CE473
(REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN)
Entitled as
Submitted by
LAZO, EMMANUEL M.
Submitted to
Engr. Rhonnie C. Estores
October, 2015
APPROVAL SHEET
The design project entitled A Design of a Reinforced Concrete Seminary Main Building prepared by
Emmanuel M. Lazo of the Civil Engineering Department was examined and evaluated by designer himself,
and is hereby recommended for approval.
ABSTRACT
This project is entitled as A Design of a Five Storey Reinforced Concrete Seminary Main Building
is presented by Emmanuel M. Lazo, as partial fulfillment for the requirements for CE 473 (Reoinforced
Concrete Design.
The project was about structural analysis and design of identified parts of a five storey reinforced
concrete seminary main building utilizing special moment resisting space frames. Design specifications
from NBCP and NSCP were utilized in the design process. The parts analysed and designed included:
beams, columns, and slabs. The parts of the building chosen were considered to be the most critical due to
the highest result computed throught STAAD pro considering all load combinations. Design schedule and
member details of the structure were then created for the design proper.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE....................................................................................................................................................1
APPROVAL SHEET..........................................................................................................................................2
ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................................................3
LIST OF TABLES..............................................................................................................................................6
LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................................................7
CHAPTER I  PROJECT BACKGROUND........................................................................................................8
1.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................8
1.2 The Project..............................................................................................................................................9
1.3 Project Location....................................................................................................................................10
1.4 Project Objectives.................................................................................................................................12
1.5 The Client..............................................................................................................................................12
1.6 Project Scope and Limitation................................................................................................................12
1.7 Project Development.............................................................................................................................13
CHAPTER 2: DESIGN INPUTS......................................................................................................................15
2.1 Description of the Structure..................................................................................................................15
2.2 Classification of the Structure...............................................................................................................18
2.3 Architectural Plans................................................................................................................................18
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN CONSTRAINTS, TRADEOFFS, AND STANDARDS...............................................21
3.1 Design Constraints................................................................................................................................21
3.2 Tradeoffs...............................................................................................................................................22
3.2.1 One Way Slab................................................................................................................................22
3.2.2 Two Way Slab................................................................................................................................23
3.3 Significance of Chosen Tradeoffs to the Quantitative Design Constraints...........................................23
3.4 Method of Measurements for Quantitative Constraints........................................................................24
3.5 Ranking Scale.......................................................................................................................................24
3.6 Initial Estimate and Ranking Computation............................................................................................25
3.7 Raw Designers Ranking and Assessment...........................................................................................27
3.8 Design Standards.................................................................................................................................29
CHAPTER IV: DESIGN OF STRUCTURE.....................................................................................................30
4.1 Design Methodology.............................................................................................................................30
4.1.1 Structural Plans..............................................................................................................................32
5
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Perspective of the Proposed Seminary...........................................................................................10
Figure 2. Distance of the Nearest Fault Line to the Structure........................................................................11
Figure 3. Vicinity Map of the Seminary...........................................................................................................11
Figure 4. Project Development Process.........................................................................................................13
Figure 5. Structural Model of the Structure.....................................................................................................15
Figure 6. Floor Plans of the Building...............................................................................................................20
Figure 7. One Way Slab System.....................................................................................................................22
Figure 8. Two Way Slab System.....................................................................................................................23
Figure 9. Ranking Scale for Importance Factor..............................................................................................25
Figure 10. Ranking Scale for Satisfactory Factor...........................................................................................25
Figure 11. Design Methodology......................................................................................................................30
Figure 12. One Way Slab Framing Plan.........................................................................................................32
Figure 13. Two Way Slab Framing Plan.........................................................................................................32
Figure 14. Geometric Modelling of One Way Slab.........................................................................................33
Figure 15. Geometric Modelling of TwoWay Slab.........................................................................................34
Figure 16 Load Diagrams for OneWay Slab.................................................................................................36
Figure 17. Load Diagrams for TwoWay Slab.................................................................................................38
Figure 18. Result of Structural Analysis for OneWay Slab............................................................................39
Figure 19. Result of Structural Analysis for TwoWay Slab............................................................................40
Figure 20. StressStrain Diagram for Singly Reinforced Beam......................................................................41
Figure 21. Design of Singly Reinforced Beam................................................................................................42
Figure 22. Design of Doubly Reinforced Beam..............................................................................................43
Figure 23. Design for Spacing of Stirrups for Beams.....................................................................................44
Figure 24.Beindg of Slab................................................................................................................................45
Figure 25. Two Way Slab Strips Considered in EFM......................................................................................45
Figure 26. Two Way Slab Design (EFM).........................................................................................................46
Figure 27. Determining the Steel Area of a Column.......................................................................................47
Figure 28. Column Check for Compression or Tension Controls...................................................................48
Figure 29. Beam Details..................................................................................................................................56
8
deform together and deformed reinforcing bars are being used to increase the capacity to resist bond
stresses.
Advantages of reinforced concrete can be summarized as follows (Hassoun, 1998).
1. It has a relatively high compressive strength.
2. It has better resistance to fire than steel or wood
3. It has a long service life with low maintenance cost.
4. In some types of structures, such as dams, piers, and footing, it is the most economical structural
material.
5. It can be cast to take any shape required, making it widely used in precast structural components.
Disadvantages of reinforced concrete can be summarized as follows:
1. It has a low tensile strength (zero strength after cracks develop).
2. It needs mixing, casting, and curing, all of which affect the final strength of concrete.
3. The cost of the forms used to cast concrete is relatively high. The cost of form material and artisanry may
equal the cost of concrete placed in the forms.
4. It has a lower compressive strength than steel (about 1/10, depending on material), which requires large
sections in columns of multistorey buildings.
5. Cracks develop in concrete due to shrinkage and the application of live loads.
11
The building is rectangular shaped and has a total area of 700 m 2 with dimensions of 50 m x 14 m.
The structure to be constructed will be the main building of a seminary. The first floor contains the refectory
(dining), chapel, lobby, infirmary (clinic), recreation area, kitchen and staff room. The second and third
floors contain class rooms, laboratories, library, and offices. The fourth and fifth floor contain the study area
12
and dormitories. It has a main stair, fire exit, ramps, and an elevator. The height of each floor is 3 m having
a total of 15 m. The covering of the building will be a roof deck.
13
14
The client of this structure is a set of religious people lead by Mrs. Sharon Umayam. She is a
businesswoman and at the same time the president of the lectors in Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage
Church (National Shrine of the Philippines).
16
17
This model
shows
the
structural
members of
the
structure.
The blue
members
beams
are
the
the
total floor
are
slabs that form the building. The table below shows the
area and the different areas of the rooms contained in each floor.
Figure 5. Structural Model of the Structure
Table 1.
