You are on page 1of 17

TRIGONOMETRIC

itiona

FUNCTIONS

lmathematics trigonometricfunctions

Name

trigo

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 5.1 Positive Angle and Negative Angle
 
90
2
 
y
II I
0
180 ()
x 360 (2)
III IV
3
270
  
2
  

Positive Angle

Anticlockwise

A positive angle is measured in an anticlockwise direction from the positive x-axis. y
direction
60
x
O

Negative Angle

A negative angle is measured in a clockwise direction from the positive x-axis. y
x
O
45
Clockwise

direction

Represent each of the following angles in a Cartesian plane and state the quadrant of the angle. y
Example
y
1(a)
70
y
(b)
150
60
60
x
x
x
O
O
O
Example
y
y
2(a)
195
y
(b)
345
215
215
x
x
x
O
O
O
Example
3(a)
415
y
y
(b)
480
y
395
35
x
x
O
360
O
x
O
395
3
Example
y
y
y
5
5
4(a)
4 
(b)
5 3 
4 
4 
x
x
x
O
O
O
1
Example
y
5(a)
130
y
 
y
(b)
45
3
x
x
x
O
O
O
45

5.2 Six Trigonometric Functions of any Angle (1)

5.2.1 Define sine, cosine and tangent of any angle in a Cartesian plane 1
 
sin 
 
r
 
y
cos 
Hypotenuse
 
Opposite to 
x
 
tan 
 
Conclusion :
Opposite
sin 
Hypotenuse
cos 
Hypotenuse
Opposite
tan 
2
r 2
=
3 2
+
4 2
Conclusion :
3
2
 4
2
a
c
r
4
r
=
r
=
5
3
b
Pythagoras’ Theorem :
2
2
2
2
2
c
 a
b
c
a
b
2
2
2
2
2
a
 c
b
a
c
b
2
2
2
2
2
b
 c
a
b
c
a
3.
Find the length of OA and the values of sine, cosine and tangent of .
(a)
y
12
5
sin  =
5 cos  =
tan  =
OP =
P (12, 5)
=
5
x
O
12
(b)
y
8
6
sin  =
6 cos  =
tan  =
OP =
P (8, 6)
=
6
=
=
=
x
8
O (c)
y
3
4
3
sin  =
cos  =
tan  =
OP =
=
=
4
x
O
3
P (4, 3)
(d)
y
12
5
12
sin  =
cos  =
tan  =
OP =
=
5
x
O
12
P (5, 12)

(e) Conclusion:

Sin is positive for in quadrant ……. and Cos is positive for in quadrant ……. and Tan is positive for in quadrant ……. and  Sin is negative for in quadrant ……. and Cos is negative for in quadrant ……. and Tan is negative for in quadrant ……. and  …….

…….

…….

…….

…….

…….

Fill in with or + sign.

90 y
+
Sin 
Sin 
Cos 
Cos 
Tan 
Tan 
0
x
360
Sin 
Sin 
Cos 
Cos 
Tan 
Tan 

180

 4. Find the corresponding reference angle of . 270 (a) y 55 x (b) 180 y 110 x 360 Reference angle = 55 Reference angle =  110 = 70 (c) 180 y 215 x 360 (d) 180 y 300 x 360 Reference angle = 215  Reference angle =  300 = 35 = 60 (e)
Conclusion:
Reference angle (RA) is the acute angle formed between the rotating ray of the angle and the
y
R.A =
 
R.A = 
x
R.A =
 
R.A =
 
sin  = sin (180  )
cos  = cos (180  )
tan  = tan (180  )
sin  = sin (  180)
cos  = cos (  180)
tan  = tan (  180)
sin  = sin (360  )
cos  = cos (360  )
tan  = tan (360  )
y
y
y
180  
x
x
x
O
O
O
 180
360  
5.
Given that cos 51 = 0.6293, find the trigonometric ratios of cos 231 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 231 = 231 
y
=
x
cos 231 =
=
6.
Given that sin 70 = 0.9397, find the trigonometric ratios of sin 610 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 610 = 610 
y
=
x
sin 610 =
=
7.
Given that tan 25 = 0.4663, find the trigonometric ratios of tan 335 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 335 =
 335
y
=
x
tan 335 =
=

5.2.2

Define cotangent, secant and cosecant of any angle in a Cartesian plane.

