CP-V(EE-506) “Computer hardwares” INDEX

S.No .

Topics
Explain Computer system & Component with their block diagrams. Explain various DOS commands. Explain the motherboard with diagrams. How to do Partition of Hard disk using f-disk command. Format the partition created by FAT-32. Installation of windows 98.

Remar k

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Installation of Linux. Installation of XP.
their diagrams.

Q.1 Explain block diagram of Computer
system with
A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions. Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into a wristwatch, and can be powered by a watch battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". The embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are however the most numerous.

A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. There are the main Component of Computer, which are given: Input Unit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions. Accept the data and instructions from the outside world. Convert it to a form that the computer can understand. Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing. Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed. It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories. 1. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program. The primary memory is temporary in nature. The data is lost, when the computer is switched off. In order to store the data permanently, the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. The cost of the primary storage is more compared to the secondary storage. Therefore most computers have limited primary storage capacity. 2. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. It stores several programs, documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc. Memory Size: All digital computers use the binary system, i.e. 0’s and 1’s. Each character or a number is represented by an 8 bit code. The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space.

A numeric occupies 2 byte space. Byte is the space occupied in the memory. The size of the primary storage is specified in KB (Kilobytes) or MB (Megabyte). One KB is equal to 1024 bytes and one MB is equal to 1000KB. The size of the primary storage in a typical PC usually starts at 16MB. PCs having 32 MB, 48MB, 128 MB, 256MB memory are quite common. Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world. Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output devices. Other commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, and magnetic tape drive. Arithmetic Logical Unit: All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. It also does comparison and takes decision. The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc and does logic operations viz, >, <, =, ‘etc. Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done, the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results. Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer. The control unit instructs the input unit, where to store the data after receiving it from the user. It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU. It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit. The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working. Central Processing Unit: The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is like brain performs the following functions: • It performs all calculations. • It takes all decisions. • It controls all units of the computer. A PC may have CPU-IC such as Intel 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, Celeron, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV, Dual Core, and AMD etc.

Q.2 Explain various DOS commands.

In the personal computer operating systems MS-DOS and PC-DOS, a number of standard system commands were provided for common tasks such as listing files on a disk or moving files. Some commands were built-in to the command interpreter; others existed as transient commands loaded into memory when required. Over the several generations of MS DOS, commands were added for the additional functions of the operating system.

Below is a listing of the top 10 MS-DOS commands most commonly used and that you will most likely use during a normal DOS session. 1. cd CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS. Examples cd\ Goes to the highest level, the root of the drive. cd.. Goes back one directory. For example, if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory, this would take you to C:\Windows> 2. dir The dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories. Examples dir Lists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in.

dir /ad List only the directories in the current directory. If you need to move into one of the directories listed use the cd command. dir /s Lists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory, if you are at root "C:\>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: drive of the computer.

3. Copy

Allows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location. Examples copy *.* a: Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive.
4. Del

Del is a command used to delete files from the computer. Examples del test.tmp = Deletes the test.tmp in the directory that you currently are in, if the file exists.

5. edit Edit allows a user to view, create, and/or modify their computer files. Example edit myfile.txt This would bring up a blank edit screen, as long as the file is saved upon exit this will create the file myfile.txt.

6. move Allows you to move files or directories from one folder to another, or from one drive to another. Example move c:\windows\temp\*.* c:\temp Move the files of c:\windows\temp to the temp directory in root, this is of course assuming you have the windows\temp directory.
7. ren (rename)

Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name. Example rename c:\chope hope Rename the directory chope to hope. 8. deltree Short for delete tree, deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer. Example deltree c:\fake010 Deletes the fake010 directory and everything in it.

Q.3 Explain the motherboard with diagrams.
A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers and holds many of the crucial components of the system, while providing connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board.

