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LAB # 08

Equipment used in substation /Power

Objective:To study about the different safety equipment used in substations


Surge arrestors or Lightning arrester
Isolators or Disconnecting Switches
Earth Switch
Current Transformer
Voltage Transformer
Circuit Breaker
Power Transformers
Shunt Reactors
Shunt Capacitance
Series Capacitor
Series Reactors
Lightning Protection
Isolated Phase Bus System
Neutral Grounding Equipment
Line Trap
Power Cables
Control Cables
Station Earthing System
Metering, Control and Relay panels

Theory:1. Electrical Power Transformer

A static electrical machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another
circuit without changing frequency is termed as Power transformer. The transformers

are generally used to step down or step up the voltage levels of a system for
transmission and generation purpose. These transformers are classified into different
types based on their design, utilization purpose, installation methods, and so on.

2. Instrument Transformers:
The current and voltage
Instrument transformers.







3. Current Transformer
Current transformer is used for the measurement of the alternating current by taking
samples of the higher currents of the system. These reduced samples are in accurate
proportions with the actual high currents of the system. These are used for installation
and maintenance of the current relays in substations for protection purpose which are
normally have low-current ratings for their operation.

4. Potential Transformer
Potential transformer is quite similar to the current transformer, but it is used for taking
samples of high voltages of a system for providing low-voltage to the relays of
protection system and also to the low-rating meters for voltage measurement. From this
low-voltage measurement, the actual systems high voltage can be calculated without
measuring high voltages directly to avoid the cost of the measurement system

5. Conductors
The material or object that obeys the electrical property conductance (mostly made of
metals such as aluminum and copper) and that allows the flow of electric charge is
called conductor. Conductors permit free movement of the flow of electrons through
them. These are used for the transmission of power or electrical energy from one place
(generating station) to another place (consumer point where power is consumed by the
loads) through substations. Conductors are of different types and mostly aluminum
conductors are preferred in practical power systems.

6. Insulators
The metal which does not allow free movement of electrons or electric charge is called
as an insulator. Hence, insulators resist electricity with their high resisting property.

There are different types of insulators such as suspension type, strain type, stray type,
shackle, pin type and so on. A few types of insulators are shown in the above figure.
Insulators are used for insulation purpose while erecting electric poles with conductors
to avoid short circuit and for other insulation requirements.
Isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch that isolates the faulty section or the
section of a conductor or a part of a circuit of substation meant for repair from a healthy
section in order to avoid occurrence of more severe faults. Hence, it is also called as a
disconnector or disconnecting switch. There are different types of isolators used for
different applications such as single-break isolator, double-break isolator, bus isolator,
line isolator, etc.

7. Bus Bars
The conductor carrying current and having multiple numbers of incoming and outgoing
line connections can be called as bus bar, which is commonly used in substations.
These are classified into different types like single bus, double bus and ring bus.

8. Lightening Arresters
The substation equipments such as conductors, transformers, etc., are always erected
outdoor. Whenever light surges occur then, a high-voltage pass through these electrical
components causing damage to them (either temporary or permanent damage based
on the amount of voltage surge). Therefore, to avoid this difficulty, lightening arresters
are placed to pass the entire lightening surges to earth. There are other arresters which
are used to ground the switching surges called as surge arresters.

9. Circuit Breakers
For the protection of substation and its components from the over currents or over load
due to short circuit or any other fault the faulty section is disconnected from the healthy
section either manually or automatically. If once the fault is rectified, then again the
original circuit can be rebuilt by manually or automatically. Different types of circuit
breakers are designed based on different criteria and usage. But in general mostly used
circuit breakers are Oil circuit breaker, Air circuit breaker, SF6 circuit breaker, Vacuum
Circuit Breaker, and so on.



Relays are used for disconnecting the circuits by manual or automatic operation. Relay
consists of the coil which is excited or energized and such that making the contacts of
relay closed activates the relay to break or make the circuit connection. There

are different types of relays such as over current relays, definite time over current
relays, voltage relays, auxiliary relays, reclosing relays, solid state relays, directional
relays,inverse time over current relays, microcontroller relays, etc. The above figure
shows some basic relays and their operation.


Capacitor banks

A Capacitor bank is a set of many identical capacitors connected in series or parallel

within a enclosure and is used for the power factor correction and basic protection of
substation.These capacitor banks are acts as a source of reactive power, and thus, the
phase difference between voltage and current can be reduced by the capacitor banks.
They will increase the ripple current capacity of the supply. It avoids undesirable
characteristics in the power system. It is the most economical method for
maintaining power factor and of correction of the power lag problems.


Wave Trap

Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The function of this trap is that
it traps the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a drum.



There are three transformers in the incoming feeders so that the three lines are step down
at the same time. In case of a 220KV or more KV line station auto transformers are used. While
in case of lower KV line such as less than 132KV line double winding transformers are used.



The use of this isolator is to protect the transformer and the other instrument in the line.
The isolator isolates the extra voltage to the ground and thus any extra voltage cannot enter the
line. Thus an isolator is used after the bus also for protection.


Earth Switch:

Earth Switch is used to discharge the voltage on the circuit to the earth for safety. Earth
switch is mounted on the frame of the isolators. Earth Switch is located for each
incomer transmission line and each side of the busbar section


Shunt Reactors:

Shunt Reactors are used for long EHV transmission lines to control voltage during low
load period. Shunt reactors is also used to compensate shunt capacitance of
transmission line during low load periods. Usually Shunt reactors are unswitched.


