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 Pollution refers to the very bad condition of environment in terms of quantity and quality.
 Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause
adverse change.
 The amount of pollution has increased due to increase in population and decrease in
natural resources.
 Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
 Unwanted change in the environment which involves the physical, biological and
chemical changes involving air, water and land which affects the human life in one way
or the other
Kinds of Pollution:
1. Water Pollution
2. Air Pollution
3. Soil Pollution
4. Noise Pollution
5. Light Pollution
6. Visual Pollution
7. Marine Pollution
8. Thermal Pollution

 Water pollution involves any contaminated water, whether from chemical, particulate, or
bacterial matter that degrades the water's quality and purity. Water pollution can occur in
oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground reservoirs, and as different water sources flow
together the pollution can spread.
 It is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers
and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly
discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
 Water is essential for life. Without water there would be no life.

 It can be defined in many ways. Usually, it means one or more substances have built up
in water to such an extent that hey cause problems for animals or people. Oceans, lakes,
rivers, and other inland waters can naturally clean up a certain amount of pollution by
dispersing it harmlessly.
Types of Water Pollution:
1. Surface Water Pollution
- Found on the exterior of the Earth's crust, oceans, rivers and lakes.
2. Microbiological Pollution
- Microorganisms that thrives on water and fishes that can cause illness to land
animals and humans.
3. Groundwater Pollution
- Found in soil or under rock structure or aquifers.
4. Oxygen Depletion Pollution
- Microorganisms that in water and feeds on biodegradable substances.

Causes of Water Pollution:
1. Pathogens
- The most serious water pollutants are the disease causing agents are called
pathogens. Pathogens include bacteria and other organisms that enter water
from domestic sewage and animal excreta. Human excreta contain bacteria
such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis which cause
gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Organic Wastes
- The other major water pollutant is organic matter such as leaves, grass, trash,
- They pollute water as a consequence of run off.
- Excessive phytoplankton growth within water is also a cause of pollution.
- These wastes are biodegradable.
3. Eutrophication
- The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration
of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates. These typically promote
excessive growth of algae. As the algae die and decompose, high levels of
organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the water of available
oxygen, causing the death of other organisms. Eutrophication is a natural,
slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the
Remedies to Water Pollution:
 Stabilization of eco systems – by reduction in waste input, harvesting and removal of
biomass, trapping of nutrients, and aeration.
 Reutilization and recycling of waste – including industrial effluents, sewage and thermal
pollutants can be recycled to beneficial use viz., to generate cheaper fuel gas and

Water Pollution in the Philippines:
The inability to prevent the pollution of Manila Bay. A lot of floating plastic, garbage and
thick oil slicks from commercial vessels transit the bay and they docked at the port causing water
pollution levels in Philippines getting worse.

 It is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into
the Earth„s atmosphere, possibly causing disease, death to humans, damage to other
living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.
 It contains all contaminants that can be found in the environment, especially the
 These hazardous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles. Furthermore,
air pollution is a discharge into the atmosphere of any substances like chemicals or
airborne particles, which are destructive both to human and animal health as well as the
well-being of the larger environment.
Causes of Air Pollution:
1. Globalization
- Globalization has, in a way, become a catalyst of air pollution because of its
aim of improving the industry and economy. Big industry takes advantage of
lenient and careless environmental regulations in developing nations and
moves its manufacturing facilities to such “pollution havens” from where air
pollution passes through around the world, without any repercussions for the
company itself.
2. Population Growth
- The constant growth of population increases the demand for food and other
goods, which results in expanded production and utilization of more natural
- This then leads to higher levels of atmospheric pollution. Population growth is
the ultimate pollution root cause.
- This demand is met by expanded production and use of natural resources,
which leads to higher levels of ecological pollution in general, and air
pollution in particular.
3. Air Pollutants
Some of Air Pollutants are:
- Sulfur Dioxide (SO
), which is a colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating
odor. It is very corrosive to organic materials. SO2 irritates the eyes, nose and
lungs, and therefore it is quite an unsafe air pollutant.
- Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) is created by the combustion of all fossil fuels together
with coal and gas-fired power stations and motor vehicles.
- Carbon Monoxide is an extremely lethal or toxic gas which has no color, odor
or taste. Fossil fuel combustion generally produces carbon dioxide (CO2), but
at times, when such combustion is curtailed, it also becomes a source of
carbon monoxide.
Remedies to Air Pollution:
 Adopting alternative energy sources can drastically improve outdoor air quality.
 Replacing fossil fuel combustion with cleaner technologies would decrease the
production of carbon dioxide.
 If people reduce the burning of sulphur-rich coal and gas, they can lower the levels of
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, two major air pollutants.
 Keep green plants indoors - they keep the air clean and are aesthetically appealing.
 Ventilation through windows should be sufficient. Even in air-conditioned offices, care
should be taken to allow free flow of fresh air for a few hours every day.
 Exhaust fans are important especially in kitchens at homes. Do not allow smoke to stay
 Usage of good building material is a must. Emulsion paint on the walls enhances the
finish, but has ill effects on the air inside a room.
 Remove dust & dirt from every corner.
 Dispose of waste hygienically.
 Use biodegradable eco-friendly products instead of plastics.
 Grow trees if you have a garden. Potted plants can be put in small spaces. In overcrowded
areas air-purifiers could be installed.
 Pure clean air is a need of the hour. Let‟s spread awareness & ensure that the air around
us is clean.
Air Pollution in the Philippines:
Baguio City is considered a summer tourist spot in the country due to its cool weather.
The result is air pollution due to the vehicle emission that private and public transportation
produce which the tourist used to visit the place. Smog, the result of smoke and fog, is what
makes the air polluted in the Baguio City since it produces fog because of the cool weather and
the smoke coming from the transportation.