Total Floor
Areas and Functions per Floor
AREA (m2)
FUNCTION
1ST Floor
Ramps and Elevator
49
Stairs
25
C.R.
22.5
Chapel
168
Refectory
168
Staff Room
63
Clinic
49
Lobby
70
Kitchen
63
Hallway
22.5
TOTAL
700
2nd Floor
49
Stairs
25
18
C.R.
22.5
Offices
3(45)
4(63)
Other Rooms
32.5
Lounge
35
Hallway
79
TOTAL
700
3rd Floor
49
Stairs
25
C.R.
22.5
Offices
45
Class Room
2(63)
Other Rooms
133
Faculty Room
65
Library
94.5
Hallway
73.5
Sisters Room
66.5
TOTAL
700
4th Floor
49
Stairs
12.5
C.R.
22.5
Study Area
178.5
Dormitory
255.5
66.5
59.5
Laundry
28
Hallway
28
19
TOTAL
700
5th Floor
49
Stairs
25
Hallway
28
Dormitory (1)
201
Dormitory (2)
196
2(59.5)
Laundry
28
Rectors Room
66.5
TOTAL
700
3500
Using the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) 2010, the designer was able to
classify the structure. With respect to the occupancy category, the building is classified as an Essential
Facility. With respect to the structural members, the building will have special moment resisting frames.
These data will help in designing the structure especially in the determination of the seismic forces acting
on the structure.
20
21
22
23
stirrups in slabs is perceived to be difficult and costly. Oneway slabs are designed for flexure and shear on
a per meter width basis, assuming that they act as a series of independent strips. Thus oneway shear in
slabs is often referred to as beam shear, and design for flexure and shear is carried out using a beam
analogy
thus might give priority to this constraint. Some might choose the tradeoff that have lower price but might
not give way to the positivity of other tradeoffs.
Constructability. Time measures is significant in the construction of the structure. Knowing which
of the difference in the period of construction two tradeoffs might be significant for a client. Some clients
need shorter period of time and thus give priority to this constraint.
Safety/Serviceability. The magnitudes of deflection for concrete members are also important. Any
structure used by the people should be quite rigid and relativelyvibration free so as to provide security.
Designing these two tradeoffs will give different results. Thus, one tradeoff might be safer than the other. A
safer structure known to a client might be given priority.
Through the consideration of multiple constraints, the designer will have to choose what particular
design among the tradeoffs will be used. The tradeoff is very significant in the design for it will solve the
problem regarding the concern of client considering the constraints.
27
Difference( )=
difference
)
10
Equation 1
Equation 2
The above equations will be used for the manipulation of the rankings of each constraint given to
the tradeoffs. The governing rank is the highest possible value set by the designer. The subordinate rank in
second equation is a variable that corresponds to its percentage difference from the governing rank along
the ranking scale.
28
Constraint
Economic
Constructability
Safety/Serviceability
%difference=
90000008000000
100
9000000
%difference=11.11
difference
)
10
29
%difference=
%difference=
500400
100
500
%difference=20
difference
10
%difference=
%difference=
30
54
10
5
%difference=20
difference
10
Subordinate rank =3
OneWay Slab
TwoWay Slab
1. Economic
2. Constructability
3. Maintenance
42
51
These tabulated values are just subjective, especially the importance factors. This values will still
go on with the validation after making a final estimate and final ranking. Knowing the significance of the
constraints to the tradeoffs, the ranks in its importance are given as 5, for economic, 4, for constructability,
and 2, for maintenance.
31
As for economic constraint, it turned out that the initial cost for the twoway slab is cheaper than the
oneway slab, considering only the volume of concrete that will be used. As for the constructability
constraint, it turned out that the labor constituting of 50 workers will have to work for longer time for the
construction of the one way slab. As for the safety/serviceability constraint, the deflection of the critical
member in the twoway slab is quite greater than that of the oneway slab.
Overall, it turned out that the twoway slab tradeoff outranked the oneway slab tradeoff for the raw
designers ranking.
Philippines, also known as Presidential Decree No. 1096 was formulated and adopted as a uniform building
code to embody uptodate and modern technical knowledge on building design, construction, use,
occupancy and maintenance. The Code provides for all buildings and structures, a framework of minimum
standards and requirements to regulate and control
32
public way, public utility towers and poles, hydraulic flood control structures, and indigenous family
dwellings.
33
STRUCTURAL PLANS
DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
NSCP
NBCP
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
STRUTURAL MEMBER
DIMENSIONS
GEOMETRIC MODELLING
STRUCTURAL MODEL
LOAD MODELS
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
SHEAR DIAGRAMS
MOMENT DIAGRAMS
REACTIONS AND DEFLECTIONS
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
DESIGN SCHEDULES
DETAILING
The first process in design methodology was the creation of structural plans. The structural plans
included the framing plans of the two tradeoffs. The next step was to know the design specifications.
These specifications are the codes and standards needed for the structures classification and description.
The National Building Code and National Structural Code of the Philippines are the main books used for
design specifications.
The third step in the process was the identification of the material properties. The compressive
stresses and modulus of elasticity of the concrete and steel to be used were determined. Also, the
structural member dimensions (b, d, etc.) were assumed. The fourth step was the creation of the structural
model. These models included geometric modelling, which showed the positioning of the structural
members (beams, columns, slabs) in 3D form.
The fifth step was the presentation of load models. In this part, the loads acting on the structure
were computed. These loads were the dead load, live load, wind load, and seismic (earthquake) load,
applying also the load combinations. After computing for these loads, load models was presented also in
3D form. The sixth step was the structural analysis. In structural analysis, member (beams and columns)
forces and reactions were determined. The member forces included were the axial force, shear force, and
moment acting on the member.
The last part was the structural design. The structural design did not include the design of footings.
The values from the structural analysis was utilized to design the structural members of the structures,
mainly the beams and columns. The maximum moment acting on a beam was used to design the beam,
and the maximum value of the axial force acting on a column was used to design the column. To design the
slab, the total load on the floors was utilized.
35
36
37
The loads considered in this project are the dead load, live load, wind load and seismic loads. Load
combinations were also applied to these loads. The load combinations that were utilized were those that
are written in Section 203 of NSCP 2010.
38
The figure below show the preliminary loads acting on the structure.
Dead Load
Self
Weight = 2.8272 kPa
Floor Loads
= 3.49 kPa
39
Live Load
Floor Loads = 1.9 kPa
Intensity (kPa)
1.34496
1.40150
1.4884
12
1.55674
15
1.5999
40
Figure 16
Dead Load
Self
Weight = 2.8272 kPa
Floor Loads =
3.49 kPa
41
Live Load
Floor
Loads = 1.9 kPa
Height (m)
Intensity (kN)
1.34496
1.40150
1.4884
12
1.55674
15
1.5999
43
44
. For beams and columns, only the most critical parts were designed. For oneway slab, only one
slab was considered both in longitudinal and transverse directions was designed. For twoway slab, only
one strip was designed also considering both longitudinal and transverse directions. For convenience, a
sample procedure of computation for a structural member will be shown. The manual computations of the
members is shown in the appendices.
experience negative moment, and the midspan, which experience positive moment. Moreover, the stressstrain diagram of the crosssectional of the beam was used for the design. The following flow charts
present the step by step process of designing a beam.