Fig. Motherboard Motherboard contains Some important components, they are:  CPU sockets : A CPU socket or slot is an electrical component that attaches to a printed circuit board (PCB) and is designed to house a CPU (also called a microprocessor). It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. A CPU socket provides many functions, including a physical structure to support the CPU, support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement (as well as reducing cost), and most importantly, forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. CPU sockets can most often be found in most desktop and server computers (laptops typically use

surface mount CPUs), particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture on the motherboard.  Integrated peripherals With the steadily declining costs and size of integrated circuits, it is now possible to include support for many peripherals on the motherboard. By combining many functions on one PCB, the physical size and total cost of the system may be reduced; highly-integrated motherboards are thus especially popular in small form factor and budget computers.

For example, the ECS RS485M-M, a typical modern budget motherboard for computers based on AMD processors, has on-board support for a very large range of peripherals: * disk controllers for a floppy disk drive, up to 2 PATA drives, and up to 6 SATA drives (including RAID 0/1 support) * integrated ATI Radeon graphics controller supporting 2D and 3D graphics, with VGA and TV output * integrated sound card supporting 8-channel (7.1) audio and S/PDIF output * Fast Ethernet network controller for 10/100 Mbit networking * USB 2.0 controller supporting up to 12 USB ports

* IrDA controller for infrared data communication (e.g. with an IrDA-enabled cellular phone or printer) * temperature, voltage, and fan-speed sensors that allow software to monitor the health of computer components  Peripheral card slots: A typical motherboard of 2009 will have a different number of connections depending on its standard. A standard ATX motherboard will typically have 1x PCI-E 16x connection for a graphics card, 2x PCI slots for various expansion cards, and 1x PCI-E 1x (which will eventually supersede PCI. A standard EATX motherboard will have 1x PCI-E 16x connection for a graphics card, and a varying number of PCI and PCI-E 1x slots. It can sometimes also have a PCI-E 4x slot. (This varies between brands and models.) Some motherboards have 2x PCI-E 16x slots, to allow more than 2 monitors without special hardware, or use a special graphics technology called SLI (for Nvidia) and Crossfire (for ATI). These allow 2 graphics cards to be linked together, to allow better performance in intensive graphical computing tasks, such as gaming and video editing.  Temperature and reliability: Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat sinks often mounted on larger chips, such as the Northbridge, in modern motherboards. If the motherboard is not cooled properly, it can cause the computer to crash. Passive cooling, or a single fan mounted on the power supply, was sufficient for many desktop computer CPUs until the late 1990s; since then, most have required CPU fans mounted on their heat sinks, due to rising clock speeds and power consumption. Most motherboards have connectors for additional case fans as well. Newer motherboards have integrated temperature sensors to detect motherboard and CPU temperatures, and controllable fan connectors which the BIOS or operating system can use to regulate fan speed. Bootstrapping using the BIOS: Motherboards contain some non-volatile memory to initialize the system and load an operating system from some external peripheral device. Microcomputers such as the Apple II and IBM PC used ROM chips, mounted in sockets on the motherboard.

At power-up, the central processor would load its program counter with the address of the boot ROM and start executing ROM instructions, displaying system information on the screen and running memory checks, which would in turn start loading memory from an external or peripheral device (disk drive). If none is available, then the computer can perform tasks from other memory stores or display an error message, depending on the model and design of the computer and version of the BIOS.

Q.4 How to do Partition of Hard disk using fdisk command.
If you use the following steps on a hard disk that is not empty, all of the data on that hard disk is permanently deleted.

How to Partition a Master Hard Disk To partition a master hard disk, run the fdisk command: 1. Insert the Startup disk in the floppy disk drive, restart your computer, and then use one of the following methods, depending on your operating system. For a Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, or Windows Me Startup disk:
a. When the Microsoft Windows 98 Startup menu is displayed,

select the Start computer without CD-ROM support menu option, and then press ENTER.
b. At a command prompt, type fdisk, and then press ENTER.

c. View step 2. For a Windows 95 Startup disk:
a.

