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TRIGONOMETRIC

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FUNCTIONS

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Name

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trigo

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TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

5.1 Positive Angle and Negative Angle   90  2   y Quadrant
5.1 Positive Angle and Negative Angle
 
90
2
 
y
Quadrant
Quadrant
II I
0
180 ()
x 360 (2)
Quadrant
Quadrant
III IV
3
270
  
2
  

Positive Angle

Anticlockwise

A positive angle is measured in an anticlockwise direction from the positive x-axis.

y direction 60 x O
y
direction
60
x
O

2radian = 360  radian = 180

Negative Angle

A negative angle is measured in a clockwise direction from the positive x-axis.

y x O 45 Clockwise
y
x
O
45
Clockwise

direction

Represent each of the following angles in a Cartesian plane and state the quadrant of the angle.

y Example y 1(a) 70 y (b) 150 60 60 x x x O O
y
Example
y
1(a)
70
y
(b)
150
60
60
x
x
x
O
O
O
Quadrant 1
Example
y
y
2(a)
195
y
(b)
345
215
215
x
x
x
O
O
O
Quadrant III
Example
3(a)
415
y
y
(b)
480
y
395
35
x
x
O
360
O
x
O
395
Quadrant I
3
Example
y
y
y
5
5
4(a)
4 
(b)
5 3 
4 
4 
x
x
x
O
O
O
Quadrant III
1
Example
y
5(a)
130
y
 
y
(b)
45
3
x
x
x
O
O
O
45
Quadrant IV

5.2 Six Trigonometric Functions of any Angle (1)

5.2.1 Define sine, cosine and tangent of any angle in a Cartesian plane

1   sin    r   y cos  Hypotenuse 
1
 
sin 
 
r
 
y
cos 
Hypotenuse
 
Opposite to 
x
 
tan 
 
Conclusion :
Opposite
sin 
Adjacent to 
Hypotenuse
Adjacent
cos 
Hypotenuse
Opposite
tan 
Adjacent
2
r 2
=
3 2
+
4 2
Conclusion :
3
2
 4
2
a
c
r
4
r
=
r
=
5
3
b
Pythagoras’ Theorem :
2
2
2
2
2
c
 a
b
c
a
b
2
2
2
2
2
a
 c
b
a
c
b
2
2
2
2
2
b
 c
a
b
c
a
3.
Find the length of OA and the values of sine, cosine and tangent of .
(a)
 in quadrant I
y
12
5
sin  =
5 cos  =
tan  =
OP =
P (12, 5)
=
5
x
O
12
(b)
 in quadrant II
y
8
6
sin  =
6 cos  =
tan  =
OP =
P (8, 6)
=
6
=
=
=
x
8
O
(c)  in quadrant III y 3 4 3 sin  =   cos
(c)
 in quadrant III
y
3
4
3
sin  =
cos  =
tan  =
OP =
=
=
4
x
O
3
P (4, 3)
(d)
 in quadrant IV
y
12
5
12
sin  =
cos  =
tan  =
OP =
=
5
x
O
12
P (5, 12)

(e) Conclusion:

Sin is positive for in quadrant ……. and Cos is positive for in quadrant ……. and Tan is positive for in quadrant ……. and

and Cos  is positive for  in quadrant ……. and Tan  is positive for
and Cos  is positive for  in quadrant ……. and Tan  is positive for

Sin is negative for in quadrant ……. and Cos is negative for in quadrant ……. and Tan is negative for in quadrant ……. and

and Cos  is negative for  in quadrant ……. and Tan  is negative for
and Cos  is negative for  in quadrant ……. and Tan  is negative for

…….

…….

…….

…….

…….

…….

Fill in with or + sign.

90

y + Sin  Sin  Cos  Cos  Tan  Tan  0
y
+
Sin 
Sin 
Cos 
Cos 
Tan 
Tan 
0
x
360
Sin 
Sin 
Cos 
Cos 
Tan 
Tan 

180

4.

Find the corresponding reference angle of .

