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UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics and
Electromagnetism

Additional Tutorial 1: Temperature and Heat (Part 1)


1.

Show that the temperature 40 is unique in that it has the same numerical value on
the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales.

2.

A constant-volume gas thermometer is calibrated in dry ice (80.0C) and in boiling


ethyl alcohol (78.0C). The respective pressures are 0.900 atm and 1.635 atm.
(a)
What value of absolute zero does the calibration yield?
(b)
What pressures would be found at the freezing and boiling points of water?
(Note that we have the linear relationship P = A + BT, where A and B are
constants.)
[Answer: (a) -273 oC, (b) 1.27 atm, 1.74 atm]

3.

Show that if the temperature on the Celsius scale changes by TC, the Fahrenheit
temperature changes by TF = (9/5)TC.

4.

The New River Gorge bridge in West Virginia is a 518-m-long steel arch. How much
will its length change between temperature extremes of 20C and 35C?
(steel = 11 106 C1)
[Answer: 31 cm]

5.

A grandfather clock is controlled by a swinging brass pendulum that is 1.3 m long at a


temperature of 20C.
(a)
What is the length of the pendulum rod when the temperature drops to 0.0C?
(b)
If a pendulums period is given by T 2 L / g , where L is its length, does
the change in length of the rod cause the clock to run fast or slow?
(brass = 19 106 C1)
[Answer: (a) 1.29951 m, (b) fast]

6.

A brass ring of diameter 10.00 cm at 20.0C is heated and slipped over an aluminum
rod of diameter 10.01 cm at 20.0C. Assuming the average coefficients of linear
expansion is constant,
(a)
to what temperature must the combination be cooled to separate the two
metals? Is that temperature attainable?
(b)
What if the aluminum rod were 10.02 cm in diameter?
(brass = 19 106 C1, aluminum = 24 106 C1)
[Answer: (a) -179 oC, attainable, (b) -396 oC, unattainable]

7.

The Trans-Alaskan pipeline is 1 300 km long, reaching from Prudhoe Bay to the port
of Valdez, and is subject to temperatures ranging from 73C to +35C. How much
does the steel pipeline expand due to the difference in temperature? How can this
expansion be compensated for? (steel = 11 106 C1)
[Answer: 1.5 km]
1

8.

A square brass plate, 8.00 cm on a side, has a hole cut into its center of area 4.90874
cm2 (at 20.0 C). The hole in the plate is to slide over a cylindrical steel shaft of crosssectional area 4.91000 cm2 (also at 20.0 C). To what temperature must the brass plate
be heated so that it can just slide over the steel cylinder (which remains at 20.0 C)?
[Hint: The steel cylinder is not heated so it does not expand; only the brass plate is
heated.]
Given that the coefficient of thermal linear expansion for brass is 19 106 K1.
[Answer: 26.8 C]

9.

An automobile fuel tank is filled to the brim with 45 L (12 gal) of gasoline at 10C.
Immediately afterward, the vehicle is parked in the sunlight, where the temperature is
35C. How much gasoline overflows from the tank as a result of the expansion?
(Neglect the expansion of the tank.) ( = 9.6 104 C1)
[Answer: 1.1 L]

10.

A cube of solid aluminum has a volume of 1.00 m3 at 20C. What temperature change
is required to produce a 100-cm3 increase in the volume of the cube?
(aluminum = 24 106 C1)
[Answer: 1.39 oC]

11.

A hollow aluminum cylinder is to be fitted over a steel piston. At 20C, the inside
diameter of the cylinder is 99% of the outside diameter of the piston. To what
common temperature should the two pieces be heated in order that the cylinder just fit
over the piston? (steel = 11 106 C1, aluminum = 24 106 C1)
[Answer: 8.0102 oC]

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN


Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics and
Electromagnetism

Solutions for Additional Tutorial 1: Temperature and Heat (Part 1)

1.

Start with TF 40 F and convert to Celsius.

TC

5
5
TF 32 40 32 40C
9
9

Since Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees of temperature change are different sizes, this is the
only temperature with the same numeric value on both scales.
2.