At a command prompt, type fdisk, and then press ENTER. View step 2. Your computer has a disk larger than 512 MB. This version of Windows includes improved support for large disks, resulting in more efficient use of disk space on large drives, and allowing disks over 2 GB to be formatted as a single drive. IMPORTANT: If you enable large disk support and create any new drives on this disk, you will not be able to access the new drive(s) using other operating systems, including some versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT, as well as earlier versions of Windows and MS-DOS. In addition, disk utilities that were not designated explicitly for the FAT32 file system will not be able to work with this disk. If you need to access this disk with other operating systems or older disk utilities, do not enable large drive support. Do you wish to enable large disk support? If you want to use the FAT32 file system, press Y and then press ENTER. If you want to use the FAT16 file system, press N, and then press ENTER.

b.

If your hard disk is larger than 512 MB, you receive the following message:

After you press ENTER, the following Fdisk Options menu is displayed: 1. Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive 2. Set active partition 3. Delete partition or Logical DOS Drive

4. Display partition information 5. Change current fixed disk drive Note that option 5 is available only if you have two physical hard disks in the computer. Press 1 to select the Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive menu option, and then press ENTER. Press 1 to select the Create Primary DOS Partition menu option, and then press ENTER. After you press ENTER, you receive the following message: Do you wish to use the maximum available size for primary DOS partition? After you receive this message, use one of the following methods, depending on the file system that you selected. For a FAT32 File System a. If you press Y for the FAT32 file system (in step 2) and you want all of the space on the hard disk to be assigned to drive C, press Y, and then press ENTER. Press ESC, and then press ESC to quit the Fdisk tool and return to a command prompt. View step 7.

b. c.

For a FAT16 File System If you press N for the FAT16 file system (in step 2), you can accept the default 2 GB size for the partition size, or you can customize the size of the partition. To accept the default partition size: a.
b.

If you want the first 2 GB on the hard disk to be assigned to drive C, press Y, and then press ENTER. Press ESC to return to the Options menu, and then view step d in the following "To customize the partition size" section. To customize the partition size:

a. b.

If you want to customize the size of the partitions (drive letters) on the hard disk, press N, and then press ENTER. A dialog box is displayed in which you can type the size that you want for the primary partition in MB or percent of disk space. Note that for computers that are running either Windows 98 or Windows Me, Microsoft recommends that you make the primary partition at least 500 MB in size. Type the size of the partition that you want to create, and then press ENTER. Press ESC to return to the Options menu. To assign drive letters to the additional space on the hard disk, press 1, and then press ENTER. Press 2 to select the Create Extended DOS Partition menu option, and then press ENTER. You receive a dialog box that is displays the maximum space that is available for the extended partition. You can adjust the size of the partition or use the default size. Note that the default maximum space is recommended, but you can divide the space between multiple drive letters. Type the amount of space that you want, press ENTER, and then press ESC. The Create Logical DOS Drive(s) in the Extended DOS Partition menu is displayed. This is the menu that you can use to assign the remaining hard disk space to the additional drive letters. Type the amount of space that you want to assign to the next drive letter in the Enter logical drive size in Mbytes or percent of disk space (%) box, and then press ENTER. A table that lists the drive letter that you created and the amount of space on that drive is displayed. If there is free space on the hard disk, it is displayed near the bottom of the table. Repeat steps e through g until you receive the following message: All available space in the Extended DOS Partition is assigned to local drives.

c.

d.
e.

f.

g.

h.

i. j.

After you receive this message, press ESC to return to the Options menu. To activate the partition from which you plan to boot (usually drive C), press 2 to select the Set active partition menu option, and then press ENTER. When you receive the following message, press 1, and then press ENTER: Enter the number of the partition you want to make active.

k.

l.

Press ESC, and then press ESC to quit the Fdisk tool and return to a command prompt, and then view the following "How to Format a Hard Disk" section in this article.

Q.5 Format the partition created by FAT32.
Format external drive in FAT32 using DOS Open a command window by going to Start, then Run and typing in CMD.

