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NIKOAAOE M.

ETAYPAKAKHE
is Kadr]yr]iris, EdviKO Meio66io

ESIEfiEEIS MEPIKfiN
HA TIZ EniSTHMEE KAI THN TEXNOAOFLA

u=b

AOHNA, IANOYAPIOZ 2002


NIKOAAOE M. ETAYPAKAKHE
ig Kodr/yrjrrfc, EdvtK.6 Msioofiio

ESIE^EEIE MEPIKftN
HA TIL EHIZTHMEL KAI THN TEXNOAOFIA

u =0
u=b

ASHNA, IANOYAPIOZ 2002


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Copyright (c) 2002 by Nikolaos M. Stavrakakis aia TCOV AUOECOV QUTCOV
auTcbv, dncog ouoAoTn1
KAn. TEAog, 6i8ovrai P
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in
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any form or any means; electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or d KQI auvopiaKC
any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the
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POOIKQV ypouuiKcbv KQi V11! Kuuatuccbv eljiocbaecov. Lir\ auvexeia 6i6ovtai 6idcpopoi ue-
80601 eniAuong ouoyevcbv ii \ir\ npo6Ar)udtcov unepBoAiKOu tunou ue ouoyeveig ri un,
Xpovoavaijdpinieg ii ur| auvopiaiceg ouv6r|Keg. Kai a' auto to KecpdAaio r) paouai texvuai
eniAuong eivai r\ ue6o6og x^ptopou rav ueta6Ar|tcov. Eniang napouoid^etai r| noiotiKii
ene^epyaoia tcov Auoecov autov tcov npo6Anudtcov KQI ava6eiKvuovtai ta POOIKO xaPa"
KtnpuHiKd autcov, dncog ouoAdtnta, uovooriuavio, cpuoiKii ar|uaaia, KAn. Lto Seutepo
uepog tou KecpaAaiou 4 napouoxd^oviai vaepiKEg ano 115 nAeov xapavaripiatiKes e^ioooeis
*uoiKiig (E^iocoari Klein - Gordon, E^iocoor) TnAeypcitpou-TqAecpcovou,
ing AOKOU), 6i8ovtai iae6o6oi eniAuong KO.I oxoAid^ovtai ta paaiKd xapaKtripi-
orucd autcbv o^vSedyeva lie ta cpuoucd ^aivdpeva, tcov onoicov anoteAouv to laaGniaatiKd
npdtuno.
Eto Kc^cxXaio 5, iifcAstouvtai ta npo6Aiiiaata tcov tpicbv nponyouiaevcov KecpaAaicov 2
- 4 (EAAeirttiKd, IlapaBoAiKd, Ynep6oAiKd) oe nepioodtepe xuPlK^S 6iaatdoei (6uo KQI
tpeig). 4>aivdiiEva iaetd8oar|g Qepiaotntag ii taAavtcboecov, nou AaiaBdvouv x^pa oe Aenteg
nAdKes r| laeiiBpdveg, oe KuAiv6pou$, opGoyovia napaAAnAdYpaiaiia r) ocpaipes, pnopouv
va nepiypacpouv and laepiKeg SiacpopiKEg e^iocooeig, nou opi^ovtai OTIS ^uo H ipe^S Siaotd-
oexs avdAoya U.E toug nepiopiop.oug. E66 via trl peA^tri tcov ]ir\ op-oyevcbv npo6Anvidtcov
eiadg tnc; (iaoiKris u.e6d6ou x<^piop.u tcov peiaBXriTtov. nou ex
tcbpa ota cppaYP-va ne6ia, napouaid^etai r) texvucii tou nenepaaiiEvou
Fourier KOI ecpapiao^Etai oe xaPaKtrIPlOTlKS nepintcboeis. 'Oncog 8a ^avei atr)
01 texviKeg, nou xprioiu-ortolouvi:ai Yia trlv eniAuar| yiepiKcbv 6iacpopiKcov e^iocooecov oe ne-
gioodtepeg 6iaotdoeig, anoteAouv ^uoioAoyiKii yeviKeuori ii eneictaori tcov r|6r| yvcbotcov
pe6d6cov, nou avantuxGnKav \\a laepiKeg 6iacpopiKeg e^iowoeig oe \iia 6iaotaar|. Evtou-
toig npenei va tovioGei on, 01 6ia6iKaoieg, nou aKoAouGouv eivai noAunAoKeg KOI auxvd
o8r|Youv O; npo6j(rmaia Sturm-LiouviUe, tcov onoicov 01 Auoeig eivai stSwcic; ovvapiriozig.
Ei6iKOtepa, npo6Aiiu.ata opiaiaeva oe KUKjiiKd r) KUjlivdpiKd mdia o6nvouv oe Auoeig, nou
nepiexouv auvapirfaeig Bessel Evw npo6Ar)p.ata opiop.eva oe acpaipiKa ne6ia oGnyouv oe
Auoeig, nou nepucAeiouv nojlucbvu^a Legendre.
Lta nponyouu-eva KecpdAaia 2 - 5 avantuxGnKav texvuceg yta trj u.eAetr) tcov tpicbv
(JaoiKcbv Katnyopicov pepiKov 6iacpopiK6v e^iocboecov 6eutepng (KOI avcbteprig dptiag) td-
r|S' dtav autd eivai opiop.eva oe cppavpevo ne8io. 'Opcog oe noAAd ^UOIKO, pioAoyiKd,
KOivcoviKd, KAn, cpaivoiaeva napouoid^etai i\ avdyKri to avtiotoixo laaGnpatiKO npd6Aniaa
va e^etaoGei oe eva p.r|-cppaYP-evo ne6io. Zto KecpdXaio 6, 9a u.eAetn6ouv 01 tpeig paoiKeg
Katnyopieg iiepiKcbv SiacpopiKov e^iocooecov 2ng td^rjg oe p.r) cppaypevo ne6io (Kupicog otrj
pia x^piKii 6idotaon). H u.eAetr) tetoiov npo6Ar|U.atcov 9a paoioGei oe 6uo Katnyopieg
texviKcbv. H npcotri pe6o6og paoi^etai oto xwpioiad petaBAntcov oe dneipo ne6io, o onoiog
o6nyei otnv oAoicAripcotiKri avanapdotaoq tng Auong ovoiaa^oiievr] oAoKAripcop.a Fourier.
H 6e 6eutepr| Katriyopia texviKcbv eivai autii tcov oAoKAnpcotiKcbv uetaoxriuatiopcbv. Eu-
YKCKpiueva, e6cb 9a aaxoAnGouue ue toug uetaoxnuatiauoug Laplace, Fourier, Hankel
KaGcbg KOI ue Kdnoieg napaAAayeg autcov.
Lto KecpaXaio 7, Qa ScoGouv 01 yevmeg apxeg KOI uepiKd napa6eiyuata uiag avaAuti-
Kqg ue666ou eniAuong npoBAnudtcov ouvopiaKcbv r| apxiKcbv ouvGnKov auvr|6cov 6iacpopi-
KCOV e^iocboecov, r| onoia Paoi^etai otov KaGopiaud uiag ei6iKT)g auvdptnong. H ouvdptr|or|
autii cpepei to dvoua lou George Green, tou avGpcbnou nou npcbtog tnv eioiiyaye and tig
tou nponepaouevou aiuva (1828). H onou8aidtnta trjg ue6d6ou, CKtdg tcov dAAcov,
npcoTOv oro yEyovog oti, n 6iacpopiKii (auvn.6ng ii pspiKii) e^iouop pTaoxnpaTi5-
laioe oAoKAripcouKr), q eniAuor) Tr|g onoiag eivai EUKoAoTEpr) KCU 6eutepov, r| napdcnaor)
U19 Auang cpavspcbvEi TOV tpono E^dpTrjaiig irlS- tooo ano Tig nEpiopioriKEg ouv9r|Keg (ap-
Xuag KOI / r) ouvopiaKEg), nou auvo6euouv TO np66Ar|pa, ooov KQI ano Tnv e^coTCpiKii
tni6paor| (pri-opoyEviig opog).
TeAog, aro KerpdXaio 8, opi^ETai r| ouvdpTnor) Green yia npo6AiipaTa ouvopiaKwv
<Juv0r|Kcbv ii apxiKcbv KQI ouvopiaKcbv ouvGnKcov uacpiKcbv 6ia(popiKcbv e^iocooeuv KQI lae-
Atiouvrai 01 i6iOTnTes QUTCOV. ZTF) o-uvexeia yiveTai XPn or l TrlS ouvtipTnor|S Green \\.a Tnv
tniAuoq xaPaKTr!Pio^iKwv ncpinTooecov TCOV Tpiuv (JaoiKcov KaTnyopiuv jaepiKuv 6iacpopi-
KQV c^ioooewv 2ng Td^ng Kupiug orr) pia x"piKii (aAAd KQI oaig 6uo KCU Tpeig) 6idoraon,
onou p(pavi^ETai q ouv6eor| Tng Auoqg pe TO 6e6ope:va (apxiKd KQI / r\ ouvopiaxd) KaGwg
KQI IIE Toug TUXOV iirj opoyEveig opoug.
To pi6Aio nepicxei nepinou 170 avaAuTiKa Aupeva napaSciypaTa 33 napaora-
IIKQ ExnU" T G KQI ndvco ano 450 npo6AqpaTa apKcxd ano xa onoia ouvoScuovxat
ano Tig aitavxiioei xoug KUI / rj uno8ei|eis AUOECJV. 'Onou KpiveTai avayKaio vive-
mi ouv6eor| TCOV iaa6niiaTiKUv anoTeAcoiidTcov pc TO avrioroixo cpuoiKO ri dAAo cpaivopevo.
Eniorjg crtig paoiKcg e^iocooeig yiveTai pia avaAuTiKr) napouoiaor] Tqg 6ia6iKaoiag MaGn-
^QTiKiig npOTunonoinong, oe \i\a npoondGcia KQTav6r|ong Tng ouv6or|g TCOV peTaBAnTuv
KQI napapeTpcov TOU npo6AriviaTOg pe TQ enipcpoug aroixeia TOU avrioroixou cpawopevou.
npoanaiTou^cvcg yvcooeig yia TOV pEAETr]Tr| QUTOU TOU (3i6Aiou 9copouvrai TQ SE-
pcua, nou avanTuooovrai ora nponTUXiQKd u.a6r|p.aTa Aoyia^ou Miac; Kai TIojiKav Meia-
jSJirjiou, AiavuonaiiKTis Avd2uar]g. Zuvr\Bcov AiacpopiKczv E^ioaaeojv, Zetpav Kai Meiaoxr]-
Fourier Kai LvvopiaKcov FIpo6Jlrindicdv.
To (3i6Aio QUTO avanTux6r|KE ano Tig onpEicboEig TCOV paGripdTcov ME-
QIKOV AiacpopiKcbv E|IOCOOECOV KOI EcpappooyEvcov Ma6r|iiaTiKcbv, nou EXCO 6i6d^i TQ TE-
Atuiaia 15 xpdvia OE 6idcpopa TpqpaTa TOU EGviKOu METOo6iou FloAuTEXvEiou. Pi' QUTO
9tAu va ansuGuvco Tig npcoTEg EuxapioriEg pou aroug noAudpiGpoug onouSaoTEg, nou p
noAu unopovq, KaTavonon, EuaroxEg uno6iEig, EniornpoviKEg avnauxig KQI VEQVIKO
au0opu,r]Tiap6, auv6aAav KaGopicniKd orr|v napouoa 6iap6pcpcoor| TOU avd x^ipag KEI-
ptvou. ETq ouvEXEia 9a pGEAa va Euxapiarrioco oAoug EKEivoug Toug ouva6E.Acj>oug ano
lov TopEa MaGnpaTiKcbv KoGcbg KOI dAAa TpppaTa TOU EMI1, nou ETUXE KOTO Kaipoug
dpcoa ii EppEoa va ou^riTiiooupE OspaTa OXETI^OPEVO p TO uAiKO TOU avd x^ipag pi6Aiou.
Ei6ixd Euxapiorcb Toug ouvaSsAcpoug FEpdoipo AGavaoouAr) (KaGriynTri TpiipaTOg Nau-
niiY"v MrixaviKwv, EMPi), Anpr|Tpr| T^avETii (EniK. KaGnyntii TpiipaTOg EcpappoopEvcov
Ma9r|iiaTiKcbv & OUOIKCOV Eniornpcov, EMFI), KupidKO XivT^aviSr) (Ka6r)yr|Tr| TpqpaTOg
HAEKrpoAoycov MrixaviKcbv & Mrixav^^v HAEiapoviKcbv YnoAoyiarcbv, EMFl), yia Tnv i-
6iaiTpr| poiiGEia, nou Eixa EUE oro 9Ecopr|TiK6 pEpog EUE ornv nAsupd TCOV Ecpappoycov.
Ei6iKg EUxapioriEg OTOV pETanTUXiOKO pou onou8aoTr) nspiKAii riana86nouAo yia
Ti]v EV yVi poiiGsia TOU orr| Siapopcpcoor) TOU KEIPEVOU. Eniong Euxapiorcb TOV pETamu-
onou6aorr| Ficbpyo LcoTiipxo yia TPV KaGopiaciKr) oup6oAr| TOU arr) oxcSiaori TCOV
KaGcog KOI arr| xpr\or\ Kdnoicov npoxcopqpEvcov AEITOUPYEIQV TOU LATEX.
AioGdvopai Eniong Tnv avdyKri va EKCppdoco Tig dnEipsg EuxapioriEg pou npog Tnv
oiKoycvEia pou yia Tnv unopovii KOI Tnv KaTavonon, nou ouvExcbg pou 8ixv, aAAd KOI
ir\ ariipign, nou KOTO Kaipoug xpeidornKE va pou 8cboi yia TH.V anonEpdTcooEi OUTOU TOU
epyou.
VI

TeAog, npog oAoug autoug nou 9a em0upouoav va auu.6dAAouv oe jaia nAripeorepri


aptiotepr) epepdvior) ]aiag vieAAovriKiig e.K6oorig autou tou ouvvpap.o.TOg, acpou toug

E apiotrioo npOKataSoAiKd, 9a r|0eAa va toug Yvwpioo oti, u.nopouv va ateiAouv tr]v


ta cnjp6oAii toug orr|v r)AeKtpoviKr) 6iu6uvor| nikolas@central.ntua.gr.

NiKoAaog M. EtaupaKOKrig

A6r|va, 15 lavouapiou 2002


1 Eioaycoyn ortis MepiKEg Aia<popiKg
1.1 PEVlKEg 'EwOlEg 1

1.1.1 npo6Aiiuo.Ta 3
1.2 MEGoSoi EniAuarjg 4
1.3 KaAd TonoGEtnuEva npoGAripcna - EuordGEia AUOEWV 5
1.4 Taiv6jjr|or| 8
1.4.1 Auo AiaordoEig 8
1.4.2 N - AiaordoEig, N > 2 10
1.4.3 npo6AiiviaTa 11
1.5 FpauvaiKEg 2ng Td$Y|g p EiaGEpoug EuviEAEOTEg 12
1.5.1 TsviKii scopia 12
1.5.2 H Auan DVUembert tr|g KuuaTiK^g E?jiocoor|g 14
1.5.3 ripo6Aiiuata 18
1.6 ME6o6oi uvr|6cov Aia(popiKcov E^IOCJOECOV 19
1.6.1 npo6AiiviaTa 22
1.7 Bi6AiOYpa<piKg AvacpopEg 22

2 EijiocooEig EAAetnTtxou Tunou 23


2.1 EioaYCOYii-^paYP^va ri6ia 23
2.2 EJjiocooEig EAAEiniiKOu Tunou-EiaaYUYii'^op^o 24
2.3 KaptEoiavEg ZuvtEtaYpevEg 25
2.3.1 OpGoYovia ri6ia - EuvopiaKEg EuvGiiKEg Dirichlet 25
2.3.2 EuvopiaKEg ZuvGrjKEg Tunou Robin 29
2.3.3 E^iocjon Poisson pe EuvGiiKEg Tunou Dirichlet 31
2.3.4 npo6Ariu.ata 33
2.4 FIoAiKEg EuvtEtaYpEveg 35
2.4.1 EioaYCOYn 35
2.4.2 To rip66Ar|u.a Dirichlet OE Atoxo 37
2.4.3 To np66Anvia Neumann OE AIOKO 41
2.4.4 To np66Anua AUVQUIKOU aio AaiciuAio 42
2.4.5 npoBAiiuaia 46
2.5 I6i6tntg TCOV Appovucov EuvapiiioEcov '. 48
2.5.1 Movooquavro TCOU npo6Aiiuatog Dirichlet 49
2.5.2 Apxn MEYIOTOU - EAaxiotou / EuordGEia 50
viii UEPIEXOMENA

2.5.3 Movooiiuavto tou npo6Ar|uaTOg Neumann 51


2.5.4 Movooiipavto svog npo6AiipaTOg Robin 52
2.5.5 npoBAiiucrca . . 54
2.6 Bi6AiOYpacpiKg Avacpopeg 55
2.7 FeviKa npo6Ar|uata 55

3 EJjiocJoeis Ilapa6oAiKou Tunou 59


3.1 EJjiouor) Epuotniag 59
59
3.1.1 EioaYCOYH
3.1.2 E^iocoor) Epu6tr|iag: MaGripaxiKii npOTunonoinor)
A. O Nouog TOU Fourier.
B. Aiauopcpcoor) trig E$"iocoong Epuointag.
F. ApxiKEg KQI EuvopiaKes uv0r|Ks - KaAii TonoGeTnor] 59
3.1.3 npoSAiiuata 62
3.2 OuoYeviig E^iocoor) epuoTr)tag 63
3.2.1 Mn6eviKS Luvopiaxeg Tiueg
A. Eupeor) trig TuniKiig Auorig - Xwpiouog Mta6Ar|Tcbv.
B. EnaAii0uor) ing Auor|g - OuaAonoinor).
T. Movooiiuavto ir)g Auor|g.
A. AauunicoiiKii uurtpi(}>opa.
E. Xpovog XaAdpQong 64
3.2.2 MeiKiEg OpOYeveig EuvopiaKEg uv0r|Kg - Ynp6atiKg I6iotiug . . 69
3.2.3 Mr)-OuoYVig EuvopiaKEg Euv0r|Keg 72
3.2.4 npoBAiiuata 76
3.3 XpovoavE^dptntri Mn-OuoYEvrig EJjiocoor| 78
3.3.1 npo6Ariuaia 82
3.4 XpovoEaptcouEvr| Mr|-OuoYviig ESjiocoar) 83
3.4.1 OpOYEVEig EuvopiaKEg Euv0r(Kg 83
3.4.2 Mn-OpOYEVEig EuvopiaKEg EuvOqKEg 88
3.4.3 npo6Af|uaTa 90
3.5 Mia Mrj OuoYvr|g napa6oAiKr| E^iacoor) 93
3.6 FloiOTiKii Ecopia FlapaBoAiKwv E^IOCOOEOV 96
3.6.1 npoBAiiuaia 99
3.7 Bi6AiOYpacpiKEg AvacpopEg 100
3.8 TEVIKCI npoBAiiuata 100

I 4
E tKOu Tunou 103
4.1 KuuaTiKii E^iocoor) 103
4.1.1 EioaYOYn'Ioropu^0- STOIXEIO 103
4.1.2 KuuaiiKii E^iocoor): MaGquatiKii npOTunonoir|ar|
A. AiauopcpQcrj ing KuuaiiKiig Eg"iocoor|g.
B. ApxiKEg KQI SuvopiaKEg uv0f|KEg - KaAii Tono0ETnor| 105
4.1.3 npo6AiipaTa 110
4.2 OuOYeviig KuuaTiKr) E^iocoori Ill
JIEPIEXOMENA ix

4.2.1 EupEor) Auoris - AiEpEuvrion.


A. Eupor| ing TuniKiig Auor|$ - Xcopiopos tcov Meta6Ar|Tov
B. OpaAonoir|on Tr|g Auoris - loxupeg KO.I AoGEVEig Auoeig.
P. Movoor|p.avto tr|g Auor|g.
A. OuoiKii Lrnaaoia trig Auoq$.
E. AicKpopa. icov napa6oAuccbv ano tig YnepBoAuceg E^iocooeig Ill
4.2.2 npo6AiiviaTa 121
4.3 Mr| OvioyEviig Kupatucti E^ioaor| EiSixris Mopcprig 124
4.3.1 revucr) ewpia - napaGeiyi-iciici 124
4.3.2 npo6Ar|viaTa 127
4.4 Mr) Ovioyeviig KuviatiKii E^iocoor) FeviKiig Mopcprig 129
4.4.1 FeviKii Eupia - napa6e(YVici^a 129
4.4.2 npoeAiiviata 136
4.5 E^ioooeig Ma0r)paiiKiig 4>uoiKr|S 137
4.5.1 E^ocoori Klein - Gordon 137
4.5.2 E^iooori TnAeYpa<pou"TnAE(pcbvou-ApviaTiKr| Eni6paor|.
A. TnAeYpa<|>ia - TnAecpcovia.
B. AepiaaTiKii Eni6paor| (Skin Effect) 138
4.5.3 E^iocoorj ing AOKOU.
A. Ma0qviaTiKr| npoiunonoirjon.
B. KaAr) TonoGeTnori.
P. EntAuor) KCU Aiepeuvnor) 140
4.5.4 'Eva Opoyevex; PpavipiKO np66Arivia 145
4.5.5 npoBAiivaata 147
4.6 Bi6AiOYpa(piKes Avacpopes 148
4.7 TeviKci npoBArnaata 148

5 2 KCU 3 XtopxKEg Atacruioei 151


5.1 EioaycoYn 151
5.2 Auo Aiaordaeig 151
5.2.1 Op6oYWvio ri6io.
A. H Kuiiatucri E^iooor) OE \i\a OpGoYcbvia MEVi6pdvq.
B. H E^iocoori Epviotnias OE ma OpGoYtovia IlAdKa 151
5.2.2 KuKAuca ri6ia - EuvaptiioEig Bessel.
A. H KupaTiKri E^iocoorj OE }i\a KutcAiKri Mp6ptivr| - AictiviKii Luvi-
ViEtpia.
B. H Kuviaiucri Eiocoor| OE pia KuicAiKii MepGpdvq - FEviKii IlEpi-
moari 157
5.2.3 npo6Aiivicn:a 161
5.3 TpEig AVQOTQOEIS 163
5.3.1 KapiEOiavES uvttaYHVs: E^iocooq Laplace oro Op0OYavio ria-
gaAAr|Anin6o - EuvGiiKEg Robin 163
5.3.2 KuAw6piK5 uvtiaYViv$: E^iocoorj Laplace otov KuAtv6po - Euv-
8r|KES Dirichlet 165
xli HEPIEXOMENA

8.4.1 EuvopidKd npo6Aiiudid Tunou Dirichlet . 313


8.4.2 EuvopidKd npo6Ar|UdTd Tunou Neumann . . . . . 317
8.4.3 EuvopidKd npo6Ar|Udid Tunou Robin ri Menem . . 323
8.4.4 ripo6Ar|u.ata .325
8.5 EniAuor] npoBAnudtov ApxiKcbv-EuvopidKcbv Euv9nKcov . 327
8.5.1 E^iocoor] epuointdg .327
8.5.2 KuudtiKii .331
8.5.3 npo6Aiiudtd . 335
8.6 Bi6AiOYpd(piKeg . 338
8.7 Pevucd npo6Ar|UdTd . 338

BtSAioypacpia 339

Eupexqpio 'Opcav 344


KaxdAoyog

0.0.1 i
0.0.2 i

l.3.\(a) LvvdiiKri Dirichlet, (b) ZuvSrJKrj Neumann, (c) Lvvdr\Kr] Robin 6


\.3.2'EvaKa.KcbgTonodiriHVonp66jlTinaDirichlet 8
1.5.1O6uovKuua 16
1.5.2T76io npoo6iopia}jov 17

2.3. ITo Jlpri&lrjua Dirichlet oro Opdaytivia 25


2.4. ITo npo&lr^a Dirichlet oeAioKo 37
2.4.2To npo&ftrjua Dirichlet ae KuxjliKd AaKivtito 43

3.1. lE^iooarj LvvXiag 1 60


62

4.1.1Xop6rj o Kardaiaarj Jaoppom'af 105


r\ KO.I Aidvuofj.a Taxvirjiag 105
cnrjf 77a/lA6^i^7 Xop6r) 106
LuvdrJKes Dirichlet 108
4.1.5flW I,vvdr\KS Neumann 109
4.1.6fc; Lvvdr\Kg Robin 109
4.2.ltaoiua Kuuara KCLI K6}*6oi}j.ia<; /7aJUi6^y7jf Xopfirjf yian = 1,2,3,4. . . .117
4.2.2Miai6niari i*ia$ najliia}jvri<; Xop6ri<; Kaidio npaio 'Hutau rrjg1 Flepi&dou. . . 121
4.5. IMta AoKdg nov aipecpei la KoiHa npog ta fTrd^w 141
4.5.2AJl/lrjJl7ri6paa77 icov EoaiepiKav Ponav Kd^r^g Km icov TE^VOUOCOV Avvdj^E-
ov, lov E^oiEptKoii <Popiiov Kat iav EaipiKO)v Avvdjuav o uta AoK.6 u ra
KotAa npog ta ndva 142
4.5.3aJ Lvvopo Antiris Zrrjpt^f, J3j naKic^ivo Opi^oviiag Lvvopo, y) Etevdepo
Liivopo 143

5.2. lKou6oc Fpauuf^ utaf Te.ipayoviK.rig MHJSpdvr\g 154


5.2.2Ko^5iK'si Tpauuff uta^ Kt/KJliKrif M^6pdi^]f 158
5.3.\np66Arma. Avva^iKOv Tunov Dirichlet o KvAwdpiKd HEdio 166
5.3.2np6Sjir]p.a Avva^iKoii Timov Dirichlet ae LtycupiKd /76to 169

6.2.1JaoaputKf Tpau^s 210


6. 3. \Hnidneipri Xop6r\ ................................. 218
Meicupopdg ........................ 222

8.3. 1H /Trjyrj Kdi r\ AvdKj\.aar\ ir x i . y i , z\) aio Eninsdo z = 0. .306


8.3.2H Ur\yr\ KOI 77 Avnaipocpr] (R,6i,4>i) oirj Ispaipa ...... 309

I
I
KecpdAcuo 1

Etaaycoyrj arts McptKes AiacpopiKsg


E^vacbacig

1.1 TeviKeg 'Ewoieg


H AiJjr| KOI oupnEpicpopd TCOV nEpioooTEpcov cpaivoLiEvcov TOOO oner] cpuor) ooo KOI orr|v
Kowcovia (r)AKTpioLi6g, LiayvriTioLiog, LirixaviKii, omiKii, 9pviOTr|Ta, oiKOvopia, ipuxo-
Aovia, noAuiKii, pioAoyia, mTpiKii, 6r|LiOYpacj)ia, K.A.n.) pnopouv va nspiypacpouv Lie
apmri axpiBEia ano Tig pEpiKEg 6iacpopiKg $"iocboig. Eivai oiYOupo OTI, r) LieAETri e-
niLiEpoug npo6Ar|LidTcov OUTCOV TCOV cpaivoLiEvcov pnopEi va Y^VEI LIE EntAuor) avrioroixcov
ouviiGcov 6iacpopiKcov E|IOCOOOV (o.6.E.). AKOLIO r| vvcbori Tr)g 9copiag TCOV cruvr|0cov 8iacpo-
piKcbv E^IOQOECOV Eivai i6tauEpa anapaur|Tr| orr)v sniAuori npo6AripaTcov LiepiKcov 6iacpo-
PIKCOV E^IOCOOECOV LIE xPHon ouYKEKpipEvcov LiE066cov, oncog, Y^a napdSEiYVia, o x^piai-iog
LiETaBAqtuv, 01 oAoicAripcoTiKoi LiETaoxriLiaTioiioi, KAn.
ME Kanoia Y^^Kdtnt0 Kal X u piS i6iaitepr| Lia0r|LiaTiKr| auarr|p6Tr|Ta LinopouLiE va
nouLiE OTI : }icpiKr| StcupopiKq e|iouoi) (ji.S.c.) i] e^iatooq fiepixuv napayuyuv (c.p.n.)
eivai Kdde e^iaoari, nou nepiKteiei Idyvcoairi) auvdpir\ar] 6uo r\ nepioadiepejv Hxa6fa]io3v
mi npiK<; napaydryoug auir\g npcbir^g r\ avaieprjg idfrig. Ev6eiKTiKd avacpepoupe pspiKEg
10 Tig noAu YVCOOTEg peplKEg 6lOCpOplKEg E^lOCOOElg,

Au(x) = V 2 u(x) = 0 , x e D C RN , N > 2, E^ioaor] AuvaniKOu (Laplace),

V 2 u(x) + k 2 u(x) =0, x e D C 1N , N > 2, E^tacoorj Helmholtz,

Au(x) = -F(x), x e D C RN , N > 2, E^'acjor? Poisson,

u t (x,t) = a^ 2 u xx (x,t), t > 0, x D C R, a > 0, E^iacoor] air] \n.a


6iaaiaor\,

uu(x,y,t) = + u y y ( x , y ( t ) ) , t > 0, (x,y) e D C R 2 , c> 0,


oxig 6uo

(lJ + fI^uee = 0, ( r , d > , e ) 6 ( 0 , T 0 ) x ( 0 , 2 7 t ) x ( - f , f ),


ace otic; ipeig Siaoidacig KOI oe acoa^owcic;
D Q *n) (u)
(t)

813000153 10 Soup 'SU|pi SLidsiOAD oAoApdou Lixidsri Ui Sodu So LtxirlrlodA


iDA}3 DIOUO Li 'Lioooi!J3 UxiririodA lati Li iDi3$priOAO (.reaini-JsBnb) UxirlrtodAirtH (d)
n noi LioLjidpAfiD LixirirtodA Uti Dirt IDAU ^ noup

(u)
xx
Q '0 = n + + + n.,x (i)

i53 AWxido^Dig Acpxidsrl AOxirlriodA


DiDrtAisgodou Anoysioiio 5i3ocpoi!J3 530noypxD IQ 'AcpibygDisrl AraiLiidD^SAD ACOI OAOT! Siso
-LiidDAno 53H)3Y3iAno 3ti norl0D{) noicpdu IDAIS Aco3pi ACOI Aroyo loAoApdou Ssxidsrl 10 cpAg
LioLiidpAfU) LiiDWAAp A!JI Sodu Sco OAOT! UxiririodA Liri IDAIS DIOUO Li 'Lroooi^s Uxidocboig Ux
-idsri UxiTirtodA Liri U iDi3^prloAO (xeauij JSOUI^B 10 JBauii-iuias) liMiitrindA ^093X3 (o)
: SsidoALriox S30aoypxo
Siio 5co0LiAfio iDiAOAidxoig Sisocpoi^s 53xidoct)Dig Ssxidsd SsxirlrlDdA Liri IQ -S32iiriDdA bri
iDiAo^prloAO SsxirlrlodA IDAIS A3g Si3ocooi3 SSOQ, ^030001^3 AcixiililDdA AO/vsAoilo Uit
ACOI DidoALiiox ALiao AfioxLiAD SisocpoiS^ SsxidoctiDig Ssxidsrl SsxirlrtodA Ssuioypua IQ

5 Q

Uxidocbmg UxidsrL U Soup


'SUino SaoAcpAodou S3xid3ti Su puo Dioupx Li UoLndpAfio LriDCOAAp ALii 3113 'isXsidsu Sodp
30px SDIOUO SUi 'Izoraoi^ Li iDi3$prloAO LJOOOI^S Lixido(t)Dig Lixidsri UxittriodA Sli/vsAoitQ

Lixidocboig
Li Soup 'SLiinD SnoAoAodou 5u IDX UoLiidpAnD LiiDOAAp ALii Sodu So aorl0Dj)
noiodu iDAis lodp 10 loyp SDIOUO SLii 'LiAisxs IDAIS Lioooi^s Lrxidoioig Lixidsri Uxiititodj
nari&ptf noicpdu.

