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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!

Advances ln Commerclal
klLchen venulauon
Carl Cressey, PalLon-lnnes
LrnesLo Lopez, PalLon-lnnes
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
!"#$!% '( )*+, $-.-/012
34-045-6
asL and CurrenL research has been
focused ln Lhe followlng areas:
Pow Lo properly measure exhausL and supply
alrows (8-623 and 8-1376)
Cuanufylng Lhe grease from cooklng
appllances (8-743 and 8-1373)
Cpumlzlng hood performance (8-1202 and
8-1480)
Lvaluaung lLer emclency (8-831 and
8-1131)
Lvaluaung grease deposluon ln ducLwork
(8-1033)
1hermal comforL ln klLchens (8-1469)
2
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Culck lacLs
World energy consumpuon ls
pro[ecLed Lo lncrease 33 by 2030
lossll fuel wlll remaln Lhe maln energy
source and
Creen bulldlng" Lrend becomes global
wlLh supporung regulauon ln many
counLrles
8esLauranLs are among Lhe bulldlngs
wlLh Lhe hlghesL Lnergy use lnLenslLy
ln Lhe commerclal secLor
Labor and Lralnlng cosLs for resLauranLs
conunue Lo rlse wlLh average
employee Lurnover raLes exceedlng
100
World energy use 1990-2030
8y fuel Lype
8y reglon
Source: Lnergy lnformauon AdmlnlsLrauon, 2009
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
1yplcal" qulck servlce resLauranL
energy consumpuon
40.60
40.60
10.13
3.10
PvAC klLchen LqulpmenL Llghung Cooler lreezer & oLher
PvAC & klLchen equlpmenL conLrlbuLes up Lo 80 of LoLal resLauranL energy
consumpuon.
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
72-0- 89 :2- 2-/: ;9/8. <-=-0/:-8 5= /
19>>-015/; ?5:12-= 19>- @09>A
!"#$%& ()*+ ,--./01 23-,4556 "$7 ,--./01
489/2!40:;
2. kad|ated
neat
1. Convecnve
neat
+* (9=4-1B4- 2-/: CD 1/= E- 1/F:G0-8 EH / 2998*
I:9:/;;H 90 F/0:;H 8-F-=85=< 9= 2998 -J15-=1HK

L* $/85/:-8 2-/: CD 1/= =9: E-
1/F:G0-8 EH :2- 2998*

M* 3:2-0 N
- 2-/: :0/=.@-0 :209G<2 65=896.O 6/;;.O
1-5;5=<
- 911GF/=:.
- ;5<2:.
- 9:2-0 /FF;5/=1-.O 85.2099>O -:1*

3
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
72H 89 6- =--8 / 4-=B;/B9= .H.:-> 5=
19>>-015/; ?5:12-=. A
<; 3=+*>= +*#?@A)=

1C LNSUkL 1nL MCS1 LLASAN1 WCkkING LNVIkCNNLMLN1
B; 3=+*>= #++=7#"@=%&
=CD=?? E="@
F; 3=+*>= G)="?= H")ID%=?J
*7*)?J =CE"A?@ G"?=?K
L; 3=$=M @E= "#) @* )=()=?E @E=
M*)N#$G H%"D= "$7 )=H%"D=
=CE"A?@=7 "#);
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
PlsLorlcal venulauon
ueslgn
Cpen Lhe door and Lhen
swlLch on alr condluoner!
Pow much exhausL ls enough?
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Qvc
CRITICAL ZONE
Qve = Building Codes No
Qve = U.L. Values No
Qve = Qvc x H eff Yes
(heat load x hood efficiency)
O#?@*)#D"% !=@E*7? (*) P=@=)+#$#$G 4CE"A?@ 3"@=?
Qvc = Output of Cooking
Equipment
8
CnL? ML1PCu Auu8LSSlnC PLA1 CAln 1C
1PL kl1CPLn!
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
PQ R+, '%"' S$3'3(3Q
Measures minimum exhaust air flow rate based on 400 F,
600 F and 700 F (solid fuel).