Now type in the following command at the prompt: format /FS:FAT32 X: Replace the letter X with the letter of your external hard drive in Windows. Windows will go ahead and begin formatting the drive in FAT32!

Format the hard disk and install Windows XP a. b. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP, and then press ENTER. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. You can select from the following options:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes)

Notes ○ If the selected partition is a new partition, the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. ○ If the selected partition is larger than 32 gigabytes (GB), the FAT file system option is not available.

○ If the selected partition is larger than 2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the FAT32 file system (you must press ENTER to confirm). ○ If the partition is smaller than 2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the FAT16 file system. ○ If you deleted and created a new System partition, but you are installing Windows XP on a different partition, you are prompted to select a file system for both the System and Startup partitions. c.
d.

Press ENTER. After the Windows Setup program formats the partition, follow the instructions that appear on the screen to install Windows XP. After the Windows Setup program is finished and you have restarted the computer, you can use the Disk Management tools in Windows XP to create or format more partitions. Format an Existing Volume to Use FAT32 To format a volume, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, then right-click My Computer, and then click Manage. 2. In the console tree, click Disk Management. 3. In the Disk Management window, right-click the volume that you want

to format (or reformat), and then click Format.
4. In the Format dialog box, do the following: ○ ○

Click FAT32 in the File system box. Type a name for the volume in the Volume label box. If you want, you can also change the disk allocation unit size, or specify whether you want to perform a quick format.

Click OK.
5. Click OK when you are prompted to format the volume.

The format process starts.

Q.6 Installation of windows 98.
How to Install Windows 98 After you partition and format your hard disk, you can install Windows 98: 1. Insert the Windows 98 Startup disk in the floppy disk drive, and then restart your computer.

2. When the Windows 98 Startup menu is displayed, choose the Start

computer with CD-ROM support option, and then press ENTER.
3. If CD-ROM support is provided by the generic drivers on the Startup

disk, you receive one of the following messages, where X is the drive letter that is assigned to your CD-ROM drive: Drive X: = Driver MSCD001 Drive X: = Driver OEMCD001 NOTE: If your CD-ROM drive is not available after you boot from the Windows 98 Startup disk, install the CD-ROM drivers that are included with your CD-ROM drive. For information about how to obtain and install the most current driver for your CD-ROM drive, view the documentation that is included with your device, or contact your hardware manufacturer. 4. Insert the Windows 98 CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive, type the following command at a command prompt, and then press ENTER X:\setup where X is the drive letter that is assigned to your CD-ROM drive. 5. When you receive the following message, press ENTER, and then follow the instructions on the screen to complete the Setup procedure: Please wait while the Setup initializes. Setup is now going to perform a routine check on your system. To continue press Enter.

The following list describes the minimum hardware requirements for Windows 98: • • • A personal computer with a 486DX 66 megahertz (MHz) or faster processor (Pentium central processing unit recommended). 16 megabytes (MB) of memory (24 MB recommended). A typical upgrade from Windows 95 requires approximately 195 MB of free hard disk space, but the hard disk space may range from between 120 MB and 295 MB, depending on your computer configuration and the options that you choose to install. A full install of Windows 98 on a FAT16 drive requires 225 MB of free hard disk space, but may range from between 165 MB and 355 MB, depending on your computer configuration and that options that you choose to install.

A full install of Windows 98 on a FAT32 drive requires 175 MB of free hard disk space, but may range from between 140 MB and 255 MB, depending on your computer configuration and the options that you choose to install. One 3.5-inch high-density floppy disk drive. VGA or higher resolution (16-bit or 24-bit color SVGA recommended).