Lixidocboig Lixidsii Li 'DtiAisgpdDU DIJ -SoAoApdou Lixidsrt SU^pi SLidsiayoAsrl Li


LiAsrlorhn IDAIS DIOUO ALiio 'LiriDAfig Li iDis^prioAo SLjoooj!}3 SLixidocboig SLixidsrl Spilgog
SUiicfi

Q '0=

Lixidocboig Lixidsti Li 'DtiAugpdDU DIJ 'Lioooi^s ALiio iDi35pionodDu nou 'noA


-roAodou SUxidsrl SLidsinyDAsri SUi Li^pi LJ iDi3$ptiOAO SLioooi^s SLixidocboig SLixidsri II^DX
:53iOAA3 530noypxD Su srinoXs 'DA3tiidx3xAaD DILI -AO3oooi53 Aoxidottoig
AC00LiAn) AOI noiciD oiotip oupdi 3rt loiAnoiioAi^Di Sisoooi^s Ssxidocboig SsMidsti IQ
QQ 3ti lois^iyogrlfu) D0 Q noigsu aoi odoAoo ox ' 1 < M ' N S I 0.01 oyoAno
-oua (pxiix3Ano) OIXIOAD DAS pysiouo up pxiAsA }30Lido3e OQ Q norloido oigsu oj,

Si3omoi!J3 Ssxidocbmy 53xid3^v Siw L


1.1 S 'Ewoicc;

(Y) OAeg 01 dAAeg ]ar| ypajJiatKeg pepiKEg SiacpopiKeg Eiouoig avr|KOuv atr)v Katriyopia
iov nAqpcjg \u\ ypa|iu.iKci>v (fully nonlinear) pepiKcov 6ia(popiK(av Eg"iocboeav, onag yia

= a2UttUxt + Suxii3, x D C R, t > 0.

KAaouu] Auor) piag v^P1*1!? Siacpopuciig e^iacoorig ovopd^eiai Kd0e caivdptrior| u, rj o-


noia eivai toocg cpopcg napaycoYioipri, ooeg ananei r] 6ia(popiKr| e^ocoor) KQI \i. auvexii
UIY napdYCOY0 avcbtepr)g xd^rig, iKavonoiei 6e Trjv e^iocoor] oe xaGe ornaeio (or)]aeiaKd) TOU
ne6iou opiopou autr)g. KdGe dAAr) poptp1! Auoris piag pepiKiig 6ia(popiKr)s e5ioorlS ovo~
partial aoSevqs 11 yeviKeuficvq Auoi) autiig. Fia napd6eiYVia. euKoAa ano6EiKvuctai
on, 01 aKoAouOeg

u , ( x , y ) = x + 2y, u 2 (x, y) = cosfx + 2y), u 3 (x,y) = 3exe2y = 3ex+2y, (x,y) e K2

anoiEAouv KAaoiKeg Auoetg trig e^iooar|g


-iiy =0, (x,y) eK 2 .

revuuj KAaoixii Auor) piag jaepiKiig 6ia(popiKiig e^tocoorig ovoiaai^Tai to cnjvoAo 6Av
tov KAaotKuv Auoewv autiig. 'Exoi q auvdptriori u(x,y) = G(x + 2y), (x,y) K 2 , Yia
trivonoia icrxuei u(.,y) 6 C 1 (K),u(x, .) C^R), anoteAei tr) yeviKii KAaoiKii Auor| iqg

2u x -Uy =0, (x,y) e


)=x +7xy 5 +F(y), ( x . y J e H *
3
ouvdpiqar),
anoieAd ir| KAaoiKii Auor) tr)g g"ioaar|g

ux = 3x2 + 7y5, (x,y) e

AvdAoya 6i6eiai o opiopog tr)g yeviKiis aaOevoug q yevixeuueviis Auoqg piag >i-
Quqg 6iacJ)OpiKr)g e^iocoarig. Eta napandvo napaSeiYViata napairipouvie oti, r| yeviKii
(KAaoiKri) Auoq TCOV pepiKcbv 6ia(poptKcJv e^tocboecov nepucAeiei audaipeirj avvapir\or] avii
njf avdaipeirjg cnadepag, nou napouoid^etai orr) yeviKii Auar| piag ouviiGoug 6ia(popiKr|g

1.1.1 IIpo6Ar||iaxa
1. Fia Kd6e pia ano tig aK6Aou0Eg (aepixeg SiatpopiKeg E^ioooeig, va eJ;exao0i av eivai Ypa
ri ii axeSov ypavipucr). Fi' aureg nou Eivai ypappiKEg, va eetaa6ei av Eivai ou.oyVEig
i KQI va

(a) (x,y)eM2,
(b) u(x,y)u x (x,y)-t-2xyu u (x,y) = 160, ( x , y ) e R 2 ,
(c) u x ( x , y ) - u ( x , y ) U y ( x , y ) = 15xV, ( x , y ) e R 2 ,
(d) uKXXX[K,y) + 2\i^Vy(x,\))-uvvvv(\,y) =32u(x,y), ( x , y ) e l 2 ,
(e) u x x (x,y)+2u x v (x,y) + Uy U (x,y) =y 2 sinx, (x,t) M 2 ,
(f) u x x x (x,y)+u x u y(x,y) + logu = 2xy, ( x , y ) 6 R 2 ,
(g) u 2 x ( x , y ) + u x ( x , y ) + coshu = 9xye xu > ( x , y ) e K 2 ,
1. Eiaayayr] OTIC; MepiKcg AicupopiKec; EiacJcjic;B j.3 KaAd Ti

(2) Na EnaAr|0u0( on 01 aKoAouSEg auvapir|ai anotsAouv xAaoiKEg AUOEIQ TCOV avuoroixuvl 7.


cov SiacpoptKcbv EIOCOOECOV Tf|g

(a) u(x,y) =sinkxsinhky, 2


u x x (x,y) + u u u (x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) R , k or|g, n onoi
cpaivopvo\j
(b) u(x,t) =sinkxe~ k 2 t , u x x (x,t) -u t (x,t) = 0, ( x , t ) e E x R + , k
noirior|g.
(c) u(x,y) = f ( x ) + g(y), u x u ( x , y ) = 0 , (x,y) K 2 , 8. ME8o8<
f, g au6aipTs auvaptrjOEig,
(d) u(x,y) = f(x + y) + g ( x - y ) , u x x (x,y) - u w u ( x , y ) = 0, (x,y) K 2 , Tig Auo:
f, g auSaipETEg ouvaptriOEig, 8uvaidv va
(e) u(x,t) = e- x cos(t-x), u x x (x,t)-2u t (x,t) = 0, ( x , t ) 6 R x R + . 9. Mc8o6<
9liKEg TOU
uia an' au
6pdocov.
1.2 MeSoSot EniAuarig MepiKcov AvacpopiKcov Etocoocov 10. ApxGi
orn.ua EK
Tia Tr| UEAETr) tov uEpiKov 6iacpopiKci)v |ioa)Ouv undpxEi nAEid6a p9d8cov KCU TEXVIKQV, I p0d6oug
01 onuavriKOTEpEg and Tig onoisg unopEi va 9copn9i OTI, Eivai 01 aKoAou6g avacpp0i
1. Xupiopos MeTa6Arixc)v ME Tr) U6o5o auTrj pia pspiKii 8ia(popiKii |iacoor] n ]a-| noAAd npc
Ta6Ar)Tcov avdYETai OE oucruriua n TO nAr|6og ouvr|9cov 6ia(popiKwv E^IOCOOEOV. U0o6oi a
2. AXAayi] EuvteTayjievcov H pEpiKri SiacpopiKi4] E^iooor) avdYETai, EUE OE o\jvii0r| 6ia-
cpopiKii E^ioQor) ii OE anAoucrtEpri uspiKii SiacpopiKii E^iocoor) OE sva KaivoupYio OTJorrivia
ouvTETaYycvov. H EniAoYn TOU auorriuaTOg E^apTOTai TOOO and TO EiSog Tr|g TispiKrig 6ia-
cpopiKiig E^iooong, ooo KOI and TO crxru-ia TOU n8iou (KavoviKEg, noAiKEg, KuAiv8piKg,
OCpaiplKEg OUVTETOYPEVEg, K.A.n.).
3. METaaxniiaxiopog ii\$ E^apxi)iievi)s MeTaSAiiTiig. ApKETEg cpopEg uia KaTdAAr)Ar)
aAAaYH Trig dYVcoorng auvdpTnor|g o6r)Yei oe anAouarEpr) uEpiKii Siatpopixr) E^iooor). H
U9o6og auTii Eivai iSiaiTEpa xprioiurj orig ur) opOYEVEig YpaupiKEg uspiKEg 6ia(popiKg
E^iocooEig, dncog 9a ^OVEI crag avrioroiXEg EvdTnTEg. H scpapuOYii Tng iiE9d6ou auTiig OE
ur) YpapuiKd npo6Ari]aaTa, dnog dAAcooTE Eivai avauEvduEvo, ouvr|0cog anaiTEi Tr| uaKpd
EunEipia KOI Tig iSiauEpEg iKavdTnTEg TOU uEAETrjTn..
4. AvdnTuypa I6ioauvapTr|oEov. H ivniKr\ Avar] Trjg pEpiKqg SiacpopiKiig
SiSETai cog Eva dnEipo d0poiapa i8ioauvapTrio&)v. Oi i6ioouvapTr|OEig auTEg npoEpxovtai
and Eva npd6AnLia tSiOTiucov, TO onoio ouoxEii^ETai UE Tnv E^i
5. OAoKAqpcoTiKoi MeTaoxi)liaTto]ioi. H upiKr| SiacpopiKii E^iocoori n-uTa6AnTcov
avdyETai OE pEpiKii 6iatpopiKii E^iocoor) (n 1)-uTa6An.Tci>v. Fia napdSEiYJJa, pia u.pi-
K.r\ 6ia(popiKr| E^iooor) 2 viTa6Ar)T6v avdyETai OE pia ouvrj9r| SiacpopiKr] E^iocoor]. Eiccdg
TCOV ]aTaoxr|uaTUJucov Laplace, Fourier KQI Hankel-Legendre, 01 onoioi 9a xpnoiponoir|-
9ouv apKETEg cpopEg OTr] ouvEXEia, ouxvd ano6EiKvuovrai i6iaupa xpnlul Kai autoi TCOV
Mellin, Hilbert, Z, Hermite, Jacobi and Gegenbauer, Laguerre, KAn (BAdnE, L. Debnath
[20]).
6. OAoKAripcoxiKEg E^iacboEig - EuvaptrjoEig Green. ME Tr) Por)0ia uiag EiSiKiig
ouvdpTnorig (ouvdptr|or| Green) r| uspiKii 6iacpopiKii E^iocoor) uETaoxnu-a^i^01 oe OA'
iocoor|. Trig onoiag r| EniAuorj o6r|YEi orr|V EupEor) uiag wniKr]^ jluarjc; Trig
Trj OUVEXEIO uia 8ia6iKdoia ouaAonoinor|g Tr|g Auorjg 6(6i Tig npouno00ig,
KOTCO and Tig onoiEg r| TuniKi] Aiiar) anOTEAsi uia KAaoiKii Auor)
1.3 KaXa Tonofcrrjpcva npofiArjjjara - Euorddem Avoeuv

7. Aoyiopog Mcxa6oAcbv ii EvcpyemKii MeGoSog (Variational Methods). H Auoq


iris pepiKiig 6iacf>opiKiig ?;iacoang ppioKETai cog TO EAdxioro vitas ouYKEKpipEvng EKCppa-
or]g, r\ onoia OE opiopeveg nEpimcooEig napioravsi Tr) ouvoAiKii evepYEia TOU und u.ATr|
(pmvopEvou. ME dAAa Adyta r\ EntAuor) Tr|g EgXocoong avdyETai o' Eva npd6Anu.a EAaxioro-
noir|or|g.
8. McBoSoi Aiatapaxcov (Perturbation Methods). H pr| Ypau.u.iKr| pepiKii 6iacf>opi-
KT| iocoor| npooEYYi5 ciai an Pia aKoAouGia Ypapm^wv u.EpiKcbv SiacpopiKcbv E^IOCOOECOV,
yia ng AuoEig TCOV onoicov EUE eivai vvcoarri r| aKpt6r|g avaAuTiKii EKCppaori OUTCOV r| sivai
6uvaiov va EAEYxGei 1 aaupmcoTiKri auianEpicpopd Toug.
9. McBoSog '16r)oqs-AnoKpioris (Impulse-Response). Ol apxiKEg-ouvopiaKEg auv-
9r]Kg TOU npo6Aiipatog avaAuovTai OE anAsg co6r|OEig KOI PpioKETai r| avd6paor) oe KdGs
pia an' auTEg. H ouvoAiKr) avdSpaor) anoTeAei TO dGpoioya TCOV enipepoug anAov ava-
Spdoecov.
10. Apt9}iiiTiKEs Mc6o6ot. H viepiKii 6iacpopiKii e^iocoor) vieTaoxnP-aT^ci:al ' ^va v~
<jir\]ia E^IOUOECOV Siacpopcbv, TO onoio iinopei va eniAu0Ei \it 6idcpopeg enavaArinriKEg
jj666oug OE unoAoYiorri. AvdpEoa orig SidcpopEg dAAsg apiGpriTiKEg p6d6oug pnopEi va
ava(pp0ei q npooEVYior) TIEOCO noAucovuviiKcbv EmcpavEicbv. FIpEnEi va TOvioGEi OTI, OE napa
noAAd npoBAiipv1010 (i6icog u.r| Ypap.u.iKcbv) pspiKcov SiacpopiKCOV E^IOCOOECOV 01 api0u.nTiKg
anoiEAouv ir) pdvr| 6uvaTii PEXPI oiipepa 6ia6iKaoia

1.3 KaAa Tono6cTi])ieva npo6Ar)|iaTa - EuordGeia Auaecov


TQ cpawdu.Eva, TO onoia nEpiYpdcpovrai and u.ia u.piKii 6iacpopiKr|
m6dAAouv Kdnoioug npdoGsTOug nEpiopiopoug, nou npEnsi va iKavonoisi r\ Auon. Oi
nfpioptoiioi autoi xpi?ovtai crng aKdAouGEg u.Y-^ES KOTnYOpiEg.
A. uv6iJKCS Cauchy rj Apxtxes uv6qKes. TipEg Tqg dYVCOOTqg ouvdpTr)ong u(x,t),
niGavdv KOI Tng Ut(x,t), dnou 0 < t < oo, 6i6ovrai oro oqpEio t = 0, 6nAa6r) Tnv
apXii iiEAETng TOU E^ETO^OVIEVOU cpawopEvou. Fia napadEivpa, TO aKdAouGo anoTEAsi
E'VQ npo6Anu.a apxiKcov ouvGnKcbv

u t t (x,t) = Au(x,t), X6D, t>0,


u(x,0)=fi(x), ut(x,0)=f2(x), xeD,

onou D x (0,oo) TO n6io opioiiou Tng u(x,t) KQI f i ( x ) , fi(x) 6oou.Vg
auvapTiioEig opioiiEVEg OTO n6io D. To nsSio D, EV YEVEI, Eivai EVO OVOIKTO
(OUVEKTIKO) unoauvoAo TOU RN , N > 1 \it ouvopo 3D.
B. Dirichlet ii uvoptaxe Euv9r|Kcg npcbxou Ei5oug. H u\ vi.x > i i ] ouvdp-
Tnor| u(x,t) EXEI npOKaGopioTEi OTO ouvopo 3D TOU n6iou opioriou D, dncog,
, OTO npd6Anu.a,

tttt(x,t) = Au(x,t), x e D, t >o,


u(x,t)=f(x,t), x G 3D, t >0,
onou D Eva avoiKtd unoouvoAo TOU K N , N > 2 Kat f(x,t) 6oop.vn ouvdpTnari
opioriEvr) OTO ouvopo 3D x (0,+oo).
Ke(pdAaio 1. Etaaywyrj 011$ g AicupopiKec;

T. Euv8r|KEs Neumann rj Euvoptaxes EuvGqKES Aeuxepou Ei6oug. H KaGetr) na


pdYuyos TrIS dYvao"rr|$ ouvdpTr|or|s 3u/3n EXEI npOKa6optovivr| Tty,ii aio ouvopo
3D TOU rt6iou opiopou D C RN , N > 2, onog, yia napaGeiyvia. crt np66Xr)]aa I

Au(x)=0, xeD,
8u(x)/9n = g(x), x <E 3D,
dnou g(x) 6oou.evr| ouvdptrjori opiop.vri oro ouvopo 3D.
A. uv9r|KEc; Robin ii Mcucces i\ EuvopiaKEg uv6qxcs Tpixou 16011$. Kdnoiog
og auvSuaavios trig dYvwatris ouvap^n01!? u KQITIIS KdGetris napavcbYOul
iig 3u/3n exei npoKa9opio]JEvr| tipr)CTIOcnjvopo 3D TOU nefiiou opiopou
D C RN , N > 2, onog aio np66Arnia
Au(x) =0, xeD,
3u(x)/3n + ku(x) = h(x), x 3D,
6nou k 7^ 0 KQI K(x) 6oavivri ouvdptriori opio]aevr) ato ouvopo 3D.

u
u(x)

Dirlchlet Neumann Robin

1.3.1: (a) Lvvdr}Kr\ DirichLet, (b) Zvvdr\Kr] Neumann, (c) Robin.

'Eva or|u.avuKO p6Tqp.a, TO onoio uGeTai, OTOV EXEI ano6Eix6i OTI undpxi u.ova6uqj
ouvdpTnori, r\ onoia iKavonoiEi EVO np66Ar)pa apxiKcbv Kai/ii ouvopiOKCJv ouv6r|K6v sivai
OUTO Trig evoiddEiac; icjv jluaeov r) irjg ouvexoiig e^dpirjar^g and la apxiK-d Kai/rj ouvo-
piaKd 6e6onva. Eni6r) OE eva cpuoiKO cpawdpEvo 6v Eivai SUVQTOV va yivouv aKpi6eig|
u.TpiioEis, \\' auto Eivai 9u.EAicb6oug orjviaoiag va vvcopi^ouu-E OTI, Li"<pd ocpdAi:

TEtOlO 6EV lOXUEl TOTE U.nOpEX VO OUVaVTr|OOUU.E anpoBAEHES E^EAi^Elg KOTO ir|V napQKO- I
AouGrjori TOU cpaivouxvou. Fia npo6Ar)pata 6UTpr|s Td^nS apx115^ ouv6r)Kcbv SiSoupe
TOV aKdAouGo opiop.6
1.3.1. (EuordGeia Aiions) 'Eaico {f m (\))} Kat {g n (y)} aKOjtoudig avaAviiKav
avvapiijoeav eiai came lim m _^ +00 f m (ij) = f(tj) Kat llnrin-^+oo g n (y) = g(y)
Toie rj luorj u(x,y) zou npo6Arnj.aiO(; apx.iK.G)v ovvdr\K(bv
(x,y)eDCR2, (3.1)1
u(0,y) = f(y), ux(0,y)=g(y), (0,y) e D,
IKaAd Tono0cri]pcva /TpofiArjfjara - EvaiaQtia Auocuv

wi euataOiis og npog TO apxiKa 6e6opeva. av rj jLuarj u m n (x,y) rou

Ux X (x,y) = Gfx.y. , (x.yjeDCR2, (3.3)


u(0,y) = f m (y), fe), (0,y) 6 D, (3.4)

mpooY\'i&i rr) ovvaptrjar) u(x,y) arms taKd, la m , n >+oo.


I AvaAoya 6i8etai o opiopog Tr|g euordGeiag yia dAAeg popcpeg r) auvSuaapoug 6e6ope-
v. 0 KaGopioriog tou ei6oug TCOV apxiKcav Kai/ii ouvopiaKcbv cnjv0r)Kd)v, nou npenei va
Kovonoiei pia ouYKCKpipevr] pepiKr) 6ia(poptKr) e^iauori anoxeAei eva np66Ar|pa iSiaiie-
BouvQeio. O Hadamard npoietvci ipeig npounoGeoeig, 01 onoie$ npenet va nArpouvTai
soie va EXUP ^va KaAa xonoGexripEvo np66Aqpa. 6r]Aa6r| eva np66Ar)pa oufj.(pa)vo n&
mxpuaiKO <f>aivo^vo, nou Ttepiypcupei. Auteg eivai
(a) i\ e^iocoar) tou npoBAiipatog Several Auorj (toxe cruvr|6QS undpxouv dneipe$ Auoeig),

(P) undpxei }Mva6iKTi jiuorj, nou ucavonoid tig nepiopioriKeg (apxiKeg Kai/ri ouvopioKEg)
auv0r|Keg, nou cruvo6euouv TO npoGArijaa,

(y) r| povaSucri autii Auor) eivai sumadrig, og npog tig nepiopioniKeg (apxiKeg
auvopiaKeg) auv6r|KEg TOU
H napandvw Tpid6a npounoGeoeuv ouviord ir\v apxrf Hadamard. Oi 6uo npoTEg
cpaAi^ouv Tr|v unap^r) pova6iKiig ouvdpTr)orig, r\ onoia iKavonoiEi TOGO Tq pe-
ai 8iacpopiKri e^iocoor) ooov KOI Tig enipepoug nEpiopioriKEg ouvSriKEg. H Tpurj TOiauTr)
1
(euaidGEia) Eao(paAi^i T^V npajcriKri xpri01^11!10 PiaS tETOiag Auor|g, a(pou, siciog TOV
\ov, yia iri iieAETr] auTrig iinopouv va xpno^ono^Qo^v api9pr|TiKeg r| dAAEg npooev-
u.6o8oi (6iaTapax6v, KAn).
Enei6ii TO jaa0ripaTiKd npOTuna, nou nEpiypdcpouv TO 6id(popa cpaivoiieva, eivai a-
noppoia anAouoTEuoEcov Kai/ri auGaipeicov napa8oxcov, apKETd ouxvd auvavccovrai npo-
, TO onoia 6ev eivai KaAa TonoGeTimeva. npenei va oripeioGEi OTI, undpxei pia
avanTUoaopEvq Seapia laeAeTrig KaKcog Tono6eTr|u.Vcov npo6Ar)pdTcov, ye tnv
noia 6sv npOKeuai va aoxoAr)0ou]ae. EvSeiicciKd OTicog, 9a napa0oouvie 8uo napaSEiy-
paia KOKcog
IIapd6eiyiia 1.3. 1. @eapou}* 10 aKOjlovdo npoSjirnia unep6ojLiKoii liinou (BMm
Hapaypacpo 1.4) nz ouvopiaKeg ouvdriKeg wnov Dirichlet (BMne, I>xnVLa 1-3.2)

= 0, (x,y) e D, . (3.5)
|u u(x, 1) = 4>3(x), u(0,y) = 4) 4 (y), (x,y) D, (3.6)
6nov D = { ( x , y ) K2 : 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1} jcat <J>,(x), 4) 2 (y), 4>3(x), 4>4(y)
x,y. Na e&iaaiei r\ K.cu\.r\ r\ ]u\ ionodiir\ar\ wu
aviov.
Auor] EnEiSri viy x (x,y) = 0 exouiie ity(x,y) = oraGepd, 6r)Aa6ii 9a IOXUEI xty(0,y) =
u y (1,y). Enopevcog, yia va exei Auoq TO np66Ar|pa (3.5)-(3.6) 9a npenei va
8 1. Eicraywyr/ 0115- g Aia(popiK.s

Apa yta Tuxaieg ouvopiaKEg auv6r)Keg 4>2(v)> $4(v) TO npdBArjpa (3.5)-(3.6) 6ev exei ouvdpTt")
Auon, 6r)Aa6ri auviord eva KOKOg TonoGeTrjpevo npd6Ar)pa, a(pou 6ev loxuei r) ouv6r)Kr|
(a).

4>4(y)

* X

-3.2: 'Ef a KaKcjg Tonodeirj^vo npoSJirjfj.a Dirichlet.

IlapdSetyiia 1.3.2. (Ilp66Aqna Hadamard) &apoiifj 10 aKdAoudo np66Ar]}j.a


KOV limov (BA. tnovzvr] Flapdypacfjo 1.4) jj apxiK$ ovvdr]K(; Cauchy
(x.y) + u y y (x,y) = 0, (3.7)
sinny
u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , Ux(0,y) = (3.8)
n
onou D = {(x,y) 6 R2 : x y > 0}. Na e&iamei r] Ka/lr) r\ }j.r\ lonodeirjarj mv
auiou.
EuKoAa ano6eiKvueTai OTI, r) auvdpTrjor)
(sinhnx)( sinny)

anoTeAet Auor) Tqg eJjiaoorig (3.7). FlapaTripoupe dpcog OTI, Ka6ag TO n > oo, 01 pev
apxiKEg ouv6r|KEg teivouv oro 0, evco r\ Auop u n (x,y), KaGcig TO x > oo, TaAavcouTai
pe nAdTOg au^avdpevo EKGETIKQ KOTO TOV opo enx. 'EToi piKpsg 6iaTapaxeg ora apxiKd
66opeva o6r|youv oe noAu peydAeg peia6oAeg mr\ Auor), 6r)Aa6r) r\ Auor) eivai aoraGrig,
oupcpcova pe TOV Opiopd 1.3.1. Apa TO npd6Ar)pa (3.7)-(3.8) eivai KaKci)g TonoGeTrjpEvo,
acpou 6ev toxuei r\ ouvQr\K.r\ (y).

1.4 Ta^ivojirjarj TCJV Mcpixuv AiacpopiKcov E^iaoaecov

(iii)
1.4.1 Auo Aiaordocis
I6taEpo evSiacpEpov napouoid^ouv 01 pepiKEg 6ia(t>opiKEg e^ioooeig 2rjg Tdg"r)g yia 6uo
Aoyoug. npoTOv, TO neptoooTepa ^aivdpEva (cpuoiKd, KOIVCOVIKO, (JioAoytKci, KAn.) ou-
vr)0ug nepiypdcpovrai and TI^V npci)Tr) KQI 5euTepri napdycoyo (ii pepiKr) napdycoyo) trig
1. 9

ouvapir|or|$, nou TO. EKCppd^Et, oncog Taxutnia, Enrtdxuvan, KAn. AEUIEPOV, r| Laplacian

Au(x,y) = V 2 u(x,y) = Ux X (x,y) + Uyy(x,y),

i TO pETpo Tng 6iacpopdg pETagu Ti]g uprig Tr|g u(x,y) o'Evaonpsio (xo.yo) KOI
trig pcorig upqg Trig u ( x , y ) OE pia piKpr] yEuovid QUTOU TOU onpEiou (xo.yo)- Eni6r)
6auTii r| 6iacpopd ouv6Tai dpEoa ps THV nEpauspco E^EAi^r) cpatvopEvcov, oncog 6idxuon,
ii KQI SuvapiKo, yi' QUTO to Adyo ri Laplacian Au(x,y) anoTEAst KaGopioruco
tio oAcov TCOV E^iacboEcov Tng Ma6r|paTiKr|g <t>uoiKiig.

napatijpqoi] 1.4.1. Yndpxzi U-ia u.eydAri noiKiAia ovii@oAiaiJ.ov yia ir\v E^iocoor] Laplace
one; 6id(f>opg nepioxi^ rou emoir\v.c)v. EvdciKUKd 8i6oviai 01 napaKdw avv.6oAiau.oi yia
ZTJouvdpirjari u : RN -> R, N > 1, x = (xi,x 2 , ...,X N ) G E N .