Shunt Capacitance:

Shunt capacitors are used for compensating reactive power of lagging power factor.
Shunt Capacitors are used for improving the power factor. It is also used for voltage
control during heavy lagging power factor loads. Shunt Capacitors are located at the
receiving stations and distribution substations. Shunt Capacitors are switched in during
heavy loads and switched off during low loads.


Series Capacitor:

Series Capacitors are used for some long EHV a.c lines to improve power
transferability. Capacitors are located at the sending end / receiving end of the lines.
Series Capacitors are provided with by pass circuit breaker and protective spark


Series Reactors

Series reactors are used to limit short circuit current and to limit current surges
associated with fluctuating loads. Series reactors are located at the strategic locations
such that the fault levels are reduced.


Line Trap:

Line Trap consists of Inductive coil usually connected in the outdoor yard incoming line.
Line traps are usually mounted above Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT) or on
separate structure.

LAB # 09
Circuit Tests
Objective:To study about the different circuit test like
1) Open Circuit Test
2) Short Circuit Test
3) Polarity Test
4) Insulation Test



Insulation Test

Insulation resistance is defined as the resistance to current leakage through and over
the surface of the insulation material surrounding a conductor. It is measured in Ohm`s
and its value represents a very important factor to electricians working within the
electrical industry.
The insulation resistance test is an electrical test which uses a certain type and level of
voltage (500V d.c. for low voltage installations i.e.: 230V) to measure insulation
resistance in Ohm`s.
The measured resistance indicates the condition of the insulation between two
conductive parts. An infinite resistance would be the perfect result, but no insulator is
perfect, so the higher the reading the better.
The table below shows the required test voltage and the minimum required resistance
in accordance with BS 7671.
Nominal Circuit Voltage

Test Voltage

Minimum Resistance

Between 0 V and 50 V a.c.

250 V d.c.

0.5 Mohm

Between 50 v and 500 V a.c.

500 V d.c.


Between 500 V and 1000 V a.c.

1000 V d.c.

1 Mohm

An easy way to understand this test is to think about it as a form of pressure test.
When the test voltage of 500V d.c. is applied to a regular 230V circuit, we will
see if there is any leakage from one conductor to another through the insulating

The Insulation Resistance test sequence:

To perform the tests needed, you will need an Insulation Resistance Tester or a
multifunctional tester such as the Megger 1553.
Step 1. Select the required circuit and disconnect its live conductors from the distribution
board (the earth conductor can stay)

Step 2. Connect one of the test leads of the Insulation Tester to the Line conductor
and the other one to the Neutral conductor. Set the tester to the required voltage and
press and hold the TEST button the tester will display a value in Ohm`s or if it is out
of its range than something like this: >299 M
Step 3. Repeat the test process with one of the test leads on the Line conductor and the other
one on the Earth conductor
Step 4. Repeat the test process with one of the test leads on the Neutral conductor and the
other one on the Earth conductor

Step 5. That is it - compare all test results to the minimum allowed value in BS7671
(1M for a 230V a.c. circuit). If any of the values are lower, than further investigation is
Test every circuit within the distribution board one by one, and record the test results
on the Schedule of Test Results.


Polarity Test:

Basically it is a test that creates a circuit using the phase conductor and the single pole
device in question, breaking the circuit when operating the device, means that the
reading on the instrument will change, and thus confirming that that device must be
connected in the phase conductor. Simple! This test is a dead test therefore like the 7
before it, the supply must not be disconnected. A low resistance Ohmmeter is used to
carry out the test. There are 4 different scenarios that require a polarity test, these are.
All single pole devices (fuses, switches and circuit breakers) are connected in the
PHASE conductor only. The phase conductor must be connected to the centre
terminal of an Edison screw lamp holder (with the exception of E14 & E27 lampholders,
these are European and occasionally crop up in the exam) All polarities of socket
outlets (ring & radial) must be verified. The polarity of the mains supply must be
correct, using an approved voltage tester. (this is done with the supply connected,
therefore carried out at a different stage then the above three)

Method 1:
This method is exactly the same as test method one for Continuity Of Protective
Conductors if we take a lighting circuit as in figure 1, by putting a temporary link
between phase and cpc, at the consumers unit and our instrument at lamp holders

themselves, we are creating a circuit. When we operate the light switch, the instrument
changes, and then changes back to the original reading on operation of the switch
again. If the reading did not change, then the switch is likely to be connected in the
Neutral. (Not good!
With a little foresight this could be carried out at the same time as the continuity test.
The only difference
being, for radial circuits every point must be tested. The main benefit with this is it
allows you to conduct 2 tests at the same time, polarity and R1 + R2.

1. Create a temporary link between the phase and the CPC within the consumer unit
2. At each point on the circuit, connect the low resistance ohmmeter to the phase and
3. Operate the switches

Method 2:
This method, like wise is similar to test 2 of the continuity test, we simply use a wander
lead as the return lead. (see figure 2). There is little use for this method, within the
polarity test. Method 1 is less clumsy, and is far more flexible and useful.
1. Connect the wander lead to the phase conductor at the furthest point at each point on
the circuit
2. Connect the low resistance ohmmeter to the phase conductor within the consumer
3. Operate the switches