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Thermodynamic Tutorial

Thermodynamic Tutorial

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Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics and

Electromagnetism

1.

Show that the temperature 40 is unique in that it has the same numerical value on

the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales.

2.

ethyl alcohol (78.0C). The respective pressures are 0.900 atm and 1.635 atm.

(a)

What value of absolute zero does the calibration yield?

(b)

What pressures would be found at the freezing and boiling points of water?

(Note that we have the linear relationship P = A + BT, where A and B are

constants.)

[Answer: (a) -273 oC, (b) 1.27 atm, 1.74 atm]

3.

Show that if the temperature on the Celsius scale changes by TC, the Fahrenheit

temperature changes by TF = (9/5)TC.

4.

The New River Gorge bridge in West Virginia is a 518-m-long steel arch. How much

will its length change between temperature extremes of 20C and 35C?

(steel = 11 106 C1)

[Answer: 31 cm]

5.

temperature of 20C.

(a)

What is the length of the pendulum rod when the temperature drops to 0.0C?

(b)

If a pendulums period is given by T 2 L / g , where L is its length, does

the change in length of the rod cause the clock to run fast or slow?

(brass = 19 106 C1)

[Answer: (a) 1.29951 m, (b) fast]

6.

A brass ring of diameter 10.00 cm at 20.0C is heated and slipped over an aluminum

rod of diameter 10.01 cm at 20.0C. Assuming the average coefficients of linear

expansion is constant,

(a)

to what temperature must the combination be cooled to separate the two

metals? Is that temperature attainable?

(b)

What if the aluminum rod were 10.02 cm in diameter?

(brass = 19 106 C1, aluminum = 24 106 C1)

[Answer: (a) -179 oC, attainable, (b) -396 oC, unattainable]

7.

The Trans-Alaskan pipeline is 1 300 km long, reaching from Prudhoe Bay to the port

of Valdez, and is subject to temperatures ranging from 73C to +35C. How much

does the steel pipeline expand due to the difference in temperature? How can this

expansion be compensated for? (steel = 11 106 C1)

[Answer: 1.5 km]

1

8.

A square brass plate, 8.00 cm on a side, has a hole cut into its center of area 4.90874

cm2 (at 20.0 C). The hole in the plate is to slide over a cylindrical steel shaft of crosssectional area 4.91000 cm2 (also at 20.0 C). To what temperature must the brass plate

be heated so that it can just slide over the steel cylinder (which remains at 20.0 C)?

[Hint: The steel cylinder is not heated so it does not expand; only the brass plate is

heated.]

Given that the coefficient of thermal linear expansion for brass is 19 106 K1.

[Answer: 26.8 C]

9.

An automobile fuel tank is filled to the brim with 45 L (12 gal) of gasoline at 10C.

Immediately afterward, the vehicle is parked in the sunlight, where the temperature is

35C. How much gasoline overflows from the tank as a result of the expansion?

(Neglect the expansion of the tank.) ( = 9.6 104 C1)

[Answer: 1.1 L]

10.

A cube of solid aluminum has a volume of 1.00 m3 at 20C. What temperature change

is required to produce a 100-cm3 increase in the volume of the cube?

(aluminum = 24 106 C1)

[Answer: 1.39 oC]

11.

A hollow aluminum cylinder is to be fitted over a steel piston. At 20C, the inside

diameter of the cylinder is 99% of the outside diameter of the piston. To what

common temperature should the two pieces be heated in order that the cylinder just fit

over the piston? (steel = 11 106 C1, aluminum = 24 106 C1)

[Answer: 8.0102 oC]

Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics and

Electromagnetism

1.

TC

5

5

TF 32 40 32 40C

9

9

Since Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees of temperature change are different sizes, this is the

only temperature with the same numeric value on both scales.

2.

Since we have a linear graph, we know that the pressure is related to the temperature as

P A BTC , where A and B are constants. To find A and B, we use the given data:

and

Solving equations (1) and (2) simultaneously, we find:

A 1.27 atm , and

Therefore,

TC

P 0 , so

1.27 atm

273C

4.65 103 atm C

P 1.27 atm 0 1.27 atm

At the boiling point of water, TC 100C , so

3.

9

TF TC 32

T and TC 2 ,

5

Apply

to two different Celsius temperatures, C 1

9

5

TF 1 TC 1 32

to obtain

9

5

TF 2 TC 2 32

and

TF 2 TF 1

or

4.

TF 9 5 TC

Thus,

5.

9

TC 2 TC 1

5

1

L L0 T 11 10 6 C 518 m 55C 0.31 m 31 cm

(a) As the temperature drops by 20C, the length of the pendulum changes by

L L0 T

1

19 106 C 1.3 m 20C 4.9 10 4 m 0.49 mm

L 1.3 m 0.49 mm

T 2 L g

(b) From the expression for the period,

, we see that as the length decreases the

period decreases. Thus, the pendulum will swing too rapidly and the clock will run

fast

.

6.

L L L0 L0 T

L L0 L0 T

From

, the final value of the linear dimension is

.

To remove the ring from the rod, the diameter of the ring must be at least as large as the

diameter of the rod. Thus, we require that

Lbrass Lal , or L0 brass brass L0 brass T L0 al al L0 al T

T

This gives

L0 al L0 brass

brass L0 brass al L0 al

(a) If

L0 al 10.01 cm ,

T

19 10

so

(b) If

-6

10.01 10.00

199C

1

C 10.00 24 10-6 C 10.01

1

L0 al 10.02 cm

T

19 10

-6

10.02 10.00

396C

1

C 10.00 24 10-6 C 10.02

1

and

T T0 T 376C which is below absolute zero and unattainable

7.

L L0 T

, or

1

L 11 10 6 C 1300 103 m 35C- -73C 1.5 103 m 1.5 km

This is accommodated by

intervals.

8.

2

Find the temperature at which the area of the hole is 4.91000 cm .

A

A

4.91000 cm 2 4.90874 cm 2

2 T 2 (T T0 ), so T

T0

20.0C 26.8C .

A0

2 A0

2(19 106 K 1)(4.90874 cm 2 )

9.

The initial volume of the gasoline is V0 45 L . As the temperature rises to 35C, this volume

will expand by

1

V V0 T 9.6 10 4 C 45 L 35C 10C 1.1 liters

10.

1 m3

1.00 104 m3

6

3

10

cm

V 100 cm 3

From

V V0 T 3 V0 T

T

1.

V

1.00 104 m3

1.39C

3 V0 3 24 106 C 1 1.00 m3

L L0 1 T

. For

the cylinder to fit over the piston, it is necessary that its diameter be at least as large as that of

the piston. Thus, we require that

cylinder 0

1 al T d piston 1 steel T

0

cylinder 0

0.99 d piston

0.99 1 al T 1 steel T

T

This yields

1 0.99

0.99 24 11 10

, this reduces to

, or

7.8 102 C

, and

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