Au(x) = Y_ iov Aoytovjov,

Einstein rj iavI/OTIKOC; rimog,


= div(Vu(x)), ivnog AiavvonaiiKrig AvdAvarjg,
= V 2 u(x), ivnc
= ux UxNxNW,

Oi YpayjaiKEQ OUOVEVEIC; pEQiKEg SIQCDODIKEC; E^IOMOEIQ 2n<; TQ^nQ 6uo 5iaordocov EXOUV
popcpi]

a(x,y)u x x + b ( x , y ) u x y + c ( x , y ) u y y e(x,y)uy + h ( x , y ) u = 0 ) (4.1)


onou (x,y) D KQI D Eivai Eva QVOIKTO unoouvoAo TOU R 2 . Fia Tp pEAETn QUTCOV TCOV
4iouocov eivai iSiaiTEpa xpii01!-10 va yivEi Ta^ivdpnor] QUTCOV OE TpEig psydAEg KQTnyopt-
E$. H Ta^woprjor) QKoAouGEi THV avrioroixri TCOV KCOVIKCOV Topcov KQI E^apTdTai povo
TOU$ auvTEAEOTEg TOU npcoTEUQVTOc UEoouc Tng E^iocoong, 6nAa5r| TCOV napavcbycov
:q^r|g. Eniong r\ Ta^ivdpnori auTii ouv6Tai dpEoa p Tr| 6ia6iKaaia pE
trig $"kxorIS (4.1) OE xavovtKii pop<pr|, oncog 9a cpavEi orqv EnopEvr] napdypacpo. '
9a AepE OTI, r| c^iocoor] (4. 1) EWCU

(i) cAActnxiKou xunou oro ot]|ieio ( x , y ) , av IOXUEI b 2 (x,y) 4a(x,y)c(x,y) < 0.


KAaoiKo napdSEiypa anoTEAd r\ e^iacoar] Laplace Au(x,y) = 0 , (x,y) 6 K 2 ,

(ii) napa6oAiKou Tiinou ato ( x , y ) , av b 2 (x,y) 4a(x,y )c(x,y) = 0.


KAaoiKo napd6Eiypa i r\ e^iaaorj u t (x,t) u xx (x,t) = 0, x G
R, t > 0,

(iii) uncpSoAiKou xunou OTO orineio (x,y), av IOXUEI b 2 (x,y) 4a(x,y)c(x,y) > 0.
KAaoiKo napd8iypa anoTEAsi r| Kvn.aiiK.TJ e&ocoori Ut t (x,t) xt xx (x,t) = 0 , x
R, t > 0.

H xpr)oipOTnTa TOU napandvco xcopiopou EyKEuai OTO yEyovog OTI, E^iocboEig, nou avii-
KOUV orriv i6ia oiKOyEVEia, EXOUV apKETd Koivd xapajcrnpiariKd KQI EVIQIO Tpono
10 KecpdXaio 1. Eioaycoyn OTIS Mepuce's Aia<popiKe<; EiocJ0ei$

npEnsi va napaTqpqoouu. OTI, TO 1805 TCOV nEpiopioriKov ouvGqKcbv, nou npt-


ni va iKavonoisi r\ dvvcoorq cruvdpTqoq, OOTE TO npoBAqpa va Eivai KaAd TonoGETqiievo,
ano Tqv OIKOYEVEIO, arqv onoia avqKEi r| u.piKq Siacpopucq E^ioooq.
, npdnEi va onu-EioGEi OTI, q KOTOTa^q U-iaS p-EpiKqg SiacpopiKqc; E^iacooqg o
KaTqyopia vinopEi va aAAd^Ei ora 8ict<popa pspq TOU nsSiou opiapou, onog OUTO cpaivETat
napaKOTQ. Mia TETOIO E^ioooq ovopd^ETai IIEIKTOU xunou.

1.4.1. Na i rj }jpiK,r] 6ia<poptKr)

,y) =0, (x,y) e R2.

Avar] Eni6q ExoupE OTI b 2 (x,y) - 4a(x,y)c(x,y) = 0 8xy = 8xy, ouu-cpcova pe triv
napandvcj Ta^ivopqoq q E^iocooq Eivai

(i) unp6oAiKOu Tunou crca oqiida EKEWO, onou xy < 0, 6qAa8q crro 2o KOI TO 4oj
TETapTqvidpio TOU nin8ou,

(it) EAAEUTUKOU Tunou ora aqvada EKEWO, onou xy > 0, 6qAa6q oro lo KQI 3ol
TETapTqiiopio TOU EninESou, TEAog

(in) napa6oAiKOu Tunou orous d^ovEg x,y TOU EninESou

napd6ety)ia 1.4.2. Na la^ivof^rjdei r\ o^oyw)s> \izp\K

.y) =0, (x,y) e R 2 .


Avar] EnEiSq exouu.OTib 2 (x,y) 4a(x,y)c(x,y) = x(x 4y), ouu.<J)cova VIE Tqv napanavo
Ta^ivoiaqoq q E^iacooq Eivai

(i) unspBoAiKou Tunou ora oqu.ia EKEWO TOU EninESou, onou {x < 0 KOI x < 4y} n
{x > 0 KOI x > 4y},

(ii) EAAEinrucou Tunou ora oqiiEia EKEWO TOU EninESou, onou {x > 0 KOI x < 4y} a
{x < 0 KOI x > 4y}, TE

(iii) napa6oAiKOu Tunou orig EuGsisg x = 0 KOI x = 4y TOU EninESou R2 .

1.4.2 N - Aiaataoeis, N > 2


Tq i 8ia<popiKq 2qg
u.Ta6AqTcbv
N N

LL-.I L b^ D (4 2)
< -
onou D avoiKTO unoauvoAo TOU RN KOI Q i j ( x ) , b i ( x ) , c ( x ) , d(x) Eivai
TOU x = (XT , X2, ..., XN ) Tia Aoyous anAoTqTag 8a aoxoAqGouviE pdvo U.E iqv nEpimuoi)
E^IOCOOECOV, 01 onoiES OE dAa ta x G D EXOUV IOV nivaKO A(x) = ( a ^ f x ) ) aupperpixd
KQI npayTJariKO, SqAaSq yia KdGE x IOXUEI Qij(x) = Qjt(x). Eivai VVGXJTO OTI, o' QUTI)
1.4 11

Tr|v nepimcoori o nivaKog A(x), OE Kd6 or|u.Eio x, EXEI npayu-aTiKEg i6ioTiu.g, EOTCO Tig
M x ). ^2( x )> -. A N ( X ) . H 6ia6iKaoia u.Taoxr|u.aTiaviou Trig $"iacoor|g (4.2) OE KavoviKii
jiop<j>ii emBdAei Tqv aKoAouGr) Tag"ivou.r|or|. a AEU.E on, r\ u.piKr| 6ia(popiKii g"iocoor| (4.2)
eivai

(i) eAAeinTiKou xunou oro arijieio x, av 6AEg 01 i6iouu.g Eivai \ir\ u.r|6eviKg KOI TOU
QUTOU npoorjijou,

(ii) napa6oAiKOu xunou ato omieio x, av jaia TOuAdxiorov iSioTipii Eivai vir)8v KOI
6AEg 01 u.r)-u.r|6viKg i6ioTiu.g Eivai TOU OUTOU npooiip.ou,

(iii) uncp6oAiKOu xunou axo ormeio x, av u.ia i6iOTiu.ii Eivai 9ETiKii (avr. apvriTiKii)
KOI 6Ag 01 dAAEg Eivai apvr]TiKEg (avr. QETlKEg),

(iv) unep-uncp6oAtKOu xunou (yui N > 3), av 6uo ii nspioooTEpEg i6iOTiiig Eivai
9ETiKg (avr. apvr|TiKg) KOI 01 unoAoinEg 6uo ii nspioooTEpEg eivai apvqTiKEg (avr.
QETlKEg).

Av r| u.epiKr| 6ia(popiKri E^iocoor) Eivai oraGEpou Tunou a' 6Aa TO or|U.Eia x D , TOTE
OTI Eivai OUTOU TOU Tunou o' 6Ao TO n6io D, dAAcog ovovid^ETai U.CIKXOU xunou.
0 TeAEUTaiog Tunog (iv) anavrdToi ondvia arig EcpappoyEg, yi' auto TO Aoyo r| u.eAETr|
arri OUVEXEIO 9a EniKvrpco6Ei aroug TpEig npcoTOug paoiKOug Tunoug KOI orig 6iaordoig
= 2,3,4. KAaoiKd napa6i\iaaTa Trig napandvco Ta^ivoviiorig anoTeAouv 01

Au = ux = 0, (x,y,z)ellc, EAAEimiKOu Tunou,


3
MZZ) = 0, (x,y,z) R , t > 0, unEpBoAiKou Tunou,
3
UM) = 0. ( x , y , z ) 6 K , t > 0, napa6oAiKOu Tunou,
3
+ cy)tiy z = 0, (x.y.zjeR , U.EIKTOU Tunou (ano6ir TO !!!),
2
fi
i/mt - Au + V(x)u = 0, x RN , N > 1 , t > 0, $KJoar| Schrodinger,
2m
onou h r\ ora0pd TOU Planck, m r) p-d^a KOI V r) ouvdpTrior) 6uvau.iKOu . H TEAEUTOIO
6iatpopiKii E^iocoor) Eivai napa6oAiKOu Tunou.

1.4.3 npo6\r|ticrca
(1) Na npoo6iopio6ei r) nepioxn arr|v onoia 01 QKoAouSeg 6iaq>opiKE5 E|ioci)OEi5 Eivai
Eg, napaBoAiKEg ii
(a) Uxx(x,y) + 6u.u - U y y ( x , y ) + 2 u x ( x , y ) - U y ( x , y ) =0, ( x , y ) e R2,(.
(b) u x x (x,y) + xu u u (x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) M 2 ,
(c) uxu(x,y)=0, (x,y)K2,
(d) u x x ( x , y ) + 4 u u u ( x , y ) = 0, (x,y)
(e) (1 - x 2 ) u x x ( x , y ) + y u u u ( x , y ) =0, (x,y) 6
(f) y 2 u x x (x,y)-x 2 u u u (x,y) =0, (x,y) e K 2 ,
(g) x 2 u x x ( x , y ) + 2 x y u x u ( x , y ) + y 2 U y U ( x , y ) = 0, ( x , y ) e M 2 ,
(h) u x x ( x , y ) + x 2 u u u ( x , y ) = 0 , (x,y) e K 2 ,
s
np + anq = fissn+ = xssn + "i-'n *n

miiaxodii SogioriYD 5Ui DAOADX noi Di30Lio^) Lii spv 'SUoooi^s Sooi30og 5Ui LionY)ii3 Alii
DlA odSlpYLlYYDlDX 1DA13 DA (OMIAOADX) AOASrlADlSlAflO DtiLllOrU) O3A Ol 31OO 'OllOdl O10131
D1DX ID1AOA3Y11I3 p IDM D 'q 't> 53d30DK> IO 'DlsXSAflO Lll) odSAD* 13A}A D0 OlflD

(Z'9) oq pt) isaXoi noiip 'ftp + xo = s


' ftq + XTJ = a

AOADlO3ldDX AO1
noxirirtodA no0noYoxo noi oosti (s'j.) AOAailAniaiAno mtliix>ru> OMIAOADM 01

5Uoooi!j3 SLii UonY UxiA3A U i303d^) DA


isdouri 'up IDAIS ogs oioisiiLiooi^D ox 53d30oio 53MUDitADdii IDAIS 3 IDX g 'y noup

(
(I'S) 7HDQ9(ft'x) 'Q = (ft'x) fifi n3 + (ft'x) fix Tig + (fT.'x)xxnY

S3io3Y3iAno Sfiod30DK> srl Lioooi^s LiMido(l)Dig Lrxirl


-rlodA U 13Y31OUD SLi^pi SLi^ AOSOOOI^S Aoxidod)Dig Aoxidsrl oi3A3Aoxio oonodscJmigAS

DtdO3Q IIM1A3J T'S'T

3tl

a 3 ( 2 ' f t ' x ) 'o= ( 2 ' f t '

-dsua 1DA13 bocooi^s liMido(J)Dig Lixidsri lignoYOxo Li DIOIIO ALiio 'LiXoid3ij U isgoidoigoodii DM (g)

UMULI13YY3 (3) ' LixiYogodoii (p) 'LixiYogdsun (o) ' LixiYogodoiJ (q) 'UxiYogdsun (o) :Uoliiayiiv

flft 3 (z'fi'x) 'o = noi + 2 n- nng + "nf + z f t n^- flftn3+ flxn3- xxnf (3)
\1 9 (2'ft'x) '[L + r2 + r f t + r x ] u i = x x n - f t x n 2 3 (p)
' e jfl 9 (2'ft'x) 'o= "rig- Zxn9i - ftft n/ + 2ftn33-ftx noi - xx n/ (o)
'j[ 9 (2'fi'x) 'o = n(ftx+ i ) - " n ^ + ftft n+ ftx n^+ xx n (q)
x
' 1 3 ( 2 ' f t < x ) '214300 = n fla - 2 n(xsoo) 4- Tfln n

S3X111J13YY3 Li SsxiYogodou 'SsxiYogdaiin IDAIS 613090153


idofboig Ssxidsrl 10 DIOLIO DID ' ^ noi DYOAriooun m Afiogoidoigoodii Dfj (j)

(ft'x) 'x = (ft'x) f l f t nx soo + (ft'x) ftx nx3uis + (ft'x) x x nx UTS (^)
' j 3 ( f i ' x ) I ( f t ' x ) n = ( f t ' x ) f t f t n f t 3 + (ft'x) x x n x 3 (I)
' Z 1 3 ( f t ' x ) ' X 3 = (fi'x) f t n r ft+(ft'x) n x nftx3-(ft'x) x x n z x (i)

5ll)
1.5 rpajj/juccc; 2r\$ Tafrjc; \it LiaOspoug DuvreAeaTCc; 13

= r u r r 2rxsxurs su s s rxx x xuT + sxxxxus


2 2
= a urr 2acurs c uss ,
= abu rr bc)u rs + cduss ,
= b urr + 2bdurs + d 2 u ss .
2
KES

AvuKaGioTcbvrag TO napandvco ornv $"iocoor| (5.1), npOKumei r\ iiTaaxr|iiaTiCFiivri


6iacf>opiKii e^iocoor) aro KOVOVIKO crucrtriiia auvTETaviiEVQV (r, s), r\ onoia Eivai

(Aa 2 +BQb+Cb 2 )u rr +(Ac 2 +Bcd+Cd 2 )u ss + [2Aac+B(ad+bc)+2Cbd]iirs = 0. (5.3)


01 oraGspEg a , b , c KOI d ETOI OOTE va var|6viovTai 01 ouvreAeoTEg TCOV
6uo npuTov opov Trig e^iocoorig (5.3). Av IOXUEI A ^ 0, TOTE EniAeYOvrag TO b = d = 1 ,
UnopouiiE va 8copr|oou]JE TO a, c cog pi^Eg Tr|g

Am2 + Bm + C = 0,
6riAa6ri E on

-B + y / B 2 -4AC -B-y / B 2 -4AC


a= c =
2A
pTd Tig avriKOTaordoEig r| E^iocoop (5.3) naipvEl Tpv QKoAouSr] jaopcpri OE KOVO-
VlKFg

(4AC - B2)urs = 0. (5.4)


(II) EniAuor) <mg KavoviKeg EuvxeTayiieves. AiaKpivouiiE Tig OKoAouSEg nEpimco-
oeig:
(a) 4AC B2 7^ 0, 6r)Aa6ii r) apxuai Eg'iocoor] (5.1) Eivai unp6oAixou ri EAAEUTUKOU
Tunou, TOTE r| E^iocoor) OE xavoviKEg ouvrTaYViVg (5.4) YIVETOI

urs(r,s)=0, (5.5)

il onoia EXEI YeviKii Auor| (OE opoug r, s) Tr| ouvdpTqor)

u(r, s) = F(r) + G(s), onou F, G Tuxaisg auvapTiioEig oro C (R)

il OE opoug x,y Trj auvdptr|ari

u(x,y) = F(ax + y) + G(cx + y). (5.6)


(b) 4AC B2 = 0, 6r)Aa8ri r| (5.1) Eivai napa6oAiKOu Tiinou. L'
ujv nEpinTcoor) avri TOU nAripoug (5.2) QECOPOUJJE TO

r = mx + y,
s = x. (5.7)

'Eicn avri Tng ^iocoor|g (5.5) jinopoujjE EUKoAa va SianiorwoouiaE OTI npoiainTEi r| iocoor)

u s s (r,s) =0, (5.8)


14 1. Eiaayoyr) 0115- MzpiKcg AiacpopiKcg 71|

VIE YEviKr) Auor| (OE opoug r, s) trj ouvdpinor)

u(r,s) = F(r) + s G ( r ) , onou ndAi F, G OTO C1

f\ at opoug x, y tq ouvdpiriori

u(x,y) = F(mx + y) + xG(mx + y). (5.9)

riapaTiipiioq 1.5.1. Av A = 0, i6i u.nopovv va oovMifJOVv^ dncjg napanava, vdH-


Moooviag 10 pdAo icov x, y Kai iav A, C.
1.5.2. Nafipzdti r\ yEviKr) Avar] irjg g~ioojor]g 6vvau.iK.ov r) Poisson

( y) = -4, ( x . y J e R 2 .
Avar] ria pair) pou VIE oti B2 4AC = 4, Yia Kd0 (x,y) G EnopEvcog r|
2
eivai EAAEinriKOu tunou ato M . H iocoor| (5.4) EXEI tr) m2 + 1 = 0 , ps pi^s
a = i, c = i. 'Etoi r| YEVIKF) Auoq iris apxiKrig E^iocooris PE TOV Tiino (5.6) 8a
Eivai
u ( x , y ) = F ( y + ix) + G ( y - i x ) , ( x . y J e M 2 ,
onou F, G tuxaiES ouvapirioEig OTO C^K).
riapaTr|pr|or| 1.5.3. (MiyaSiKeg Auoeu;) Le fjpiKg nepmicooeig (fjUtemiiKog liinog) 01
Jlvoeig irig iJpiKr)g 6ia(popiK.r)g e^ioaorjg 6i6oviai cog fj.iya6iKg avvapir)oeig. Evioiiioig onog
Kai arig auvrjdEig SiacpopiKeg efrotioeig yaiopo\)\n va^povj^e ir\ nop<pr) irjg yviKr)g j(vor\g og
npaynaiiKr) ouvdpirjori yuz Kaicuijlrjjloug auvdvaonovg icov 6i/o Hpcov rrjg niya6iKr)g j(uoi\
(npayfj.auKOu Kai CpaviaoriKOu).
1.5.4. Nafipdi r\ yviKrj Avar] irjg vpiK.r\g 6iacf>opiKr)g ^iaoor\g

,y) = 0 , (x,y) e R 2 .

Avar] H E^iocoori Eivai napaBoAucou xunou OTO R 2 , acpou B2 4AC = 0, YIQ


(x,y) e K 2 . H avtiotoixr) tng (5.4) E^iocoor) eivai m2 2m+ 1 =0, vie a = c = 1. 'Eiai
r| YEvucii Auor) iris apxiKiig E^iooong oujacpcova VIE tov xuno (5.9) 9a Eivai

u(x,y)=F(x

onou F, G auvapTiioEis ato

1.5.2 H Auoi) D'Alembert


E6co 9a avtipEiconioouviE Eva ano ta ondvia napa6iviiata npoBAriviatog apxixcov
oiig pEpiKEg 6ia(popiKg E^iocboEig, TO onoio vinopEi va AuGsi pE Tnv KAaoiKii 6ia8iKaaia,
6qAa6ri (ipioKEtai npcbta r| YEVIKF) Auar) KOI orr| OUVEXEIO npooSiopi^Eiai r| Ei6iKii Auar
p tr) XP1!01! ICOV por)6r)TiKov auvGriKov. H p6o6og auiii xPloiponoiriGnKE npcoia
no TOV D'Alembert (1747). Mia ano ng ouvnGEaiEpa auvavroupEVEg pEpiKEg 6iacpopv
orig (pappOYES Eivai r) viovo6idorair| KupatiKii

uxx(x,t)=c u t t(x,t), x 6 (00,00), te(0,oo), c 9UKii oraGEpd. (5.10)


1.5 FpappiKcg pc Eiadepovg LuvieAemES 15

H t!;iocoor| (5.10) nEptypticpEi piKpEg napau.opcpcboi$ jjia$ TEvrcopEvrig EAaoriKiis xP-


5ns, TrlS onoiag EXOUV 6o0Ei, OE Ka0e ar|u.io x, r| apxiKii napapopcpcoar) auTii$ f (x) KQI
ri Taxuirita laAdvtworig g(x) (auv0r|KES Cauchy), 6r)Aa6r|

u(x,0)=f(x), ut(x,0) = g(x), x (-00,00). (5.11)


5.9)
JlapatripoupE on, r\ eJjiooar) (5.10) eivai unepBoAiKou tunou, acpou IOXUEI

-4AC = 4c2 > 0, 6r|Aa6ii ExoupE oti rrti = m.2 = c, acpou m 2 c2 = 0.


i
Enopevcog r) eJjiocoor] (5.10) SEXEIOI ysviKii Auoq trig u.opcpii$

u ( x , t ) = F ( x + ct) + G(x-ct), onou F, G 6 C'(R X (0,oo)). (5.12)

OiapxiKec; ouv0r|Keg (5.11) 6i6ouv:

u(x,0) = F(x) + G(x) = f(x), x (-00,00),


ut(x,0) = c[F'(x)-G'(x)] = g(x), x (-00,00). (5.13)

napaycoyi^ovtag iqv npcbtr) TCOV E^IOCOOECOV (5.13) cog npog x KOI Auvovras TO npoicu-
movauarripa,

F'(x) , x 6 (-00,00),
2 c
G'(x)
ir i ' , x 6 (00,00).

OAoKAripcbvovrag SE KOI avTiKaGiaTcovras TO x p TO s yia Aoyous SieuKoAuvorigTCOV


oupBoAiapcbv cnr| OUVEXEIO npOKumEi 6u

F(s) =
ir i rs + Ci, S (-00,00) (5.14)
c
2 [ Jos 9
G(s) =
ir 1r ' + c , s e (-00,00). (5.15)
9 2
2I c J0
Tcopa 01 ouvapTiioEig F(s), G(s) opujovtai navrou OTO R, ]anopouu.E va QEOOUU.E
ct, s = x ct OTIS OXEOEIS (5.14), (5.15), avrioroixa, onoTE E

1 f 1 f x+ct
F(x + ct) = r f(x + ct) + c- g(z)dz Ci, x 6 (-00,00), t > 0 , (5.16)
2 L J(o
x
G(x -ct) -
i- rf ( x - c t ) - i fx-ct g(z)dz C2, x 6 (-00,00), t > 0 . (5.17)
c
* I Jo
Ano TIS OXEOEIS (5.12) KOI (5.16) - (5.17) npoKumEi OTI q Auaq D'Alembert TOU
Cauchy (5.10)-(5.11) EWOI
x+ct
i r
u(x,t) = - f(x + ct) + f(x-ct) + -
i r i
g(z)dz + c i + c 2 , x e R , t >0. (5.18)
2 c
L Jx-ct
1.5 rpanpiKcg 2qg Td^ng HE. LiaOepoug LvvieXeoieg 17

(ui) (IlcSio npooSiopiojiou) TeAog, ro ovvoAo icjv oriiteicjv, nov nepiKAeieiai and iig
XapaKirjpiaiiKeg Kai 10 didmrj^ia npoo6iopiov.ov, anoieAei ro neSio npoo5topio|iou
(domain of determinacy) wv 6iamriv.aiog (XQ Cto, XQ + Cto). And la npor\yovv-
va avvdyeiai du. r\ HU.T) irjg u(x,t) at Kdde orjueio vxoa oio nedio npoo6iopiofj.oii
Kadopi&iai fMvooT]fj.avia and ng iiuxc; icjv apxiK(JV ouvdrjKcJv f(x) KOI g(x) aro
6idoir]u.a npoodiopiaujov Kai }jdvo!! Pia napd5ti\v.a, 6vo Jlvoeig lov npo@Ariv.aiog
Cauchy (5.10)-(5.11), icjv onoicjv 01 apxiKg uvxg avv^nimovv aio 6idair]v.a npoo-
6iopiav.ov, 9a exovv iig idieg iiv^.g oe Kdde ar\vxio lov nediov npoo6iopiov.ov, aMd
i va diacpepovv ecj an' avid !!

t0,.

1-5.2: Fledio Upoabiopiaujov.

napaSeiypa 1.5.6. Na Avdei 10 npd6Ar]v.a apxiKCJV ovvdrjKCJv


1
c,t), x e R, t > 0, u(x,0) = (5.20)
+ 2x 2 '
Avar] LupcpQvo. pc TO. napandvo, r\ yeviKri Auari Tng pepucrjs 6iac{)OpiKiis TOU
npo8Aiipatos (5.20) eivai u(x,t) = F(x + ct) + G(x ct), onou F KCU G
auvaptrioeig OTO C'(Rx (0, oo)). Enei6r| u(x,0) = F(x) + G(x) = onou
x 10 x + ct npOKumei OTI,
1
F(x + ct) = -G(x + ct),
l + 2 ( x + ct)2
Enopevwg q Auori TOU npo6Aii]aaTOg (5.20) eivai
1
u(x t) = -G(x G(x-ct), xeR, t>0.
' TTI
Enei6ii TO ouvoAo TOV bv ouv6r|KG)v, nou auvo6euei TO (5.20), 6ev
tvai nAiipeg, eivai avapevoiievo 6u r\ Auor] TOU npo6Ar|paTOg 9a nepiKAeiei Tnv auSaipeTr]
auvdpTnor] G.

1.5.7. A^a Avdei ro np66fa]v.a apxiKcjv ovvdr]KcJv

u(x,t)=c-Wx,t), X 6 R , t > 0 , u(x,0)


16 KeQdAaio 1. Eiaayayn orig MtpiKig Aia(popiK<; Egiaaatm

Enei6ii opus 1 Auor| (5.18) 9a npenei va iKavonoiei tr) ouv6r|Kr| u(x,0) = f(xl
auvendveTai ott, 9a tO)(Ui Ci +C2 = 0. Apa teAiKO. r\ ()aova6iKii) Auar) tou npo6Aii|jaiog
Cauchy (5. 10)-(5. 1 1) GtSexai ano tr| auvdpir|or|

u(x,t) = 2-
i rx+ct i
x + ct) + f ( x - c t ) + - g(z)dz , x 6 (-00,00), t > 0 . (5.l

riapcn:r|pqoii 1.5.5. 'Expu\n va napair\pr\oovu 6oov acpopd ir\ Avar] (5. 19


lov npo6jirmaiog Cauchy (5. 10)- (5. 11)
(i) (OSeuov Kujia) 'Eoia 6n r\ apxiKrj iaxvir\ia laAdvicjorjg Eivai g(x) = 0. Tore ra
\iipr\ f (x + ct) Kat f(x ct) rrjf Moris (5. 19) fyouv fj.ia evdiatyipovaa
. Fia oiadp6 t, r\ avvapir\ar\ f (x ct) (ag ouvdpir]arj \i6vo xou \
rj \Mp(pr\ rrjg f(x), novo nou Xt vnoaiei fj.ia }jiaidnior] npog ia
Kara ct. 'Eiairj f(x ct) cuf ouvaprr\ar\ icjpa wv t (yia aiadEpd x), napioidval
iva Ktifia /jiaidnioris. nou KWEiiai npog la Se^id \i. iaxvir]ia c. To ysyofdf ai/rd,!
drjAadr] 611 6ia6i6iai fj i iva an6
TO Kowd piKcJv 6iacpopiKcjv iunou,\
Kdu nou 6v yia HpiKig 6ia(popiKg $~iocooig liinou, onag yzaj
0pu.6irjiag, dnou ivai dnipr} (BMne.
K(pdJlaio 3). Kara lov i6io ipdno auu.npuppiai r\ f (x+ct) npog ia apio~cpd.
'Eraz 77 Mori u(x,t) anoijii ir/v unipdar\ auitiv icov duo oSeuovrov
(traveling waves).

f(x)
f(x-c) f(x-2c)l

pa 1-5.1: O6uov Kuu.a.

(u) (Aidotri jia IIpooSiopiopou) And rrj Mori (5. 1 9) (paiviai on, rj ouu.npupopd auir)g o
Kdnoio oriuxio (XQ, to) iou enmidou (x, t) g~apidiai and IT] vjoptyr] icov ouvapirjoEcov
f(x), g(x) Kara /urJKOf iou iu.r)u.aiog iou dova wv x uxia$~u iav orjuxiav XQ cto
KOI XQ + cto- Enouxvag 01 ouvapirjoig f(x),g(x) u.nopei va eivai audaipeieg
CKidg auioii iou iu.rju.aiog xapis avid va Enrjped&i rr\v rz/urj u(xo, to) irig Morig. A'
auid 10 jLdyo 10 auvoAo [XQ cto, xo + cto] ovou.d&iai 6idcrtqpa npooSiopiopou
(interval of determinacy) iou arju^iou (xo.to). Oi 6uo ypau.nig. nou EVCJVOUV 10
(*0i to) \* ia dKpa iou 6iaoir]u.aiog npoo6iopiou.ou, ovou.doviai
TT
IS civotiioiig. Oi E^iotooeig TUV xapaKxqpicrciKcov eivai
X Ct = XQ Cto KOI X + C t = XQ + CtQ.
18 KcipdXaio 1. Eiaayovn ^'ST MtpiKtc; AicupopiKcg

Avar] rVcopi^oujae 6u, n ouvdpTnop u(x,t) = F(x + ct) + G(x ct), onou F KQI
G au0aipTg ouvapTtioEig aro C^R x (0, oo)), anoTEAEi Tr) yEviKii Auor) Tr|g
SiacpopiKiig $"iocoong TOU npo6Ar|jaaTOg (5.21). Eniong

I A^ Kd6E |x|<L,
u(x,0) = rl
F(x)\ +, rt
G(x)\ = ylQ

'ETOl pplOKOUllE Otl

-{
EnojaEvcog n Auon TOU npo6Ar|]aaTOg (5.21) eivat
i-M-G(x),
-G(x), yia

, . % __ n-|x+ct|-G(x+ct)+G(x-ct), yia KQ0E |x+ct|<L,


4X, j - |_G(x+ct)+G(x_ctj |x+ct|>L.
QUX
'Onag KQI OTO nponyouviEvo napdSEiyiia 1.5.6, napaTripouiiE OTI TEAiKd, ni6ri TO
OTvoAo TCOV apxiKcbv auvGnKcov, nou auvoSEUEi TO np66Anjja (5.21), SEV EWQI nAripEg, i\
\\}or\ TOU npo6Ariiiaiog nEpiKAdEi Tnv au6aipTn ouvdpTnap G, dnou G 6 C'(IR x
(0,oo)).

