# ANSWERS MUST BE WRITTEN IN INK.

EXCEPT
WHERE THEY ARE EXPRESSLY REQUIRED,
PENCILS MAY ONLY BE USED FOR DRAWING,
SKETCHING AND GRAPHICAL WORK

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

FINAL EXAMINATION

JUNE 2005

ELEC3005

ELECTRICAL ENERGY 1

Time allowed - 3 hours

(1) Total number of questions - 6

(2) Attempt 5 questions ONLY

(3) All questions are of equal value.

(4) Candidates may bring drawing instruments into the examination.

(5) The following aids will be supplied by the examinations unit: Graph
paper; electronic calculator.

(6) This paper may be retained by the candidate.

A SEPARATE BOOK MUST BE USED FOR EACH QUESTION
QUESTION 1

A load of 300 kW is driven by a 3-phase motor of 0.9 efficiency. The motor is
supplied by a 415 V, 3-phase 50 Hz supply, through a cable of resistance 0.05 Ω per
core. The motor has a power factor of 0.7 lagging.

(a) Calculate the kVAR rating and capacitance/phase of a delta-connected
capacitor bank to correct this power factor to 0.95 lagging.
(12 marks)

(b) Calculate the overall efficiency of the supply cable/motor system under the
following conditions:

(i) Without the power factor correction capacitors.
(ii) With the power factor correction capacitors.
(8 marks)

QUESTION 2

(a) With the aid of a sketch or sketches, describe the mechanism by which the
primary current of a transformer automatically adjusts to any change of
secondary current which is supplied to the load.

(8 marks)

(b) Three single-phase 50-KVA, 2400:240V transformers, each with a total
equivalent impedance of (1.42 + j1.82) Ω referred to the high voltage side are
connected Y-∆ in a 3-phase, 150-kVA bank. The resulting 3-phase transformer
is used to step down the voltage at the load end of a feeder whose impedance is
(0.15 + j1.00) Ω/phase. The voltage at the sending end of the feeder is 4160V
line to line. On its secondary side the 3-phase transformer supplies a balanced 3-
phase load through a feeder whose impedance is (0.0005 + j0.002) Ω/phase. Find
the line-to-line voltage at the load when the load draws rated current from the
transformers at a power factor of 0.7 lagging.

(12 marks)

QUESTION 3

(a) With the aid of a sketch describe the advantages of using full-pitch coils in
the armature of DC motors and generators.
(6 marks)

Question 3 continued on next page...

(b)

In the figure shown, Machine 1 is a motor driving Machine 2 as a generator.
The generated power is fed back into the common 250-V line so that only the
machine losses have to be supplied. Currents in the various parts of the
circuit, together with the resistances, are shown. Allowing for a brush drop of
2V total per machine and neglecting stray load loss, calculate the efficiency of
each machine. It may be assumed that the rotational losses are the same for
both machines.

(14 marks)

QUESTION 4

(a) Explain the purpose of the auxiliary winding in a single-phase induction motor.
Sketch a typical torque-speed characteristic of the motor when:

(i) only the main winding is connected to the supply,
(ii) both the main and auxiliary windings are connected to the supply.

Why is the auxiliary winding sometimes disconnected once the machine has run
up to speed?
(6 marks)

(b) A 240-volt, 50Hz, 4-pole capacitor start single-phase induction motor has the
following parameters and losses:

r
1
= 3Ω, x
1
= x
2
= 4Ω, r
2
= 6Ω, x
m
= 100Ω.

Question 4 continued on next page…
Core loss = 20 watts. Friction and windage loss = 15 watts. All constants are
associated with, or referred to, the main stator winding.

For a slip of 0.04, with respect to the forward rotating magnetic field, calculate
the following:

(i) the relative speed between the rotor and the stator backward rotating
field,
(ii) the stator current,
(iii) the shaft torque,
(iv) the efficiency.
(14 marks)

QUESTION 5

(a) With the aid of a sketch or sketches describe why it is necessary for the semi-
conductor devices in power electronic converters to be operated as switches
where they are either “on” or “off.”

(5 marks)
(b)
i
i
i
T1
T2
o
T
T
2
1
v
o
v = V
m
sin ωt
L
R

For the AC voltage regulator shown above, sketch the voltage output, v
o
, and
the current output, i
o
, as a function of ωt for a firing delay angle
α > tan
-1

ωL
R
.

For the special case when L = 0, derive an expression for the following:

(i) the mean half-cycle output voltage;
(i) the RMS output voltage;
(ii) the output power.
(15 marks)

See over for question 6...
QUESTION 6

(a) In the case of a three-phase induction motor, describe with the aid of a sketch
or sketches how the pulsating magnetic fields produced by balanced 3-phase
sinusoidal currents in individual stator phases, combine to give a rotating
magnetic field of constant amplitude. Explain how this magnetic field
interacts with the rotor to produce a torque reaction.

(10 marks)

(a) An electrical busbar system has a total power loss of P watts and a heat
dissipation coefficient to the ambient of h watts/m
2
/°C. Derive an expression
for the dynamic temperature rise of the busbars, above ambient, in terms of
the power loss in the busbars, the surface area of the busbars, the mass,
specific heat and the heat dissipation coefficient of the busbars.

(10 marks)

- END OF PAPER -