• •

Fig. View of windows98

Q.7 Installation of Linux.
UNIX is one of the most popular operating systems worldwide because of its large support base and distribution. It was originally developed at AT&T as a multitasking system for minicomputers and mainframes in the 1970's, but has since grown to become one of the most widely-used operating systems anywhere, despite its sometimes confusing interface and lack of central standardization. Many hackers feel that UNIX is the Right Thing--the One True Operating System. Hence, the development of Linux by an expanding group of UNIX hackers who want to get their hands dirty with their own system. Versions of UNIX exist for many systems, from personal computers to supercomputers like the Cray Y-MP. Most versions of UNIX for personal computers are expensive and cumbersome. At

the time of this writing, a one-machine version of UNIX System V for the 386 runs about US$1500. Linux is a free version of UNIX developed primarily by Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki in Finland, with the help of many UNIX programmers and wizards across the Internet. Anyone with enough know-how and gumption can develop and change the system. The Linux kernel uses no code from AT&T or any other proprietary source, and much of the software available for Linux was developed by the GNU project of the Free Software Foundation in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. However, programmers from all over the world have contributed to the growing pool of Linux software. Instructions to Install: 1. Step 1 Download it to your desktop and run the executable program. 2. Step 2 Choose the drive where you want your installation to go. Unlike other installation methods. Instead, it will place a file on your local drive which it will use as a virtual hard drive In most Windows installations, C: is the local hard drive, so choose it from the dropdown menu as your installation drive. Again, do not worry -- this will not overwrite your data! 3. Step 3 Choose an installation size. The base installation requires about four gigabytes. Since you'll want some room to install programs and store your data, choose a size larger than that. 4. Step 4 Select your language. 5. Step 5 Input a username and password for your installation. Don't forget these -- unlike Windows, Linux uses your username and password extensively: you'll need them to log on to your computer, install programs, and make changes to the system. This is done for security reasons. 6. Step 6 Click "Install" and Wubi will begin downloading the installation files. The download is about 600 megabytes, so get some coffee or let it run overnight. 7. Step 7 Once the installation files are downloaded, you'll be asked to reboot your system. When you do, your computer will restart, but instead of booting directly into an operating system, you'll see a screen that asks

you to select whether you'd like to boot Windows or Ubuntu. Choose Ubuntu to complete the installation. 8. Step 8 Once the installation has finished, you'll have a completely functional Ubuntu Linux install. Ubuntu does a great job of detecting and installing hardware, but if you find that something doesn't work right, visit the Ubuntu forums and see if it's a known issue. There are hundreds of people there who are excited you're trying Linux and they're willing to help you out. If you have a question, don't be afraid to ask!

Q.8 Installation of XP.
There are five methods for installing Windows XP. Review the following methods and select the method that is appropriate for your installation.

Method 1: Perform a clean install of Windows XP Use this method for a clean installation of Windows XP. A clean installation removes all data from your hard disk by repartitioning and reformatting your hard disk and reinstalling the operating system and programs to an empty (clean) hard disk. Method 2: Upgrade to Windows XP Use this method if you are upgrading to Windows XP from Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition, or Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional. Method 3: Install Windows XP to a new hard disk Use this method to install Windows XP to a new hard disk. This is typically done when a new hard disk is installed on your computer. Method 4: Install Windows XP to a new folder (parallel installation) Use this method to install Windows XP to a new folder (parallel installation) to either run two operating systems, or to access, repair, or retrieve data from a damaged disk. Method 5: Perform a multiple boot operation Use this method to install Windows XP as a separate operating system on your computer. This lets you install more than one operating

system on your computer and select which operating system that you want to use every time that you start your computer. Method 1: Perform a clean install of Windows XP A clean installation consists of removing all data from your hard disk by repartitioning and reformatting your hard disk and reinstalling the operating system and programs to an empty (clean) hard disk. For more information about important things to consider before you partition and format you hard disk and how to partition and format your hard disk by using the Windows XP Setup program, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

To perform a clean installation of Windows XP, follow these steps: 1. Back up all important information before you perform a clean installation of Windows XP. Save the backup to an external location, such as a CD or external hard disk.
2. Start your computer from the Windows XP CD. To do this, insert the

Windows XP CD into your CD drive or DVD drive, and then restart your computer. Note To boot from your Windows XP CD, the BIOS settings on your computer must be configured to do this. 3. When you see the "Press any key to boot from CD" message, press any key to start the computer from the Windows XP CD.
4. At the Welcome to Setup screen, press ENTER to start Windows XP

Setup. 5. Read the Microsoft Software License Terms, and then press F8. 6. Follow the instructions on the screen to select and format a partition where you want to install Windows XP. 7. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete the Windows XP Setup. Method 2: Upgrade to Windows XP This section describes how to upgrade to Windows XP from Windows 98, Windows Millennium Edition, and Windows 2000 Professional.