1.5.3 n p o 6A ii paTa
(1) Na npoo6iopio6Ei r| nEpioxn, orr|v onoia 01 OKoAouGES LiEpiKEg 6iaq>opiKEg |IOQOEIS d-
vai unp6oAiKg, napa6oAiKg ii EAAEiniiKEg KOI air) OUVEXEIO va piaoxr|paTio0Ei r| E^iooor) OE
KavoviKii popepii orr)v avtioroixr)

(a) u x x (x,y) + 6u x y(x > y)-u u u(x 1 y) + 2u x (x,y)-u u (x,y) =0, (x,y) 6 K 2 ,
(b) 4u x x (x,y)+5u X y(x,y) + U u y ( x , y ) + u x ( x , y ) + U y ( x ( y ) =2, ( x , y ) 6 l 2 ,
(c) ux(x,V)+Uini(XiV) + Uy V (x,v)+iJ(x,v)=0 J , ( x , y ) e l 2 ,
(d) u x x ( x , y ) - 4 u x y ( x , y ) + 4 u y y ( x , y ) = eu, ( x , y ) l 2 .

(2) Na pp0Ei r| yEviKii Auor) iov axoAouGov pspiKcov 6ia<popiKci)v

(a) x 2 u x x (x,y)+2xyu x y +y 2 u u u (x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) e K 2 ,


o }jiaaxrinaiio)Mx; , = y/x,Tl = y
(b) 4ux X (x,y) + 5 u X y ( x , y ) + U y U ( x , y ) + u x (x,y) + U y ( x , y ) =2, (x,y)e! 2 ,
Ynadeifr: Na ^pr/az^oTtot^Sei o jiEraqjfr^cmaj/df , = y x , T ] = y (x/4)
(c) 3u x x (x,y) + 10u x v (x,y)+3u u u (x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) e K 2 ,

(3) Na pp6t q yEviKii Auor) icov OKoAouSuv pEpixov 6ia(popiKcbv E^IOOOEWV SEutEprig tdr|g
) tou pETaoxnuanopou v = ue~ (at+bn '

(a) u x x ( x , y ) - u u u ( x , y ) + 3 u x ( x , y ) - 2 u y ( x ) y ) + u(x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) K 2 ,
(b) 3u xx (x,y) + 7u X y(x,y)+2u U y(x,y) + U y ( x , y ) + u ( x , y ) = 0, ( x , y ) K 2 .

(4) Na i OTI, r| avriKatdoraori u = ve (bx/2) pEtaaxilpaTt?Ei Tqv napa6oAiKii E^i

,t) + bu x (x,t) + cu(x,t) + f, ( x , t ) e K 2 ,


LuvrjOav Aiaq>opiKav E^ioaocav 19

c = b 2 /4 KQI a, b, f oraSEpeg, atr|v aKoAou0r| \ir\ oiaoyEvii e|iooor|

v x x (x,t) = av t (x,t) + g(x), onou g(x) = f e - ( b x / 2 '.

|(5) Na ano6ix6i OTI, n eliocoon Tricomi u x x (x,y) + xu uu (x,y) = 0, (x,y) 6 R 2 , avdvetai


i |aopcpr|

(a) Uf.n-fcft-TiH-'luf.-UnHO, 6tavx<0,

(t>) uaa + Ufjp + up = 0, diav x > 0, = y . 3 = -3x/2.

Eniong va ano6eix6Ei oti, air|v nepintaor) nou x < 0, 01 xapaKirpioriKEg KapnuXEg Eivai
oAEg.
Mia vpaypiKii pr| ovioyevris pepiKii SmcpopiKii e^iooor) Seuieprig id|r)5 0115 6uo petaBAriieg
i ir|v aKoXou6r| YEVIKII popcpii
,y) + bu x y(x,y)4-cu u u (x,y) + du x (x,y) + cuy(x,y) + fu(x l y) = g(x,y), (x,y) K 2 ,

a,b,c,d, e,f eivai ovivapxiioeig \iovo tcov x , y . (a) Na anoSeixOei OTI, otav 6X01 01
Xeateg- eivai oraOepoi, 01 KQVOVIKES jaopcpEg yia TIS unEpBoXiKEg, napaBoXiKEg r)
napapEvouv Ypa)-i)-iu<ES \it oraOEpous OTJVTEXEOTES KQI eivai avtioroixa

napa6oXiKiinop<pii,

Na ano6Eix9ei OTI ri e<|)apvioYii TOU pETaoxruaaTiopou V("V,T|) = e V+pT1 w(-v,Ti), onou e , p


ai KaT(iXXr)XE$ ora6Epes, (i) crtqv nEpinTCoar) Tf)g unEpBoXiKqg KOI trig eXXEirruKrig viop<j>iig a-
icpEi Toug opoug npcoTrjg Td^ng. EVW (il) orr|v nEpinToori trig napa6oXiKrig popcpiig anaXXoicpEi
; p o u g w v ,w, OTQV q 7^ 0 KOI ioug opoug w v ,w n , OTOV q = 0.

1.6 EniAuari McptKcbv AtacpopvKov E^tacbaecov |ic Mc666oug


EuvrjGcov Ataq>optKcbv EIOCOOCG>V
pia viEY0-^1! 011060 LiEpiKcbv 8iacpopiKcbv E^IOCOOECOV, tcov onoicov r| Auor| (JpioKEiai
:u$ r)6ri YvcocrcEg >iE666ouSICOV ouvii6ov 6iacpopiKcbv g\acbacov. AEV undpxEi yeviKOg KQ-
; yia tnv ecpappoyii autov TCOV pE966cov. H xpil01!!-10110"!01! ^oug E^aptdtai TOOO ano
1
anAoTnta tng uno E^Etaor) laEpiKris 6iacpopiKris E^iocoons, ooov KOI ano tnv EiinEipia
KQI 6^iOTxvia TOU iiAtntr|. Ev8uctiKd 9a napaGoouii ta aK6Aou9a npo6Ar|viata.

1.6.1. Me rr\ XP^\ar\ icov ouvridav SicupopiKcJv e^iocoaeav va Hudei


10 aKdJloudo np66jlr]ij.a HpiK(bv bv e^iocboecjv 6zuipr]<; rdfrjc;

(x, y) = x2cosy, x e R, y (0, n/2), u(x, 0) = 0, x e R, u(x, n/2) = 0, x e R (6.1)


Avar] 'EXOUTIE oti
-\ -\
dUy/dy = x cosy ri dxiy = x cosydy.
ME 6ia6oxiKES oAoKAnpooEig npOKurttEi OTI

Uu = x2siny + f (x) r] u(x,y) = x2cosy + f(x)y + g(x),


mi
20 1. Eioayayr) S MepiKcg AicupopiKcc; E^ioo

dnou f KOI g auGaipETEg ouvapTrjoEig aro C'(R). 'Opcog Exoupc OTI u(x,0) = x 2 +
g(x) = 0, 6nAa6r) g(x) = x2. Entorjg IOXUEI OTI u(x,7t/2) = j^ + g(x) = 0, an'
dnou npOKurrtEi on f(x) = ~^~- 'Apa, TEAiKd r\ (pova6iKr)) Auor) TOU npo6AiipaTOg (6.1)
8i6eTai and Tr) ouvdpTr)OT)
2 2yx2
= x cosy hx .
n
1.6.2. Afe 1/7 XPnorl avvr\Bov 8ia<popiKCJV va jlvdd
ro d>v 6iacpopiKcbv

u x y ( x , y ) + 4 u x ( x , y ) = 2 x , (x,y) 6 IR2, u(0,y) = 1, y R, ux(x,0)=0, x 6 R (6.2)

Auar\ EuKoAa (iAEnoupE du

( U y + 4 u ) x = 2 x ii viy +4u = x2 + f ( y ) ,

dnou f auGaipETn ouvdpTnon OTO C'(R). H TsAEUTaia anoTEAEi pia i ouvr]0r|


6ia(popiKri E^iocoorj Iris Td^ng cog npog y ps yEviKq Auor) Tr) ouvdpTnor)

u(x,y) =

2p4y

onou g auGaipETn ouvdpTrior) OTO C And Tig nEpiopioriKES auv0r)Kg, nou ouvo-
SEUOUV TO npdBAnpa (6.2), npOKumxi d

=l r, Jf(y)e 4 dy = e4y - g(0).

u(x,y) =
EnopEvcog IOXUEI 6n
Ux(x,y) =

H 6UTEpr) (ouvopiaKr)) auv0r)Kr| OTI

6nAa6ri ExoupE du g'(x) = x/2 Kat g(x) = x2/4 + c, dnou c auGatpETi]


oraGepd. Apa TEAiKd, acpou c = g(0), ppiOKOups OTI r) (pova8iKii) Auor) TOU npo6Ar)paTog
(6.2) 6i6ETai and Tq ouvdpTr)or)
V2 ^1 Y2 V2
u(x,y ) = - g(0) - \ + c| --\ - -
1.6 Mcdo6oi LuviiOav AicupopiKav Egiocboecov 21

napdSciyjia 1.6.3. Me irj XP~nar] Hd68av icov ouvr)dG>v 6ia(popiKcbv e^iotiaecov va Avdei
10 OKQjIovdo np66jir]iia iiepiKav 6ia.<popiK.av e^iaoaecov 6eviepr]g

u* ) (x,y) = u x (x,y) + 2, ( x , y ) e K 2 , u(0,y) = 0, y R, Ux(x,0) =x 2 , x e R. (6.3)

It/or; 'Exoupe OTI (u y u) x = 2, an' onou npoKunTEi OTI tiy u = 2x 4- f ( y ) , onou


f auSaipeTr) auvdpTnar) crro C ] (IR). H TeAeuTaia anoTeAei jaia pr| opOYevii YpauV111^1!
oi)vr|6n 6ia<f>opiKii e^iouor] Ing Ta^ng og npog y, onoTe CXOUVIE cog Y^viKii Auor) Tng
TOU npo6AiijjaTog (6.3) Tr] auvdpTncni

u(x,y) -

(6.4)

onou g(x) auGaipETr) auvdpTnar] OTO C^R). Ano Tig nEpiopioriKEg ouvGiiKEg, nou
ouvoStuouv 10 np66Anu.a (6.3), npoKunTEi OTI

-0, 6nAa6r, (6.5)

Enopevug ano tig axeoxig (6.4) KQI (6.5) auvEnd-Yeiai on

u(x,y) - ey {-2xe-y - g(0) + g(x)} (6.6)

ETOI napaycoYi?ovrag TF| (6.6) npoKunTEi on

6r)Aa6ii

u x (x,0) = {- =x KOI

onou c auGaipETri ora0Epd crto R. EnopEvcog i Auor) TOU npo6AiipaTog (6.3) 8a


eivai

u(x,y) = ey <{ -2xe-y + + 2x + c - g(0) } .

Eni8ii oiicog EXOUU.E c = g(0), OTI, (pova6iKii) Auor) TOU npo-


(6.3) 8i6Tai ano Tr| ouvdpTnor)

u(x,y) = - +2x V .
22 KccpdAaio 1. Eiaaycjyr/ ari Mepixcf Aia<popiKe EfiaoaaJ

1.6.1 npo6Aiip.axa
Me tr| xpriorl ueOoSov tov auvr|0G>v 6ia<popubv E|iocboeuv va AuGouv id aK6Aou6a npo6Ari)jaiQ
pepiKuv SiacpopiKOv

(a) u x u ( x , y ) - u u ( x , y ) = 5 , ( x , y ) e R 2 , u u ( 0 , y ) = 3 y 2 , y 6 R, u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , x R, I
Andvirjarj: u(x,y) = e x (y 3 + 5y) 5y
(b) u x ( x , y ) = siny, ( x , y ) 6 R 2 , u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , y e R,
Andircrjorj: u(x,y) = xsiny
(c) u x u ( x , y ) - 4 x y = e x , ( x . y ) e R 2 , u v ( 0 , y ) = y , y R, u ( x , 0 ) = 2 , x 6 R,
Anavmor]: u ( x , y ) = x y + ye" + -y 2 y + 2,
2
(d) u x u ( x , y ) - 4 u ( x , y ) - x 2 , ( x , y ) e R 2 , u u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , y e R, u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , x e R, I
(e) u x u ( x , y ) + 6 u y ( x , y ) = x 2 , ( x , y ) 6 R 2 , u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , y e R, u ( x , 0 } = 5 , x 6 R,
(f) u x x (x,y) = e x y 2 , ( x , y ) e R 2 , u(0,y) = 1, y R, u ( x , 0 ) = , x e R. 2.1

Ync
6io
1.7 Bt6Atoypa<t>tKcg Avacpopcg em

Pia nepanepa) }aeAetr| napanepnoujae tov ev6iacpep6]jevo avayvoatri peta^u aAAcov aia npi
piBAia tcov L. C. Andrews [3], R. Courant [18], S. J. Farlow [26], A. Friedman [28], P.
Garabedian [29], J. Hadamard [36], J. Kevorkian [46], M. A. Pinsky [59], D. W. Trim
[81], Tyn Myint-U and L. Debnath [83], H. F. Weinberger [84], E. C. Zachmanoglou and ni
D. W. Thoe [86] KQI E. Zauderer [87]. oe
ru

a
T

V
c
KcqxiAcuo 2

EJjiacocjig EAAeinTiKOu Tunou

2.1 Exaaycoyr|-4pay}iEva IIc6ta

Yndpxouv noAudpiGvia cpaivopEva, tcov onoicov r\ E^iXify] ouvtEAdtai a' eva tppayuevo ne-
6iotou xcopou. To \e.\ov6(; auto anotEAd KaOopiotiKO atoixEio otr|v EniAoyri trig u.066ou
eniAuaric;, Kat' EnEKtaor) OE KOI ato auvoAo tcov (iaoiKcov KOIVCOV xapaKtripiotuccov auicbv
ttov npo6Ar|u.dtcov. Fia to Aoyo auto r\ avdntu^r] KOI EcpapviOYii tcov u.066cov, nou acpopouv
npo6Aiiviata opiaviEva OE iar|-9PaYP-va rt6ia, 8a \ivz\ xQPlOTa mo KECpdAaio 6.
Eva dAAo oroixEio ariviavtiKO cn:r| )jEAtr| tcov jjEpiKcbv 6iacpoptKcov E^IOWOECOV Eivai ri
Sidacaot] xou neSiou opiouoii. 'Etoi to KECpdAaio 2 avacpdpEtai OE npo6Aiiviata EAAEi-
miKOu Tunou OE 6uo (xcopiKEs) 6iaatdotc; (pta6Ar)tc; x,y). To KECpdAaio 3 avacpEpetai
oe npo6Ar)viata IlapaBoAiKOu Tunou KOI to KECpdAaio 4 OE npo6Ar|]jata Ynp6oAiKOu Tu-
nou air] pta (xcopiKii) 6idotaori (pta6Ar|tg x, t). H avtipEtconiori tcov npo6Aripdtcov autcov
yivetai U.E Ewiaia p0o6oAoYia. Eto KECpdAaio 5 9a aoxoAri0oup p ta napandvco npo-
pAiipata atis 6uo KOI tpEic; (xcopiKEg) 6iaotdoig, onou r| p0o6oAoYia Eivai mo ouvGEtr)
(rioAAanAEg EEipEg Fourier, EsipEg Fourier-Bessel, ipg Fourier-Legendre, KAn...).
ISiaitEpa xpii01!11! Yia Trl peAEtri tcov YpappiKcbv npoBAqpdtcov 9a ano6ix0d q apxn
tqS unepGeons (superposition principle), tr)v onoia 9a 6cbooup otr) OUVEXEIO OE 6uo
popcpEg, \\a avtiotoixa npo6Ar|u.ata. H an66i^r] autcov tcov anotEAEapatcov
anAr| avtiKatdotaor) tcov auvaptr|aEov.

Scupqua 2.1.1. (li\ Apxn Ynepeeoris) 'Ema Un(x), n = 1,2, 3,... , x D C


R N , N > 2, jli/oeig }j.iag ypa^tKrjc; o^oyvoug {^epiKrig dicupopiKris ^iooor]g Lu(x) =
0, x e D C KN , N > 2. T6i Kdde ypa^tKdc; auvduao^og aviciv anoietei EJiiorjg j(.vor\
^iocoorig. Ei6iK6ipa, r\ avvapvr\ar\ u(x) = 2^iv=i c nUn(x)
c;, yia Kade. ouvoJio oiadepav Ci , 02, 03, .... yia 10 onoio r\ oetpd awcr\

6ecbpnua 2.1.2. (2t\ Apxn YnepGeons) 'Eora u n (x), n == 1,2,3, ...,m, x 6 D C


K N , N > 2, jlvoi$ lav m to Tt/lrjSoc; -ypa^iKCJV fj.r]-o^oyevcjv nzpiK&v 6ia(popiKCJV
eiod>o(DV Lu = f n , n = 1,2,3,... ,m. Tore 77 u = 2^=! un anozetei jLvar\ rrjg \ir\
Lu = -- f n -
24 Kt(f>aXaio 2. Tunou

2.2 EAAEirtxiKou Tunou-Etoayuyrj-IoroptKo


H mo aripavuKii g"iooor| Tr)g MaGqpaTiKiig 4>uoiKiig Eivai r| anAouoTEpri pEpiKr] 6ia-
cpopiKr) djiooori EAAEinTUcou Tunou, r| onoia ovopd^ETai E^iouoii SuvapiKOu ri c^iouoq
Laplace. H pop<pii Trjg Eciooor) Laplace OE KapTsoiavEg ouvrETayiaeveg, orig 6uo KOI Tpeig
Siaordaeig eivai

Uxx(x,y)+Uy y ( x .y) = 0, (x.yJGDcR2,


Ux X (x,y,z);f Uyy(x,y,z) + u Z2 (x,y,z) = 0, (x,y,z) D c K3,
dnou D Eva avoiKTO (oTjveicciKo) unoauvoAo TOU M N , N 2,3 avrioroixa. H YtviKii
popcpii Trig E^iocoor|g Laplace orig N 6iaordoig Eivai

Au(x) = V 2 u(x) =0, x 6 D C MN ,

av^dpTr|Ta and oucrcripa ouvTETavpEvcDv KOI 6idoraon. EE EnouxvEg EvoTpTEg 9a EXOU-


pE Tqv EUKaipia va SiapopcpoooupE KOI pEAETiiooupE Tqv iooor| Laplace OE noAiKEg,
KuAlv6plKg KOI OfpOlplKEg OUVTETOYVlEVEg.
H E^iocoor] 6uvapiKOu nEpiypdcpEi Tr| cnaai\Li\ KaTaoraoi] dAcov TOV cpaivopEvov, TO
onoia o6r|YOuv OE opOYEVEig YPO-WiKEg pspiKEg 6iacpopiKg E^ioooEig unEp6oAiKOu r|
napa6oAiKOU Tunou. Qg TETOIO, anoTEAsi TO pa6r)paTiKO npoTuno araoipov cpaivopEvov,
dnwg

ordoipr) KaTdoraor) pTd6oor|g 9EppdTr|Tag oe opoyEVEg uAiKO,

6uvapiKd (iapuTr|Tag OE eAu0po x^P0-

cpooraTiKO 6uvapiKd OE opoidpop(pa 6ir|AKTpiKd,

paYvr)TiKO Suvapixd OE eAu0epo x^P0'

r|AEKTpiKO 6uvapiKd orr| Qsopia Trig ordoipr|g poiig pEupdTov OE

TO SuvapiKd TaxuTrjTag oe gEuard eooTepiKr] Tpi6f| (inviscid).

Oi Auoeig tr)g E^iooorig SuvapiKOu anoTEAouv Tig Suvaiiixes ouvap-dioEig, TOV onoi-
eov r) pEAeTr) anoTEAsi avriKEipEvo svdg i8iauEpou KAd6ou TOV paGrjpaTiKcov Tng 8ecjpiag
SuvaniKOu. H paoiKii i6iOTr|Ta TOV ouvexov 6uvapiKov ouvapTiiosov Eivai r| AeioTiiTa.
Eva KaAci xono6cTq}icvo np66Aqiia. nou nspucAEiEi pia iooar| Laplace, ouvo6U-
TOI and pia auvopiaKii ouvGiiKr]. Oi ouvopiaKEg ouv0r|Keg, dnog avacpEpETai crrrjv EvdTr|Ta
1.3, eivai Tpicov Tunov Dirichlet, Neumann KOI iieucies ri Robin. Axdpa TO npo6Ar|paTa
Laplace x^pi^ovrai oe eouxeptxa, av TO ouvopo nepucAeiei TO nE6io KOI ejjoxEpiKa, av
TO ouvopo nspucAEiEi TO oupnAripopa TOU n6iou. ETrj 6UTpr) nEpinToar) TO n6io 9a
npsnEi va eivai pr| cppaypevo.
O Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827) npcJTOg avmu?; 6iEo6iKd ir\ 90pia 6u-
vapiKou OTO pYaAio6Eg Epyo TOU Mecanique Celeste, nou K6o6r)K OE 5 Tdpoug and TO
1799 sog TO 1825. Av KOI 6EV avavvopi^e Tq aqpavriKq ouvEiocpopd dAAov paGqpaTiKov,
dnog Yia napd6iYpa TOU Joseph Lagrange (1736-1813), dpog ps TO ip\o TOU 6iupuve
2.3 ^ DuvTrayiJV. 25

inoAu Tr| Sscopia 5uvau,iKOu, COOTE r\ paotKii e^iocoor) Au(x) = V 2 u(x) = 0, va cpepei
I ovopa TOU. a npenci EvrouTOig va avacppoup.E OTI, r\ iocoor| auTii napouoid^ETai
np6ir| cpopd orig EpyaatEg TOU Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), nou acpopouoav Tnv
SuvaiitKn,. 'Evag dAAog Aap.npog p.a0np.aTiKOg KOI (puaiKOg Trig snoxng EKEivrjg r|Tav
o Simeon Denis Poisson (1781-1840), o onoiog unrjp^e p.a0r|ttis Kai npooraTEUopevos
i P. S. de Laplace. O Poisson oe p.ia epYaoia TOU 1833 SioTuncooe THV npoTaon, OTI TO
apuTnTag u(x) at eva ne6io nuKvoTr|Tas p(x), unaKOuei OE u.ia pn ou.OYvri
iooons Laplace, Tnv Au(x) = 47igp(x), r\ onoia Eivai v^0011! cog r) E^iocoori
son, onou g Eivai o ouvrEAEoriig papuTnTag. O FEppavog piaOripaTiKdg Gustav Pe-
ter Dirichlet (1805-1859) EmppEdornKE i6iaupa ano ioug P. S. de Laplace KOI S. D.
on, OTQV EIXE Tnv EUKaipia ornv apxn Tng KapiEpag TOU va ouvavrri0i U-a^i Toug crco
pioi. To 1850 8nu.oaiuo pia onp.avriKr| EpYaoia, ornv onoia napouoiaoE TO np66An-
]ia cnjvopiaKov o\iv9nKcov, nou cpspsi TO 6vop.a TOU. 'Evag dAAog fEppavog cpuamog o Carl
Gottfried Neumann (1832-1925), Ka0r|YniIiS ^H AEuyia ano TO 1868 Ecog TO 191 1,
ii ouvEiocpopd arr) QEcopia 6uvapiKOu. H ouv0riKri nou auvoSsuEi TO
\iipaTa 6EUTpou Ei6oug cpepEi TO 6vop.d TOU. O Neumann Eivai Enioqg
B dpyo TOU arnv iSpuoq KOI 6iu0uvor| TOU EyKupou KOI noAu yvworou p.a0npaTiKOu
ntpio6iKou Mathematische Annalen.

2.3 E|touoi] Laplace oe Kapxcotavcg


2.3.1 OpGoyuvta IleSia - EuvopiaKCg uv9qKcs Dirichlet
Tnv aKdAou0q E^iocoori Laplace OE KapTEOiavEg ouvTETaypEVEg opiap.vr) OE
op6oyuvio n6io p. auvopiaKEg ouv0r|Kg Tunou Dirichlet

.y)+Uyy(x,y) = 0, 0<x<a, 0<y<b, (3.1)


u(0,y)=0, u(a,y) = 0, 0<y <b, (3.2)
u(x,0)=0, u(x,b) = f(x), 0<x<a, (3.3)

onou Q,b 6oop.voi QETIKOI api0p.oi (BAEnE, ExHP 0 -2.3.1).

u = f(x)
b

u =0 Ux% + Uyy = 0 u =0

0 u=0 a

iJa 2.3.1: To Up66K.r\\La Dirichlet crro Opdoycovio.

Pia Auor) TOU npo6Aiip.aTOg (3. l)-(3.3) Ecpappo^oupE TH iie6o5o


2. E$iaaai<; EXAcmiiKOu Tunm

uexa6Ai)TOV ri pe6o6o Fourier, 8n.Aa6r) GEWpoups OTI, r\ Auor) EXEI Tr| artOTEAc
(3.2H3
u(x,y) =X(x)Y(y), 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b.

AvTiKaGiorcovrag Tn.v napa6oxii (3.4) orr|v E^iouar) (3.1) E

X"(x) Y"(y)
0<x<a, 0<y<b.
X(x) Y(y)'
Eni6r| o npcJTOg AoYOg sivai ouvdpTnor) povo TOU x KQI o 6UTEpog ouvdpTr|or| povij
TOU y, r| povr) 6uvaTOTn.Ta nou undpxEi Yla va eivai iooi, Eivai KQI 01 6uo Aoyoi
TauTi^ovrai OE pia KOivri crta0Epd, Tnv onoia oup6oAi^oup p A KQI anoTEAEi Tr| oraGe
6taxcjpio|iou TOU npoBAiipcnog. EnopEvog EXOUPE OTI

X"(x) Y"(y)
= -A, 0 < x < a, 0 <y < b. (3.5)
X(x) Y(y)
'ETOI ano Tr| pEpiKr) Sia^opiKii Eiooor| (3.1) npOKumouv 01 aKoAouGsg
SiacpopiKEg e^iocooEig

X"(x) + A X ( x ) = 0 , 0<x<a, (3.6)


Y"(y) - AY(y) = 0, 0 < y < b. (3.7)

Oi TpEig ouvopiaKEg ouv6r|Keg TOU npo6Ar|paTOg (3. l)-(3.3) 6i6ouv

X(0)=0, X(a)=0, Y(0) = 0. (3.8)

ouvopiaKr) auv6r|Kr| TOU npo6Ar|paTOg (3. l)-(3.3), r| onoia Eivai pr|-opOYvr|g,|

u(x, b) = X(x)Y(b) = f(x), 0 < x < a. (3.9)


Eni6ri Eivai pr| opoyEvrig 9a xpnllJonoiriGi OTO TEAog \ia TOV npoo6iopiopo Tng
aKpi6oug popcprig Tng povooiipavra opiopEvng Auong. Oi Auoig Tng $"ioa)OT|g (3.6), nou
iKavonoiouv ug 6uo npoTEg ouvopiaKEg ouvGiiKEg Tng oxeong (3.8), Eivai

An = 5, X n ( x ) = s i n - , 0 < x < a, n = 1,2,3,.... (3.10)

Fi' auTEg Tig TipEg TOU A 01 AuoEig Tng E^iocoong (3.7), nou iKavonoiouv KOI Tnv
auvopiaKii ouvGiiKq Tng oxEong (3.8), Eivai
nrry
Y n (y) -sinh , 0<y < b , n = 1,2,3,.... (3.11)

EnopEvog Ecpappo^ovrag TFJV apxri Tng unpGon.g ora napandvw, ppioKOups OTI, \\a
auGaipETEg oraGEpEg c n , n = 1,2,3,..., 01

UTtX UTO)
-sinh- , 0<x<a, 0<y<b. (3.12)
n=1
a a
IWTOL7
2.3 Kapreaiave'c; Zuvreray/jevec;. 27

anoieAouv AuoEig Tqg E^iocoong Laplace (3.1) KQI TQV ipicov rcpcoicov ouvopiotxcov
3.2)-(3.3). Ano Tnv TETcxp-crj auvopiaxrj ouv6r|Kr| (3.9) npoKunTEl T] axeori
00 ,

u(x, b) = f (x) = 5~ cn sinh sin , 0 < x < a, (3.13)


f n n

6r|Aa6ii 01 OTaGspEg cn sinh ^^ anoTEAouv Toug auvTEAEOTEg Fourier Tng f (x). EnopEvcog
9a
mtb _ 2 f a TITtX
sinh f(x) sin dx, n = 1,2,3,.... (3.14)
a a Jo a
Apa r) TEAiKii uopcpri Tng TUIUKIIS Auorig (formal solution) TOU npo6Af|uaTOg (3.1) -
(3.3) 6i6iai ano ir| auvdptnori (3. 13), onou oitnaGEpEg cn KaGopi^ovrai (uovooriuavra)
ano ug o)(Oig (3. 14). IlapauEVEi npog 6ipuvnoq TO aKpiBsg Ei6og Tng Auong, av 6r|Aa6r)
r| u(x,y ) sivai KAaoiKii ri ao6vr|g Auor) TOU npo6AriuaTOg. H 6ia6iKaoia nou aKoAou9r|-
9ilK, Aoyco TCOV ansipcov aGpoiauaTcov, 8nAa6ii TCOV opiaKcbv 6ia6iKaoicbv, SEV E^aocpaAi^Ei
oti r] napdoraon, nou Aau6dviai cog TEAIKO anoTEAEOua, iKavonoid Tnv E^iocoor) UE Tnv
ii Ewoia. AUTO anoTEAEi avriKEiUEvo Tng EvoTn.Tag 2.5.