46
min =
Ru =
b =
max = 0.75b
<
max
NO
YES
As = minbd
N=
YES
>
min
NO
As = bd
N=
DOUBLY
REINFORCED
As = As1 + As2
=
Y
=
N
N
=
48
49
Vc =
since
bending is experience by the whole. For Oneway slabs, the process is quite
N
same in designing a singly reinforced
concrete beam. The only
the
the
N
Vu > Vc
Vu < 0.5Vc
NO NEED
STIRRUPS
difference
is FOR
that we
assume that we get a strip from the whole
length of the slab. The width of that strip is 1 meter with thickness
provided by the designer.
Vn = Vu/
S =The flow
considering REDESIGN
the positive and negative moments passedVs
through
< the column strip and middle strip.
N
Smax = d/4 or 300
(get smaller)
Vs <
Figure
for Spacing
of Stirrups in
forEFM
Beams
Figure
25.23.
TwoDesign
Way Slab
Strips Considered
50
As = gAg
N = As/Abar
Redesign
Determine actual As and g
P < Pcap
Pcap = (0.8)Ag(0.85fc(1g)+gfy)
52
Pb = 0.85fcab
e > eb
Compression Controls
fs = 600(dc)/c, in terms of c
Tension Controls
fs = 600(cd)/c, in terms of c
Pcap + T = C1 + C2
Pcap(e+x) = C1(d.5c) + C2(dd)
Solve for c and Pcap, then check.
53
4.2 Raw Ranking Validation, Comparison of Results, and Final Ranking Assessments
In this section, the raw designers ranking was validated through the gathered results of the design.
The initial and final estimated values was then be compared. With the help of the final designers ranking,
the final ranking assessments was concluded.
CONSTRAINT
OneWay Slab
TwoWay Slab
Php 10,778,163.00
Php 8,735,033.00
Constructability
435 days
375 days
Safety/Serviceability
1.6 %
5.7 %
Initial Estimate
One Way Slab
Two Way Slab
Php 9,000,000
Php 8,000,000
500 days
450 days
4 % of allowable
5 % of allowable
Final Estimate
One Way Slab
Two Way Slab
Php 10,778,163
Php 8,735,033
435 days
375 days
1.6 % of allowable
5.7 % of allowable
Looking at the table, there are large discrepancies between the assumed values and the computed
values. However, the results of the final estimate of values has almost the same outcome with the initial
estimate. It turned out that the two way slab is better than the one way slab in terms of both economic and
constructability constraint, while one way slab is better than two way slab in terms of safety/serviceability
54
constraint. These results are the same as what was said in the raw ranking, which makes raw design to be
quite certain in this project.
107781638735033
100
10778163
%difference=18.9562
%difference=
435375
100
435
%difference=13.79
55
%difference=
5.71.6
10
5.7
%difference=71.93
Importance
OneWay Slab
TwoWay Slab
Economic
3.10438
Constructability
3.621
Safety/Serviceability
2.193
40.0059
40.614
Overall Rank
56
57
t (mm)
S1
S2
150
150
S1
S2
150
150
Spacing (mm)
bar
58
tie
10
10
10
10
Dimensions
b (mm)
t (mm)
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
350
500
Top (Left)
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
59
Number of Bars
Bottom (Mid) Top (Right)
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
4  25
5  25
B37
B38
B39
B40
B41
B42
B43
B44
B45
B46
B47
B48
B49
B50
B51
B52
B53
B54
B55
B56
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
60
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
4  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
5  25
Dimensions
b (mm)
t (mm)
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
# of Bars
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
832mm
61
Tie Wires
tie
Spacing
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
10 mm
480 mm
5.1.5
Column
Details
62
63
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: CODES AND STANDARDS
a. Determinations of Occupant Loads. The Occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof
shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the unit area allowed per
occupant as determined by the Secretary.
64
b. Exit Requirements. Exit requirements of a building or portion thereof used for different purposes
shall be determined by the occupant load which gives the largest number of persons. No
obstruction shall be placed in the required width of an exit except projections permitted by this
Code.
As
Av
A vf
bw
cc
= clear cover from the nearest surface in tension to the surface of the flexural tension
reinforcement, mm.
d'
db
dc
= thickness of concrete cover measure from extreme tension fiber to center of bar or wire located
closest thereto, mm.
ds
dt
Ec
Es
EI
= loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with well defined densities and controllable maximum
heights, or related internal moments and forces.
f 'c
fy
= loads due to weight and pressure of soil, water in soil, or other materials, or related internal
moments and forces.
I cr
Ie
Ig
= moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm 4.
Ld
ln
Pn
Vc
wc
wu
= factored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of slab.
= ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab bounded laterally
by center line of adjacent panle, if any on each side of beam.
fm = average value of f
= factor
reinforcement =
A s /bd
'
= strengthreduction factor.
67
A ' s /bd
The following are the sections and codes that are followed in conceptualizing and designing the structural
plan of the apartment building:
Wind Load
Section 207.5.4 Wind Directionality Factor
The wind directionality factor, Kd, shall be determined form Table 2072. This factor Shall only be applied
when used in conjunction with load combinations specified in Section 203.3 and 203.4.
68
Section 207.5.13 Design Wind Loads on Open Buildings with Monoslope, Pitched, or Troughed
Roofs
Plus and minus signs signify pressure acting toward and away from the top surface of the roof,
respectively.