Since we have a linear graph, we know that the pressure is related to the temperature as
P A BTC , where A and B are constants. To find A and B, we use the given data:

0.900 atm A B -80.0C


and

1.635 atm A B 78.0C


Solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously, we find:
A 1.27 atm , and

Therefore,

B 4.65 103 atm C

P 1.27 atm 4.65 103 atm C TC

(a) At absolute zero the gas exerts zero pressure


TC

P 0 , so

1.27 atm
273C
4.65 103 atm C

(b) At the freezing point of water, TC 0 and


P 1.27 atm 0 1.27 atm
At the boiling point of water, TC 100C , so

P 1.27 atm 4.65 10 3 atm C 100C 1.74 atm

3.

9
TF TC 32
T and TC 2 ,
5
Apply
to two different Celsius temperatures, C 1
9
5

TF 1 TC 1 32

to obtain

9
5

TF 2 TC 2 32

and

TF 2 TF 1

Subtracting equation (1) from (2) yields


or

4.

TF 9 5 TC

The increase in temperature is

Thus,
5.

9
TC 2 TC 1
5

TC 35C 20C 55C

1
L L0 T 11 10 6 C 518 m 55C 0.31 m 31 cm

(a) As the temperature drops by 20C, the length of the pendulum changes by

L L0 T
1
19 106 C 1.3 m 20C 4.9 10 4 m 0.49 mm

Thus, the final length of the rod is

L 1.3 m 0.49 mm

T 2 L g
(b) From the expression for the period,
, we see that as the length decreases the
period decreases. Thus, the pendulum will swing too rapidly and the clock will run
fast
.

6.

L L L0 L0 T
L L0 L0 T
From
, the final value of the linear dimension is
.
To remove the ring from the rod, the diameter of the ring must be at least as large as the
diameter of the rod. Thus, we require that
Lbrass Lal , or L0 brass brass L0 brass T L0 al al L0 al T
T
This gives

L0 al L0 brass
brass L0 brass al L0 al

(a) If

L0 al 10.01 cm ,
T

19 10

so
(b) If

-6

10.01 10.00
199C
1
C 10.00 24 10-6 C 10.01
1

T T0 T 20.0C 199C 179C which is attainable

L0 al 10.02 cm
T

19 10

-6

10.02 10.00
396C
1
C 10.00 24 10-6 C 10.02
1

and
T T0 T 376C which is below absolute zero and unattainable

7.

The expansion of the pipeline will be

L L0 T

, or

1
L 11 10 6 C 1300 103 m 35C- -73C 1.5 103 m 1.5 km

This is accommodated by
intervals.

8.

accordion-like expansion joints

placed in the pipeline at periodic

2
Find the temperature at which the area of the hole is 4.91000 cm .

A
A
4.91000 cm 2 4.90874 cm 2
2 T 2 (T T0 ), so T
T0
20.0C 26.8C .
A0
2 A0
2(19 106 K 1)(4.90874 cm 2 )

9.

The initial volume of the gasoline is V0 45 L . As the temperature rises to 35C, this volume
will expand by
1
V V0 T 9.6 10 4 C 45 L 35C 10C 1.1 liters

Thus, if the tank does not expand,

1.1 L 0.29 gal

of gasoline will overflow.

10.

The desired change in volume is

1 m3
1.00 104 m3
6
3
10
cm

V 100 cm 3

From

V V0 T 3 V0 T
T

1.

, the required change in temperature is

V
1.00 104 m3

1.39C
3 V0 3 24 106 C 1 1.00 m3

Both diameters are linear dimensions with expansions described by

L L0 1 T

. For

the cylinder to fit over the piston, it is necessary that its diameter be at least as large as that of
the piston. Thus, we require that

cylinder 0

1 al T d piston 1 steel T
0

Since we know that

cylinder 0

0.99 d piston

0.99 1 al T 1 steel T
T
This yields

1 0.99

0.99 24 11 10

, this reduces to

, or

0.99 al steel T 1 0.99


7.8 102 C

T T0 T 20C 7.8 102 C 8.0 102 C

, and