2.3.1. Na jiudei 10 napcmdva) np66jlrma Dirichlet (3. l)-(3.3) mo izipdyavo


a = b = 1 KCLI yia ir\ oi>vKKpi}jvri avvdpir}ar] f (x) = Tox(1 x), dnov 10 TO
eivai iua npaynaiiKr] atadcpd.

Avar\ AKoAouGcbvrag TH.V nponyoupEvr) 6ia6iKaoia (JpioKOuus OTI, y\a TQ 66ouva TOU
napa6ivuaTOg, r) crxEor] (3.12) ypdcpETai

= cn sin (UTTX) sinh (nTry), 0<x<l, 0<y<l.


n=1
Xpr|aiponoicbvrag Tnv auvopiaKii ouv6r|Kri \\a f(x) = TOX(! x), npoKunrEi OTI

u(x, 1 ) = TQX(I x) = V" cn sin(nTrx) sinh(nTr), 0 < x < 1,


n=l

onou 01 noooTnTEg cn sinh(nTi) anoTEAouv Toug auvcEAEOTEg Fourier Tng auvdpTnong


f(x) = TQX(! x). EnouEvcog 9a IOXUEI on

c n sinh(n7r) = 2T 0 f x)sin(n7Tx)dx,
Jo
n (
0, 11 = 2,4,6,....
Apa r] TEAiKii uopcpri Tng TuniKiig Auong TOU npo6AriuaTOg Eivai

_ 8To ^- sin[(2n 1 )TTX] sinh[(2n 1 JTOJ]


"n 3 "^-
TL= I
(2n - 1 )3 sinh[(2n - 1 )n] '
28 KcepdAaio 2. EAAeinrucou Tunou

2.3.2. Na Avdei TO aKoAovdo np66jLr]v.a ovvopiaKav avvdrjKcbv wnov Diri- \


chlet

,y) = 0, O < X < T T , 0<


u(0,y)=0, u(7i,y) =0, 0<y<l, (a)
u(x,0)=0, u(x, 1) = sinx, 0 < x < n.

Avar] Ecpapu.65ou^e TO xwpiau.d u.Ta6AnTci>v u(x,y) = X(x)Y(y) oro np66Ar|u.a (a),


onoTE npoKumouv TO npo6Aiip.aTa

X"(x) + AX(x) = 0, 0 < x < 7 t , X ( 0 ) = 0 , X ( 7 t ) = 0 , (|3)


Y"(y)-AY(y) 0, 0 < y < 1 , Y(0) = 0, (y)
H Yevuai Auor| TOU npoBAiipaTOg (|3) eivai

X(x) = Ci coskx + C2Sinkx, dnou A = k2.

Kdvovrag XP1!01! Tcov ouvopiaKuv cruvGriKcbv ppioxoupE OTI, TO i6io5UYii TOU npo6Ar|-
U.OTOS ((3) Eivai

An = n2, X n (x) = sin(nx), 0 < x < TT, n = 1,2,3,.... (6)

ETOvrag A = An orqv e^iooar) (y) unoAoYi5ETai Tl- 1 Auor| TOU npo6AiijaaTOg (y)

Y n (y) =sinh(ny), 0<y<1, n (e)


ir\ YEviKEUuxvri apxii Tng unEpGEong (6) KOI (e) npo-
OTI, r| Auor| TOU npo6Aiiu.aTOg (a) 9a Eivai

u-(",y) = ^c n sin(nx)sinh(ny), 0 < x < 7 t , 0<y


n=l

onou 01 oraGEpES cn npooSiopi^ovrai, ETOI OOTE va iKavonoiEuai r| u.r| ou,OYvrig ouvo-


ii ouv0r|Kr|. a npni snovievcos va

u(x, 1 ) = sinx = cn sin(nx) sinh(n), 0 < x < n.


n=l

H ouvndYTai OTI, \\a n = 1 EXOUU.E Ci sinh(1) 1 ii


. Evo Y^d n = 2,3,4, ... ,
1 f71
Cn = sinxsin(nx)dx = - {cos(1 n)x cos(l+n)x}dx = 0.
7t sinh n
Apa TO npo6Ar|u.a (a) 6Xtai Tunmri Auor) Trig
sinh y sinx
u(x,y) = - -TTT-, O<X<TT,
sinh(l )
2.3 29

2.3.2 EuvopiaKEg EuverjKcg Tunou Robin


ecopoupe 10 np66Ar|u.a Trjg eiocoor|g Laplace oe opGoycovio ue (peiKreg) opoyeveig Neu-
mann KCU pr| opoyevdg Dirichlet ouvopiaiceg
(ex) y)=0, 0 < x < 7t, 0<y<1, (3.15)
ux(0,y)=0, ux(7t,y)=0, 0<y<l, (3.16)
u(x,0) = TQCOSx, u(x, 1) =Tocos 2 x, 0 < x < n, (3.17)
(a),
onou TO TO eivai pia npaypaTiKii araGepd. E(pappoovrag Tr|v TexviKii TOU x^piopou TQV
UnaBAnTov OTO np66Anpa (3.15) - (3.17) npOKumouv TQ aKoAouGa npo6AiipaTa
X"(x)+AX(x) = 0, 0<x<7t, X'(0) = 0, X ' ( 7 t ) = 0 , (3.18)
Y"(x)-AY(x) = 0, 0<y<1. (3.19)

Auvovrag TO np66Ar|pa (3.18) npoKunTOUV 01 QKoAouGeg i6iOTipeg KQI avrioroixeg


i6ioouvaptriocig
A0=0, X 0 (x) = 1, 0 < x< 7t,
An = n , , n = 1,2,3,..., 0 < x < n. (3.20)
H tniAuori TOU npo6AripaTog (3.19), yia A = A n , n = 0,1,2,..., 6i8ei tig Auoeig
b 0 y, n = 0,
Yn(y) = an cosh ny + bn sinh ny, n = 1,2,3,..., 0<y<1.
(3.21)

AxoAouGcovtag ir\ 6ia6iKaaia TQV nporiyouuevcov napa6eiYVidTG)v, ano Tig oxeoeig


(3.20) KCU (3.21) (JpioKouvae OTI, r\ Auor) TOU npo6Ar|paTog (3.15)-(3.17) 8a exei tr|

[a n coshny + bn sinh ny] cos nx, (3.22)


n=l
yia KciGe 0 < x < n, 0 < y < 1 . H ouvopiaKri ouvGiiKr) Dirichlet OTO axpo y = 0
orr| Auor) (3.22) 6i6ei

u(x,0) = TQCOSX = QO + a n cos(nx), 0 < x < n.


n=1
H TeAeuTaia axeor) auvendyeTai OTI, 9a iKavonoieuai r| ouv6r)Kr| Dirichlet cnco aKpo
y = 0 vaovo yia QO = 0, QI = TO KQI an = 0, via ^a ^a unoAoma n = 2,3,4, ... .
Enopevcog r) Auon (3.22) yi

^( x .y) boy +To cosh y cosx+^~ b n sinhny cosnx, O < X < T T , 0 < y < 1 . (3.23)
n=1

Ecpapiao^ovrag T6pa orr| Auor) (3.23) Tr| ouvopiaKri cruv6r|Kri Dirichlet OTO tiicpo
y = 1,

TO cos x bo + TO cosh 1 cos x + ^ bn sinh n cos(nx) ,


n=1
30 KtfpaXaio 2. EXAciniiKOu TunouB

r\ ioo5uvap.a onou 01 o
ouvopiaKi
1 1
-T0+ ^Tocos2x TO cosh 1 cosx = bo + Y" b n sinhncos(nx).
n=1
Fia va aAnGEUEi r\ TEAEUTOI'O oxon, 9a va icxuouv 01 aKoAou0g iaoTnTg
H TEAEUXC
1 TO cosh 1 To
, b2 = r, bn = 0, = 3,4,5,....
sinhl 2 sinh 2'
EuvSud^ovrag 6Aa TO nponYOupEva (JpioKOupE OTI, TEAixd r\ Tunucri Auor) TOU npo6Aii-|
paTog (3.15) - (3.17) sivai
1_ cosh 1 sinh y 1 . sinh 2y
u(x,y = -T 0 y+ T0 c o s h y - - cos x + TO ^ - cos 2x
2 nhl
sinh 2 sinh 2
sinhfl y) sinh2y
cos x + ^ cos 2x , 0 < x < n,
sinhl 2 sinh 2 an' ono

2.3.3. No. Jludei TO aKOJlovdo Tcp66K.r]v.a ouvopiaKcbv auvdrjKcjv VXIKIOV iitnov

-,y) +Uyy(x,y) = 0, 0<x<l, 0<y<l,


itx(0,y)=0, itx(l,y) = 0, 0<y<1, (a)
2
u(x,0)=x , Uy(x, 1) = 0, 0<x<1.

Avar] E<pappo^oup.E TO D pETaBAnrav u(x, y) = X ( x ) Y ( y ) , onoTE npOKiinTOuv TQ


npo6AiipaTa

X"(x) + AX(x) 0, 0<x<1, X'(0)=0, X'(l)=0,


Y"(y)-AY(y) = 0, 0<y<1, Y'(l)=0,

H i Auor] TOU npo6AripaTOg ((3) eivai

X(x) = CT coskx + 02 sin kx, 0<x<1, onou A = k 2 .

Kdvovras XP1!01! TWV auvopiaKwv ouvGnKcbv ppioxouiie OTI, TO i6io5UYr| TOU npo6Ari-
(3) Eivai

, X n (x) =cos(n.7rx), , n = 1,2,3,....


OTJVC
OTnv E^iocoori (y) A = An unoAoyi^ETai OTI, ^ Auor] TOU npo6Aiip.aTOS (y)
p.op(})ii

oo + b0y, n = 0,
Y n (y) = a n cosh mry + bn sinh nrry, n = 1,2,3,..., 0<y<1.

EuvSud^ovrag Tn YviKup.Evn apxn Tng unEpGEons P.E Tig oxEOEig (6) KOI (e) npo-
KUITTEI OTI, n Auon TOU npoBAiip-aTOg (a) 9a sivai Tng p.op(piig

u(x,y) = cos(nrtx)[a n cosh(n7ry)+b n sinh(n7ty)],


n=1
3 Kapitaiavig Z 31

i 01 OTd0Epg Q n , b n npoo6iopiovrai, ETOI MOTE va iKavonoiEuai r\ pr)


ivopiaKT) auv0r|Kr| TOU apxucou npo6Ar)paTOg. a npsnEi Enopsvcog va ioxui

u(x,0) =x 2 = a0 + Y_ anCos(nTrx), 0 < x < l .


n=1
TtAeuiaia oxEor) ouvEndYETai OTI,

1
an=2
f 11 x7zcos(n.7ix)dx =
00 = 3, . n = 1,2,3, ....
Jo
Eniorjg exoupe OTI

ujx, 1) = 0 = bo + / cos(n7tx)[ sinh(nTry) +n7rb n cosh(n7ty)], 0 < x < 1,


* TITT
n=1
an' onou naipvoupE OTI
4(-1) n sinh(n7t)
b0 = 0 KOI bn = - 2 2 r-.
R*W* COSn(TT7tJ

Apa 10 np66Aqpa ( a ) SEXETQI TEAIKO TuniKrj Auar) Tr)g popcpr)g

r /4(-1) n . 4(-1) n sinh(n7T) \


u x,y - + > <^=-cosh(n.7ry) - 7 7 smh(n7ty) > cos(nTtx)
3 n ^ UZTIZ nW cosh(nTt) J

1 4 (-1) n coshn7T(1 -y)


n2 cosh UTT
n=1

2.3.3 E^iouor) Poisson ue uvoptaKC EuvGrJKcg Tunou Dirichlet


cupoupE TO npoBAnpa Tr)g pr) opOYEvoug ^iocoor)g Laplace (6r)Aa6r) Trjv c^touoi] Pois-
son) OTO op0OYcovio D = {(x,y) : 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b} UE pr) opOYEveig ouvoptaKEg
ouv9r|Kg Tunou Dirichlet

UocX(x,y)+Uyy(x,y) = f(x,y), 0<x<a, 0<y<b, (3.24)


u(x,y) = g(x,y), (x,y) e 3D. (3.25)

EcopoupE OTI r) Auar) u(x,y) TOU npo6Ar)paTOg (3.24) - (3.25) YP-<J>ETai og d0poiop.a
ouvapTiioEov u(x,y) = v(x,y) + w(x,y). H ouvdpTr)OT) v(x,y) anoTEAd Tr) Auor) TOU
QKoAou0ou npo6Aiip.aTOg Poisson ps opOYEVEig ouvopiaKEg auv0riKg Tunou Dirichlet

vxx(x,y)+Vyy(x,y) = f(x,y), 0<x<a, 0<y<b, (3.26)


v(x,y) = 0, (x,y)63D. (3.27)

Evcb r) ouvdpTnor) >v(x,y) anoTEAd Tr) Auor) TOU opOYEvoug npo6AiipaTOg Laplace p
I opOYEVEig ouvopiaKEg ouv0r)Kg Tunou Dirichlet

w x x (x,y) + Wyy(x,y)=0, 0<x<a, 0<y<b, (3.28)


w(x,y) = g(x,y)-v(x,y), ( x , y ) 6 3D. (3.29)
32 KecpdAaio 2. Eiac6aeic EAAcimiKOu Tunol 2.3 Kc

Fia Tnv EntAuor) TOU npo6Ar)po.TOg Poisson (3.26) - (3.27) o.KoAou9oup Tig 16
EniAuong pq opOYEvcbv npo6AnpdTcov. Fia napdSEiYpa, av r\ ouvdpTnor) f ( x , y ) eiv
Eva noAucovupo pa9pou n, TOTE 6oKipdoup cog Auosig noAucbvupa Pa9pou ( n + i
pe npoo6iopiaToug Toug ouvTEAEOTEg. AvdAoYa EpYa^opaorE KOI ornv nEpinTcoan, no
r) cruvdpTnori f ( x , y ) eivai K9EtiKr| r\ TpiycovopETpiKr) r\ auv6uaapog autcov. Fia
EntAuaq TOU opOYEvoug npo6Ar|paTOg Laplace (3.28) - (3.29) aKoAou9oup Tig i6t8
;, nou avanTux9nKav arnv EVOTHTQ 2.3.1.

napd8etyiia 2.3.3. Na 10 aKOJloudo Poisson us o^oyeveig ovvopia*


avvdr\Kg lunou Dirichlet

.y) +ityy(x,y) = -2, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b,


u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , u ( a , y ) = 0, 0 < y < b,
u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , u(x,b) = 0 , 0 < x < a.

Avar] EcopoujJE OTI r) Auoq u(x,y) tou npoGAiipaTOg (a) YP^Kp"01 "S dOpoiopd
ouvapTiioEQv u(x,y) = v(x,y) + w(x,y). Zuiacpcova ps T^V napandvco napatiipr|or
EnEiSri q auvdptr|or| f(x,y) = 2 Eivai EVQ noAuovupo pa9u,ou n = 0,
cog AUOEIS noAucbvuiia Pa6pou n + 2 = 2, 6r|Aa6ii

v(x,y) = ex2 + dxy + ey2 + fx + hy + k.

AvTiKa9ioTcbvrag Tnv TEAEUTaia napdoraor) arnv ^iocoor| Poisson AapBdvoupE 6n|


2c + 2e 2. Eni6r| ipdxvoupE \ia pia onoia6r|noT Auor|, pnopoups va
c = 1, e = 0. Oi unoAoinoi auvrEAEOTEg d, f, h, k pnopsi va EniAEYOuv
EnopEvcog, Yia d = 0, f = a, h = 0, k = 0 pia Auor) Tng E^iocoarig Poisson Eivai
popcpris

v(x,y) = ax-x 2 , (P)

cboTE r) v(x,y) = 0 cmg nAEupsg x = 0 KQI x = a. Lrr\ OUVEXEIO EuptoKouyt


Tr| auvdpTr|OT| w ( x , y ) cog Auor) TOU opOYEvoug npoGAiipaTOg Laplace p pr]
ouvopiaKEg cnjv9r)Kg Tunou Dirichlet

Wyy(x,y)=0, 0<x<a, 0<y<b,


w(0,y) = -v(0,y) 0, w(a,y) = -v(a,y) = 0, 0 < y < b, (y)
2 2
w(x,0) = v(x,0) (ax x ), w ( x , b ) = -v(x,b) = (ax-x ), 0 < x < a.

AKoAou9cbvrag T.T\ 6ia6iKaoia TCOV nponYOupEvcov EvoiiiTcov OTI TO np66Ar|iia


Dirichlet (y) SEXETQI Auor) Trjg popcpiig

r TITTX f UTTy TVTty 1


,y) = > sin a n cosh- - + b n sinh- .
*
n=1
a L a a J
WTOL7 Ec. Zuvrcraypevec.. 33

Etpappo^ovtag Tig \ir\ op-oyevEig auvopiaKEg cnjv0iiKeg tunou Dirichlet tou npo6Aiiy.a-
(3) npOKuntei oti

TITTX
w(x,0) = v(x,0) = ( a x x 2 ) = Y~ ansin
a

i. - nm nnb nnbl
w(x,b) = v(x,b) = (ax x ) = > sin - -+b n sinh
a n cosh- - -
Q Q Q

onou 0 < x < a. Ano tig tEAeutaieg ppiaKOup-E oti, 01 auvtEAEOtEg a n , bn, ,n =
,2,3, ... , npoaSiopi^ovtai ano tig e

2 fQ 2 UTTX / 0, n dptiog,
= (\* - ax)sin -- dx = < ,8
a Jo ^T n nepittog,

, n i,z,5,... .
sinh n.7ib

Apa ouyiqicova p. ^S napandvo oxeaEig r| teAiKii p.op<J>ii tng tuniKiig Auong \\a to
np66Ar|p.a (a) Eivai

u(x,y) = v(x,y)+w(x,y)
oo sinh + sinh sin
= ax x j-
n=1 sinh -13

yia 0<x<a, 0<y<b.

2.3.4 npo6Ar|>iaxa

1. Na Xu0Ei TO QKoXou0o np66Xnpa Tr)S E|iooor|s Laplace OE op0oyuvio pE prj opoyEveig cruvo-
es cnjv0r|KEg Tunou Dirichlet

uxx(x,y)+uuu(x,y) = 0, 0<x<2, 0<y<7t,


u(0,y)=0, u(2,y) = 0, 0 < y < 71,
2
u(x,0)=0, u(x,7t) = ax (l-x), 0<x<2,

onou a 9euKii ora0Epd.


2. Na Xu0Ei TO QKoXou0o npoBXnpa Tn$ E|iocooris Laplace OE opOoycovio px opoyEveig
Neumann KQI pri opoyEVEig Dirichlet ouvopiQKEg

uXx(x,y)+Uyy(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < 2n, 0 < y < 4n,


ux(0,y)=0, u x (27t,y) - 0, 0 < y < 4n,
3
u(x,0) = acos2x, u(x,47r) = acos x, 0 < x < In,

onou a 9TiKr| ora0Epd.


34 Kcq>a\aio 2. E$iotiocis EAAemriKOu TimM

3. No Au0i to axoAouGo np66Aqpa trig Ejiocooqg Laplace oe opGoycivio pE (pEiKtEg) Andmnori


Neumann KOI pq opoyEVEig Dirichlet ouvopiaxEg ouvGqKEg onou Qn
Uxx(x,y) + u u u (x,y) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b,
u x ( 0 , y ) = 0 , u x (a,y) 0, 0 < y < b,
u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , u(x, b) = x, 0<x<a.
/ ^ au 2a r~ oo fl ( 1 ) n ] cos sinh "u^-
Anavtnar,: u(x,y) - $ - Ln=i L n 2 8lnh ^b
a

4. Na Au0Ei to QKoAouGo np66Ar|pa trig E^iooorig Laplace OE opGoyovio p (pEiKtEg) opoyEveidJ


Neumann KOI pr| opoyEVEig Dirichlet ouvoptaKEg ouv9r|KEg
) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,
Ux(0,y)=0, ux(a,y) 0, 0 < y < b,
u(x,0)=0, u(x,b) = 1, 0 < x < a .
Anduirjar]: u(x,y) = .
5. Na Au0i to aKoAouGo np66Ar|pa trig E^iooorig Laplace OE opGoyovio p (pEiKtEg) opoyVEis|
Neumann KOI pq opoyEVEig Dirichlet ouvopiaKEg
Uxx(x.y)+ uuy(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,
ux(0,y)=0, ux(a,y) = 0, 0 < y < b,
u(x,0)=T1, u(x,b) T2) 0<x<a,
onou TI , T2 Eivai npaypatiKEg otaGspEg.
Andvirjor]: u(x,y) = ^^ + - "' '.
6. Na AuGEi to axoAouGo np66Aqpa tqg |iocaoqg Laplace OE op9oyuvto PE (pEiKtEg) opoyevEig
Neumann KQI pq opoyEVEig Dirichlet ouvopiaKEg ouvGqKEg
) + u u v (x,y) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,
u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , u(a,y) = 0, 0 < y < b,
u ( x , 0 ) - u u ( x , 0 ) = 0 > u(x,b) = f(x), 0 < x < a .
: u(x,y) - _, a n h n (y)sin ^, pE a n h n (b) - | JQa f(x)sin ^
onou h n (y) = cosh + JL sinh
7. Na AuGEi to aKoAouGo np66Aqpa tqg Eioooqg Laplace OE tEtpdycovo p pq opoyEVEig ouvo-
ouvGqKEg tunou Dirichlet
uxx(x,y)+uuy(x,y) 0, 0 < x < 1 , 0 < y < 1 ,
u(0,y)=0, u(1,y) 0, 0<y < 1,
u(x,0) =x(x- 1), u(x,1) = 0, 0 < x < l .

: u(x,y) = sinh[n7i(y 1)]sin(n7rx).


8. No AuGEi to aKoAouGo np66Aqpa tqg E$iocooqg Laplace oe tEtpdyuvo p pq opoyEvsig ouvo-
; ouvGqKEg tunou Dirichlet
Uxx(x,y)+Uyy(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < l , 0 < y < l ,
i -m i

u(x,0)=0, u(x, 1) = 0, 0<x<l.


2.4 35

: u(x,y) = ]T^ , a n [sinhfnTtx) - tanh(nTt) cosh(TITTX)}sin(nrry),


0nOU
n =

Na Au6ei to OKoAouSo np66Anua trig E^iooorig Laplace OE tEtpaycovo UE ur| ouoyEVEig ouvo-
iunou Dirichlet
Uxx(x,y)+uuy(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < 1 ,
u(0,y)=0, u(l,y) = sin ( Try) cos (Try), 0 < y < 1 ,
u(x,0)=0, u(x, 1) = 0, 0 < x < 1 .
tVElg

10. Na Au0i to a.K6Aou0o np66Arma tr|g E|iocoor|g Laplace oe tEtpdycovo ]it


ouvoptoKEg ouv0r|Keg tunou Neumann
uXx(x,y)+Uyu(x,y) 0, 0 < * < n, 0 < y < n,
u x ( 0 , y ) = y , u x (7t,y) = y, 0 < y < n,
u u ( x , 0 ) = x , Uy(x,7t) = x, 0 < x < TT.
11. Na Au0Ei to QKoAou0o np66Anua tng E^ioworig Laplace OE opOoywvio UE u.r| ouoyEVEig
ouvopiQKEg ouv0r|Kg tunou Robin
uxx(x,y)+uuu(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,
u(0,y)=0, ux(a,y) = 0, 0 < y < b,
u(x,0) = f(x), u u ( x , b ) + h u ( x , b ) 0, 0 < x < a,
onou TO h anotEAEi uia npayuatiKr) ota0Epd.
12. Na Au0Ei to QKoAouSo np66Ar|ua tng sijiocoorig Poisson OE tEtpdyuvo U.E ouoyEVEig auvopiQKEg
ouv9r|KES tunou Dirichlet
Uxx(x,y)+u u u (x,y) = -2y, 0<x<l, 0<y<l,
u(0,y)=0, u(l,y) 0, 0<y<1,
u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , u(x, 1) = 0, 0 < x < l .

totoaw u(x.y) =xy(1 -x)+ ^, ^


13. Na Au0i to QKoAouOo np66Ar|)aa trig E|iooor|g Poisson OE tEtpdyuvo UE ouoyEVEig auvopiQKEg
auv6iiKEg tunou Dirichlet
Uxx(x,y)+uuu(x,y) = x2-y2, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < a,
ux(0,y)=0, ux(a,y) = 0, 0 < y < a,
uy(x,0)=0, Uy(x,a) = 0, 0<x<a.
, ,
: u(x,y) =

2.4 E^iaoarj Laplace OE rioAiKEg


KQI AaKTuAiOi5r IIc6ia.
2.4.1 Ex oa yco YH
'Otav eva np66Anva Laplace eivai opiavievo oe KUKAIKO ne6io, tote r| vaeAetn autou Ka6i-
otatai euKoAotepri av yivei peTaoxnpatiopos oe noAiKeg ouvtetavi-ieveg. Eotco Aoinov 01
36 2. Egiaaaeig EXAeimiKOv Tunou 2.4 He

noAlKEg OUVtEtaypEVEg T (0, Co), 9 ( 7t, 7t). T6t O


2.4.2
noAiKc ouvTETapEveg
noAlKEg
= rcos9, y=rsin9. scope

EuKoAa npoKuntEi on o avrioTpo<po oe KapTEoiavEg OUVTE-


TayjiEves Eivai
(4.2)

Tia va EKcppdooupE tnv E^iocoor) Laplace OE noAlKEg ouvtEtaypEVEg unoAoyi^oupe n;l


Uax> ^yy cog auvaptr|Oig tcov r, 9. napaycoyi^ovtag tr| ouvdptnor) u(x,y) cog npog x KCII grjooi
Ecpappo^ovtag tov xavova tqg aAuoi6ag, Exoups

(4.3)

onou
V_
fl ' (4.4)1
" 1 + (y/x)2 r2

Ecpappo^ovtag ta anotEAEopata (4.4) otnv iocoor| (4.3) ExoupE tr) oxEor]

(4.5)1
r r2
napaycoyi^ovtag ta 6uo ppr| tng EJjiacoong (4.5) cog npog x npOKunm

3 x y

,T
auto
(ii)
(4.9]
2xy 2xy cpai\
(4.6)
tnv
Opoicog napaycoyi^ovtag tn ouvdptrjori u(x,y) 6uo cpopEg cog npog y KOI
vtag avdAoyr) p tnv napandvco 6ia6iKdoia, ppioKoupE oti

y 2xy 2xy
^-
r
^
2
r4
Ano tig oxEOEig (4.6) KOI (4.7) ouvEndyEtai ott, p tocoor| Laplace OE noAiKEg ouvte-j
taypEVEg tEAiKd EXEI tr| popcpii

_ 2 1 1 13 1
2 (4.8)
r r r 3r
Xpnoiponotcovtag ta napandvco 9a psAEtiiooupE tnv E^iocoor) Laplace OE KUKAiKd|
nc6ta p 6idcpopa Ei6r) auvopiaKv
Sodii Sw Soiri AOSoLudDAno ong oAStioAiA Sra iscbodA DA isdourl (SI't-HS'tO
noi LioriY Li up SoiAOisgoiin 'AraiUYgoisti AOI norloidroX noi ogogsri Lu

(ST'tO 'd > a. > o {(u'ji)6n = (n 'a)&n '(ii'a)n = (IL-


53MU0Ano SsMDidoAno SsMigoidsii roipModoii 10
AnonXoi DA3rlnoiiDiiD pino OIJOMD 01 DIJ '(0)-j SLu oiLupMigoidsii ALu }30noYOMD DA (9 'i)n
U i3U3du og 'SoiDriLiYgodii noi SLiDny SLii oriuoAOti 01 i30Xn3iiii3 DA DiA 1013, -u^ ogotdau
3ii UoliidpA.iu> Uxigoid3ii IDAIS DA (Q)J. Li stinooLuiDiiD DA isusdii og '(u 'li) orlLiiDpig -3

OID lD13$ldOld31I DA 11AD JJ DID Urtll 31OllUgDlOlIO isdpll DA 0 Ol AplDAnQ 1DA13 DA DIJ (!J|)
Q = JL OID (0'a)- ia n IDM (0'a) J n
loAroApdoii 10 SsAsrtAodd) IDAIS DA DiA Ui3xdo IDAIS Liino LixLigAnD Li 'up pgroisrtlio Sy
+o<-1
(IT'fr) -(iL'u-)3Q 30DM DiA '00+> |(0'a)n| uni

Uxlignno lamdonno vono^pig} Aln


3tlnoo3g DA i3U3dii og SoiorlLiYgodu noi lioLusgouoi UYDM ALu DiA 'SraA3tioii3 -OAsrioAiod)
OMiond) oXioiDiiAD 01 IDM 53A3ttADi3iAno SsADiosidoM 3D DrillY9?du 01 DiA Srortp 1X0 '(6'f>)
ortLiYgpdii pMiiDriUgoti 01 DiA ojsriUo o\roricpnv DAS }3y3ioiiD Q = j. 01 'sg AosYiimg (n)
' noXioiDiiAD noi odoAno pMion6 DAS ISYSIOLID ASQ 9100

0303J7 30 viiUjrgpdij oj, : t ~V

oisrlLio 01 WAS DrtliY9pdLi pMUDrtLi0Drl 01 DiA odonno pnnX3i DAS j3V3ioiiD Q = a 01 ({)
: D0noYpMD DI 3iinoolic
-Uiodou DA I3ii3du og pino oprlLiD 013 'Sprtgido SpxiiDrLADdii SpMiisg SoAsrbog d noiip Su
(ort) = (0'd)n
- ' d > a > o '0 =
-31AfU)|
5i3A3Aorio liti
d SDAIXXD oxoig OID LiAsrlDido S3A3rlADi3iAnD SSXIYOLI 3D LiDraoi^s Alii srtnc
OMDiy so ox
30

noun i
(IS'fr) - = UT>
J L
5i3O3Xo 10 AnonXoi ligoYlig '(Q)j. SuouidpAnD Sui jgunoj
S3io3Y3iAno Snoi AC '- tlll = u lu q ' ' ' 3 ' t ' 0 = u. lu o 10
t

[=X1

0 = ( 0 'd)n

uo AOUIOY srtnoXg, - d = a 010 SUxLi0Ano SLixDidoAfio SUi LioLidX SDIAOADX


''"'f'3'i = u ' u q l ' " ' ' 3 ' l ' 0 = u ' UD S3io3Y3iAno 10 SDIOUO SUi

-^-^-,,^
(ST'fr) - (6't7) SoiortLiYgodu noi LioaY Uxiiini li muaxodu 1013, - u _d = fo '[ = ID
3iinoi3e SoiuipYiiD SnoAoY DIJ 'Q = JL 010 SsisXsAnoo 30 isAUgo u _a 'auj AWI oionodou
U upiy '0 = ^ ?:) i3"?du og UxLi0Ano UxoidoAno U IDIISIOUOADXI DA DiA

0
'0 = -u
litbdorl Uio loisgig UOO.Y LixiAsA U Soiouo SUi 'j
Alii i3i3YMid3ii (gi't?) pdu 01 " " ' j r ' l ' O = it '/"u = UY = Y D1J '53io3Y3iAno
5no3iDidoigoodu Snoi ' ' ' 1 = u <u q ' ' ' ' 3 ' i ' o = "u ' u f DI
0 > K' " q + 0usoo3 UD 1 ._
(LVV)
TD J
IDX

SisoLiidDAfioogi SsXioioiiAD IDX


Ssriiioigi 5ii srinoxoidns (fri'f) 3IIIAnon - tairvjs DrlLiY9pdu oxigoidsu 01 SDIAOACIV

4-
'0 = (0)HY+(9),,H
Aoxidoctoig AogL
lu pxDidoAno ong D0noYpxo DID 'tf oriUYgodu 01 1013,

(Erfr) -ii> 0 > K - 'd > a > Q ' = (0'-i)n


0 Sodu So SUYYP Soiri IDX a

POLrnj, f
39

cqpqori 2.4.1. Lia napanavco anoiMov.aia vJiopovvx va Kdvovvx la OKOjiovda

(a) (I8x6xiixa xn.g Meong Txung) H Jluorj (4.19) 010 ar\vxio r = 0 ytuerat

u(0,9) =-a 0 = ^-I f(9)d9, -n < 9 < n. (4.23)


2 27tJ_ 7t

'Eioi, napa5Eiyv.ar.og xaPw> Y101 ^va <pO.iv6vxvo 5id6oor\g 9pvj6ir]iag a' iva 6ioKO, rj
(4.23) ar\v.aivi 611, r\ Qepv-OKpaoia OTO KEVipo lov 6ioKOV Eivai r\ vxor\ iiv.r\ icov
OKpaoicbv OTO avvopo lov dioKOv. Avid SE ovvjSaivti yia KddE KVKJ(O onoiaodrinoiE
agyvpco an' avid 10 orji^to. PeviKdiEpa jioindv, anodEiKviiEiai 611

= -- u(r,9)de, (4.24)

T (0, p). H oxEor] (4.24) anoiEtei ir]v tSioxiixa xi^g fieoi\g xipiig icov
apuoviKav ouvapir\acov, r\ onoia Eivai idiaiiEpa or\v.avnKr] yta ttc; TzpooeyyioriKcc; vxdddovg
jizMvic; npo6]i.r]v.dicov, nov ntpiExovv ir\v E^iocoat] Laplace.
(P) (OAoKA.iipapa Poisson \\a xo AIOKO) H oetpa - Jlvori (4.19) lov npo6Ai)v.aiocj (4.9),
(4.12)IIE aviiKaidaiaor) icov ovviEjlEoicbv a n , n = 0,1,2,3,..., bn, n = 1,2,3,..., OTTO
ttf (4.21), (4.22) naipvEi ir\v OKoKovdr]

f(s) (4.25)
u(r,9) = ds.
271 - 2prcos(s 9) +r 2

H napanavco u.opcpri anoiEtei to oAoKAiipuua Poisson yto xo 5toxo. O riJ


avai idiaiiEpa xpiioiu.oc. yta it] vxl(iir\ icov apv.oviK.cbv ovvapir\acov.