 1 2   r  1 1 r r  sin      sin    y cos    y   y   1 1   x   tan    cos      x   1   1     tan        3. Definition of cotangent , secant  and cosecant . cos sin   , 1  4. Since tan  then  sin  cosec 1   sec cot   cos  1  cot  tan  5. r 90   6. Complementary angles: y sin  = = cos (90  ) sin (90  ) sin  y x  sin 90    x cos  r r tan  = cos  x r  cos 90    y r cosec  cot (90  ) = sec (90  ) tan  y  tan 90    x sec  = cosec (90  ) x y cot  = tan (90  ) 7. Given that sin 48 = 0.7431, cos 48 = 0.6991 and tan 48 = 1.1106, evaluate the value of cos 42.
cos 42 =
90  48
=
=
48
8. Given that sin 67 = 0.9205, cos 67 = 0.3907 and tan 67 = 2.3559, evaluate the value of cot 23.
cot 23 =
90  67
=
=
67
9. Given that sin 37 = 0.6018, cos 37 = 0.7986 and tan 37 = 0.7536, evaluate the value of sec 53.
sec 53 =
90  37
=
=
37

5.2.3

Find values of six trigonometric functions of any angle

1. Complete the table below. 60 2 2 60 60 30 2 60 1 2 2  1 2  3 1 1 1 1 2  1 2 45  2 45 2 1 1 1
 30 45 60 1 sin  2 1 cos  2 tan  1

cos ( ) = cos

sin ( ) = sin

tan ( ) = tan y
O


x

2. Use the values of trigonometric ratio for the special angles, 30, 45and 60, to find the value of the trigonometric functions below

 Example: Evaluate sin 210 a. Evaluate tan 300 Draw diagram to determine positive or negative Draw diagram to determine positive or negative 180 y x 360  sin Find reference angle Reference angle of 210 = 210  180 = 30 Find reference angle Solve sin 210 =  sin 30 Solve 1 =  2
 b. Evaluate cos 150 c. Evaluate sec 135 Draw diagram to determine positive or negative Draw diagram to determine positive or negative Find reference angle Find reference angle Solve Solve

5.2.4

Solve trigonometric equations

A. Steps to solve trigonometric equation

1. Determine the range of the angle.

2. Find the reference angle using tables or calculator.

3. Determine the quadrant where the angle of the trigonometric function is placed.

4. Determine the values of angles in the respective quadrants.

1. Solve the following equation for 0    360.

 Example: sin  = 0.6428 a. cos  = 0.3420 Range : 0    360 0    360 Reference angle :  = sin 1 0.6428  = 40 Quadrant : 180 y S A 40 T C 360 x 180 y S A 40 T C 360 x 180 y S A T C 360 x 180 y S A T C 360 x Quadrant I Quadrant II Quadrant Quadrant Actual angles  = 40 ,  = 180  40  = 40 , 140 b. tan  = 1.192 c. cos  =  0.7660 Range : Reference angle : Quadrant : y x y x y x y x Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Actual angles
 d. sin  =  0.9397 e. tan  =  0.3640 Range : Reference angle : Quadrant : y x y x y x y x Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Actual angles f. cot  =  1.4826 g. cosec  =  2.2027 Range : Reference angle : Quadrant : y x y x y x y x Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Actual angles 2. Solve the following equation for 0    360. example : sec 2 = 2 a. 2 sin 2 = 1.6248 Range : 0    360 0  2  720 1  2 Reference angle : cos 2  cos 2  1 2 2   60 Quadrant : 180 60 T C S y A 60 360,720 x Actual angles 2 = 60, 360  60, 60 + 360, (36060) + 360  = 60, 300, 420, 660
 b. cos 3 =  0.9781 c. tan  =  2.05 2 Range Reference angle : Quadrant : Actual angles d. sin ( + 10) = 0.7660 e. cos ( + 40) = 0.7071 f. tan ( + 15) = 1 g. cos (  20) = 0.5 h. tan (2  10) =  2.082 i. sin (2  30) = 0.5
 j. sin  = cos 20 k. cos  =  sin 55 Example : 2 sin x cos x = cos x 2 sin x cos x  cos x = 0 cos x ( 2 sin x  1) = 0 m. 2sin x cos x = sin x cos x = 0 , 2 sin x  1 = 0 sin x = 1 y x 360 180 2 x = 30 T C S y A 360 x x = 90 , 270 x = 30,  x = 30, 90, 150, 270 150 n. 2 cos 2  + 3 cos  =  1 o. 2 sin 2  + 5 sin  = 3 p. tan 2  = tan  q. 3 sin  = 2 + cosec 
 3. Given that sin x  p and 0 0 < x < 90 0 . Express each of the following trigonometric ratios in terms of p. x (a) sec x = (b) cosec x = (c) tan x = (d) cot x = (e) sin ( 90 0 - x) = (f) cos (90 0 - x) = (g) sec (90 0 - x) = (h) cosec (90 0 – x) = (i) tan ( 90 o - x) = (j) cot ( 90 o – x ) = (k) sin(-x) = (l) cos (-x) =
 4. Given that sin x   8 and 270 0 < x < 360 0 . 5. Given that cos x  - 8 and 180 0 < x < 270 0 . 17 Without using tables or calculator, find the values of. x 17 Without using tables or calculator, find the values of x (a) cos x = (a) sin x = (b) tan x = (b) tan x = (c) cosec x = (c) cosec x = (d) sec x = (d) sec x = (e) cos (90 0 – x) = (e) sec (90 0 – x) = (f) sin ( 90 0 – x ) = (f) cot ( 90 0 – x ) = (g) sin (-x) = (g) sin (-x) = (h) tan (-x) = (h) cos (-x) =

