This tense can be used in Type 3 conditional sentences.4 phrase: Examples • • • • • • If the weather had been better /but it wasn't0. *ouldn't you ha"e been wor!ing. and e#presses this result as an unfinishe! or ontinuous a tion.. 1he wouldn't ha e been wearing a seat'belt if her father hadn't told her to.

Past result of present or ontinuin2 on!ition. :. There are two types of mi#ed conditional sentence: A. 1. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. 2. Form The tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect. If you hadn't spent all your money on 8<s. we wouldn't be lost. If we had looked at the map /we didn't0. and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE If & si#ple past If I wasn't afraid of spiders If we didn't trust him Perfe t on!itional I would ha"e pic!ed it up. . Present result of past on!ition$ 1. the time is past in the 'if' clause. Examples • • • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that %ob. and 'I would ha"e a better 'ob now% is contrary to present fact ' I ha"en't got a good %ob. and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional: 'IF' CLAUSE %AIN CLAUSE If & past perfe t If I had wor!ed harder at school If we had loo!ed at the map Present on!itional I would ha"e a better %ob now. we wouldn%t be lost /we are lost0. you wouldn't be broke. Form The tense in the !f&clause is the simple past. and present in the main clause. we would ha"e sac!ed him months ago. They e#press a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present: 'If I had worked harder at school% is contrary to past fact ' I didn't wor! hard at school.It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times. If you'd caught that plane you'd be dead now. Function In these sentences. and the resulting sentence is a 4mi#ed conditional4 sentence.

2. and %we would ha"e sacked him% is contrary to past reality ' we ha6en't sac!ed him. Con!itional $ Unreal Past . past0 • • • =nless he was "ery ill. If I was a good coo!... she'd ha e trodden on him by now. /2 3ou'll ne"er understand if you don't study. I wouldn't eat that food unless I was really hungry. past perfect0 • • • -ur mar!eting director would not ha"e signed the contract unless she'd had the company legal e#pert present. !'d ha e in ited them to lunch. Li+e if3 it is follo'e! "( a present tense3 a past tense or a past perfe t /ne6er "( 'would'0. If the elephant wasn't in lo"e with the mouse. If she wasn't afraid of flying she wouldn't ha e tra elled by boat. 1he would be here by now unless she was stuc! in the traffic.0 Type 2: /=nless . Type 3: /=nless . and the time in the main clause is before now. c. and 'I would ha"e picked it up% is contrary to past reality ' I !i!n't pic! it up.. /2 If you don't pro"ide them I won't pay0 3ou'll ne"er understand English unless you study this grammar carefully. Function In these sentences the time in the !f&clause is now or always. d. he would be at wor!. present0 • • • 3ou'll be sic! unless you stop eating. %If we didn%t trust him% is contrary to present reality ' we !o trust him. It is use! instea! of if & not in on!itional senten es of all t(pes$ Type 1: /=nless . They would ha"e shot her unless she'd gi en them the money. !'d ha e been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better. I wouldn't ha"e phoned him unless you'd suggested it. They refer to an unreal present situation and its probable /but unreal0 past result: • • %If I wasn%t afraid of spiders% is contrary to present reality ' I a# afraid of spiders.not. b.. /2 3ou will be sic! if you don't stop eating0 I won't pay unless you pro ide the goods immediately. Examples a. UNLESS Unless #eans the sa#e as if.

% Expressions like 'if' The following e#pressions can be used to introduce hypothetical situations: ' supposing# if only# what if. -ther situations where this occurs are: • • • after other words and e#pressions li!e %if% /supposing. $lthough fell is in the past tense. but I can't change it now. we use the "erb to wish followed by the past perfect: I wish I hadn't said that /2 but I did0 • . we are usually tal!ing about the present.. 1o. /2 but I ha"en't0.0 *hat if the elephant had trodden on the mouse. after the e#pression %!'d rather.g. /1he didn't. we are tal!ing about a hypothetical situation that might e#ist now or at any time. These e#pressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past and then they are followed by the past perfect. e.The past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an 'unreal' situation. /2 but we !now this is unli!ely or impossible0 *hat if we painted the room purple. in a Type 2 conditional sentence: If an elephant and a mouse fell in lo"e. although the tense is the past. Examples • • • If only I hadn't kissed the frog /2 I did and it was a mista!e because he turned into a horrible prince. so I'"e still got my money now. They are followed by a past tense to indicate that the condition they introduce is unreal: • • • 1upposing an elephant and a mouse fell in lo"e. what if&. but we can imagine the result>0 1upposing I had gi en that man my money> /I didn't. if only. /2 that would be "ery surprising0 If only ! had more money. they would ha"e many problems.0 )he erb to wish The "erb to wish is followed by an 'unreal' past tense when we want to tal! about situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannot change: • • • I wish I had more money /2but I ha"en't0 1he wishes she was beautiful /2 but she's not0 *e wish we could come to your party /but we can't0 *hen we want to tal! about situations in the past that we are not happy about or actions that we regret. *e call this use the unreal past. but we are not referring to the past. after the "erb %to wish%.

either for oursel"es or for someone else. I want (ou to ta!e some action0 I wish you wouldn't s*ueeze the toothpaste from the middle> /2 I want you to change your habits. so I'm stuc! in )ristol0 NOTE: *hen we want to tal! about situations we are not happy about and where we wantso#eone else to change them. when we want to say that now is a suitable moment to do something. /2 I don't want you here. but the situation is in the present.0 I wish I had taken that %ob in +ew 3or! /2 but I didn't. These two e#pressions are also followed by an unreal past. to show what our preference is: • • • • I%d rather you went 2 not me. we use !'d rather ( past tense: • • • I'd rather you went 5e'd rather you called the police I'd rather you didn't hunt elephants. we use it's time ( past tense: • • • It's /high0 time I went. It's time you paid that bill. .• • 5e wishes he hadn't bought the car /2 but he did buy it. we use to wish followed by would ( infiniti e" • • • I wish he would stop smo!ing. <on't you thin! it's time you had a haircut.0 !'d rather and it's time. I want hi# to change it0 I wish you would go away. /2 I don't li!e it. The "erb is in the past tense. I%d rather you went $ don't stay -e%d rather you called the police 2 he doesn't want to -e%d rather you called the police 2 not the ambulance ser"ice 1imilarly.. +-TE: the stress can be important in these sentences. *hen we want to tal! about a course of action we would prefer someone else to ta!e..