2.4.2. Na jludsi 10 aKoAovdo np6Sjiriu.a Dirichlet azo v.ova6iaio 6toxo

- =0, l, -7t<9<7T,

T0, 0<9<7t.

Avar) EuyKpuva pe ooa EXOUV avamuxQei napanavco

i rnT 1 r n
0 d9=T 0) an =- TOCOS n9d0 = 0, n = 1,2,3,...,
TI Jo ^Jo
bn = = -[1-(-1) n ], n = 1,2,3,....
n o nn
Etoi npOKunxei oti, r\ (viovaSiKri) tunmrj Auor) tou (a) Exenri

r_nl 1 T , 2T 0 ^ r2*-1
- sln[(2n-l)9], 1, 7T < 9 < 7t.
n=l
2n I
40 KccpdAaio 2. EAAeimiKOv Tunou

2.4.3. (EjjtaxepiKo np66Ai))ia) Lia napandvco npo@Ariu.aia fipioKziai r\\


Kaiavovj] Trjg dspnoKpaoiag aio EOcoiEpiKd Evdg 6ioKov. 'Eva avv*nAr]pGjLiaiiKd npd@Arma\
anoTEAsi rj vxKiir\ irjg Kaiaiov.r]<; irjg QepvjOKpaoiag aio E^cjiEpiKd Evdg dioKov. L' avir] ir\v\
ntpinioar] o dioKog anoiEAEi ilia onr} a' iva dnEipo (v.r\ cppayvvo) nsdio. To npd6Ar]v.a, nov\
: iva TEioto q>aivdtiEvo, Eivai TO aKdAovdo egoxepuco np66Aripa Dirichlet

u rT (r,0) + -u r (r,0) + ^I 0) = 0, p < r < o o , - 7 t < 9 < 7 r , (4.26)|


u(p,9) = f(9), -7r<9<7i. (4.27)|

H fiaaiKri diacpopd lov npoSArmaiog (4.26)-(4.27) and TO npd6Ar]u.a (4.9)- (4.12) aw\
EacjTEpiKd TOU 6ioKOV Ewai 6n, Ttipa anaiToufj r\ u(r,6) va eivai (fpayvxvr\, Kadtig ro
r > co, avii TOU opiou r 0+. 'Eiai Tcbpa air] Avar] (4.18) an.an.ovvx va
02 = Cs = 0 Kat eniAiyov^ c\ 1 KOI 04 = p n . H apxn TTjg vnipdEarig o6r]yEi air] Avar)
lov npo6Ar)v.aiog (4.26)-(4.27), r\ onoia OE

i
u(r,0) = Qo p < r < oo, -n < 9 < n, (4.28)
n=l

dnou 01 OVVTEAEOTES a n , n = 0, 1 , 2, 3, ... , b n , n = 1 , 2, 3, ... , opitpviai and


(4.21), (4.22).

napdSeiypa 2.4.4. Na Avdei TO aKdAovdo npd6Ar]v.a ivnov Dirichlet aio lov


6iOKO

Urr(r,9) + -Ur(r,9) + -juee(r,9) = 0, p < r < +00, -n < 9 < n, (a)


u(p,9) = -7t<9<7r) lim |u(r,9)| < +00. ((3)

Avar] Fia va Eivai KaAd opiopEvo TO np66Ar)pa (a) ((3), 01 AuoEig TOU 9a npsnEi va
iKavonoiouv Tig nEpioSiKEg ouvopiaKEg auv0r|Keg

u(r, -TI) = u(r, n), UQ (r, -n) = UQ (r, n). (y)


E(j>app6^ouvie Trj jae9o6o xcopiopou TCOV jaETa6Ar|T6v, Secopcovrag OTI 01 Auoeig eivat TIIS
u(r, 9) = R(r)H(9), onoTe TO np66Ar)pa (a) (y) avaAuETai ora aKoAouGa
6uo ouvopiaKd npo6Aii)aaTa ouvr|6cov 6ia<popiKov e^tocooewv

H"(9) + AH(0)=0, 9e(-7t,7t), H(-n) = H(n), H'(-TT) = H'(TT), (6)


r) + rR'(r) - AR(r) = 0, |R(r)| ^paypevo, Ka96g to r -4 +00. (e)

Auvovrag TO nepio6iKO np66Xr\\ia Sturm - Liouville (6) eupioKOUue Tig i6ioTiueg KOI
avriaroixeg iSoouvapTiioeig, nou eivai

2
n-n , n = 0,1,2,..., H n (9) =:
a n cosn9 + b n sinn0, n = 1,2,3,...,
f Tunou 2.4 41

nai rj u -TT < 9 < TT KOI TO a n , n = 0,1,2,3,..., b n , n = 1,2,3,..., anoTEAouv


npoo6iopiOTOug cnjvTEAEOTEg. Fia A = A n , n = 0,1,2,..., r| yeviKri Auor) TOU
(e) 6i6Tai otr) pop(pr]
]ta, nou
et -|-C2lnr, n = 0,
p < r < +00.
n + c4r-n, n = 1,2,3,...,
1(4.26) Enei6ii 01 AuoEig R n (r) 9a npEnst va Eivai 9pavpVEg, Ka96gTO r > +00, npOKurrtEi
H4.27) 611 C2 = 03 = 0. EniAEYOvrag \\a Adyoug anA6Tr|Tag TO Ci = 1,C4 = p n , xoup OTI r\
Auor| TOU rtpo6Ar)paTOg (ex) (y) 9a Eivai Tr|g aK6Aou9r|g yeviKiig popcpiig
mam QA
oo
> / p\ n
TO u(r,9) = - - + > - (a n cosn9 + b n sinn9), p < r <+00, -n<Q<n,
2 ' \T/
\youv n=1
'Ji 1)077
onou 01 ouvTEAEoreg a n , n = 0,1,2,3,..., b n , n = 1,2,3,..., unoAoYi?ovrat, Kdvovrag
I Tr)g ouvopiaKrig ouv0r|Kr|g OTO r = p. 'Exoups Aoinov OTI

1.28) u(p,9)=|9| = -a0 + + b n sinn9), -TT < 9 < TT.


n=l

EnopEvcog 01 a n , n = 0,1,2,3,..., b n , n = 1,2,3 anoTEAouv Toug ouvrEAEOTEg


Fourier Tr)g cruvdpTr|ar|g |9|, 6r|Aa6ii icxuouv 01

nou QO =
i r (-9)d9 + -i r 9d9 =
71 J_7j TT JQ

1 f If"
in = n
(-9)cosn9d9 + n
- , n=1,2,3,...,
J-n Jo
IIP I 1 f If71
3n = - (-6)sinn9d9 + - 9sinn9d9 = 0, n = 1,2,3,.

Iva
Apa TEAiKd r\ TuniKii Auor) TOU E^COTEPIKOU npo6AripaTOg Dirichlet (a) (y) 6i6Tai
ano Tr| ouvdpTrjor]
00 n
r- /P\ n I I j
u(r, 9) = - + 2 > ' P NM-i) j -i cosn9,
n I
p < r <+00, -n<Q<n.
2 * \r / n^TT
n=l
IS
6a
2.4.3 To np63A.qua Neumann oe Atoxo.
EnEiSr) r\ Kd9Tr| napd.YYoS 3u(r, 9)/3r| OTO ouvopo Evog KUKAIKOU n6iou Eivai air]v
aiaiviKii 6iU0uvor|, 9a ExoupE OTI 3u(r, 9)/3t| = 3u/3r. 'ETOI TO np66Ar|pa Neumann
OE 6ioKO Xi Trjv aK6Aou9r| poptpr]
1 1
9) + -Ur(r, 9) + -^uee(r, 9) = 0 , 0 < r < p, -n<Q<n, (4.29)
r rz
u r (p,9) = f(9), -Tt<9<Ti, (4.30)
u(r,9) nenpaopvo, Ka06g TO r > 0 + , (4.31)
u(r,-TT) =u(r,7r), ue(r,-7T) =Ufl(r,7t). (4.32)
42 KecpdAaio 2. EiacJai EAAeinriKOu Tunou I

H TuniKii Auar| nou iKavonoiEi TFJV EJjiocoon KQI Tig ouv6r|Kg (4.29), (4.31) KQI (4.32)
6i6ETdi ano Tr| oxeor) (4.19), 6nAa6ii

u(r,0) = - (ancosn0 + b n sinn0), 0 < r < p, n < 0 < n.

Ano \r\ ouvopiaKii ouv6r|Kr| (4.30) npOKuntEi OTI

i
f(0) = - ^ n(a n cosn0 + b n sinn0), n < 0 < n, (4.33)

onou
nan. = cosn0d0, n = 1,2,3,..., (4.34)

KQl

nb n = - f(0)sinn0d0, n = 1,2,3 (4.35)


"J-Tt

IlpEnei va onpEioGEi E&CO OTI, arnv TsAiKii Auar) TOU npoGAriuanx; Neumann napauEvei
avdaipewg o ouvTEAeoriig OQ. To ytyovoc; QUTO, 6nAa6ii r| no%Hanjl6ir]ia icov JLuaeav ug\
npog npoodeiiKri oiadepd, anoTEAEi POOIKO xapaiccnpicmKO TCOV npoBAnpdTCov Neumann.

2.4.4 To Ilp66Ar)ua AUVQUIKOU crco AaxxuAto.


'Earco TO np66Anpa Dirichlet opiouEvo OE KUKAIKO SaiccuAio

Urr(r,0) + r u T (r,0) + - I u e9 (r,0) = 0 , a < r < b, -n < 0 < n, (4.36)


r r*
u(a,0) = f(0), u(b,9) = g(0), - 7 t < 0 < 7 T , (4.37)

onou a, b 9EtiKEg npavpaTiKES ora0pc; UE a < b (BAsnE L^r\]ia 2.4.2). AKoAouOuvrag


oncog napandvco Tr) u6o6o TOU x"piouou TCOV uTa6AnTcbv, QETOUPE u(r,0) = R(r)H(0),
onoTE naipvouuE

^, n = 0, TT< 0 < 7t
H n (6) ==
an cosn.0 + b n sinn0, n = l , i
KOI
:i + C2lnr, n = 0,
Rn(r) =: a < r < b.

Eni6ii 6co 6v undpxouv nEpiopiopoi y\a r oo, Tr|V


Tr|g undpOEong (JpioKouu-E OTI, r| uopcpri Tr|g Auor|g TOU npo6Ar|paTog (4.36)
- (4.37) Eivai

u(T,9)=
n=l
n n
+ (Cnr + D n r~ )sinn0} , a < r < b, -n < 0 < n. (4.40)
2.4 noXiKcc; uvreray7JV 43

Oi ouvopiaKcc; ouv9r|Ks (4.37) tou rtpo6Aiiuato$ ouvenayovtai oti

1
-
n=1
+ (C n a n + D n cT n )sinn9}, -n < 6 < rc (4.41)

KCU

n=1
+ (Cnbn + Dnb"n) sinn9} , -n < Q < n. (4.42)

2.4.2: To npd6jLr]}j.a Dirichtet as KvKJliKd

'Etoi 01 auvieAeaieg Fourier tou avantuYpatos (4.40) opi^ovtai Kata 5EUYn ano tlS

A0 + B 0 lna = -f f(6)de, A0 + B 0 lnb = - g(6)de,


KJ-n KJ-n
n n 1 f71
na + B n a~ = f(0)cosn9de, n = 1,2,3,...,
rcj-n

g(9)cosn0d9, n = 1,2,3,...,

C n a n + D n cr n = -I f(e)sinn9d0, n=l,2,3,...,

nb
n
+ D n b- n = I f
ir
" J-7I

2.4.5. Na fipedci 77 MOT] zou napandvco Ttpo6jlri}j.aiog (4.36) - (4.37), oiav


6u a = 1 , b = 2, f(8) = sin20, g(9) = 0.
44 Ke<pdAaio 2. E^IOCOOEIC; EAAcinrucou Timov

Avar] H Auar| 6i6ETai ano TO avdmuviia (4.40), onou 01 ouvopiaKEg ouvGiiKEg eni6dAAouv
Tig OKOAouGEg

1
sin29 = - -n < Q
n=1
oo
0 = -1
n=l

-D n 2- n - 1 )sinn9,
l , -rc < 9 < n.

Xpnoiponoiwvrag Tnv TpiycovouiETpiKii TauTOTnTa sin2 9 = j(1 cos 29), imopouiie '
va E^iocoooups auvreAEOTEg iSicov opwv, onoTe naipvoupE Tig aKoAouGsg o)(Oig

A0 = 1 , B0 = 0 KOI A2 + B2 = -~ , 2A2 - ^B 2 = 0.
L o
loxuouv 01 aKoAouGEg

An + Bn = 0, n = 1,3,4,5, ... ,
n 1 n 1
Cn + Dn = 0, 2 - C n +2 - D n =0, n - 1,2,3,....

Ano Tig napandvco crxEOEig npOKunrei OTI

A0 = 1, B0 = 0, A2 = -l, B2 = -^

KOI 6Aoi 01 dAAoi ouvrEAEOTEg TOU avanTUvpaTOg Eivai vin6v. 'ETOI r) Auor) TEAiKd EXEI

u(r, 9) = - [ + -2) cos29, 1 < r < 2, n < 9 < n.

napdSciypa 2.4.6. Na Avdei 10 aKOJiaudo npdSJLrftia Dirichlet mo npcino leiapzimopio mv

u r r (r,9) + -ur(r,e) +-5 9) =0, 0 < r < 1, 0< 9 <7t/2,


= 9(71/2-9), 0<9<7t/2, u(r,0)=0, u(r,7t/2)=0, 1. ((3)
Avar] Fia va sivai KaAd opiapEvo TO npoBAniia (a) ((3) 01 Auosig TOU 9a
LEOV va iKavonoiouv Tig aKoAouGEg cruvopiaKEg

llm u(r,9) < +00, u(r,0) = u(r,7t/2),


r->0+
(Y)
pE9o6o xwpiopou TOV LiETaBAnTcov, 9ecopovrag OTI 01 Auosig Eivai Trig
iig u(r,9) = R(r)H(9), onoTE TO np66Aniia (a) (y) avaAuETai ora OKoAouGa
6uo ouvopiaKd npo6Ar)iiaTa ouvriGcov 6iacpopiKcov E^IOOOECOV

H"(6) + A H ( 9 ) = 0 , 6 e ( 0 , 7 t / 2 ) , H(0) = H(n/2), (6)


2
r R"(r) + rR'(r) - A R ( r ) = 0, 0 < r < 1 , |R(r)| cppav>ivo, KaGog to r -4 0+ . ( e )
2.4 45

Auvovras TO np66Ar|ua (6) EupioKOuus Ttg I&IOTIUES KQI

An = 4n2, n = 1,2,3 ..... H n (9) = b n sin(2n9), 6e(0,7t/2), n = 1,2,3,. .. ,

onou ia b n , n = 0, 1 ,2,3, ..., anoTEAouv npoo6iopioTEOuc; OUVTEAEOTES. Fia A = A n , n =


1,2,3,..., r| ycviKii Auor) TOU rtpo6AriuaTO$ (e) 6i6ETai orr) uopcpr]

n = 0,
l 0 < r < 1.
, n=1,2,3,...,
ri 01 AUOEIS R n ( r ) 9a npErtEi va Eivai cppaypEvsg Ka6cbg TO r 0+, npOKurrtEi
OTI G: = c.j = 0. EntAEyovras Y ia AOYOUS anA6Tr|Ta$ TQ C] = 1,03 = 1, sxoupE 6u r)
] TOU apxiKOu npo6AiiuaTog (a) (y) 9a sivai TFIS aK6Aou0r|s YEVIKFIS u.opcpiis

u(r,9) = , 0 < 9 < n/2,


n=1

onou 01 auvTEAEOTEg b n , n = 1 , 2, 3, ... , unoAoYi5ovcai Kdvovrag XPH01! TrIS


ouv6r]Kr|g aro r = 1 . 'Exouue Aoinov OTI
oo
u ( l , 6 ) = 9 ( ^ - 9 ) = ^b n sin(2n9), 0 < 9 < n/2.
n=l

i b n , n = 1,2,3,..., anoTEAouv Toug OUVTEAEOTES Fourier Trig


^y^, 6r)Aa6ii taxuouv 01

71/2

n = ||sin(2n9)|| (o,n/2)J o en -
y , n = 1,2,3,...,

onou OTI

||sin(2n9)||20i7t/2) =

6n

4 f71/2 TT 29
9 sin(2n9)d0
^ Jo '
4 (TJ r"/2 rrc/2 "I
- < 2-\
n
9sin(2n9)d9 - 9 2 sin(2n0)d9 \
( Jo Jo J
n+1 2 n+1
Tt
_
4(
_J / n n _r\4. f-1) 7t 11I11_++ f 1)n+1
f 1)
n 11> 22> 33
2n 8n f n'n ' "
Apa TEAiKd r| TuniKii Auorj TOU npoBAiipaTOS Dirichlet (a) (y) OTO npcJTO
iiopio TOU 6ioKOu 6i6Tcn ano ir\
00
i -L r_nn+i 2 _
u(r,e) = Y -r ^sin(2n9), 0 < r < l , 0 < 9 < ^.
U7t
l
46 KecpdAcuo 2. E^tauoeic. EAAeirrnKOu TunoJ

2.4.5 IIpo6Ai]]iaTa
1. Na AuGei to axoAouGo np66Ar|ua tunou Dirichlet OTO 6ioKO

u r r (r,9) + u r (r,9) + 0, 0 < r < 4, -7t < 9 < 7t,

U(4 9)
9, -TT < e < o,
' b9 2 , 0 < 9 < 7 r ,
onou b 8etucii npaYuatiKii oraGepd.
2. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo e^cotepiKo np66Ar|ua tunou Dirichlet

u r r (r,9) + -u r (r,9) + uee(r,9) = 0, 6 < r < oo, -n < 9 < n,


u(6,8) = 392, - 7 t < 9 < 7 i .
3. Na eJjetaaGet, \\a noid npaypatiKii ota0epd b, to OKoAouGo np66Ar|u.a tunou Neumann oej
6ioKO EXEI Auor) (ouvGiiKn.

u r r (r,9) + -u r (r,9) + ^- = 0, 0 < r < 7 T 2 , -n < 9 < n,


Ur(7T2,9) = 293-b, -7t<9<7t.

Etr) oTjvexeia va AuGei to npo6Ar|]aa.


4. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo np66Aqua tunou Dirichlet oe KUKAIKO SaKtuAio

u r r (r,9) + -u r (r,9) + -j 0, 4 < r < 8, -n < 9 < n,


u(4,9) = 3 sin2 9 -2, u(8,9) = 2cos29 - 2, -n < 9 < n.
5. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo np66Anua tunou Dirichlet OTO 6ioKO aKtivag p

= 0, 0 < r < p, -n < 9 < n,


U(p,9) = COS 2 9, -7t<9<7T.

}: u(r,9) = \
6. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo np66Arma tunou Dirichlet OTO SIOKO aKtivag p

u r r (r,9) + -u r (r,9) + u 9 e(r,9) = 0, 0 < r < p, -n < 9 < n,


U(p,9) = |9|, -7t<9<7T.

7. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo np66Arma tunou Dirichlet oto pova6iaio SIOKO

u rr (r,9) +-u r (r,9) + u 9 e(r,9) = 0, 0 < r < 1 , -n < 9 < n,


-1, -7T<9

-{ 1, 0< 9 <7t.

: u(r, 9) = sin 2n
(
unou 47

Na Au0i TO QKoAouGo np66Ar|)ja Tunou Dirichlet oto npcixto TETapTr|u6pio tou pova6iaiou
6ioKou

u r r (r,0) + -u r (r,0) + - T uee(r,0) = 0, 0 < r < 1, 0 < 9 < 7t/2,


u(T,0)=0, u(r,7i/2)=0, 0<r<l, u ( l , 0 ) = To|9|, 0 < 0 < n/2.

9. Na Au0Ei TO QKoAouGo np66Ar|pa Tunou Dirichlet OTO uova6iaio 6ioKO

) 0, 0 < r < 1, -n < 0 < n,


u(l,e)=T0, 0 < 0 < 7 t , u(l,0)=0, -7i<0<0.

; Na yivei xpiiarl lov QJioKJirjpcoiiKOU iimov Poisson Kai lou fjiaaxnnaiio}j.ov x 0 = tan |

/: u f r , 0) = T0 - ^ arctan (^f^r)
10. No Au0Ei TO QKbAouGo E^OTEPIKO np66Ar|pa Tunou Dirichlet
1 1
u r r (r,0) + -u r (r,0) + ^uee(r,0) = 0, a < r < +00, -n < 0 < n
u(a,0) In2 + 4cos30, -n < 0 < n

onou TO a Eivai iiia QETIKP npaypatiKri araGEpd.


j: u | r , 0 ) == ^~ 0 r " {an cosn0 + b n sinn0}, onou QO = In2, 03 = 4a 3 , a n =
0, yia n = 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , ... , b n = 0, \\a n = 1,2,3, ....
11. Na AuGd to QKoAouQo np66An|aa Tunou Dirichlet opioyEvo OTO dvu ripiou TOU SIOKOU )JE
QKitva a

(r,0) = 0, 0 < r < a, 0 < 0 < n,


u(r,0)=0, u(r,7i)=0, 0 < r < a, u(a,0) = g(0), 0 < 0 < n.

?: u f r , 0) = Jl~=i b n r n sin(n0)
12. Na Au0Ei TO QKoAouGo np66Aniia IIEIKTOU Tunou opioiiEvo OE ipr|ua SIOKOU pE aicciva a

u r r ( r , 0 ) + -\ir(r,Q) + -^ e} = 0, 0 < r < a, 0 < 0 < n/3,


u f l (r,0) = 0, u e (r,7T/3) =0, 0 < r < a, u(a,0)=h(0), 0 < 0 < 7r/3.

: u f r , 0) = 2^^Lo Q nT 3n cos(3n0)
13. Na Au0Ei to aKoAouGo np66Anpa Tunou Dirichlet opiouEvo OTO npcoTO TETapTnpopio 6aKTU-
Aiou

U r r ( T , 0 ) + -u r (r,0) + -y O) = 0, a<r<b, 0 < 0 < n/2,


u ( r , 0 ) = 0 , u(r,7T/2) = f(r), a < r < b,
u(a,9)=0, u(b,0) = 0, 0 < 0 < 7 t / 2 .

: u f r , 0) = ~=1 a n sinh ^ sin n^-1, 6nou


fi^, Yla n = 1,2,3
48 m
KecpdAaio 2. Egiacooeic; EAAonnx'ou Tunou 2.5

14. No AuSei TO OKoAouSo np66Anua UEIKTOU Tunou opiouevo OTO dvco riuiar| TOU 6ioKOU
aiaiva a

r\ onoia c
u r r(T, 9) +-u r (r, 9) + ^ruee(r,9) = 0, 0 < r < a , 0 < 9 < 7 t ,
r rz 2. EvaA
u ( r , 0 ) = 0 , u(r,7i)=0, 0 < r < a, u r (a,9) = sin9, 0 < 9 < n. KQI acpcui

u(r,9) = r ~ 1 ^f^e.
15. Na Au6Ei TO aK6Aou0o np66Anvia Poisson VIE ouvopiaKEg ouvSriKEg Tunou Neumann opiope
OTO 8aKTuAio

, 9 ) + -u T (r,9) + ^-uee(r,9) = -r2sin29, a < r < b, -n < 9 < n,


u r ( a , 9 ) = 0 , u r (b,9) 0, -n < Q < n.

: u(r.9) = c -
16. Na Au0Ei TO QKoAouGo npoBAnua Poisson LIE ouvopiaKEg ouv9iiKEg Tunou Robin opioyevo
OTO 6aKTuAio

Urr(r,9) + -u r (r,9) + u e e(r,9) = -r 2 sin29, a < r < b, -n < 9 < n,


u ( a , 9 ) = 0 , u r (b,9) = 0, -n < 9 < n,

onou a, b SETIKES npayiaaTiKES crraGEpES vie 0 < a < b.

2.5 IStoxijxcs TUV ApjioviKcbv Euvapxijoeav


Fia Tr| peAeTr) TCOV apviovuccov ouvapTrioecov xpeia^oviaoTE Tig TauxoxnxES Green, 01 onoieg
anoppeouv ano TO QKoAouSo, yvcocrrd ano Tqv avdAuon, deupn)ia Green (aro enineSo).
'Eorco P(x,vj), Q ( x , y ) 6uo auvc)(a)c; 8iacpopiai[aec; auvapTiqoEi<; OTO ne8io D. Ee 6An Tr)v
napouoa napdypaepo, eiccog av avacpepeTai 6iacpopeTiKd, TO neSio D 9a Qeapeuai OTI,
eivax ^pay^vo, xXciaTO, auvexuxo unoouvoAo TOU R2 pe xXeioio xai TjJTjjaaTixdt Xeio
ouvopo 3D. TOTE IOXUEI n,

f (Qx(x,y)-Py(x,y))dxdvj= Q(x ) y )dy. (5.1)


JDJ an
Ecopcbvras ir\ 6iavuaviauKii ouvdpTnor) F(x,y) ( Q ( x , y ) , P ( x , y ) ) TO viova-
Siaio E^coTEpiKd KdGETO aro auvopo 9D 6idvuopa n(s) = (-^, ^|), r\ (5.1)
naipvEi Tr|
f(V-F(x,y))dxdy = <f (P(s) n(s))ds. (5.2)
JoJ Jao
'Eorco u(x,y), v(x,y) 6uo SiacpopioiiiEg ouvapTrioEig OTO nsSio D. TOTE EXOUIIE vaj
napaTnprioouviE TO aKoAouSa, ooov acpopd TPV TauTOTnTa (5.2)
1. ETOvrag F(x,y) = v(x,y)Vu(x,y) arnv E^iocoon (5.2), npOKunrsi n TauTOTiKii

=i v(s)Vu(s) n(s)ds,
JoJ Jao
1518ioiT]iEg TOV AP/JOVIKCJV Zuvaprijoewv 49

fv(x,y)V 2 u(x,y) + Vv(x,y) - Vu(x,y)lJ dxdy = (5.3)


JD J L dD
Honoia anotEAei tnv npoxi) xauxoxnxa Green.
!. EvaAAdooovtag tcopa to goAo tcov ouvaptrioecov u(x,y), v(x,y) otnv tautotnta (5.3)
Km CHpaipuvrag Koto ]aeAr| tig 6uo npOKuntouoEg $"iocboig, KataAriYOUpE air\ oxor|

Mv(x,u)V 2 u(x,y) u(x,y)V 2 v(x,y)l dxdy = 0) v(s)^


9n
u(s)--
9n
ds, (5.4)
IdD L J
qonoia anotEAsi til 6euxepii xauxoxnxa Green.