30% fat burgers are placed on a 21/2 sq.ft. appliance
located on the end of the hood.

The burgers are cooked at the prescribed surface
temperature and flipped.

The U.L. inspector observes the capture & containment of
visible cooking vapors.

The test was not established to measure hood efficiency or
heat gain to the space.
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
ASTM F 2474 HEAT GAIN CURVE
GENERIC EXAMPLE
LxhausL raLes
PeaL
Caln
CCNVLC1IVL kADIAN1
CAPTURE &
CONTAINMENT





CapLurlng Spllllng
10
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
FULL C&C OF
CONVECTIVE HEAT
(Appliance : 600F)
HEAT SPILLING (airflows
lowered below C&C threshold)
(Appliance : 600F)
vlsuallzes changes ln alr denslLy
More sensluve Lhan vlsuallzlng smoke
Culckly see lmpacL of deslgn changes

Schlieren Thermal
Imaging
11
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Schlleren 1hermal lmaglng vldeo : Case sLudy
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
600 F SURFACE TEMP., FULL C&C
OF CONVECTIVE HEAT
SAME APPLIANCE, CONVECTIVE
HEAT SPILLING
Measuring hood efficiency using CFD Technology
O="@
5H#%%#$G
Heat load design = High Efficiency
O="@
,"H@A)=7
13
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
now to keduce nood Lxhaust A|row:
- uullze a hlgh emclency hood deslgn / close proxlmlLy hoods
- Cpumlze Lhe deslgn of Lhe venulauon sysLem wlLh Lhe cooklng
equlpmenL and process, looklng aL appllance dlverslLy
- uullze slde sklrLs or new Lechnologles Lo reduce neL openlng Lowards
Lhe hood Lo creaLe hlgher veloclues
- Careful plannlng of Lhe alr dlsLrlbuuon dlscharge and Lhrow pauerns
- use Lhermal dlsplacemenL venulauon
- 1uv allows reduclng hood exhausL alrow by 13
- SLraLeglcally locaLe Lhe cook-llne wlLhln Lhe physlcal room deslgn
conslderlng Lhe cooklng and dellvery processes

1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Appllance posluon ln klLchen
A - appllances ln Lhe corner wlLh canopy wall hood, 8 - appllances aL Lhe wall wlLh canopy
wall hood, C - appllances ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe space wlLh canopy lsland hood, u - appllances
aL Lhe wall wlLh close proxlmlLy back-shelf hood.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
A B C D
System configuration
A
n
n
u
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y

c
o
s
t
s
,

$
and Lype of hood can lmpacL alrow
greaLly!
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
According to the University of Minnesota (Gerstler, et. al, 1998) grease is comprised of
a variety of compounds including solid and/or liquid grease particles, grease and water
vapors, and a variety of non-condensable gases including nitrogen oxides, carbon
dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The composition of grease becomes more complex to
quantify as grease vapors may cool down in the exhaust stream and condense into
grease particles. In addition to these compounds, hydrocarbons can also be generated
during the cooking process and are defined by several different terminologies including
VOC (volatile organic compounds), SVOC (semi-volatile organic compounds), ROC
(reactive organic compounds), and many other categories.

WhaL ls Crease?
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
17
Pow ls grease measured???
AS1M 2319
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Pow ls Crease Cuanued?
1oLal Crease Lmlsslons by Appllance
CaLegory
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
G
a
s

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r
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O
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O
v
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n
Cooking Operation
T
o
t
a
l

G
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E
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
s

(
l
b
.
/
1
0
0
0

l
b
.
)
Total Emissions (lb./1000 lb. product)
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
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80
90
100
G
a
s

G
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d
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E
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G
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F
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F
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O
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Cooking Operation
%

G
r
e
a
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e

C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
% Particulate % Vapor
arucle and vapor grease percenLages by
appllance caLegory
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
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100
G
a
s

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Cooking Operation
%

G
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a
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C
o
m
p
o
s
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t
i
o
n
% PM 2.5 % > PM 2.5 and <= PM 10 % > PM 10
arucle slze dlsLrlbuuon by cooklng process
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Filter Efficiency Comparison @ 196 cfm/ft
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
Particle Size (micron)
P
a
r
t
i
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u
l
a
t
e