 

270

(a)

y 55
y
55

x

(b)

180

y 110
y
110

x

360

Reference angle = 55

Reference angle =

Reference angle = 55  Reference angle =  110 

110

   

=

70

(c)

180

y 215
y
215

x

360

(d)

180

y 300
y
300

x

360

Reference angle =

215 

Reference angle = 215   Reference angle =  300 

Reference angle =

Reference angle = 215   Reference angle =  300 

300

 

= 35

 

=

60

(e) Conclusion: Reference angle (RA) is the acute angle formed between the rotating ray of
(e)
Conclusion:
Reference angle (RA) is the acute angle formed between the rotating ray of the angle and the
y
R.A =
 
R.A = 
x
R.A =
 
R.A =
 
In Quadrant II:
sin  = sin (180  )
cos  = cos (180  )
tan  = tan (180  )
In Quadrant III
sin  = sin (  180)
cos  = cos (  180)
tan  = tan (  180)
In Quadrant IV
sin  = sin (360  )
cos  = cos (360  )
tan  = tan (360  )
y
y
y
180  
x
x
x
O
O
O
 180
360  
5.
Given that cos 51 = 0.6293, find the trigonometric ratios of cos 231 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 231 = 231 
y
=
x
cos 231 =
=
6.
Given that sin 70 = 0.9397, find the trigonometric ratios of sin 610 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 610 = 610 
y
=
x
sin 610 =
=
7.
Given that tan 25 = 0.4663, find the trigonometric ratios of tan 335 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 335 =
 335
y
=
x
tan 335 =
=

5.2.2

Define cotangent, secant and cosecant of any angle in a Cartesian plane.

1

2

 

 

 
r 
r
 

1

1

r

r 
r
 

sin 

 

 

 

sin

 

y

cos 

 

y

 

y

 

1

1

 

x

 

 

 

tan 

 

 

cos

 

x

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

tan

 

 

 

 

3.

Definition of cotangent , secant and cosecant .

 

cos sin ,

 
 

1

 

4. Since

tan 

then

 

sin

cosec

 
       
 

1

 

sec

 

cot

 

cos

   
 

1

cot

   
 

tan

 

5.

r 90  
r
90 
 

6.

 

Complementary angles:

 

y

 
 

sin

=

=

cos (90  ) sin (90  )

 

sin



y

x

sin 90

 

x

cos

 

r

r

tan

=

cos



x

r

cos 90

 

y

r

cosec

cot (90  ) = sec (90  )

tan



y

tan 90

 

x

sec = cosec (90  )

 

x

y

cot

=

tan (90  )

7. Given that sin 48 = 0.7431, cos 48 = 0.6991 and tan 48 =
7. Given that sin 48 = 0.7431, cos 48 = 0.6991 and tan 48 = 1.1106, evaluate the value of cos 42.
cos 42 =
90  48
=
=
48
8. Given that sin 67 = 0.9205, cos 67 = 0.3907 and tan 67 = 2.3559, evaluate the value of cot 23.
cot 23 =
90  67
=
=
67
9. Given that sin 37 = 0.6018, cos 37 = 0.7986 and tan 37 = 0.7536, evaluate the value of sec 53.
sec 53 =
90  37
=
=
37

5.2.3

Find values of six trigonometric functions of any angle

1. Complete the table below.

60 2 2 60 60
60
2
2
60
60
 
30 2 60
30
2
60
 

1

2 2  1 2  3
2
2
1
2
3

1

 

1

1

1 2  1 2 45  2 45
1
2
1
2
45
2
45

2

1

1

1

 

30

45

60

 

1

   

sin

2

   

1

 

cos

2
2

tan

 

1

 

cos ( ) = cos

sin ( ) = sin

tan ( ) = tan

y O 
y
O


x

2. Use the values of trigonometric ratio for the special angles, 30, 45and 60, to find the value of the trigonometric functions below

Example: Evaluate sin 210

 

a.

Evaluate tan 300

Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

180

y
y

x

360

sin

 

Find reference angle Reference angle of 210= 210  180= 30

Find reference angle

Solve sin 210= sin 30

 

Solve

 

1

=

2

b. Evaluate cos 150

c.