OuautotntEg Green laxuouv OE ojioia8r|KOTC Siaotaor] VIE KOTaAAnAr) npooapiaoYii tov


oupftoAuv. Fia napd6EiYi-ia, otig ipeic; Siaaiaaeu; 01 TauTOTrjteg (5.3), (5.4) npOKumouv
ano 10 Ocupiipa anoicAiong xou Gauss.
Ein ouvEXEia 3a 6ouiie tig npounoGEoeig Katco ano tig onokg vmopouviE va E^aocpa-
AiooupE iq Siatuncoari Evog KaAci tono0tnpvou npo6Aiiviatog.

2.5.1 Movoor|u.avTO TOU npo6Aiiu.axog Dirichlet


Mt ir\ xpnoi IWV tautotiituv Green 9a anoeEi^ouviE to viovooiiiJavTO tr|g Auong Evog
YeviKOu npoeAiiiaatog Dirichlet. H an66eir| tng UKCxp^Tjc; AUOTJC; TOU YEVIKOU npo6Aiipatog
Dirichlet anoiEAd eva dAAo Qepa noAu mo cruv6TO , yia va avamuxQei ora nAaioia autou
TOU

Aiinna2.5.1. Av u ( x , y ) dvai H.ICL apuoviKr] avvapir\ar\ a' eva nedia D, 6r\jia5r]


Au(x,tj) = 0, KGLI xoui* 6u u(x,y) = 0, aio aiivopo 3D. T6i av^mpaivov^s, 611
u(x,y) = 0 naviou oio nedio D.

0EioupE v = u, atnv npcotri tautotnta Green (5.3), onotE npOKurttei

f LfuV 2 u+ |Vu|2l dxdy = i u^ds. (5.5)


JoJ Jao 9n
ii opcog IOXUEI u ( x , y ) = 0 , oro ouvopo 3D, 9a EXOULIE on
>.l)
f|Vu(x,y)|2dxdy=0.

Eni6r] 5 |Vu(x,y)| 2 > 0, ouvEnaYEtai oti,

Vu(x,y) = 0 , OTO D.

Enouevcog r\ u(x,y) Eivai cn;a6Epri OTO D. Eni6ri 6e u(x,y) = 0 OTO 3D,


auianepaivouviE oti
u(x,y) = 0, o' 6Ao to n6io D. <$>

2.5.2. (Movooiiuavxo) An ui ( x , y ) , U2(x,y) eivai 6uo apnoviK<; ovvapir/aeig


aionedio D Kai ui (x,y) = U2(x,y) oio avvopo 3D, idle Ui(x,y) = U2(x,y) o' 6Ao
zo Tiefiio D .
50 KecpdAaio 2. EAAeirrrtKou Tunou

ETO npoiyvoupevo Arjppa 2.5.1 9eToupe u(x,y) = U i ( x , y ) U2(x,y). 'ETOi9a|


V 2 u(x,y) = V 2 ui(x,y)-V 2 U2(x,y) =0 KOI u ( x , y ) = u 1 ( x , y ) - u 2 ( x , y ) =l
OTO ouvopo 3D. Apa 9a

u i ( x , y ) = U2(x,y), o'6AoTone6io D. 0

Me dAAa Adyta TO aupnEpaopa TOU SeapiipaTOs 2.5.2 eivai OTI, pia ouvdp-tT)oi|
apjuovtxrj a' cva rceSio D e(vai (aovootpavToc opio[aevr| oato n<; TIJJEC; TTJC; ato auvopo 3D. I

2.5.2 Apxn Meyiorou EAaxicrcou - Eu<rcd6cia


Fia va ano8et^oupe oti, TO Y^VIKO npoBAripa Dirichlet eivai KaAci TonoOcTrivievo, 9a npe-
nei va 6iepeuvr| coupe av n pova8iKii Auor) QUTOU eivai euoxaBiis, 6r|Aa6ii av unapxei 2.5.3
cjuvexns eapTilor1 trIS ^uoris ano Tig cmvopiaKes ouvGiiKeg (BAene, EVOTFITQ 1.3). Fia TO
OKono QUTO xpEia^opaare TO QKoAouGo anoTeAeapa

Ocwpnua 2.5.4. (Ap\i\ Meyiotou - EAaxiorou) Av u(x,y) tivai ]ua ap\LOviK.r\ auudp-
ir\ar\ ato ne6io D. i6ie r\ f^eyioir] KO.I r\ Jlatcrr77 ri/zrj trjg u(x,y) jlai*6dvoviai 010 ouvopO\
3D lov Kediou.

pa9r|paTiKii auarr|pdTr|Ta, 9a avacpEpoupe 6uo yia


TOU 9copr|paTOg. OpcbTOv, Kdvovrag XP1!01! irlS iStoirjiac; TTJC; [J'
ap[aovixa>v auvocpTrjaEov, (JAenoupe on r\ ouvdpTr)or| u(x,y) 6ev pnopei va ndptil
pia aKpOTOTr) Tipii ' va EOOTEPIKO oripEio, EOTCO XQ, TOU n6iou D. AIOTI, av auve6awE|
OUTO, TOTE auTii r| Tipii 8ev pnopei va anoTeAd TO PEOO dpo TOV Tipcov Tr|g
u(x,y) oe pia onoia6rinoT Y^itovid KOTdAArjAa EniAEYpEvr] yupco an' OUTO TO oripeio XQ.J
H 6euTEpri i8a avrAeuai and TO cpaivdpevo 9eppdTr|Ta5. Av unoGeooupe nug r| ouvdp-
Trior) u(x,y) nEpiypdepEi Tr) ordoipr] Auor| Evdg cpaivopEvou KOTavopiig 9eppdTr)Tas KQI
q u(x,y) Aap6dvei aKpoTOTri Tipii o' eva EOOTEPIKO oripEio, EOTO XQ, TOU nsSiou D,
TOTE 9a npsnEi va undpxEi por] DepjaoiriTac; and ii npog OUTO TO orjpeio. ripdypa, TO onoio
dpog avriKEiTai OTO YYOVOS 11' 1 appoviKii ouvdpTr|or| u(x, y) nepiYpdcpei eva aidaijao
i OTO ne6io D. 0

2.5.5. (Euordeeia) Av 10 np66K.r\\ia Dirichlet exi Mar] a' eva nedio D, IOIE \
aurr) eivai euoradrig.

'Eorco OTI 01 auvapTiioeig u i ( x , y ) , U2(x,y) anoTEAouv ug AiioEig TOU npo6Aii-


Dirichlet, 01 onoisg avrioroixouv orig ouvopiaKEg ouvGrJKEg

ui(s)=fi(s), OTTO 3D, .(s)=f2(s), OTO 3D.


YnoGeTOupe OTI, undpxei e > 0 eTOi aare

H u(x, y ) = ui (x, y ) U2(x, y ) 9a anoTeAei Auorj TOU opovevous npo6AiipaTOS Dirichlet

V2u(x,y)=0, OTO D, u(s) = f ( s ) = : f i ( s ) - f 2 ( s ) aro 3D.


u Tunou | > /SidrrjrEf rwv AppoviKov Zuvaprrjaetav 51

EroiS :OTl
yi = 0 max |u(x,y)| < max |u(s)| = max|f(s)|.
(x,y)D s3D se3D

= max |u 1 (x,y)-u 2 (x,y)| < max|u 1 (s)-u 2 (s)


(x,y)eD
= max|f 1 (s)-f 2 (s)| = ||f 1 -f 2 ||a D < .
sedD
Apa npdyiiaxi 01 Auosig TOU npo6Ar|uaTOg Dirichlet eival euora6dg <)

2.5.3 Movoorjuavco TOU npo6ArjiiaTOg Neumann


Mt avdAoyr] Sia8iKaoia oncog OTO np66Ar]Tia Dirichlet ano6eiKvuovrai TQ axoAouGa
tonp66Ar|pa Neumann.

2.5.6. /\u r? ovvdpinari u(x,y) eival apuoviKr) a' eva nedio D KOI tq^uez T?
ovvopiaKii avvdr]KTj wnov Neumann ^ = 0 aio avvopo 3D, idierjAuori u(x,y) eivai
madepii oio nedio D.

Anodeifr] Ent\di] r\ ouvdpTr|or| u ( x , y ) eivai apuoviKri OTO D KOI lo^uei |^ = 0 OTO


ouvopo 3D, pAsnouiaE on QeTovrag u ( x , y ) = v(x,y) orov Tuno (5.3) npOKunTEi

jJllVull dxdy = 0.

Enopevug r] ouvdpTrior] u(x,y) Qa Eivai npayvian oraGEpii OTO n&io D

6c6pr|pa 2.5.7. (Movooquavro). Eaico Ui(x,y), U 2 (x,y) 6vo apuoviKE


oro/rtfit'o D Kai ^- = ^-OTOavvopo 3D. Tdie 01 6i>o avvapiriaeis u i ( x , y ) , u 2 (x,y)
Siatpepovv Kara ^za oiadepd a' oAo ro TreSt'o D.

Anodeifr] 6TOvrag u ( x , y ) = U] ( x , y ) u 2 (x,y) OTO npor)YOUUvo Aripv10 2.5.6 npo-


Kumei duxoa TO anoTEAeoria TOU QEUpriuaTOg. 0

Ano ta napandvo pAEnouuE on, to np66Ar\ua Neumann exl Ltovoorjuaviri Avar\ ug


npog v.ia TipoadeiiKri oiadepd. Fia TO 9pa Tr]g imap^rjg Avar]g oio npoSAijua Neumann
eXouiiE TO aKoAou6o anoTeAeoraa.

6cupi)}ia 2.5.8. (EuvOiiKri Euu6i6aar6TriTas). To npoSArjua Neumann

3u(s)
V 2 u ( x , y ) = 0 OTO D, = f(s) mo 3D,
dn
iXi Avor\, UJOVQ av iaxvl 1 aKoAovdr)

L f(s)ds = 0.
JdD
52 KecpdAdio 2. Eiacboi$ EAAcimiKOu Tunotf

An66ir) EtoupE otnv npcbtr] tautotnta Green v(x,y) = 1, onotE

r r 2

JDJ

an' onou npoKurrcEl on


0 = d> f(s)ds. 0

riapaTiipr|oii 2.5.9. 'Emadnr] u(x,y) napimdvei ir\ aTcxaijar) iSEpjJoxpaaia a' iva id
n6o 5ioKO, 6nou 6v undpxouv napaycoyr) r\ cm.opp6<pr\or] 9puj6irjiag. H (f>uaiKTJ or]u.aaia
rrjf ouvdriKris auvjSiSaoioiriiac;, nou 6iaiund)Viai mo napandvcj 9copr]u.a ivai 611, r\ at/j
vojiiKT] gor\ rrjf 9pudiT]iag Kaid u.r)Kog wu ouvopou 3D (nou fj.adrju.auKd K<ppdZ,iai andj
ir\v noodirfia ^'s = f(s)) 9a npni va ivai v.r\5iv.

2.5.10. Naflpdi r] ouvdrJKr] avuj6naoi6ir]ia<; yia ro VJT\ ou.oyVg


Neumann

8u(s)
Au(x,y) =-q(x,y) mo D, = f(s) mo 3D.
ii
Avar] EtoupE otnv nputr) tautotr)ta Green (5.3) v(x,y) = 1, onotE

f V 2 u(x,y)dxdy =

Enopevos npOKurrtEi OTI

fq(x,y)dxdy=| f(s)ds, f\
JDJ Jao

q(x,y)dxdy +<f f(s)ds = 0.


JoJ Jao
H o-uv9r|Kr| aup6i6aoi6inT;as Yia IO PI np66Aii-
pa Neumann (a).

2.5.4 MovooripavTo cvog IIpo6A.i]iiaTOS Robin


ME 6ia6iKaoia avdAoYn autris, nou ecpappooSnKE oro np66Anpa Dirichlet 9a
orr) ouvEXEia TO povooripavto Auong Yla va np66Anpa Robin.

IIpoTaoi) 2.5.11. Na anodixdi 6n, ro andJloudo np66jLr]u.a Robin 6Xiai ro noAu wal
Avar]

3u(s)
Au(x,y) = q(x,y), aio D, hu(s)=f(s), mo 3D, dnou h > 0. (5.6)
3n
ou Tunou I6i6iqi<; rcov APIIOVIKCOV Zuvaprrjcrccov 53

EcopoupE OTI TO np66Ar|ua (5.6) uo AuoEig U i ( x , y ) , U2(x,y), 6r|Aa6ri


iuv TO aKoAou0a

Aui(x.y) = q(x,y), aro D, + hu!(s) = f ( s ) OTO 3D, (5.7)

Au 2 (x,y) = q(x,y), aro D, + Hu 2 (s) = f ( s ) OTO 3D. (5.8)

Acpaipcovrag KOTO pdAr) Tig $"iocboig (5.7), (5.8) KQI QETOvrag u(x,y) = u i ( x , y ) -

A u ( x , y ) = 0 , OTO D KQI -^- + h u ( s ) = 0 , OTO dD. (5.9)


on

0Eioupe 0ir)v npcbtri tauiOTriTa Green (5.3) v ( x , y ) = 1, onoTE EXOU^E Tr) OXE<

3u(s)
[ L[u(x,y)|Au(x,y)| + |Vu(x,y)| 2 l dxdy = cf u (s)^^ds,
on (5.10)
JoJ Jao
a
'Opcog ano Tig oxsoEig (5.9) npOKunrEi OTI = hu(s) KQI Au(x,y) = 0.
Enopevcog r) oxEor] (5.10) 6i6i

f|Vu(x,y)| 2 dxdy + h u 2 (s)ds = 0. (5.11)


JoJ J3D

H TeAeuiaia oxor| auvEndyETai OTI

f|Vu(x,y)| 2 dxdy =0, KO.I h| u 2 (s)ds = 0. (5.12)


JoJ Jao
H npcoTri TCOV OXEOECOV (5. 12) ouvEndyETai OTI u(x,y ) = ara0pd, \ia Kd0 (x, y ) e D.
Ano Tr) 6UTpr| TCOV OXEOECOV (5.12) npOKunrEi OTI

6An-
hct u 2 (s)ds = 0, ri u ( x , y ) = 0 OTO 3D.
Jao

Eni6ri SE r| u ( x , y ) EIVQI ora6pri OTO D OTI, u ( x , y ) = 0, yia


KQ0E (x,y) G D, 6nAa6ri

u,(x,y) =u 2 (x,y), (x,y) D.

Apa npdvpaTi TO OUYKEKPIUEVO np66Ar)jaa Robin (5.6) SEXETQI TO noAu pia Auon. Eivai
npocpavdg OTI, av aAAd^Ei Kdnoia ano Tig npouno6OEig, nou EXOUV T0i, TOTE 6v Eivai
(3e6aio OTI, TO KaivoupYio npoBAripa Robin Sa iKavonoiEi TO uovoor)]aavro. Opdviaa, nou
oupSaivEi ndvra, OTOV TO np66Ar)ua Eivai Tunou Dirichlet 0
54 2. E&oaozic; EAAeinnxou Tunoul

2.5.5 IIpo0Arjpcn:a
1. 'Eotco to cppaypsvo KAEiotd, OUVEKTIKO nsSio D, unoouvoAo tou R2 HE KAEIOTO xai ipqpatuJ
AEIO cnivopo dD. Na ano6Eix6Ei to povooripavto tcov AUOECOV tou npo6Aripatog Dirichlet

V2u(x) + ku(x) -q, x e D,


u(s) = f(s), s 3D, 6tav k < 0.

2. 'Eatco to cppaypEvo KAEIOTO, OUVEKTIKO nE6io D, unoorivoAo tou R2 UE KAEIOTO KOI tpr|paiui|
AEIO ouvopo 3D. Na ano6ix6i to povoorjpavto tcov AUOECOV tou npo6AiiuatO5 Neumann (cog nposj
npoo0tiKr| otaOEpd]

V 2 u(x) + ku(x) = -q, x e D,


ou(s)
= f ( s ) , s 6 3D, dtav k < 0.
dn
3. Na e^EtaaSsi av to OKdAou9o np66Ar|pa trig EJjiocoorig Laplace OE op8oyovio UE ur| ouoyevts|
ouvopiaKEg oTjv0rJKEs tunou Neumann, SEXEtai Auor)

u x x(x,y)-ru u u (x,y) =0, 0 < x < 4n, 0 < y < 4n,


u x ( 0 , y ) = y , u x (47r,y) = 1, 0 < y < 47T,
u u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , u u (x,47t)=0, 0 < x < An.

4. Na E$tao0i yia noid ouvdptnorj f(x) to aKoAouSo npc>6Ar|pa ouvopiaKcov ouv0r|K6v tunou]
Neumann 6EXEtai Auor)

u x x ( x , y ) + u u y ( x , y ) = 0, 0<x<2, 0<y<2,
Ux(0,y)=0, ux(2,y)=0, 0 < y < 2,
u u (x,0) = f ( x ) , u v ( x , 2 ) = 0 , 0<x<2.

5. Na ano6Eix9i oti to OKoAouGo np66Ar|pa Neumann opiouEvo OTO nputo tEtaptnudpio tou I
uovaSiaiou SIOKOU

= 0, 0 < r < 1, 0 < 9 < n/2,


ue(r,0)=0, u 9 (r,7r/2) = 0, u r (1,9) = g(9), 0 < 9 < n/2,

. Auor), pdvo av IOXUEI r| oxEor) J^'^ g(9)d9 =0.


6. 'Eatco D Eva cppaypEvo unoouvoAo OTO R N , N = 2,3 pe cruvopo 3D. EcopoupE tr|
opoyEvii EAAEintiKii EJjiocoor)

V-(p(x)Vu(x)) = - p(x)>0.

Na anoSEixOEi oti av F(x) < 0 OTO D, totE r| Auor) u(x,t) 6Xtai to pEyioro OTO ouvopo
3D KOI av F(x) > 0 OTO D, totE r| Auor| u(x,t) SEXEtai to EAdxioto OTO cnjvopo 3D.
FlapatripiiotE oti dAEg 01 npotEg pEpiKEc; napdycoyoi pr)6v'?vial ' Eva EoeotEpiKO
aKpotato orjpEio.
7. 'Eatco D Eva cppaypEvo unoouvoAo OTO RN , N =2,3 pE ouvopo 3D. EcopoupE tnv opoyEvri

V - (p(x)Vu(x)) = 0 , xeD, p(x)>0.


eg Avacpopec 55

on IOXUEI r| apxr| pEyiorou yia to napandvco npd6Anpa.


XprioiponoiEiotE to nporjyoupEvo npc>6Ar|pa 6.
, ECHO D eva cppaypEvo unoouvoAo OTO R2 pEouvopo 3D. ecopoupe tr|v opoyevii

) + a 2 ( x , y ) u y y ( x ) y ) + 2 a 3 ( x , y ) u x ( x , y ) + 2a4(x,y)Uy(x 1 y) =0, ( x , y ) D.

Jfaano6Eix0i on iaxuei r| apxp peyiotou yia to napandvco np66Ar|pa.

2.6 Bi6Aioypaef>iKg Avatpopeg


Aa nepauEpQ ueAetri napaneunouue TOV ev6ia(})ep6vievo avayvcoatr) peiaJju dAAcov aia (Ji-
pAia tuv L. C. Andrews [3], D. Bleeckerand G. Csordas [8], U. Brechtken-Manderscheid
[10|, H. Bnv.is |11], Luis A. Caffarelli and Cabre [15], R.Courant [18], G. Folland [27], A.
Friedman [28], P. Garabedian [29], D. Gilbarg and N. Trudinger [30], K. E. Gustafson
[331.J. Hadamard [36], O. D. Kellogg [45], J. Kevorkian [46], O. A. Ladyzhenskaya [48],
RMcOwcn [55], M. A. Pinsky [59], M. H. Protter and H. F. Weinberger [61], M. Renardy
and R. C. Rogers [65], I.V.Skrypnic [68], S. L. Sobolev [72], W. A. Strauss [76], R. N.
Tikhonov and A. A. Samarskii [78], D. W. Trim [81], Tyn Myint-U and L. Debnath [83],
H. F. Weinberger [84], E. C. Zachmanoglou and D. W. Thoe [86], KQI E. Zauderer [87].

2.7 FCVIKQ npo6Ai]|icrca


1. Na AuOri to aKoAou6o npd6Ar))aa tr|g eJjiocooris Laplace oe letpdycovo HE vir| ouoyEVEig ouvo-
Eg ouvOiiKEg tunou Neumann

= 0, O<X<TT, 0<y<7r,
u x ( 0 , y ) = y - - , u x (7t,y) = 0, 0 < y < n,
u u (x,0) = x, U U (X,TI) = x, 0 < x < TT.

: u(x,y) = c + 2Z^=1 a n [cosh(nx) tanh(nTt) sinh(nx)] cos(ny),


bnoua^^-J^m. n - 1,2.3 .....
2. Na Au0Ei to OKdAou0o np66Ar|pa tr)g E^ioooris Laplace OE tEipdyuvo VIE pr| ouvo-
piQKes ouvGriKeg tunou Robin

Uxx(x,y) + uyy(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < l , 0 < y < l ,


ux(0,y) + hu(0,y) = 0, ux(1,y) + hu(l,y) = 0, 0 < y < 1 ,
uu(x,0) + hu(x,0) =0, uy(x,l) + hu(x, 1) f(x), 0 < x < l .

3. Na Au0Ei to OKoAouGo npd6Ar)pa trig Eg'iocoorig Poisson OE tEtpdycovo pE ur| opoyEVEtg


ouvopiaxEg ouv9r|KEg tunou Robin

u x x(x,y) + u u y ( x , y ) = 1, O < X < T T , 0 < y < 7 r ,


u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , u x (7r,y) = 0, 0 < y < n,
u u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , u u (x,7r) + hu(x,7t) = f ( x ) , 0 < x < n.
56 2. EAAeimiKOu TunouB 2.7 n

T. u(x,y) = x[f -7i] + 5I~=1 a n sin


onou a n = ^ Jo j f ( x ) - hl^j--TTX] jsin
L j
p A = 5 sinh ^?'h Hcosh
4. Na npoo6iopio6i r| Katavopr) tr|g atdoiprig 9EppOKpaoiag a" EVO rjpiKUKAiKo SIOKO cppaYpEvol
and tig KapnuAEg y = \/l x 2 , y = 0 pE 9EppOKpaoia 0C Katd pr|KOg tng 6iaptpoul
y = 0, Evci) Katd pr|Kog tr|g npi(ppEiag r| 9EppOKpaoia 6i6Etai ano tig ouvopiaKEg auv6r]KEg:|
( a ) u ( 1 , 0 ) = s i n 0 , (b)u(1,9)=T 0 .
AnavT^ar]: (a)u(r, 0) = rsin0, (b) u(r,0) = *Ifl Lk=o ^TT" sin(2k + 1 ) 0 -
5. Na npoo6iopio6Ei r| Katavopri trig atdaipng 9EppOKpao(ag ato npcbto tEtaptripopio tou SioKOul
r < a, 0 < 0 < 7t/2, av 01 EuOuypappeg aKpEg Eivai 9ppiKd povcopEVEg KOI r| 9EppoKpaoia|
Katd prJKOg trig KUKAiKiig axprig 6i6Etai and tr| auvdptnori sin 0.
n
Andvmari: u ( r , 0 ) = 1
TT 7T1 Y_i ^tn
*M. . ji \ a (i)
/ cos(2n0).
6. Na npoo6iopio6i r| Katavopr) tr|g atdoiprig 9ppoKpaoiag oto 6aKtuAio 10 < r < 20
u(10,0) = 15cos0, u(20,0) =30sin0.
7. Na npoo6iopio0Ei r| Katavopii trig atdoipng 9EppOKpaaiag ato 6aKtuAio a < r < b q
ouvopiaKEg auv0r|Kg: u ( a , 0 ) = T i , u ( b , 0 ) = T 2 .
A-r^^,,.^
Anavirjorj. t. [ * oj
LUT, Q\ ^ TI In b T2.In..a +, (T2
. T I ) In r .
8. Na Au0i to OKoAou0o npo6Anpa Robin opiopEvo oto npcoto tEtaptnpopio tou pova6iaiou|
OlOKOU

-u r (r,e) + ^ 0, 0 < r < 1, 0 < 0 < n/2,


u(r,0)=0, u(r,7r/2)=0, 0<r<1, ur(l,9) =f(9), 0 < 0 < n/2.
2n
i: u(r, 0) = ~=0
=0 dnr sin2n0, onou a n = ^ J^ f(0)sin(2n0)d0,
Y i a n = 1,2,3 .....
9. Na Au0Ei to np66Ar|pa tunou Dirichlet opiopEvo ato OKoAou0o tEtaptnpopio SaKtuAiou

;3 uee(r,0) 0, 1 < r < 3, 0 < 0 < n/2,


u(r,0) = ( r - 1 ) ( r - 3 ) , u(r,7t/2) 0, 1 < r < 3,
u(1,0)=0, u(3,9) = 0, 0 < 0 < 7 t / 2 .

AndviTjar): u(r,0) = n sinh sin , onou


n
_ 2 4nnln3[3(-1) -11 ,
In 3 sinh
10. Na Au0i to OKoAouOo E^wtEpiKO npd6Anpa tunou Robin
1 1
Urr(i~,9) + -u r (r,0) + -rr-ueefr, 0) = 0, a < r <+00, n < 0 < n
r r2
-bu r (a,0) + cu(a,9) = cos0, -TT < 0 < n,
u(r, 0) cppayu-Evo, KaGug to r > +00, n < 0 < 7t,

onou to a,b,c Eivai npaYpauKEg ara0pEg p a > 0.