Section 207.5.14 Design Wind Loads on Solid Freestanding Walls and Solid Signs
The design wind force for solid freestanding walls and solid signs shall be determined by the
following formula:
F= qhGCfAs
Section 207.5.15 Design Wind Loads on other Structures
The design wind force for other structures shall be determined by the following equation:
F=qzGfCfAf
Earthquake Load
RT
The total design base shear need not exceed the following:
V= 2.5CaI (W)
R
The Base Shear shall not be less than the following:
V= .11CaIW
Section 208.5.2.2
The value of T shall be determined using the following method:
Determine the structure period T using Method A
T = Ct (hn)3/4
Material
Density (KN/m3)
Masonry, Concrete
16.5
Table 2042 Minimum Design Dead Loads
1.9 Kpa
1.9 Kpa
70
Occupancy Category
Seismic Importance Factor I Seismic Importance Factor Ip
I. Essential facilities
1.5
1.5
II. Hazardous facilities
1.25
1.5
III. Special Occupancy Structures 1
1
IV. Standard Occupancy Strutures 1
1
V. Miscellaneous Structures
1
1
Table 2081 Seismic Importance Factors
Soil Profile
SA
SB
Sc
SD
SE
SF
Hard Rock
>1500
Rock
760 to 1500
Very Dense Soil
360 to 760
>50
>100
Stiff Soil Profile
180 to 360
15 to 50 50 to 100
Soft Soil Profile
<180
<15
<50
Soil Requiring SiteSpecific Evaluation See Section 208.4.3.1
Table 2082 Soil Profile Types
Zone
Z
2
4
0.2
0.4
Table 2083 Seismic Zone Factor Z
Seismic
Type
A
B
71
Seismic
Type
A
B
C
1
1
Table 2084 NearSource factor Na
Seismic Zone
Soil Profile Type
2
4
Z=0.2
Z=0.4
SA
0.16
.32Na
SB
0.2
.40Na
Sc
0.24
.40Na
SD
0.28
.44Na
SE
0.34
.44Na
SF
See Footnote 1 of Table 2088
Table 2087 Seismic Coefficient, Ca
Seismic Zone
Soil Profile Type
2
4
Z=0.2
Z=0.4
SA
0.16
.32Na
SB
0.20
.40Na
Sc
0.32
.56Na
SD
0.40
.64Na
SE
0.64
.96Na
SF
See Footnote 1 of Table 2088
Table 2088 Seismic Coefficient, Cv
72
15 Km
1
1
1
Directionality
factor Kd
Structural Type
Buildings
Main Wind Force Resisting
0.85
System
Components and Cladding
0.85
Arched Roof
Chimneys, Tanks, and Similar Structures
Square
0.9
Hexagonal
0.95
Round
0.95
Soild Signs
0.85
Open Signs and Lattice Framework
0.85
Trussed Towers
Triangular. Square, rectangular
0.85
All other cross sections
0.95
Table 2072 Wind Directionality factor
Occupancy
Category
I
II
III
IV
V
Description
Iw
Essential
1.15
Hazardous
1.15
Special Occupancy
1.15
Standard Occupancy
1
Miscellaneous
0.87
Table 2073 Importance factor Iw
73
Exposure (Note 1)
B
C
Height above Ground Level (m)
Case 1 Case 2 Cases 1& 2
04.5
0.7
0.57
0.85
6
0.7
0.62
0.9
7.5
0.7
0.66
0.94
9
0.7
0.7
0.98
12
0.76
0.76
1.04
15
0.81
0.81
1.09
18
0.85
0.85
1.13
Table 2074 Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficients
D
Cases 1&2
1.03
1.08
1.12
1.16
1.22
1.27
1.31
M (+) kNm
126.053
106.538
103.758
102.465
102.459
102.417
102.384
102.354
102.328
102.305
102.283
102.291
102.501
104.659
121.689
119.788
109.518
115.358
113.523
113.553
113.511
113.477
M () kNm
54.173
88.807
96.137
94.783
94.787
94.743
94.708
94.677
94.652
94.632
94.615
94.627
94.828
97.701
102.066
91.591
90.706
102.728
101.024
101.068
101.037
101.011
74
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
P (axial) kN
716.25
1167.911
901.271
659.296
648.353
650.131
650.673
650.261
648.889
646.456
642.771
637.496
640.321
782.079
655.887
909.786
1032.503
1337.143
1223.228
1093.274
1088.322
1088.522
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31
B32
B33
B34
B35
B36
B37
B38
B39
B40
B41
B42
B43
B44
B45
B46
B47
B48
B49
B50
B51
B52
B53
B54
B55
B56
B57
B58
B59
B60
B61
B62
B63
B64
B65
113.753
113.442
113.407
113.371
113.333
113.327
113.753
114.447
104.034
94.009
94.342
100.653
99.343
99.48
99.385
99.385
99.12
99.467
99.457
99.444
99.427
99.408
99.385
99.385
99.12
101.778
165.696
117.879
116.265
181.239
181.084
181.455
181.239
181.641
181.258
180.169
178.283
175.536
172.066
168.38
96.67
91.01
152.202
101.206
100.986
100.963
100.941
100.918
100.924
101.206
103.972
92.472
82.678
82.949
92.696
91.73
91.775
91.727
91.73
91.504
91.77
91.768
91.762
91.753
91.742
91.727
91.73
91.504
95.317
94.837
95.317
94.837
95.714
95.649
96.15
95.714
96.44
96.118
95.048
93.138
90.324
86.754
82.962
86.754
82.962
91.624
75
C23
C24
C25
C26
C27
C28
C29
C30
C31
C32
C33
C34
C35
C36
C37
C38
C39
C40
C41
C42
C43
C44
C45
C46
C47
C48
1088.536
1088.541
1088.546
1088.552
1088.557
1088.597
1090.155
1088.052
961.669
554.61
667.379
667.365
628.637
591.907
591.279
591.598
591.766
591.862
591.893
591.861
591.804
591.766
591.635
591.793
580.226
571.052
B66
B67
B68
B69
B70
B71
B72
B73
B74
B75
B76
B77
B78
B79
B80
MAX
195.951
198.802
192.389
186.273
185.902
186.265
186.447
186.078
185.027
183.207
180.553
177.195
173.766
169.821
129.274
198.802
98.32
92.438
91.563
92.486
92.302
92.796
93.079
92.769
91.736
89.892
87.173
83.718
80.155
75.276
72.978
103.972
1337.143
M (+) kNm
172.977
171.697
161.936
153.256
153.58
153.537
153.506
154.481
153.211
158.193
241.324
244.246
192.946
180.034
180.476
180.391
180.326
180.272
179.951
184.834
M () kNm
99.608
92.002
134.495
130.775
130.907
130.88
130.854
130.834
130.584
135.814
107.117
98.952
144.63
140.603
140.712
140.653
140.599
140.552
140.263
145.842
76
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C20
P (axial) kN
815.541
1327.418
1132.805
944.5
943.541
938.319
933.722
928.783
922.857
911.476
676.922
1316.598
2424.714
2024.74
1617.599
1628.637
1628.645
1628.478
1628.477
1628.981
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31
B32
B33
B34
B35
B36
B37
B38
B39
B40
B41
B42
B43
B44
B45
B46
B47
B48
B49
B50
B51
B52
B53
B54
B55
B56
MAX
172.977
171.697
161.936
153.256
153.58
153.537
153.624
153.481
153.211
153.723
153.506
153.481
153.211
158.193
214.464
273.728
261.998
248.799
243.8
239.874
236.372
232.611
227.863
221.372
171.673
234.499
310.203
296.045
280.414
275.41
271.484
267.982
264.221
259.473
252.971
189.269
310.203
99.608
92.002
134.495
130.775
130.907
130.88
130.873
130.834
130.584
130.862
130.854
130.834
130.584
135.814
154.359
164.303
159.855
153.956
148.97
145.044
141.541
137.78
133.034
126.575
118.885
154.359
164.303
159.855
153.956
148.97
145.044
141.514
137.78
133.034
126.575
118.885
164.303
77
C21
C22
C23
C24
C25
C26
C27
C28
C29
C30
C31
C32
C33
1621.501
1051.221
730.998
1301.163
1087.248
869.727
876.181
876.068
876.076
876.076
876.353
873.233
676.922
2424.714
143.83
20.7
415
350
500
62.5
437.5
25
10
kNm
Es
kN
MPa
MPa
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Ec
n
L
200000
21383.7
1
10
7
MPa
MPa
m
RESULTS
0.85
0.01597
b
7
0.01198
max
3
0.24024
0.9
Mu(max) 257.336
SINGLY
kNm
As
N'
78
1834.90
6
4
mm2
pcs
RESULTS
Vc
Vc
.5Vc
Vn
189.3352
kN
Vs
parameter
73.22246
466.7734
kN
Si = Av*fy*d/Vs, Av = pi*(tie^2)/4
220
Av
For Smax,
110
Si
* If Vs < 0.33*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, Smax = d/2 or 600mm (get smaller) parameter
* If Vs > 0.33*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, Smax = d/4 or 400mm (get smaller)
Smax1
Smax2
Epoxy
Light
Sf
Zinc
Normal
78.53982
200
229.9033
220
600
200
mm2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Vs = Vn  Vc
* If Vs < 0.67*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, go to Step 3.