Important Before you start the upgrade process, contact your computer manufacturer to obtain the latest BIOS upgrades for your computer and then install the upgrades. If you update the BIOS after you upgrade the computer, you may have to reinstall Windows XP to take advantage of features such as Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) support in the BIOS. If you can do this, update the firmware in all the hardware devices before you start the upgrade. To upgrade to Windows XP, follow these steps: 1. Start your computer, and then insert the Windows XP CD into the CD or DVD drive.
2. If Windows automatically detects the CD, click Install Windows to

start the Windows XP Setup Wizard. If Windows does not automatically detect the CD, click Start. Then click Run. Type the following command, and then click OK: CD drive letter:\setup.exe
3. When you are prompted to select an installation type, select Upgrade

(the default setting), and then click Next. 4. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete the upgrade.

Method 3: Install Windows XP to a new hard disk This method describes how to install Windows XP to a new hard disk. This is typically done when a new hard disk is installed on your computer. Note You will need the CD for your previous operating system in order to complete this method. Before you start, start your computer by using one of the following media: •

Microsoft Windows 98/Windows Millennium startup disk Windows XP CD or Windows XP boot disks To install Windows XP to a new hard disk, follow these steps:

1. Start your computer from the Windows XP CD (or boot disks). To do this, insert the Windows XP CD into your CD or DVD drive, and then restart your computer.

2. When the "Press any key to boot from CD" message appears on the screen, press any key to start the computer from the Windows XP CD.
3. At the Welcome to Setup screen, press ENTER to begin Windows XP

Setup. 4. Read the Microsoft Software License Terms, and then press F8. 5. When you are prompted for the Windows XP CD, insert your Windows XP CD. 6. Restart your computer. 7. When you see the "Press any key to boot from CD" message, press any key to start the computer from the Windows XP CD.
8. At the Welcome to Setup screen, press ENTER to start Windows XP

Setup. 9. Follow the instructions on the screen to select and format a partition where you want to install Windows XP. 10.Follow the instructions on the screen to complete Windows XP Setup.

Method 4: Install Windows XP to a new folder (parallel installation) This method describes how to install Windows XP to a new folder (parallel installation) to either run two operating systems, or to access, repair, or retrieve data from a damaged disk. Before you start, start your computer by using one of the following media: •

Microsoft Windows 98/Windows Millennium Edition startup disk Windows XP CD or Windows XP boot disks Note The Windows XP CD is the preferred media in the following steps. However, the Windows XP boot disks will work if you do not have the CD.

To install Windows XP to a new folder (also known as a parallel installation), follow these steps: 1. Start your computer from the Windows XP CD (or boot disks). To do this, insert the Windows XP CD into your CD or DVD drive, and then restart your computer. 2. When the "Press any key to boot from CD" message appears on the screen, press any key to start the computer from the Windows XP CD.
3. At the Welcome to Setup screen, press ENTER to begin Windows XP

Setup.

4. Read the Microsoft Software License Terms, and then press F8. 5. Select the partition in which you want to install Windows XP, and then press ENTER.
6. Select the Leave the current file system intact (no changes)

option, and then press ENTER to continue. 7. Press ESC to install to a different folder. 8. Press ENTER to continue. 9. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete Windows XP Setup.

Method 5: Perform a multiple boot operation Use this method to install Windows XP as a separate operating system on your computer. This lets you install more than one operating system and select which operating system that you want to use every time that you start your computer. For more information about how to multiple boot Windows XP and other versions of Windows and MS-DOS, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

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