5.4

Basic Identities

5.4.1 Prove Trigonometric Identities using Basic Identities

 Three basic trigonometric identities : Formula of compound angle : sin 2  + cos 2  = 1 cos 2  = 1 – sin 2  sin 2  = 1 – cos 2  sin (A  B) = sin A cos B  cos A sin B 1 + tan 2  = sec 2  cos (A  B) = cos A cos B Ŧ sin A sin B 1 + cot 2  = cosec 2  tan A  tan B tan (A  B) = 1 tan A tan B Formula of double angle : Formula of half angle : sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A sin A = 2 sin A cos A cos 2A = cos 2 A − sin 2 A 2 2 = 2 cos 2 A − 1 cos A = cos 2 A − sin 2 A 2 2 = 1 − 2sin 2 A = 2 kos 2 A − 1 tan 2A = 2tan A 2 1  tan 2 A = 1 − 2sin 2 A 2 2 tan A tan 2A = 1  tan 2 2 A 2

1. Prove the following identities Example:
cot  + tan  = cosec  sec 
a.
tan 2  (1  sin 2 ) = sin 2 
cos
sin
cot
  
tan
sin
cos
2
2
cos

sin
sin
cos
1
sin
cos
cos ec sec
2
 
1
cos
c.
sin 2  + cot 2  = cosec 2   cos 2 
b.
1 sin  cos 
 d.  sec  tan   2  1  sin  e. 1  sin x  cos x  2 sec x 1  sin  cos x 1  sin x 2. Solve the following equations for 0  x  360. a. 3 sin x + 2 = cosec x b. 2 cot 2 x  5 cot x + 2 = 0 c. cos 2 x  3 sin 2 x + 3 = 0 d. cot 2 x= 1 + cosec x e. 2 tan 2 x = 4 + sec x
 ANSWERS 5.2.1 5.2.4 3(a) 1 15 5. cos 51= 0.6293 2a. 0  2  720 , 54.33  = 27.17, 62.83, 207.17, 242.83 1  p 2 5.(a)  17 6. sin 70= 0.9397 b. 0  3  1080 , 12.01 (b) 1 (b) 15  = 56, 64, 176, 184, 296, 304 p 8 7. tan 25= 0.4663  (c) p (c)  17 c. 0  2  180 , 64 1  p 2 15  = 232 5.2.2 7. sin 48 = 0.7431 d.  = 40, 120 (d) 1 p p 2 (d)  17 8 8. tan 67 = 2.3559 e.  = 5, 275 (e) 1 p 2 (e) 15  17 9. cosec 37 = 1.6617 f.  = 30, 210 (f) p 8 (f) 15 5.2.3 2a. tan 300 =  3 g.  = 80, 320 (g) 1 p (g) 15 17 3 h.  = 62.83, 152.83, 242.83, 332.83 (h) 1 (h)  8 b. cos 150 =  2 1  p 2 17 c. sec 135 =  1 2 i.  = 30, 90, 210, 270 (i) 1 p p 2 5.2.4 j.  = 70, 110 (j) p 1a.70 , Quadrant I, IV  = 70, 290 1  p 2 b. 0    360 , 50 , Quadrant I, IV k.  = 145, 215 (k) -p  = 30, 330 c. 0    360 , 40 , Quadrant II, III m.  = 60, 180, 300 (l) 1 p 2  = 140, 220 d. 0    360 , 70 Quadrant III, IV n.  = 120, 180, 240 4.(a) 15 17  = 250, 290 e. 0    360 , 20.01 Quadrant II, IV o.  = 30, 150 (b) 8  15  = 159.99, 339.99 f. 0    360 , 34 Quadrant II, IV p.  = 0, 45, 225 (c)  17 8  = 146, 326 g. 0    360 , 27 Quadrant III, IV q.  = 90, 199.47, 350.53 (d) 17 15  = 207, 333 (e)  8 17 15 (f) 17 8 (g) 17 8 (h) 15