* If Vs > 0.67*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, redesign.
116.1128
104.5015
52.25075
Stirrups Needed
kN
kN
kN
Uncoated
Part 3. Development Length
The following are the supplementary data.
Cc
40
Mm
Bar Coat
Epoxy
RESULTS
t
e
1
1.2
1
1
Atr
157.079
6
Ktr
7.853982
ld
80
1299.611
mm2
mm
For Midspan
The following are the given data
Mu
103.972
Vu
f'c
fy
b
t
d'
d
bar
tie
89.11886
20.7
415
350
500
62.5
437.5
25
10
kNm
Es
kN
MPa
MPa
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Ec
n
L
200000
21383.7
1
10
7
MPa
MPa
m
RESULTS
0.85
0.01597
b
7
0.01198
max
3
0.24024
0.9
Mu(max) 257.336
SINGLY
kNm
As
N'
1834.90
6
4
mm2
pcs
RESULTS
Vc
Vc
81
116.112
8
104.501
kN
kN
5
52.2507
.5Vc
5
kN
Stirrups Needed
Vn
99.0209
5
Vs
paramete
r
17.0918
466.773
4
Av
Si
paramete
r
78.5398
2
230
229.903
3
Smax1
Smax2
Sf
220
600
220
kN
kN
220
110
Light
Normal
Epoxy
RESULTS
t
e
1
1.2
1
1
mm2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Atr
Step 2. Compute for the development
length
Ktr
ld = (fy*t*e*s*d)/(1.1**sqrt(f'c)*((cc+Ktr)/d))
Ktr = 40*Atr/(S*N), Atr = 2*pi*(tie^2)/4
ld
157.079
6
7.13998
3
1319.29
5
mm2
mm
Ig
mm4
Mcr
3645833333
2.82082966
5
250
41.1370992
8
kNm
Icr
91438412.2
9
mm4
Ie
311587799
mm4
fr
yt
MPa
mm
max = L/360
max
83
16.9750204
1
0.30585036
19.4444444
4
OK
kN/m
mm
mm
kNm
Es
Vu
265.89
kN
Ec
200000
21383.7
1
f'c
fy
b
t
d'
d
20.7
415
350
500
62.5
437.5
MPa
MPa
mm
mm
mm
mm
N
L
10
7
bar
tie
25
10
mm
mm
MPa
MPa
M
RESULTS
0.85
0.01597
b
7
0.01198
max
3
0.24024
0.9
Mu(max) 257.336
DOUBLY
max = = 0.75b
= *fy/f'c
Mu(max) = *f'c**b*(d^2)*(1.59)
= 0.9
* If Mu < Mu(max), design is Singly Reinforced
* If Mu > Mu(max), design is Doubly Reinforced
kNm
As1
Mu1
Mu2 = Mu  Mu1
Mu2
As2
1834.90
6
257.336
52.8669
6
377.452
6
mm2
kNm
kNm
mm2
C=T
0.85*f'c*a*b = As1*fy, Solve for a
a = c, Solve for c
c
377.452
6
457.722
6
f's = 600*(cd')/c
* If f's > fy, A's = As2
* If f's < fy, A's = As2*fy/f's
A's
123.653
145.474
1
342.222
2
457.722
6
N
N'
5
1
f's
mm
mm
MPa
mm2
pcs
pcs
RESULTS
116.112
Vc
8
kN
104.501
Vc
5
kN
52.2507
.5Vc
5
kN
Stirrups Needed
Vs
paramete
r
295.433
3
179.320
6
466.773
4
Av
78.5398
2
Vn
Vs = Vn  Vc
* If Vs < 0.67*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, go to Step 3.
* If Vs > 0.67*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, redesign.
kN
kN
220
85
mm2
For Smax,
If Vs < 0.33*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, Smax = d/2 or 600mm (get
* smaller)
If Vs > 0.33*sqrt(f'c)*b*d, Smax = d/4 or 400mm (get
* smaller)
Epoxy
Zinc
Uncoated
110
Light
Normal
Si
paramete
r
80
229.903
3
mm
Smax1
Smax2
Sf
220
600
80
mm
mm
mm
mm
Epoxy
RESULTS
t
e
1
1.2
1
1
Atr
Step 2. Compute for the development
length
Ktr
ld = (fy*t*e*s*d)/(1.1**sqrt(f'c)*((cc+Ktr)/d))
Ktr = 40*Atr/(S*N), Atr = 2*pi*(tie^2)/4
ld
86
157.079
6
78.5398
2
524.647
1
mm2
mm
For Midspan
kNm
Es
kN
MPa
MPa
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Ec
n
L
143.83
20.7
415
350
500
62.5
437.5
25
10
200000
21383.7
1
10
7
MPa
MPa
M
RESULTS
b
max
Mu(max)
0.85
0.01597
7
0.011983
0.24024
0.9
257.336
SINGLY
kNm
As
N
1834.90
6
4
mm2
pcs
RESULTS
Vc
Vc
87
116.1128
104.5015
kN
kN
.5Vc
52.25075
Stirrups Needed
kN
Vn
159.8111
kN
Vs
parameter
43.69833
466.7734
kN
Av
Si
parameter
Smax1
Smax2
Sf
78.53982
330
229.9033
220
600
220
Light
Normal
mm
2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Epoxy
88
RESULTS
t
e
1
1.2
1
1
Atr
157.079
6
mm2
Ktr
Ld
7.13998
1319.3
mm
Ig
mm4
Mcr
3645833333
2.82082966
5
250
41.1370992
8
kNm
Icr
93279189.2
4
mm4
Ie
149036936.
