_o_ µí>.aj ¿|II| qm|¸I| q8 _¿.:I g _æ> cí> _c _,;n.


qæloìI _o_ q8 lo ¤b>ì . _.o ¤,.o_ Og_b go oolc q:Ìj g :
After - before - us soon us - which
Structure: hud + pust purticipiuI
E×umpIes:
1- I hud wushed before I pruyed
Z- He went home ufter he hud finished his work
3- He hud euten the cuke which he bought
4- As soon us they hud bought u cur¸ they drove to Rubut
¤b>Vo : o_ìI Iíæ b,a;ìI qæloìI _o_ ¤no q:Ìj lo l;ìlc _
µl.ìI qæloìI rl¿.:I ín; cí> ÇíìI
9ts¡ rcercc¡ ¡c»sc

_o_ µí>.aj ¿|II| ¿,oIm¸I| g ¤:gí> g8g.o cí> _c _,;n.lì
_;a.aoìI q8 lo _o_ q8 o§l¿.:I . ¤,.o_ Og_b go q:Ìj g _.o :
ßy - At - ßy the time - before - In,,Time - This time ne×t,,
Structure: wiII + huve + pust purticipiuI
E×umpIes:
1- At ó O'cIock¸ I wiII huve Ieft schooI
Z- ßy June 10
th
¸ we wiII huve tuken our finuI e×um
3- ßy the time I get my Visu¸ I wiII huve truveIed ubroud
4- In five yeurs time¸ I wiII huve got murried
õ- I wiII huve gone to bed before 11 O'cIock
ó- This time ne×t month¸ we wiII huve gruduuted
7- When the teucher is óõ¸ he wiII huve retired
¤b>Vo : .ì ¤;a.ìl; " When " _o_ o_al;o lægl.j lo lo:Io
b,a;ìI qæloìI . µl.ìI qæloìI _o_ oín; _o q:Ìj µ:
|u¡uec rcercc¡ ¡c»sc

¿çlo¸lI qs,¸I| : loglno l¿lcl8 OgSj q.ìI ¤lo>ìI gæ
¿ç±µ¸lI qs,¸I| : Vg¿>o l¿lcl8 OgSj q.ìI ¤lo>ìI gæ ¤,oæVI _,l8 gÌ
Ahmed broke the window yesterday
µglnolì ¤,.;o ¤lo>ìI oíæ active gæ g µglno l¿,8 _claìI OV Oìo g
Ahmed
The window was broken yesterday {by ahmed)
Ug¿>olì ¤,.;o ¤lo>ìI oíæ passive l¿lcl8 OV Oìo g Ahmed Ug¿>o
¤; UgnaoìI OlSo _> g .; l8g;ao " by "

Passive Active
Letters ure written AIi writes Ietters
The Iesson wus written Hodu wrote the Iesson
A cur wiII be bought SuIeh wiII bye u cur
Ahmed is being heIped khuIed is heIping Ahmed
The uppIe hus been euten She hus euten the uppIe
Are Iessons written? Does student write the Iessons?
Wus the cuke euten? Did she eut the cuke?
WiII u new cur be bought? WiII your futher buy u new cur?
Why is this being done? Why ure you doing this?
ßy whom the window wus broken? Who broke the window?

Ac¡·vc ö rtss·vc vo·cc

d¿L¿mI| dl¸µI| : ¤ln8 u>j l;;a qæ.a: ¤>,.: µæ: q.ìI ¤lo>ìI qæ
¤>,..ìI oíæ @a>..ì . __í.a l.æ g 3 ba8 ¿Ig:Ì :

ConditionuI 1
Structure: If + Subgect + SimpIe present /
Subgect + WiII {not} + Verb infinitive
¤,:lSo| _c _;nj
rqa cgí>
q8 _;a.aoìI
E×umpIe: If I get my driving Iicense
ne×t yeur¸ I wiII buy u cur
gì Væl> u.S ¤.aìI q8 ¤8l,aìI ¤æ>_ _lc
¤l;aoìI . Ç_.aÌ Oga o_l,a
ConditionuI Z
Structure: If + Subgect + SimpIe pust / Subgect
+ WouId {n't} + Verb infinitive
¤ìl> _c _;nj
q8 µí.ìI u8g
_æl>
E×umpIe: If peopIe drove curefuIIy¸ they wouId
be more sufe
gì ol8 8 _í>; _l.ìI Og:gS,a l:loÌ _.SÌ
ConditionuI 3
Structure: If + Subgect + Hud {n't} + pust
purticipiuI / Subgect + WouId {n't} huve + pust
purticipiuI
¤ìl> _c _;nj
u8g q8 µí.ìI
æo _
E×umpIe: If the test hud been eusier¸ I wouId
huve got u good murk
gì OlS V¿a Ol>.o$I . ì u.S í8 ulæ> ¤oVc _lc
oí,>

Co»o·¡·o»ti

_c _,;n.lì ulo ¿osI| d|o±¡ cmo gÌ _oVì ¤;,>o l¿.>,.: u:lS g
¤o,>g l¿.;8lc . ¤,:VI cI_l;nìI _on.a: :
If onIy - I wish - I shouId huve - I ought to huve
µí.ìI ¤ìl>ì Ul.o : _j_>VI ¿:læ: µc_ _,>í.ìI q8 uj_o.aI . _ì|
¤>Vc _>_j V ÇíìI Olb_aìI rIo q.;læÌ OÌ
E×umpIes:
- If onIy / I wish I hud given up smoking
- q..,ìlj unl8Ì _,>í.ìI _c
- I shouId huve / I ought to huve tuken the udvice
- q; _í>VI _o OlS í>I OÌ _j_>VI ¿:læ.;
bcoec¡¡·»o rts¡ tc¡·o»s

¿ços¸I| ¿§±I| : ¤; _l;>$I g ¤la: q8 µVSìI u>læ _c _>aìI ¤,8 ug.j ÇíìI _al;oìI _,c µVSìI gæ


Direct Indirect
I Iive in Rubut now He suid thut he Iived in Rubut then
We ure huppy here He suid thut they were huppy there
We ure pIuying footbuII toduy He suid thut they were pIuying footbuII thut duy
I wiII see you tomorrow He suid thut he wouId see me the ne×t duy
I huve been in the schooI Iibrury yesterduy He suid thut he hud been in the schooI Iibrury the duy before
I shouId tuke this medicine He suid thut he shouId tuke thut medicine
Whut is your nume? He usked me whut my nume wus
Why ure you Iute? He usked me why I wus Iute
Where do you Iive? He usked me where I Iived
Are you okuy ? He usked me if/whether I wus okuy
Do you go to schooI? He usked me if/whether I went to schooI

bcroe¡co srcccu