 It is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in
the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural
chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are
petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and
benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is
correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage.
 It is the accumulation of man-made toxic substances in soil that has a negative effect of
plant and animal life.
 Common pollutants include herbicides and pesticides; litter and waste.
 It is usually caused by mistreatment of the soil through poor cultivation or farming
practices, industrial waste dumping and mineral utilization.

Causes of Soil Pollution:
 There are various causes of soil pollution including the leakage of gas, chemicals and
petrol during the transportation of tanks carrying gas, chemicals and petrol.
 Indiscriminate use of irrigation can also increase soil pollution. Imbalance use of
fertilizers and poor drainage causes salinity which also causes soil pollution.
 Heavy metals, petroleum products and toxic chemicals create soil problems around the
 Agricultural activities in rural regions are the main cause for pollution.
 Use of inorganic manures and pesticides destroys the fertility of soil and makes it useless.
 Plants retain the toxins in fertilizers and pesticides.
 When plants die and decompose the toxic contents remain in the soil making it unusable
for agriculture.
Remedies to Soil Pollution:
 Sewage treatment before dumping wastes.
 Spraying of pesticides must be reduced.
 Using of compost instead of fertilizers.
 Reduce combustion of fuels as the fumes result in acid rain when combined with rain
that pollute the soil.
 Reduce use of plastic.
 Do not litter.
 Use dustbin.
Soil Pollution in the Philippines:
Children in Manila, Philippines, pick through a smoldering garbage dump, one of many
that have cropped up on the outskirts of the city in the past few years. Throwing garbage
anywhere led to soil pollution.

 It is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or
animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused
by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains. Outdoor
noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise
to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in
noise pollution in the residential areas.
 The noise pollution is defined as the unwanted sound which is released into the
 It disturbs the human being and cause an adverse effect on the mental and psychological
 It is measured in the units of decibels and is denoted by the dB.
 The noise which is more than 115 dB is tolerant.
 The industrial limit of sound in the industries must be 75 dB according to the world
health organization.
Causes of Noise Pollution:
1. Traffic
- It is the biggest source of noise pollution in today's times, especially in urban
areas. In the past few years the number of automobile vehicles has increased
manifold. Thus, traffic problems created by these vehicles is an important
source of noise pollution. The sound produced by the exhaust systems of
trucks, autos, buses, motorcycles, etc. cause a lot of noise.
2. Railway Station
- Locomotive engines of trains are an important source of noise pollution.
Besides, the shunting and switching operations in rail yards too cause noise
pollution to a great extent.

3. Industrial Noise
- The various machines used in industries are also a major cause of noise
pollution. The different machines which are responsible for creating noise
include the compressors, motors and other machinery. It is therefore
recommended to grow trees in the premises of industries, which act as
absorbents of noise.
4. Construction Equipment
- The different types of machines and equipment used in construction of roads
and buildings are also an important cause behind noise pollution. The
machinery used for the purpose of construction includes pneumatic hammers,
bulldozers, air compressors, dump trucks, loaders, sidewalk breakers, etc. is
also responsible for noise pollution to a great extent.
Remedies to Noise Pollution:
1. Automobile Servicing
- Automobiles account to the highest production of noise. Regular servicing of
the vehicles is an effectual measure to lower the intensity of sound produced
by them. If all the automobile owners take up this step, then there will be
significant reduction in noise pollution.
2. Tree Plantation
- Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is another
effective solution for noise pollution. Dense shrubs and trees block sound
passage, thus avoiding disturbance to the surrounding areas. You can also
plant trees around your residential area to live peacefully.
3. Soundproof Homes
- Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from
outside. You can also opt for walls with sound control material. These
soundproofing options are of utmost importance for complete relaxation,
especially if you are staying in a crowded city area.