7
mm4
fr
yt
MPa
mm
max = L/360
max
89
26.8249795
9
1.01047278
19.4444444
4
OK
kN/m
mm
mm
f'c
fy
20.7
415
MPa
MPa
t
b
bar
150
1000
12
mm
mm
mm
tie
10
mm
134
mm
Step 1. Calculate the Factored Loads and the Moment in the Slab
W = 1.2DL + 1.6LL
For Midspan,
M = W*(L^2)/14
For Continuous Edge,
M = W*(L^2)/10
RESULTS
W
9.36040
kN/m
Mmid
32.76140
kN/m
Mc.e.
45.86596
kN/m
1.82454
0.00465
max
0.01598
min
0.00337
0.00465
90
697.74823
mm2
Abar
S
113.09734
162.08903
mm2
mm
R
i
max
min
f
2.55435
0.00668
0.01598
0.00337
0.00668
As
1002.23229
mm2
Abar
S
113.09734
112.84543
mm2
mm
As = *b*d
3.537
1.53
0.2
5.267
1.9
f'c
fy
L
t
b
bar
tie
d
20.7
415
3.5
150
1000
12
10
134
MPa
MPa
m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
RESULTS
9.36040
kN/m
Mmid
8.19035
kN/m
Mc.e.
11.46649
kN/m
92
0.45613
0.00111
max
min
f
0.01598
0.00337
0.00337
As
506.02410
mm2
Abar
113.09734
mm2
223.50188
mm
R
i
max
min
f
0.63859
0.00157
0.01598
0.00337
0.00337
As
506.02410
mm2
Abar
113.09734
mm2
223.50188
mm
Design of S2
The following are the given data.
Dead Loads (kPa)
Weight of Slab
3.537
Stone
Concrete Fill
1.53
Gypsum Board
0.2
Total
5.267
Live Load (kPa)
Basic Floor
Area
1.9
f'c
Fy
20.7
415
MPa
MPa
L
T
B
bar
7
150
1000
12
M
mm
mm
mm
tie
D
10
134
mm
mm
RESULTS
9.36040
kN/m
Mmid
Mc.e.
32.76140
45.86596
kN/m
kN/m
1.82454
i
max
min
f
0.00465
0.01598
0.00337
0.00465
As
697.74823
mm2
Abar
S
113.09734
162.08903
mm2
mm
2.55435
i
max
min
f
0.00668
0.01598
0.00337
0.00668
As
1002.23229
mm2
Abar
S
113.09734
112.84543
mm2
mm
3.537
1.53
0.2
5.267
1.9
f'c
fy
L
t
b
bar
tie
d
20.7
415
3
150
1000
12
10
134
MPa
MPa
m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
RESULTS
9.36040
kN/m
Mmid
Mc.e.
6.01740
8.42436
kN/m
kN/m
0.33512
i
max
min
f
0.00082
0.01598
0.00337
0.00337
95
As
506.02410
mm2
Abar
113.09734
mm2
223.50188
mm
R
i
max
min
f
0.46917
0.00115
0.01598
0.00337
0.00337
As
506.02410
mm2
Abar
113.09734
mm2
S
N
223.50188
5
mm
pcs
Figure.
Design
Strips
for
Equivalent Frame Method
Considering Longitudinal Frame
ts
B
l1
l2
DL
LL
W
f'c
fy
E
Slab
150
1000
4.5
7
General
5.267
1.9
9.3604
20.7
415
21383.7
mm
mm
m
m
c1
c2
lc
Column
550
550
3
mm
mm
m
kPa
kPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
96
Kec
3.1E+10
Is
a/l1
b/l2
ks
FEM
COF
Ks
2E+09
0.12222
0.12222
4.4
111.454
0.526
4.1E+10
97
mm4
kNm
Member
AB
BA
BC
CB
CD
DC
DE
ED
EF
FE
FG
K
2.5E+10
2.5E+10
2.5E+10
2.5E+10
4.12E+1
0
4.12E+1
0
4.12E+1
0
4.12E+1
0
4.12E+1
0
4.12E+1
0
4.12E+1
0
DF
0.28481
0.28481
0.28481
0.28481
FEM
111.454
111.45
111.454
111.45
0.32138
111.454
IH
4.1E+10
0.28481
111.454
0.28481
111.4543
IJ
4.1E+10
0.28481
111.45
0.28481
111.454
JI
4.1E+10
0.28481
111.454
0.28481
111.4543
JK
4.1E+10
0.28481
111.45
0.28481
111.454
KJ
4.1E+10
0.39824
111.454
0.28481
111.4543
0.28481
111.454
98
Member
DF
FEM
COF
Balance
CO1
Balance
CO2
Balance
CO3
Balance
CO4
Balance
TOTAL
A
B
AB
BA BC
0.284 0.22 0.22
270 270 270
0.509 0.51 0.51
76.7
0
0
0
39 15.5
0
5.2 6.88
2.64
0
0
0.75
0
0
0
0.38 0.74
0
0.08 0.08
0.04
0
0
0.011
0
0
350 225 246
C
CB CD
0.19 0.32
270
0.51
30.5
0
0
3.5
1.45
111
0.53
50.9
0
0
4.01
2.41
0
0 1.269
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.361 0.361
0
0
0
0.04 0.19
0
0
0.19
0
0
0.04 0.07
0
0
0.05 0.054
0
305 53.9 147.5 111 112 111 111.5
0
0
0
0
111
J
IJ
JI
JK
0.285 0.28 0.285
KJ
KJ
0.4
0
0
0
0.524
0
0
0.52 1.465
0
0
0
0.149 0.149
0
0
0.57 0.567
0
0
0.078
0
0
0.078 0.298
0
0
0.3
0.02 0.022
0
0
0.107 0.107
0
0
0.12
111 111.4 111.6 111 112.6 107 119 72.8 166
99
401.3272
401.3272
165.8546
165.8546
165.8546
+
+
+
+
+

Summary of Moments
Sla
M
b
W
349.73093
113.87016
6
165.8546
225.18306
246.46759
125.4633
7
165.8546
305.26012
53.916191
65.170221
8
165.8546
147.45254
111.09292
54.458879
9
165.8546
111.69849
111.40015
54.427373
10
165.8546
111.45428
(+)
()
(+)
()
Beam
(85%)
82.27119
208.0899
Middle
Strip
Slab(15%)
14.5184
36.7217
17.0805
104.919
Design Moments
CS
MS
7.259222
8.54026
18.36087
52.4596
100
+
+
+
+
+

M
111.45428
