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Introduction to Voltage Control:

Practically each equipment used in power system rated for a certain voltage with a permissible
band of voltage variations. Voltage at various buses must, therefore, be controlled within a
specified regulation figure.

Consider the two-bus system, for the sake of simplicity let the line be characterized by a series
reactance with a negligible resistance.
Further since torque angle () is small under practical condition, real and reactive power
delivered by the line for fixed sending end voltage |Vs| and a specified receiving end voltage |Vr|
(specific) can be written as

Methods of voltage control:

1. Reactive power injection
2. Using transformers
Reactive power injection:
In order to keep the receiving end voltage at a specified value, a fixed amount of VARs must be
drawn from the line. To accomplish this under conditions of a varying VAR demand, a local VAR
generator must be used as shown in the fig.

The VAR balance eqn. at the receiving end is now,

Fluctuations in Qd are absorbed by the local VAR generator Qc such that the VARs drawn from
the line remains fixed at specified receiving end voltage. Local VAR compensation can, in fact,
be made automatic by using the signal from the VAR meter installed at the receiving end of the
line. Two types of VAR generators are employed in practice. They are
(1). Static type
(1). Static VAR generator:


(2). Rotating type

It is nothing but a bank of three phase static capacitors (or) inductors. With ref. to the fig. drawn
below, if the receiving end voltage is in line kV, and Xc is the per phase capacitive reactance of
the capacitor bank on an equivalent star basis, the expression for the VARs fed into the line can
be derived as,

Under heavy load conditions, when the positive VARs are needed, capacitor banks are employed;
while under the light load conditions, when the negative VARs are needed, inductor banks are
switched ON.
The following observations can be made for the static VAR generators:
1. Capacitor and inductive banks are switched ON in steps. However stepless VAR control
can be now achieved by SCR circuitry.

2. Since Qc is proportional to square of the terminal voltage, for a given capacitor bank,
their effectiveness tends to decrease as the voltage sags under full load conditions.
3. If the system voltage contains appreciable harmonics, the fifth being the most
troublesome, the capacitors may be overloaded considerably.
4. Capacitors act as a short circuit when switched ON.
5. There is a possibility of series resonance with the line inductance particularly at harmonic
(2). Rotating VAR generator:
It is nothing but a synchronous motor running at no-load and having excitation adjustable over a
wide range. It feeds positive VARs into the line under overexcited conditions and feeds negative
VARs when underexcited. A machine thus running is called as synchronous condenser.

The above fig. shows a synchronous motor connected to the receiving end busbars and running at
no-load. Since the motor draws negligible real power from the busbars, Eg and Vr are nearly in
phase. Xs is the synchronous reactance of the motor which is assumed to have negligible
resistance. If Eg and Vr are in line kV, we have

It immediately follows from the above relationship that the machine feeds positive VARs into the
line when Eg is greater than Vr and injects negative VARs if Eg is lesser than Vr. VARs are easily
and continuously adjustable by adjusting machine excitation which controls Eg.
In contrast to static VAR generators, the following observations are made for rotating VAR
1. These can provide both positive and negative VARs which are continuously adjustable.
2. VAR injection at a given excitation is less sensitive to changes in bus voltage. As Vr
decreases and (Eg-Vr) increases with consequent smaller reduction in Qc compared to the
case of static capacitors.
However , economic considerations, installation and maintenance problems limit their practical
use to such buses in the system where a large amount of VAR injection is needed.
Control by Transformer:
The VAR injection method discuss above lacks the flexibility and economy of voltage control by
transformer tap changing. The transformer tap changing is obviously limited to a narrow range of
voltage control. If the correction needed exceeds this range,tap changing is used in conjuction
with the VAR injection method.\
Receiving-end voltage which tends to sag owing to VAR s demanded by the load, can be raised
by simultaneously changing the taps of sending and receiving-end transformers. Such tap
changes must be made on-load and can be done either manually or automatically,the
transformer being called a TAP CHANGING UNDER LOAD.

In this method when the secondary voltage decreases then a secondary winding is included in the
transformer and when the primary voltage decreases the primary winding is added in the
transformer and vice versa when the situation reverses.