R
e
m
o
v
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)
Standard KSA Aluminum Baffle Cartridge Filter Baffle 2
93 Lo 98
emclenL
on parucles
beLween 3
and 10 mlcrons
wlLh hlgh emclency
lLers
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
- 1here ls a MC1 for deLermlnauon of eMuenL released
- 8esulLs dler for dlerenL appllances (even wlLhln same groups)
and medlums (sh, chlcken, beef) l.e., eMuenL ls hlghly process
dependenL
- SlgnlcanL levels of grease vapor are presenL ln cooklng eMuenL
- May vary from 30-90 by mass
- lmpllcauons for Lype of grease removal devlce
- arucles less Lhan M 10 are noL easlly removed by Lradluonal
lnerual meLhods
- ose much hlgher rlsk Lo human healLh

Summary.
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
How Is UV Applied On
Emissions?
UV Light for destruction
of grease
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!

Photolysis
! Long chain molecules are broken
down into shorter chains.
" Double bonds are destroyed into the long-chain
VOC molecules
! The cooking effluent is exposed
to UV light.
" Air, water vapor and VOCs are exposed to UV-C light
! This process called PHOTOLYSIS adds
energy to the molecular chains, which breaks
bonds and creates radicals.
Step 1
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Ozonolysis
-
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
1. Exposure to UV-C light adds an
extra atom to Oxygen (O
2
)
2. This creates ozone (O
3
).
3. Ozone connects to organic
compounds in the exhaust air
stream and converts them to H
2
O
and CO
2
.
4. This reduces many odor containing
compounds produced in the
cooking process.
Step 2
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
UV Lamps |nsta||ed |n exhaust
p|enum
Mechanlcal exLracLors, prlmary and secondary
before uv lamps
PTU( E/=8 ;5<2: 1/..-V-. @90
<0-/.- 8-.:0G1B9=
26
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Filter samples from EPA Method 5 test
Cooking hamburgers without and with UV light
Without UV
With UV-C light
EPA Method 5 testing with Western KY
University To Analyze Emissions
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Grease build up
on face of mesh
filter.
UV System eliminated
grease deposition on back
of mesh filters, plenum
and duct system after 10
months of operation.
Filter Analysis
28
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Exhaust duct directly after the
Capture Ray plenum shows a
powdery inert compound.
Further downstream no
evidence of the inert powder is
present indicating the continuing
presence of ozone.
Condition Of The Duct
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Photos From Ductwork And Inside The Hoods
Queen Mary II
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Hood Damper With UV-System
Queen Mary II
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Duct, Fan & Roof Cleaning Costs Reduced
Converts Grease to Powder
Alters Cooking Odors
Extends Roof-Liner Life
Reduces Risk of Fire
Ultra-Violet Light Technology
Summary
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
-Make-up air with mixing ventilation (CFD)
72/: 5>F/1: 89-. :2- :HF- 9@ .GFF;H /50
2/4- 9= 2998 F-0@90>/=1- /=8 .F/1-
19>@90:A
33
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Mixing
ventilation
system
requires
15 to 20%
higher
exhaust rate
than
displacement
system for the
same
efficiency.
W/?-UGF /50 65:2 85.F;/1->-=: 4-=B;/B9= I(XYK
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Low velocity thermal displacement
assists in capture & containment of the
cooking plume. Natural buoyancy of
supply air helps push convective
plume into the hood.
High velocity mixing diffusers can
disrupt the cooking plume, striking the
face of the hood, forcing supply air
down the face and actually drawing heat
away from the hood.
DISPLACEMENT MIXING
"GFF;H /50 5>F/1:. 2998 F-0@90>/=1-Z
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1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
uemand ConLrol venulauon
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
M.A.R.V.E.L. Demand Control
System
DCV
Exhaust regulation principle
KITCHEN START UP
> Fan is switched on
> Cooking appliances are not yet powered
KITCHEN START UP
> Fan is ON, adjust continuously within idle range
> Cooking appliances are warming up
KITCHEN OPERATIONAL
> Fan is ON
> Cooking detected
KITCHEN OPERATIONAL
> Fan is ON
> Full load cooking detected
A
i
r
f
l
o
w