54.389126
111.47664
111.35343
54.376115
111.60352
110.78107
54.145967
112.63617
106.5553
52.979831
119.19421
72.777157
46.447589
166.03684
Slab10
M(+)
46.44759
M()
166.0368
Moment (%)
0.85M(+)
39.48045
0.70M()
116.2258
Moment (%) Passed
Column Strip
Beam
(85%)
Slab(15%)
(+)
33.55838
5.92207
()
98.79192
17.4339
(+)
()
Design Moments
CS
MS
2.961034
3.48357
8.716934
24.9055
For Interior
S2
M(+)
125.4633
M()
305.2601
Moments (%)
0.85M(+)
106.6438
0.70M()
213.6821
Moment (%) Passed
Column Strip
Beam
Slab(15%)
(85%)
(+)
90.64723
15.9966
()
181.6298
32.0523
(+)
()
Middle
Strip
6.96714
49.8111
Middle
Strip
18.8195
91.578
Design Moments
CS
MS
7.998285
9.40975
16.02616
45.789
101
S3 to
S9
54.3891
3
111.454
M()
3
Moments (%)
0.85M(
46.2307
+)
6
0.70M(
78.018
)
M(+)
(+)
()
Column Strip
Beam
Slab(15
(85%)
%)
39.2961 6.9346
4
1
11.702
66.3153
7
Middle
Strip
8.15837
33.4363
Design Moments
CS
MS
3.46730 4.0791
(+)
7
8
16.718
()
5.85135
1
102
Step 5. Determine the Steel Areas and Number of Bars per meter of Width
SAMPLE DESIGN
f'c
fy
B
T
D
bar
tie
cc
GIVEN DATA
MPa
20.7
MPa
415
mm
1000
mm
150
mm
114
mm
12
mm
10
mm
20
As = *b*d
S = b*Abar/As, Abar = pi*(bar^2)/4
103
M
R
i
max
min
f
RESULTS
7.25922243
0.62064
0.00152
0.01598
0.00337
0.00337
As
Abar
S
384.57831
113.09734
294.08142
kNm
mm2
mm2
mm
Table. Summary of Steel Areas and Number of Bars for TwoWay Slabs
104
+
CS
Ext
S1
M
S
+
+
CS
S2
M
S
+

Int
+
CS

S(39)
M
S
+
+
CS
Ext
S10
M
S
+

Frame)
As
384.578
3
452.390
5
384.578
3
1449.36
4
384.578
3
384.578
3
384.578
3
1232.54
5
384.578
3
384.578
3
384.578
3
410.030
5
384.578
3
384.578
3
384.578
3
625.384
4
Abar
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
113.09
7
S
294.081
4
249.999
4
294.081
4
78.0324
294.081
4
294.081
4
294.081
4
91.7591
8
294.081
4
294.081
4
294.081
4
275.826
7
294.081
4
294.081
4
294.081
4
180.844
5
mm
mm
m
106
Ic
lc
lu
lu/lc
a/b
kab
Kc
C
Kt
Kec
7.6E+09
3
2.85
0.95
1
4.55
2.5E+11
5.1E+08
1.7E+10
3.1E+10
mm4
mm
mm
Is
a/l1
b/l2
ks
FEM
COF
Ks
2E+09
0.07857
0.07857
4.11
269.692
0.5086
2.5E+10
mm4
kNm
COF
0.5086
Balance 76.6949
0.5086
0.5086
CO1
Balance
39.007
0
230.684
8
0
39.0070
4
0
TOTAL
Slab
1
0
0
346.387
230.685
For Interior
112.7914
346.3868
Moments (%)
0.85M(+) 95.87266
0.70M() 242.4707
Moment (%) Passed
Column Strip
Beam
Slab(15%)
(85%)
(+)
81.49176 14.3809
()
206.1001 36.37061
(+)
()
0
0
346.386
8
Summary of Moments
W
M
346.3868
401.3272
+
112.7914
230.6848
230.6848
401.3272
+
112.7914
346.3868
For Exterior
M(+)
M()
0.5086
76.6949
2
M(+)
M()
Middle
Strip
16.9
104
112.7914
230.6848
Moments (%)
0.85M(+)
95.87266
0.70M()
161.4794
Moment (%) Passed
Column Strip
Beam
Slab(15%)
(85%)
(+)
81.49176
14.38
()
137.2575
24.22
Design Moments
CS
MS
7.190449 8.459352
18.18531 51.95801
(+)
()
108
Design Moments
CS
MS
7.190449
8.459
12.11095
34.6
Middle
Strip
16.918705
69.205443
109
Table. Summary of Steel Areas and Number of Bars for TwoWay Slabs
CS
Exterior
MS
CS
Interior
MS
+
+
+
+

110
As
385
448
385
1433
385
385
385
896
Abar
113.097
113.097
113.097
113.097
113.097
113.097
113.097
113.097
S
294.0814
252.5375
294.0814
78.94669
294.0814
294.0814
294.0814
126.2729
1337.143
277.02
550
550
40
484
20.7
415
32
10
kN
kNm
mm
mm
MPa
MPa
mm
mm
Results
0.02
As = gAg
Ag
302500
mm2
As
mm2
Get actual g
Pcap = *0.8*Ag(0.85*f'c*(1g)+fy*g)
If Pcap > P, the dimensions are
* adequate
* If Pcap < P, redesign
Abar
N
6050
804.247
7
8
0.02126
9
0.65
4097.28
OK
111
actual g
Pcap
mm2
pcs
kN
112
Results
c
a
Pb
eb
ex
c
Pcap
286.1084
mm
0.85
243.1921
mm
2353431
kN
33.039
mm
207.173
mm
Tension Controls
272.163
2247.189
mm
kN
P
My
b
t
Cc
D
f'c
Fy
bar
tie
2424.17
363.257
550
550
40
484
20.7
415
32
10
kN
kNm
mm
mm
MPa
MPa
mm
mm
Results
g
0.02
As = gAg
Ag
302500
mm2
As
6050
mm2
Get actual g
Pcap = *0.8*Ag(0.85*f'c*(1g)+fy*g)
* If Pcap > P, the dimensions are adequate
* If Pcap < P, redesign
Abar
N
actual g
Pcap
804.2477
8
0.021269
0.65
4097.28
OK
mm2
pcs
Step 2.
Determine the
position of the bars.