Evaluate sec 135

Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

Find reference angle

Find reference angle

Solve

Solve

5.2.4

Solve trigonometric equations

A. Steps to solve trigonometric equation

1. Determine the range of the angle.

2. Find the reference angle using tables or calculator.

3. Determine the quadrant where the angle of the trigonometric function is placed.

4. Determine the values of angles in the respective quadrants.

1. Solve the following equation for 0    360.

Example:

sin = 0.6428

 

a.

cos = 0.3420

Range :

   
 

0    360

0    360

 

Reference angle :

   
 

= sin 1 0.6428

= 40

Quadrant :

   

180

y S A 40 T C
y
S
A
40
T
C

360

x

180

y S A 40 T C
y
S
A
40
T
C

360

x

180

y S A T C
y
S
A
T
C

360

x

180

y S A T C
y
S
A
T
C

360

x

Quadrant I

Quadrant II

Quadrant

Quadrant

Actual angles

   
 

= 40

,

= 180  40

=

40, 140

b.

tan = 1.192

c.

cos = 0.7660

Range :

   

Reference angle :

   

Quadrant :

y
y

x

y
y

x

y
y

x

 
y
y

x

 

Quadrant

Quadrant

 

Quadrant

Quadrant

Actual angles

   

d.

sin = 0.9397

 

e.

tan = 0.3640

Range :

   

Reference angle :

   

Quadrant :

y
y

x

y
y

x

 
y
y

x

y
y

x

 

Quadrant

Quadrant

Quadrant

Quadrant

Actual angles

   

f.

cot = 1.4826

g.

cosec = 2.2027

 

Range :

   

Reference angle :

   

Quadrant :

y
y

x

y
y

x

 
y
y

x

y
y

x

 

Quadrant

Quadrant

Quadrant

Quadrant

Actual angles

   

2.

Solve the following equation for 0    360.

 

example :

sec 2= 2

 

a.

2 sin 2= 1.6248

Range :

0    3600  2  720

   
 

1

2

 

Reference angle :

 

cos 2 cos 2 

1

 
 

2

 

2

 

60

Quadrant :

180

60 T C
60
T
C

S

y

A

60

360,720

x

   
   

Actual angles 2= 60, 360  60, 60+ 360, (36060) + 360  = 60, 300, 420, 660

 

b.

cos 3= 0.9781

c.

tan

= 2.05

   

2

 

Range

 

Reference angle :

 

Quadrant :

 

Actual angles

 

d.

sin (+ 10) = 0.7660

e.

cos (+ 40) = 0.7071

f.

tan (+ 15) = 1

g.

cos (  20) = 0.5

h.

tan (2  10) = 2.082

i.

sin (2  30) = 0.5

j.

sin = cos 20

k.

cos = sin 55

Example :

2 sin x cos x = cos x 2 sin x cos x cos x = 0 cos x ( 2 sin x 1) = 0

 

m.

2sin x cos x = sin x

 

cos x = 0

,

2 sin x 1 = 0

 
 

sin x =

1

y

x 360 

x 360

 

180

2

x = 30

T C
T
C

S

y

A

 

360

x

x = 90, 270

x = 30, x = 30, 90, 150, 270

150

n.

2 cos 2 + 3 cos = 1

 

o.

2 sin 2 + 5 sin = 3

p.

tan 2 = tan

q.

3 sin = 2 + cosec

3.

Given that sin x p and 0 0 < x < 90 0 . Express each of the following trigonometric ratios in terms of p.

x
x

(a)

sec x =

(b)

cosec x =

(c)

tan x =

(d)

cot x =

(e)

sin ( 90 0 - x) =

(f)

cos (90 0 - x) =

(g)

sec (90 0 - x) =

(h)

cosec (90 0 x) =

(i)

tan ( 90 o - x) =

(j)

cot ( 90 o x ) =

(k)

sin(-x) =

(l)

cos (-x) =

4. Given that

sin x  

8

and 270 0 < x < 360 0 .

5. Given that

cos x -

8

and 180 0 < x < 270 0 .

17

Without using tables or calculator, find the values of.

x
x

17

Without using tables or calculator, find the values of

x
x

(a)

cos x =

(a)

sin x =

(b)

tan x =

(b)

tan x =

(c)

cosec x =

(c)

cosec x =

(d)

sec x =

(d)

sec x =

(e)

cos (90 0 x) =

(e)

sec (90 0 x) =

(f)

sin ( 90 0 x ) =

(f)

cot ( 90 0 x ) =

(g)

sin (-x) =

(g)

sin (-x) =

(h)

tan (-x) =

(h)

cos (-x) =

5.4

Basic Identities

5.4.1 Prove Trigonometric Identities using Basic Identities

Three basic trigonometric identities :