(
C
F
M
)


1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
VARIOUS COOKING OPERATIONS
=> Cooking appliances which are in cooking mode are
detected by the sensors
=> Dampers & fan are adjust between idle and maximum
airflow
Balancing Dampers for
connection of multiple hoods
to a common fan

1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!


uCv oLenual Savlngs
43 alrow reducuon for qulck-servlce
Measured ln 2009 ln a qulck-servlce resLauranL
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
uCv oLenual Savlngs
- 30 alrow reducuon for full-servlce
Measured ln 2011 aL full-servlce resLauranL
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
uCv oLenual Savlngs
- 60 alrow reducuon for unlverslLy
Measured ln 2011 aL unlverslLy
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
8eneLs Lo Lhe lndusLry
8-1033: lower ducL veloclLy
8-1202 and 8-1480: beuer
capLure emclency aL lower alrows
8-1362: accuraLe load
deLermlnauon for klLchen
appllances
8-831, 8-743 and 8-1131, help
develop AS1M l2319
42
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
Concluslons
8esearch provldes answers! lor Loo long Lhe rsL response
was Lo lncrease alrow, maklng problems worse!
ueslgn process musL rsL conslder cook-llne, Lhen mlnlmlze
exhausL levels
SysLem musL conslder replacemenL alr LhaL does noL lmpacL
hood performance or space comforL
Mechanlcal exLracuon can quanufy whaL emlsslons can be
capLured, allowlng for alLernaLe sLraLegles for polluuon
conLrol when requlred (uv, Cu's)
uCv can provlde poLenual savlngs for many operauons
1raemos al presenLe el fuLuro de la consLruccln!
8lbllography
ear(s)
ASnkAL
ro[ect
1|t|e
1993-94 k-623 A I|e|d 1est Method for Determ|n|ng Lxhaust kates |n Grease noods for Commerc|a| k|tchens (Gordon,
L.8. and arv|n, I.A)
1996-97 k-8S1 Determ|n|ng the Lmc|ency of Grease-kemova| Dev|ces |n Commerc|a| k|tchen App||canons (Schrock,
D.W.)
1998-99 k-74S Idennhcanon and Character|zanon of Lmuents from Var|ous Cook|ng App||ances and rocesses As
ke|ated to Cpnmum Des|gn of k|tchen Venn|anon Systems (Gerst|er, W.D., kuehn, 1. n., u|, D.., et.
a|.)
2000-01 k-1033 Lects of A|r Ve|oc|ty on Grease Depos|non |n Lxhaust Ductwork (kuehn, 1.n., Gerst|er, W., Cr|tz, n.,
et. a|.)
2001-03 k-11S1 Deve|opment of a Drah Method of 1est for Determ|n|ng Grease kemova| Lmc|enc|es (We|ch, W.A.)
2003-0S k-1202 Lect of App||ance D|vers|ty and os|non on Commerc|a| k|tchen nood erformance (Sw|erczyna, k. 1.
and I|sher D.)
2007-08 k-137S Character|zanon of Lmuents from Add|nona| Cook|ng App||ances (kuehn, 1. n., et. a|.)
2008-09 k-1362 kev|sed neat Ga|n and Capture and Conta|nment Lxhaust kates from 1yp|ca| Commerc|a| Cook|ng
App||ances (Sw|erczyna, k. 1., et. a|.)
2008-201
0
k-1376 Method of 1est to Lva|uate I|e|d erformance of Commerc|a| k|tchen Venn|anon Systems (kuehn, 1.
n., et. a|.)
2008-200
9
k-1480 Is|and nood Lnergy Consumpnon and Lnergy keducnon Strateg|es (Sw|erczyna, k. 1., et. a|.)
2010-201
2
k-1469 1herma| Comfort In Commerc|a| k|tchens (Stoops, I.L.)
44