4. Factory Location
- Industrial noise pollution is not different from other pollution types in causing
health hazards on humans and animals. Thus, factories and industries should
be located in far off places from the residential areas. Installation of sound
detectors will help in analyzing the sound frequencies on a regular basis.
5. White Noise Machine
- The latest technology for overcoming the effects of noise pollution is using
white noise machine. It is a device meant for converting unbearable noise into
pleasant sound. A white noise machine is placed between the source of noise
and the receptor. It produces soft sound like that of a waterfall, fan and soft
You can avoid Noise Pollution yourself too:
 Do not use car horns unnecessarily. Areas like hospitals and campuses are silence zones
and honking is prohibited there.
 Avoid loud music, which hurts your ears and others' ears.
 Firecrackers are extremely loud. So don't try and burn them unnecessarily.
 Motors, machines and vehicles also produce loud noises when not maintained properly.
Proper maintenance should be carried out for better performance.
 If you are working in an area where there are loud noises, you must wear earplugs to
prevent loss of hearing.
 When going to theme parks and such, avoid riding on the rides which produce a lot of
noise. One example is the ATV, which is like a huge motorbike.
 Turn off the engine of your car or motorbike when you are not using it. It stops the
annoying hum, and reduces air pollution!
 Better off, walk or cycle to school! It does wonders to the environment, reduces the
amount of air pollution and noise, and makes you fit!

Noise Pollution in the Philippines:
The main culprit for the growing noise pollution in the metropolis, according to a study
by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), are the millions of two-wheeled vehicles thundering
through our streets and neighborhoods. Which isn‟t really surprising considering that, based on
Land Transportation Office (LTO) figures, more than half of the 6.2 million registered vehicles
in the Philippines as of 2009, are tricycles, motorcycles, or scooters.
The same ADB study showed that the tailpipe (or muffler) noise emitted by tricycles
produced noise levels as high as 97 decibels. Some areas in Quezon City‟s District 2 that are
densely populated by tricycles, for instance, registered substantially high ambient noise levels of
more than 110 decibels. That‟s as loud as thunder, a dance club or a rock-and-roll band.

 Light pollution is a broad term that refers to multiple problems, all of which are caused
by inefficient, unappealing, or (arguably) unnecessary use of artificial light. Specific
categories of light pollution include light trespass, over-illumination, glare, light clutter,
and sky glow. A single offending light source often falls into more than one of these
 Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive or
obtrusive artificial light.
 Light pollution first made news in 1964, when an observatory was specially placed just to
avoid light pollution
Effects of Light Pollution:
1. increased headache incidence
2. worker fatigue
3. medically defined stress
4. increase in anxiety
5. animal models have been studied demonstrating unavoidable light to produce adverse
effect on mood and anxiety
Remedies to Light Pollution:
 Utilizing light sources of minimum intensity necessary to accomplish the light's purpose.
 Turning lights off using a timer or occupancy sensor or manually when not needed.
 Improving lighting fixtures by use of full cutoff fixtures help to reduce sky glow by
preventing light from escaping above the horizontal.
 Adjusting the type of lights used, so that the light waves emitted are those that are less
likely to cause severe light pollution problems.
 Evaluating existing lighting plans, and re-designing some or all of the plans depending on
whether existing light is actually needed.
Light Pollution in the Philippines:
Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) chairman Francis Tolentino has urged
operators of outdoor advertising billboards to switch off their lights at night. This latest calls
follows the renewed campaign of the MMDA against outdoor billboards that do not comply with
the National Building Code and public safety regulations.
Tolentino claimed, during the launched of the curated street art project over the weekend,
that scientist have discovered how outdoor lighting worsens smog by interfering with a natural
process that cleans the air at night.

 Visual pollution: is an aesthetic issue and refers to the impacts of pollution that impair
one's ability to enjoy a vista or view.
 This is actually an artificial form of pollution that makes one uncomfortable to look at.

Source of Visual Pollution:
 Billboards
 open storage of trash
 space debris
 telephone towers
 electric wires
 Buildings and automobiles are forms of visual pollution.
Effects of Exposure to Visual Pollution:
 Distraction
 Eye fatigue
 Decreases in opinion diversity
 Loss of identity
Prevention of Visual Pollution:
 Don‟t put many posters or paintings in one place all together.
 Reduce to drawings of graffiti‟s other.
 Protect all the elements of urban furniture (poles, trees), which should not hang banners
or notices attached in accordance with existing rules.
 Protect trees and natural resource elements of the city, which should not hang banners or
notices attached to any class.
Visual Pollution in the Philippines:
Manila‟s streetscape tremendously changed during the last decade. In the recent decade,
Billboards slowly ate up our major highways, especially EDSA.
Metro Manila is fast becoming a billboard Metropolis. Billboards now disrupt our street
views. You don‟t see the sky in these places anymore. Also, a big issue about the contents of
these billboards is being raised. Models in “inappropriate” clothing and poses adorn our streets.
Recently, a male athletic team was put in hot water when the posed got too inappropriate for
minors to handle. The billboards had been taken down promptly. These contents as “eye candies”
or “eye sores” will be the beholders‟ judgement.

 Occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean
of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread
of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution
often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris and
dust. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive
inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which
excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal growth.
Causes of Marine Pollution:
 Toxic Ocean Pollutants
 The leaking of landfills, dumps, mines and farms
 Lead: affect brain and kidney
 Marine Garbage
 Virtual dumping ground for trash
 Fishnets and plastics
 Animals sometimes eat trash products and die
 Sewage Disposal in Ocean
 Non-point pollutants
 Farmlands, industries and urban runoffs
Effects of Marine Pollution:
 Food poisoning
 Depletes the oxygen
 Spreading of cholera, typhoid and other diseases
Remedies to Marine Pollution:
 Spills – detection and clean-up
 Cut down on waste and contain landfills
 Proper sewage treatment
 Limit agricultural pesticides
 Stricter government regulations on industry and manufacturing
 Industrial wastewater treatment
Marine Pollution in the Philippines:
The increasing loss of areas where marine life can thrive and regenerate is posing a
serious threat to Manila Bay, a lawmaker said citing statement from experts.
Senator Loren Legarda, chair of the senate environment and natural resources panel, said
Manila Bay‟s capability to sustain marine life is being affected by habitat loss and degradation
around the area.
She said diminishing mangrove forests, coral reefs and seagrass beds could impact the
future of the bay.
“Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems because they serve not only as
nursery grounds for various fish species but also as shield from storm surges and rising sea
levels,” Legarda said during a recent briefing by agencies tasked to clean-up Manila Bay.

 Increase in the normal temperatures of natural waters caused by intervention of human
 Temperature is a physical characteristic of water which is characteristic of water which is
regulated under the Clean Water Act.
 Thermal pollution is defined as the addition of excess of undesirable heat to water
thereby making it harmful to man, animal or aquatic life. Thermal pollution may also
cause significant departures from nor activities of aquatic communities.
Causes of Thermal Pollution:
 Nuclear power plants
 Deforestation
 Soil erosion
 Removal of trees along the shore line increases solar incidence and hence warms up
the water along with deforestation
 Power plants -Goth nuclear and coal use thousands of gallons of water for their reactor
but return water is much hotter.
 Dumping of waste warm water by nuclear plants.
Effects of Thermal Pollution:
 Thermal shock: Due to decrease in DO (Dissolved Oxygen) levels there is suffocation of
plants and animal species which creates anaerobic conditions .The sudden change in the
temperature causes harm to the aquatic organisms.
 Thermal enrichment: The heated water is used for irrigation purposes to extend plant
growing seasons. The warmer water also increases the metabolic rate of aquatic
organisms (which in turn decreases the life expectancy of these organisms). The speedy
growth is beneficial for commercial purposes.
Remedies to Thermal Pollution:
 Theoretically, when efficiency of any heat engine is equal to 1.0 then it will convert
100% of heat energy to mechanical energy. So there will be no loss of heat to the
environment. This is practically impossible. Rather, we should aim at maximizing the
efficiency of heat engines (steam, IC, nuclear etc.) so that heat loss is minimum.
 Reduce mechanical friction in any rotating parts.
 Avoid consuming energy more than necessity. Burn less coal, oil, or gas.
 Temperature signal conditioners accept outputs from temperature measurement devices
such as resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermocouples, and thermistors. They
then filter, amplify, and/or convert these outputs to digital signals, or to levels suitable for
 Industrial fans and industrial blowers and commercial fans and blowers are designed to
move air and/or powders in industrial and commercial settings. Typical applications
include air circulation for personnel, exhaust or material handling.
 Promote use of more nuclear energy because it will not generate Carbon dioxide.
 One of the major causes of Global warming is increasing concentration of Carbon di
oxide, leading to more greenhouse effect. On the other hand, green plants have got the
capacity to absorb Carbon di oxide. In the photo synthesis plants take water, sunlight and
carbon di oxide to produce their food. So, plant as many trees as possible. Massive
plantation is the only solution for reducing global carbon di oxide level. Indirect effect of
plantation is, It will reduce soil temperature, cause more rains, some of the carbon di
oxide shall be dissolved in rain and shall go to the sea – which will ultimately form
carbonate rocks and will help in the flora and fauna of the marine life.
Thermal Pollution in the Philippines:
Toxic substances and thermal pollution are the two leading causes of water pollution in
the coast of the Philippines, a problem affecting most of the world in one form or another.
Thermal pollution occurs exclusively due to human activity, the dramatic changes in water
temperature from the operations of industrial facilities.