Formula of compound angle :

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1

cos 2  = 1 – sin 2  sin 2  = 1 –
cos 2  = 1 – sin 2 
sin 2  = 1 – cos 2 

sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B

1 + tan 2 = sec 2

cos (A B) = cos A cos B Ŧ sin A sin B

1 + cot 2 = cosec 2

   

tan

A

tan

B

 

tan (A B) =

1

tan A tan
tan
A
tan

B

Formula of double angle :

Formula of half angle :

 

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A

 

sin A = 2 sin

A cos

A

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin 2 A

2

2

= 2 cos 2 A 1

cos A = cos 2

A

sin 2

A

 

2

2

= 1 − 2sin 2 A

 

= 2 kos 2 A

1

tan 2A =

 

2tan A

   

2

1

tan

2

A

= 1 − 2sin 2

A

 

2

2 tan

A

tan 2A =

1 tan

2

2

A

 
 

2

1. Prove the following identities

Example: cot  + tan  = cosec  sec  a. tan 2 
Example:
cot  + tan  = cosec  sec 
a.
tan 2  (1  sin 2 ) = sin 2 
cos
sin
cot
  
tan
sin
cos
2
2
cos

sin
sin
cos
1
sin
cos
cos ec sec
2
 
1
cos
c.
sin 2  + cot 2  = cosec 2   cos 2 
b.
1 sin  cos 

d.

sec



tan

2

1

sin

e.

1

sin x

cos x

2 sec x

 

1

sin

 

cos x

1

sin x

2.

Solve the following equations for 0  x 360.

 
 

a.

3 sin x + 2 = cosec x

 

b.

2 cot 2 x 5 cot x + 2 = 0

 

c.

cos 2 x 3 sin 2 x + 3 = 0

d.

cot 2 x= 1 + cosec x

 

e.

2 tan 2 x = 4 + sec x

 

ANSWERS

 

5.2.1

5.2.4

 

3(a)

1

 

15

5. cos 51= 0.6293

2a.

0  2  720, 54.33  = 27.17, 62.83, 207.17, 242.83

1  p 2
1
 p
2

5.(a)

17

6. sin 70= 0.9397

b.

0  3  1080, 12.01

(b)

1

(b)

15

= 56, 64, 176, 184, 296, 304

p

8

7. tan 25= 0.4663

 

 

(c)

p

(c)

17

c.

0 

2

180, 64

1  p 2
1
p
2

15

= 232

   

5.2.2

7. sin 48= 0.7431

d.

= 40, 120

(d)

1
1

p p 2

(d)

17

8

8. tan 67= 2.3559

e.

= 5, 275

(e)

1 p 2
1 p
2

(e)

15

 

17

9. cosec 37= 1.6617

f.

= 30, 210

(f)

p

 

8

   

(f)

15

5.2.3

2a. tan 300=

3
3

g.

= 80, 320

(g)

1

p

(g)

15

17

 
3
3

h.

= 62.83, 152.83, 242.83, 332.83

(h)

1

(h)

8

b. cos 150=

2

 
1  p 2
1
 p
2

17

c. sec 135=

1

2
2

i.

= 30, 90, 210, 270

(i)

1
1

p p 2

 

5.2.4

j.

= 70, 110

(j)

p

 

1a.70, Quadrant I, IV = 70, 290

 
1  p 2
1
p
2

b. 0    360, 50, Quadrant I, IV

k.

= 145, 215

(k)

-p

 

= 30, 330

   

c. 0    360, 40, Quadrant II, III

m.

= 60, 180, 300

(l)

1 p 2
1 p
2
 

= 140, 220

   

d. 0    360, 70Quadrant III, IV

n.

= 120, 180, 240

4.(a)

15

 
 

17

= 250, 290

 

e. 0    360, 20.01Quadrant II, IV

o.

= 30, 150

(b)

8

15

 

= 159.99, 339.99

   

f. 0    360, 34Quadrant II, IV

p.

= 0, 45, 225

(c)

17

 
 

8

= 146, 326

 

g. 0    360, 27Quadrant III, IV

q.

= 90, 199.47, 350.53

(d)

17

15

 
 

= 207, 333

 
   

(e)

8

17

 
     

15

 

(f)

17

     

8

 

(g)

17

     

8

 

(h)

15