113
kN
114
Results
c
a
Pb
eb
ex
286.1084
0.85
243.1921
2353431
33.039
149.848
Tension Controls
c
Pcap
268.6011
2873.398
mm
mm
kN
mm
mm
mm
kN
Member
B1
B2
B3
C1
Slab
S1
S2
S3
S4
L
(m)
7
3.5
3
3
b
(m)
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.55
L
(m)
7
7
3.5
3.3
b
(m)
3.5
3
3.3
3
ITEM
TOTAL
CEMENT
9662.96
SAND
536.831
GRAVEL
1073.66
B1
B2
B2
C1
Slonger
Sshorter
BAR
(mm)
25
26
25
32
12
12
ITEM
TOTAL
Steel
98654.5
Member
CONCRETE WORKS
t
V
pcs
(m)
(m3)
0.5
170
208.25
0.5
50
30.625
0.5
180
94.5
0.55
260
235.95
TOTAL
t
V
pcs
(m)
(m3)
0.15
30
110.25
0.15
120
378
0.15
5
8.6625
0.15
5
7.425
CEMENT
(bags)
1874.25
275.625
850.5
2123.55
5123.93
CEMENT
(bags)
992.25
3402
77.9625
66.825
TOTAL
4539.038
PRICES
ITEM
LABOR
bags
2415741 966296.3
26841.5
m3
50
10736.63
6
m3
800
858930
343572
TOTAL PRICE
3301512 1320605
REBAR WORKS
As
L
NN bars
2
members
(mm )
(m)
490.873
7
6
170
530.929
3.5
6
50
490.873
3
6
180
804.247
3
8
260
113.097
50
224
113.097
14
500
PRICE
per kg
ITEM
LABOR
TOTAL
513003
52
1026008 6156046
8
per pc
250
TOTAL COST
115
10778163
TOTAL
4622117
Total W
(kg)
27162.5
4320.436
12325.84
38893.42
9816.849
6135.53
SAND
(m)
104.125
15.3125
47.25
117.975
284.66
SAND
(m)
55.125
189
4.33125
3.7125
252.168
8
GRAVEL
(m)
208.25
30.625
94.5
235.95
569.325
GRAVEL
(m)
110.25
378
8.6625
7.425
504.3375
Member
B1
B2
B3
C1
Slab
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
L
(m)
7
3.5
4.5
3
b
(m)
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.5
L1
(m)
7
7
3.7
4.5
3.7
L2
(m)
7
4.5
3.5
3.3
1
ITEM
TOTAL
CEMEN
T
7894.12
5
438.562
5
877.125
SAND
GRAVEL
Member
BAR
(mm)
B1
25
B2
26
B2
25
C1
Slonger
Sshorter
32
12
12
ITEM
TOTAL
CONCRETE WORKS
t
V
pcs
(m)
(m3)
0.5
140
171.5
0.5
20
12.25
0.5
120
94.5
0.5
165
123.75
TOTAL
t
V
pcs
(m)
(m3)
0.15
10
73.5
0.15
80
378
0.15
5
9.7125
0.15
5
11.1375
0.15
5
2.775
per pc
bags
TOTAL
PRICES
ITEM
LABOR
1973531 789412.5
21928.1
m3
50
3
8771.25
3
m
800
701700
280680
TOTAL PRICE
2697159
1078864
REBAR WORKS
As
L
NN bars
2
members
(mm )
(m)
490.873
9
7
7
140
530.929
2
3.5
6
20
490.873
9
4.5
6
120
804.247
8
7
3
165
215
113.0973
50
113.0973
14
425
PRICE
per kg
ITEM
LABOR
TOTAL
CEMENT
(bags)
1543.5
110.25
850.5
1113.75
3618
CEMENT
(bags)
661.5
3402
87.4125
100.2375
24.975
4276.125
250
116
TOTAL
3776023
Total W
(kg)
26097.31
1728.174
12325.84
24682.36
9422.422
5215.201
SAND
(m)
85.75
6.125
47.25
61.875
201
SAND
(m)
36.75
189
4.85625
5.56875
1.3875
237.562
5
GRAVEL
(m)
171.5
12.25
94.5
123.75
402
GRAVEL
(m)
73.5
378
9.7125
11.1375
2.775
475.125
Steel
79471.3
1
52
4132508
826501.
6
TOTAL COST
117
4959010
8735033
B1
B2
B3
C1
S1
S2
S3
S4
b
350
350
350
550
t
150
150
150
150
T
L
500
7
500
3
500
3.5
550
3
S
l
3.5
7
3
7
3.3
3.5
3
3.3
TOTAL VOLUME
Quantity
170
180
50
250
Volume
208.25
94.5
30.625
226.875
25
115
5
5
91.875
362.25
8.6625
7.425
1030.463
Assuming that 500% of Total Volume of Concrete Works is equal to Total Man Days,
Adding 200% For Rebar Works and 350% For
Finishing
TOTAL MAN DAYS = 5(1030.463) + 2(1030.463) +
3.5(1030.463)
TOTAL MAN DAYS = 10820
days
Given that there will be 25 workers
TOTAL MAN DAYS = 435 Days
118
B1
B2
B3
C1
S1
S2
S3
S4
b
350
350
350
550
t
150
150
150
150
t
500
500
500
550
s
7
4.5
3.3
3
TOTAL VOLUME
L
7
4.5
3.5
3
l
7
7
3.5
3.3
Quantity
135
120
20
165
Volume
165.375
94.5
12.25
149.7375
10
80
5
5
73.5
378
8.6625
7.425
889.45
Assuming that 500% of Total Volume of Concrete Works is equal to Total Man Days,
Adding 200% For Rebar Works and 350% For Finishing
TOTAL MAN DAYS = 5(889.45) + 2(889.45) + 3.5(889.45)
TOTAL MAN DAYS = 9940 days
Given that there will be 25 workers
TOTAL MAN DAYS = 375 Days
119
120
APPENDIX H: REFERENCES
Manuals
Choi K. K. (2002). Reinforced Concrete Structure Design Assistant Tool. California, USA
Dahlgren A., & Svensson L. (2013). Guidelines and Rules for Detailong of Reinforcement in
Concrete Structures. Goteborg, Sweden.
AlShamma A. K. (2013). Novel Flowchart for Design of Concrete Rectangular Beams.
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research.
Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the Code of Practice for Structural Use
of Concrete, 2013
Books
Everrad & Tanner (1996). Theory and Problems of Reinforced Concrete Design. New York:
Schaum Publishing Company.
McCormac, J.C., & Brown, R. H. (2014). Design of Reinforced Concrete 9 th Edition. United States:
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines. National Structural Code of the Philippines
2010. Quezon City, Philippines: Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.
National Building Code of the Philippines (1977). Philippines.
Websites
www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com
http://www.bca.gov.sg/publications/BuildabilitySeries/others/prh_s2.pdf
http://elearning.vtu.ac.in/P6/enotes/CV61/BeamsGS.pdf
121