11. Mia KUKAiKii pEp6pdvr| aKtivag r = a ppiaKEtai OE otdoipr) Katdataori pE tig aKtiviKs
YpappEg 0 = 0 KOI 0 = b naKtcopEVEg ato xy-EninE6o. Av r| pEtatdnior| tng KUKAiKiig
57

'=Q tivai f(9) = sin(0/2) yia 0 < 0 < b, va Pp0i r) uEtatdmar) u(r,0|b) tou KUKAIKOU
0 < 0 < b. Etr) OUVEXEIO va ppE0Ei to dpio u(r, 0|b), KaOcog to b > 2n. Floid r|
tou
12. 'Eato D EVQ qspayuEvo unoouvoAo oto RN , N = 2,3 UE auvopo 6D. EQPOUUE to
; eAAEintiKO npd6Anua ouvopiaKcbv ouvOnKov tunou Dirichlet

V-(p(x)Vu(x)) h(x), p ( x ) > 0 , x e D ,


u(x) = b ( x ) , X 6 9 D .
; y,pr\ar\ tng apxns UEyicrcou va i r| OUVEXHS dptr|or| and ta 6E6ouva yia to
npd6Anua.
Na ano6Eix0ei dti to npd6Anpa Neumann, to npo6Anu.a Robin KOI to npd6Anu.a ouvopiaKcbv
PKCOV peiKtou tunou yia tnv EAAEintiKii

V-(p(x)Vu(x)) = - p(x)>0,
at pova6iKii Auon. Ei6u<d, ornv nEpintoor) npo6Aiiuatos Neumann r\ Auorj Eivai
; pia npoo0EtiKii ata0Epd.
. XpnoiuonoiEiotE to yEyovog dti r| Kd0Etr| napdycoyog 9u(x)/9n 9a va Eivai ur|
)5viKii o' EVO uEyioto r\ EAdxioto onu.Eio tou ouvdpou 3D.
14. Eoiu D EVO cppayuEVO unoouvoAo oto , N = 2,3 U.E auvopo 3D. EtapouuE tnv

-V-(p(x)Vu(x)) + q ( x ) u ( x ) = 0 , x <E D,

6nou p(x) > 0, q(x) > 0. Na ano6ix0i dti u(x) < 0 OE Kd0 EootEpiKd uEyiato onudo
KQI on u(x) > 0 OE Kd0E EoutEpixo EAdxioto onudo. Xpr|oiponoidvtag auto to anotEAEOua
va ano6eix0Ei dti to npdBAnpa auvopiOKcbv ouv0nKcov tunou Dirichlet yi' auti") tr|v E|iowor| U.E
u(x) = b(x), x 9D 8a npsnEi va 6EXEtai uova6uai Auor).
E^iotboetg Ilapa6oAiKOu Tvmou

E$iacoar| Ocp]ioxi)xas

3.1.1 Eioaycoyri
<J>aivou.eva. dnwg r\ por? Oep^oir^iag OE ]i\a Geppmd aycoYipn nepioxn, n porj
OE Ypappeg peiacpopag, o rj^Kipo^ayu7]tiajz6c, KaGcbg KOI ycviKotepa KdGe cpaivdvievo
5idxuar](;, ncpiypdcpovTai and tnv zfyaaar] dsp^ioiijiag, r\ onoia ornv anAouaiEpri 6uvatii
popcpii OTO x^P0 Twv N 6iaatdoecov eivai

tit(x,t) =k 2 Au(x,t) + g(x,t), x D C RN , t > 0, (1.1)

onou k2 eivai ]aia cpuaiKii ataGepd, o auvTeXeaTT]!; dep^ixr]^ aYWY^o1^?. nou E"
and to auYKeKpijjevo und peAeTri (paivovievo KOI o pr)-oviOYevr)g dpog g(x,t)
' oe E^coTEpixet; KT]YE? i9Ep[a6TY)Toc<;. H e^iocoar) (1.1) anoTeAei enaKoAouGo Tng
napaSoxns TOU aciciaaToc; SiatripriaYjc; trjc; t)ep^iixrii; evspYSia^.
Mia dAAri E^iocoori napaBoAiKou Tiinou, r| onoia nEpiypcKpEi cpaivdjjieva
>d<; (diffution - convection), Eivai r|

u t (x,t) =k 2 Au(x,t)-v(x)Vu(x,t), x e D c R N , t > 0,

onou o k 2 Au(x,t) anoTeAei lov opo idep[aixr]<; aYQYl^oiT]Tac; KQI o v(x)Vu(x,t) TOV
opo uEia^opa^. 'Eva KAaoiKO napaSciyvia Sidxuons-petacpopds anoieAei o avadpcbaKcov

3.1.2 Eiocaoij Oep^oxnTag:


A. 0 Nopog TOU Fourier, ecopouvae pia (ppaYyevr) nepioxn tou tpio6idoratou xwpou D
ptcnjvopo 9D. 'EorcD u ( x , y , z , t ) n QeppOKpaoia ato onvieio (x,y,z) tn xpoviKii
t. Av T] 9cpuoKpaoiauia6dAcTat auvapirioci TOU x^pou. ^o^c r^QEpjaornja 0&j_
j}r|pda uipnAiis QepiJOKpaoiag npog onUEta xaunAii<; 8cpyiOKpaoiag. Mia 6iavuopaTiKri
noooTnta (iaoiKiis on>iaoiag eivai r| nuKvoxrixa depiuicou geuuaxos (heat current
density) Jl[x^y>^,t). Autii r\ 6iavucy]aaTiKr) noadtnta EKcppd^ei TO guGvid peia6oAris
tr)S QOiig Qepvadtntas OTO anvieio (x,y,z) in xpoviKi] oxiyviri t. Av n(x,y,z) eivai
60 KeQaAaio 3. E^ioaocig riapa6oAiKOv Tunam

eva povaSiaio Sidvuopa, T6TE rj paGpconi noodTr)Ta q ( x , y , z , t ) = q(x,y,z, t) n(x,y,j


ovopdg"eTai depuixi] poq (heat flux) orr|v SteuGuvor) n(x,y,z). MeTpd 6e TO
QeppiKiig poiig orr) povdSa TOU xpovou avd povd6a emcpaveiag o' eva enineSo pe Kofi
6idvuopa TO n(x, y, z). O Nouog Fourier avacpepet OTI

q(x, y, z, t) = -K(x,y, z)Vu(x,y, z, t),

dnou K ( x , y , z ) eival o ovvxeAeoriis QepuiKijg ayoyiuoTiiTas (thermal conductivity


TOU uAiKOu. Enei6ii TO Vu(x,y,z, t) 6eixvei npog Tr| 6ieu0uvor| au^rjorig Trig Tipiig 10
u(x,y,z,t), evco r| 9eppoTr|Ta peei ano TO QeppoTEpa ora ijiuxpOTepa oripeta, \\' w
napouoid^ETai TO npdonpo peiov OTO vopo Fourier. 'ETOI TO q(x,y, z, t) SEIXVEI npogi
6iu6uvor| Trig peyiorr|g eAdTccoorig Tr|g QeppOKpaoiag u(x,y,z,t) KOI TO |q(x,
8i6Ei TO puGpd Tr|g OeppiKiig porig a* aimi Tr| 8ieu6uvoT|.
B. AlauopipuoT) TIJS E^iocjoris QcppoTr|Tag. 'Eorco R eva neSio peoa arr|v nepioxil
D pe auvopo 9R. H QeppdTrua geei peoa OTO uAiKO, niGavdv 6e va napdyetai xcJ
and eocoTepiKii nriyri, pe puGpd r ( x , y , z > t ) . Enopevcog r\ noooTnTa Tpg QeppoTritasJ
nou eioepxeTai orr] nepioxn R TOU uAixou OTO XPOVIKO Sidornpa (t, t + At), oe npunj
npooEvyiori cog npog At, 6i6eTai and TOV Tuno

Q= - 3R
q(x,y,z,t) n(x,y,z)dS (1.2)

dnou n(x,y, z) eivai TO e^coTepiKd povaSiaio Kd8eTO 8idvucrpa OTO onpeio (x, y, z) toul
auvdpou 3R KOI TO npdoripo peiov ppioxeTai pnpoord and TO enicpaveiaKO
acpou TO q(x, y, z, t) n(x, y, z)dS anoTeAei Tnv noodTnTa Tng 8eppdTr|Tag, nou
and Tr| oroixeicbSr) enicpdveia dS arr| povdSa TOU xpovou.

3.1.1: E^iaoar] Zffejfeiac /.

'Opcog auTii q noodTnTa 9eppdTr|Tag Q EXEI cog anoTEAeopa va augY|0d r| QsppoKpac


KQTO TO peyeGog u t (x,y,z, t)At, opoicog oe npcoTr) npooeyyiori cog npog At. 'Bid
(1 61

(inopoupe va ypdvpouux

Q= c(x ) y,z)p(x,y ( z)u t (x,y,z,t)dVAt+0(|At| 2 ) > (1.3)

> n o u c ( x , y , z ) sivai r\ xcopr)TiKOTn.Ta 9ppdTr|Tag orr| uovd6a Tqg pdag KQI p(x,y,z) st-
ain nuKv6Tr|ia ir|g pdag TOU uAucou. E^iowvovrag Tig o)(Oig (1.2) KO.I (1.3), Siaipcovrag
|ie At Kai OTEAvovrag TO At > 0, npOKurtTEi r| egioooii

c(x,y,z)p(x,y,z)u t dV = - q(x,y,z,t)-n(x,y,z)dS+ r(x,y,z,t)dV. (1.4)

H E^iooor) auvEXEiag IOXUEI OE Kd0 nEpioxri avg"dpTn.Ta ano TO UEyEOog Tng. Ei6iKd,
pouiie pia piKpri o(j>aipiKii nEpioxii B y^pw and TO onuEio (x,y,z) 6iaipouu.
iov oyKO KOI naipvoupE TO dpio, OTOV r| 5idpTpog Tng ocpaipag TEIVEI oro pn6v. To
oAoicAripcovia, p (idori TO 9cbpniJa anoKAiong,

q(x,y,z>t)-n(x,y,z)dS= (divq(x,y,z,t))dV.
; J J JB
ETOI npoiainm r| 6iacpopiKr| popcpr) Ti"|g ^iooor|g ouvsxsiag
c(x,y,z)p(x,y,z)ut(x,y,z,t) = -div(K(x,y,z)Vu(x,y,z,t)) + r ( x , y ) z , t ) , (1.5)
yia KdGe (x,y, z) B, t > 0, r| onoia anoTEAsi ir\ yeviKii popcpri Tng eiooons depuo-
Tijtas.'OTQV TO K ( x , y , z ) = K, Eivai 6n.Aa6ii avJ;dpTr|TO TOU (x,y,z), pnopoups va TO
pydAoupE and Trjv napv0on. 'ETOI o Tunog (1.5) yivETai
ut(x,y,z,t) = k 2 (x,y,z)div(Vu(x,y,z,t)) + g(x,y,z,t)
= k 2 (x ) y,z)V 2 u(x,y,z,t)+ g(x,y,z,t), (x,y,z) e B, t > 0, (1.6)
onouTa k 2 ( x , y , z ) == c(x^2)Kp(X|V.z) KOI g ( x , y , z , t ) == anoTEAouv Toug
KavoviKonoirifjvovg opovg irjg aya^yi^diTjraf KCU nig aoiepiK.r\g S' avriaroixa. To
lc(x,y,z) ovopd^ETai ouvreAeariis QepiiiKiig ayuyi}i6Ti)Tas
(thermal diffusivity) TOU uAiKou.

F. APXIKC KQI EuvopioKeg Euv6r|Kg - KaAii TonoBexnoq. And tq pxpi Tcbpa


avdAuor) cpaivETai OTI, n^iocoon QEpviOTnTag (1.6) nEpiypdcpEi TO cpaivdpsvo Tqggprjg 9p-
poTr|TagjiQg crto OTEPEO ocipa. Fia Tnv nArjpri ptATr| TOU 9aivopEvou npsnsi va Ad6oup
un' oipiv TO 66opva oroJJUVOPO TOU ocopaTOg Ka0cog KOI Tig ouv0r|KEg Katd Tqv EKKI-
_vncni peAETrjg TOU cpawopEvou, 6r|Aa6r| Tig ovvopidKzg KO.I apxiKig ouvdr)Kg, avuoroixa.
Yndpxouv 6ia(pdpcov Ei6cov ouvopiaKEg ouv0r|Kg. Fia napd6Eivpa, av r| 9puoKpaoia E(-
BQI ota9pr| OTOV nEpiSdAovra to ocjpa X"P. ^o^t ExoupE ouvopiaKEg cruv0iiKg xunou
Dirichlet Trig pop^HS
u(\tytz,t)=h(xty,z>t), (x,y,z) 6 3B, t > 0. (1.7)
'OTav r) gori 9ppdTrjTgg_KaTg ur|KOg TOU ouvdpou eivot q (x. u. z. t) (BAsnE, ExriV10
3.1.2), TOTE and TO vdpo TOU Fourier npOKumei OTI, 01 ouvopiaKEg ouv9r|KEg Eivai xunou
Neumann Tng

0. (1.8)
62 3. Eiaaoei$ FlapaBoAiKou Tunoul

Avyia napd6iYpa, TO oopa sivai Qeppixd povopEvo, TOTE 9a Exoups q(x, y , z, t) = 0.1
Mia Tpur) poptpii auvopioKuv ouv9r)Kci>v npoKumEi and iaj.>6iio tpufrie. rou Newton, noul
9opi on r\ got] OEppdrnTdg KOTO pi^KOg TOU ouvdpou Eivai avdAoyri Tng Siacpopdg
Trig 9eppOKpaoiag OTO owpa KOI OTOV npi6dAovra X"P- 'Ell npOKiimei r\ aKoAou6i

3.1.2:

ndvw OTO aiivopo

au(x,y,z,t)
l pu(x,y)z,t)=G(x,y,z)t)) 5, t > 0 , (1.9)

dnou TO p anoTEAei TOV ouvreAeanii enKpavEtaKiig deppixqs |iExa<|>opd. AuTEg 01


ouvopiaKEg ouv6riKg ovopd^ovrai peucrou TUHOU 11 tunou Robin. And Tig ouv0r|Kg
Tunou Robin pnopoupE va ndpoups Tig ouv6r|Kg tiinou Dirichlet p Neumann, av
ooupE p TO prj5ey TO I r\ TO p, avTioroixa. To Cjfx^z, t) = 0 QvaoroixEi OE
OE npi6dAAov pn6viKiig OEppOKpaoiag.
TEAog, a xoup eva KOjid~TdnodTr]f^vo~np66jir]fj.a TOU Tunou (1.1), 9a npni
auTd va ouvoSEUETai and pia apxiKTl ovvdrfKr] Tng popcpiig

u(x,y,z,0) = f(x,y,z), (x,y,z) B. (1.10)

tr| auvExeia 9a pEAeTiiooupe Sidcpopsg paoiKEg popcpEg TOU npo6AiipaTOg(l.l), (1.10)


auvo6Eudpevou and pia TOV ouvopiaKcov ouvSnKov (1.7), (1.8) ri (1.9), orr| pia Sidoraon,
6nAa8ri OTOV TO B Eivai EVO cppaypEvo 6idornpa TOU R.

3.1.3

1. Mia KuAivSpiKri 906605 EXEI enineSa dKpa ora oripeia x = 0 KQI x = a KQI
povuviEvr) napdnAeupr) Emtpdveia. Sir) xpovixr| ariyviri t = 0 r| QeppOKpaaia trig gd66ou 6i6etai
ano tr| auvdptr|or| f (x), 0 < x < a. Av to dKpo x = 0 Eivai QsppiKd povojaEvo xai to dAAo dKpo
oaor] 63

x == a SiatnpEuai oToug 100C, yia t > 0, va 6iapopcpco0i TO np66Ar|pa apxiKcbv auvopiaKcov


ouvQri xovyia Tr| 9Eppoxpaoia u(x,t) orr| 90660, yia dAa 0 < x < a KOI t > 0.
u t ( x , t ) = ku x x (x,t), 0 < x < a, t > 0, u x (0,t) = 0, u(a,t) = TOO, t >
I u(x,0) = f ( x ) , 0 < x < a,
i. H pdor| KQI r| Kopucpq piag opi^dvuag opOoycoviag nAdKag 6iaardoEcov 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b
thai ScppiKd povcopevEg EniepdvEiEg. Etq xpovixq oriypr) t = 0 r| 9EppoKpaoia Tqg nAdxag 6i6E-
raiano Tq auvdpTrioq f ( x , y ) , 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b. Av 01 nAEUpEg x = 0, y = b 6iaTr)pouvcai
oui SeppOKpuoiu 50C, yia t > 0 KOI 01 nAEUpEg y = 0, x = a sivai 9sppiKd povopEVEg, va
6ia|JOp(po0Ei TO npd6Ar|pa apxiKcbv ouvopiaKov ouv0nKcbv yia Tr| QEppOKpaoia u(x,y,t) orr|v
ia 6Aa TO 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b KOI t > 0.
\. H pdar) KQI q Koputpii piag opi^dvriag KUKAiKiig nAdKag 6iaardoECDV 0 < r < p, TT < 9 < n
eivai QEppiKd povopEVEg Ent<paviEg. Tf| xpoviKii oriypii t = 0, r\ 9EppOKpaoia Tng nAdKag
6i6tiai ano ir| f ( r , 9) cog oTjvdpTrjor) povo TOV r,9. Tia t > 0, pETacpEpETOi 9ppdTiiTa KOTO pr|-
KO$ ins QKviiig ouptpcova p TO vdpo xpu$Y|g TOU Newton o' Eva nEpiBdAAov pE 9eppOKpaoia pn6Ev,
EVO ouyxpovog napdyETai 9ppdTnTa p ora0pd gu0pd qW/m3 oro EOUTEpwd TOU SaxruAiou
< TI < r < t2 < p. Na 6iapop(j)co0Ei TO npo6Anpa apxiKuv ouvopiaKcav ouv6nK6v yia TF|
SeppOKpaoia u(r, 9 , t ) ornv KUKAiKii nAdKa.
tr- u, k { u r r 4 lu r + ^uee} + ^^, 0 < r < p, -n < 9 < n, t > 0, K u r ( p , 9 , t ) +
nu(p,0,t) = 0, -7t < 9 < 7i, t > 0, u(r,9,0) = f ( r , 9 ) , 0 < r < p, -n < Q < n, dnou g(r) =
Iq, y i a r ( r i , r 2 ) KOI g(r) =0, yia r e (0,ri ) U (r 2 ,p).
4. H (5dor| KOI r| xopupr) piag opi^ovTiag npiKUKAiKiig nAdKag SiaordoEov 0 < r < p , 0 < 9 < 7 t
eivai 9eppiKu povopEVEg EnicpdvEiEg. ETr) xpoviKii oriypr) t = 0 r| 9EppOKpaoia Tng nAdKag
6i6tiai and TI-| f ( r , 0 ) cog ouvdpTrjon povo TQV r, 9. H KUKAiKq aicpii Trig nAdKag eivai 9EppiKd
povopevr|, dpog KUIU pqKOg Tqg Eu0uypappr|g aKprig npoori0ETai 9EppOTr|Ta pE ora0pd gu0pd
hW/m3 (h > 0), yia Kd0E t > 0. Na 6iapopcpco0i TO npd6Aqpa apxiKciv ouvopiaKwv ouv0r|K6v
yia iq SeppoKpuoia u(r, 9, t) orr|v KUKAixii nAdKa.
fiudvir\ar]: u t = k{u r r + \ur + ^rUee 0 < r < p, 0 < 9 < n, t > 0, u r ( p , 0 , t ) = 0, 0 <
0 < 7i, t > 0, - K r - ' u e f r . O . t ) = q, n.t) = q, 0 < r < p, t > 0, u(r,9,0) =
f(T,0), 0< r < p, 0 < 9 < TI.
5. Mia ocpaipa aKrivag p EXEI apxiKii SEppoxpaoia (t = 0), 100C. Av, yia Kd0E t > 0,
jieiaipEpeTai 9EppdTr|Ta oupcpcova pE TO vdpo ipu^qg TOU Newton o' Eva npi6dAAov pE ora0Epii
9ppOKpaoia 10C, va 6iapopcpco0Ei TO npdBAnpa apxiKcov cruvopiaKOV ouv0nKwv yia Tq 9Eppo-
Kpaoia orri opaipa.

3.2 O]ioycvi]s E^iacoarj

Eio npcbto napdSeiYiaa 9a yivti avaAuxiKii KQI AeirroiiEpris napouoiaon TCOV 6iatpopcov
Pripdicov, nou npenei va QKoAouGouvrai \\a pta nAripn vicAein tvog npo6AripaTOs ing
napandvco p,op(})iis. Eia unoAoina napaSeivpaTa 9a Yivei unoAoYiapdg povo Tng
TOU avtioroixou npo6Aripaiog.
64 KecpdAaio 3. Egioaoeic; FlapadoAiKov TunoJ

3.2.1 Mi)6eviKes EuvoptaKeg


napdypa(po auTr) 9a peAeTr|0ei TO napa6oAuc6 np66Anpa auvopiaKuv Tipd
Tunou Dirichlet

;,t) = k ^u t (x,t), 0 < x < p, t > 0, (2.1


u(0,t) = 0, u ( p , t ) = 0 , t>0, (2.2)1
u(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p, (2.31

onou r| ouvdpTnor) f~(x) apKEi va sivai Tjarjjaomxd auve)(r]<;. Fia THV avaAuiiKijI
I TOU npo6Ar|p.aTOg (2.1)-(2.3) 9a aKoAouGiiooupE TO napaxaTO
A. Eupcor] xi)s TuniKiig Auoris - Xuptojiog MexadAi^T
Fia Tr|v TUJiixr] Xuarj TOU (2.1) - (2.3) ecpappo^ouiie ii\ pc9o6o iiETa6Ar|tu\
r] )ie6o8o Fourier, 6r|Aa6ii Secopoupe OTI, r| Auor) exei Trl

u(x, t) = X(x)W(t), 0 < x < p, t > 0. (2.4)1

AvriKa6icn;6vTag T^V napa8oxii (2.4) orriv e^iooor] (2.1) exouP-E

X"(x)/X(x) = W'(t)/k 2 W(t) = -A,

onou TO A anOTeAei xrj axa6epa Staxopioyiou. 6r)Aa6ii Tr)v KOivri Tipii TCJV 6uo A6-
ycov. 'ETOI ano ir\ pspiKri SiacpopiKii e^iocoor) (2.1) npoKunTouv 01 aKoAouGeg
6ia(f)OpiKg E^iocooEig cog npog x KQI t, avriaroixa

X"(x) + AX(x) = 0, 0<x<p, (2.5)1


W'(t) + Ak 2 W(t) = 0, t>0. (2.6)1

Oi auvopiaKEg ouv9r|Kg (2.2) naipvouv ir\ popcpii

u(0,t)=X(0)W(t) = 0 KOI u ( p , t ) = X ( p ) W ( t ) = 0, Y i a K d 6 t > 0 . (2.7)

EnEi8r| 01 oxeoEig (2.7) laxuouv yia KaQt t > 0, npOKunrEi OTI, r| ouvdpTrjar] X(x|
iKavonoiEi Tig QKoAouGsg opoyEVEig ouvopiaKEg cruv6r)Kg Tunou Dirichlet

X(0) = 0 xat X(p) = 0. (2.8)

H E^iocoor) (2.5) EXEI yEviKrj AUOTJ Trig QKoAouGrig popcpiig

:i cosh VAx + 02 sinh \/ Ax, A < 0,


X(x) = ^ ci + C 2 x, A = 0, 0<x<p. (2.9)
/
:icos\/Ax + C2Sinv Ax, A > 0,
Ano6iKvuTai OTI, 01 pn-TTpiu.Vg AuoEig Tpg pop(pr)g (2.9), nou iKavonoiouv ug |
ouvopiaKEg auvGiiKEg (2.8), 6i6ovrai yia Tig aKoAouGEg TipEg TOU A

n = ],2,3 (i6ioTipg), (2.10)


U Opoyev/jg- E^ioaoq 65

i EXOUV IT] pop(pii


;a>v UTTX
= <PnM = sin - , 0 < x < p, n = 1,2,3 (i6ioouvapTr|0ig). (2.11)
P
Ikptopi^ovrag TO A arig iSioupEg (2.10) TOU ouvopiaKou npo6AiipaTog (2.5), (2.8), r\
ai Auor] Tr|g |iouorig (2.6) EXEI Tr) pop<pri

t > 0, n = 1,2,3,.... (2.12)

Etoi r\ oiKoyevEia tcov AUOECOV tr|g $"iocoor|g (2.1), nou ucavonoid KO.I tig auvopiaKEg
g (2.2) Eivai

Un(x,t) = <pn(x)W n (t) = Cnsin-e- k2n27l2t/p2 , 0 < x < p, t > 0, (2.13)

n = 1,2,3,... . Oi auvapTiioEig (2.13) auviorouv TO ouvoAo TCOV


Auoeov TOU npo6Ar|paTOg ouvopiaKcbv auv0r|Ka>v (2.1) - (2.2). AUTO nou anopEVEi va
EI yia TO cruvoAiKO np66Ar|pa (2.1)-(2.3) Eivai, av undpxEi OTOIXEIO TOU auvoAou
1
fepeAicoScov AUOECOV, TO onoio va iKavonoiEi KOI Tnv apxiKii auv6r|Kr| (2.3). Fia va
ei QUTO, 9a npni, \\a Kdnoio n, va EXOUU.E
TV7TX
ttn(x,0) = f ( x ) =c n sin , 0<x<p.
P
AUTO yEviKct Eivai aSuvaTO, EKIO(^ av r| ouvdpTr|or| f(x) anoTEAEi noAAanAdoio Tng
i6ioauvdptr|orig sin(n7Tx/pJ, TO onoio npocpavcbg auviord u.ia noAu Ei6iKr| nEpinrcoon.
(2.5) fia va avrnjETonioouu-E Tnv nEpinTcoor) u.iag apxiKr|g ouv6r|Kr|g f(x) yviKr|g
(2.6) 9a KdvoupE \pr\ar\ Tr|g apxrig vis VKepdeorjg. 'ETOI KoraoKEud^oupE Trj SoKt^aoriKrj Av
otipd
oo
U7IX
u(x,t) = Y cn sin , 0 < x < p, t > 0, (2.14)

_| onoia npocpavcbg ucavonoii tr| SiacpopiKii E^iocoor) (2.1) KOI Tig auvopiaKEg cnjv0r|Kg
(2.2) [EnaArjGEUOTE TO !!]. H ouvdpTr|or) (2.14) 9a iKavonoiEi Tnv apxiKii ouv0r)Kr| (2.3),
av oio t = 0 EXOUU.E

v U7TX
u(x, 0) = f(x) = > cn sin , 0 < x < p. (2.15)
^
n=l P

jp 6nAa6ii on, 01 ora0pg cn anoTEAouv Toug (povooripavra opiouxvoug)


irjg rmnoviKiis oeipdg Fourier Tng ouvdpTr|or|g f(x). 'ETOI 9a IOXUEI r) OXEOI]

2 fp UTTX
:n = - f(x)sin dx, n = 1,2,3,.... (2.16)
P Jo P
Apa TEAiKd aupnEpaivoupE OTI, r| ouvdpTr)or| (2.14) anoTEAsi Tr|v wniKr\ jLiior] TOU
npo6Ar|paTog apxiKcbv - ouvopiaKov Tipcov (2.1) - (2.3), onou 01 auvTEAEOTEg c n 6i5ovrai
and Tr) oxEor) (2.16).
66 3. E^tacoaeic; HapafioAiKOU Tuno

B. EnoAi]6euoii it\g Auon$ / OpaAonoinoi] (Regularity)


H napandvco SiaSiKaoia pag o6nyd ornv EupEorj piag TUIUKIJS ( q aoOevoug ) Awe
TOU npo6AiipaTOg apxuccov-ouvopiaKcbv ouvGnKcov (2.1)-(2.3), 6nAa8ii piag Auang, no
iKavonoiEi Tig oAoKAnpcoTiKEg ?jiocoaig, 01 onoiEg npOKunrouv ano OUTO KOI TO apxi
np66Anpa "ox86v navrou". Pxa va anoSd^oupE OTI, r\ (2.14) anoTEAei auarnpii (
KAaoixq) Auoi) (BAEnE, EvoTnTa 1.1) TOU npo6Ar|paTOg (2.1)-(2.3) 9a npEnsi va 8d
Tnv opoiopopcpr) ouyKAior) KdG' Evog ano TO avanTuypaTa

n=1
UTt
Uxx(x,t) = - (2.17

] ^sml^e-^n^t/p^
. -
n=l
napaTnpoupE opcog 6u, |cn| < 2m, onou m = max{|f(x)| : 0 < x < p} <
EnopEvcog 9a ExoupE
n?tx ,-k2n27t2t/p2
Iu(x,t)| = cn sin e
n=1 n=l

< 2m , 0 < x < p , t > 0 , onou a =


n=l
- e~at p^
u/
acpouioxuEi e~' ^ < e~* ~vp" = I e~" ~w \ < 1. ETFI OUVEXEIO SE
Xpiiorj TOU Tunou auyKAiong Tng yEcopETpiKiig OEipdg. ME opoio Tpono anoSEiKvuEtai <
6Aa TO avanruypaTa TCOV pspiKov napaycbycov Tng oxEoqg (2.17) ouyKMvovv andJivia;
yia KdGs x OTO [0,p] KOI t > 0. 'EnopEvcog ucavonoioiiv, TOOO
Uax( x .t) = k.~ 2 Ut(x,t), OE Kd0 onpsio (x,t) e [0,p] x [0,oo), ooo KOI
opoyEVEig ouvopiaKEg ouvGriKEg OTO ouvopo. TcAog anoSEiKvuETai OTI, loxuouv KOI
apxiKEg ouv6r|Kg uno Tr| popcpii
f(x-O)
limu(x,t) = - yia Kd0 x e [0,p],
t-o /.
acpou r| f (x) Eivai pia Tuxaia TpqpaTiKd auvxr|g
P. Movooquavro xqs Auoqs (Uniqueness)
@a anoSEi^oupE OTI, r\ Auor) TOU npoBAiipaTOg apxiKcbv-ouvopiaKov ouv0r)K6v (2. l)-(2.3),
nou ppsGnKE ps ir\ pEGoSo x^piopou TCOV pETaBAnTcbv, Eivai povaSiKr). YnoGETOUpe 6tt,|
auTO 6sv oup6aivEi, eorco SnAaSq OTI TO npoBAnpa SEXETOI 6uo AuoEig HI (x,t), U2(x,1
TOTE i] ouvdpTnoq Siacpopd TCOV AUOECOV u(x,t) = Ui(x,t) U2(x,t) 9a iKavonoiEi
napandvco npoBAnpa pE pnSEviKEg TOOO Tig ouvopiaKEg ooo KOI Tig apxiKEg ouv0riKg.|
Tr| pr) apvnTiKii ouvdpTnor)

w(t) = ^ |u(x,t)|2dx>0, t>0.


Oep/jor^tag 67

icAeuTaia oxcorj 05 npog t npOKurrtei


rp
p pp
p pp
'(t) = uutdx = k2 uuxxdx = -k2 |tixl2dx < 0, t > 0.
Jo Jo Jo
'Opa>$ ano ir\v apxiKr) cruvGiiKri EXOUJJE on u(x,0) = 0. npdyiJa nou
, w(0) = 0. 'ETOI xpri01^01101"^0? TO OevieAicbSri tuno tou AOYIOU.OU

w ( t ) = w ( 0 ) + fw'(
w'(s)ds, t>0,
Jo
5U|incpaivoupe on w(t) < 0. Enopevcos, a(pou r) ovjvapir|or| w(t) eivai jar) apvr|tiKii
(2.171 uxoupe w(t) = 0, yia KaGe t > 0. Apa u(x,t) = 0, y\a Ka0e (x,t) [0,p] x [0, oo),
6r]Aa6r|
u,(x,t) = u 2 (x,t), YiaKdee(x,t) [0,p] x [0,oo).
Ano TOV ipono an68ei|r)s cpaiveiai on, yia Tr)v an66ei^r| tou povooriudvTou Trig Auoris,
jinopouv va xpr|oinonoir|6ouv KQI dAAa ^euyn oruvopiaKcov cruv6r|K&)v, oncog YIQ rtapd-
< oo. &IYVIQ 01 opoyEVEig ouvopiaKEg ouvGiiKEg tunou Neumann

ux(0,t)=ux(p,t)=0.

A.

,2 ' Ano ia napandva EXEI 6eix6Et oti, undpxEi m > 0 etai ooncs, |cn| < 2m, onou
m = max{|f(x)| : 0 < x < p} < oo. Etovrag b = ^- EXOU^IE on

ri SE e~ n 2 b t < e~ nbt = (e~ bt ) n , Aoyco , acpou e~bi < 1,


npOKumxi oti
oo
|u(x, t)| < 2m ^ (e-bt) = 2m

Enopevcog, Ka96g TO t > CXD, EXOUUE on u(x,t) > 0. Ilio

u(x, t) = O (e"bt) KaGcbs TO t -^ oo,

6nAa6ri q oiJYKAior| trig Auong u(x, t) tou npoBAiipatos (2. l)-(2.3) orriv Auor]
UQO(X) = 0 ouviEAEitai pE eKdeiiKO gvd\j.6. Auto ar|uaivEi on, atriv r|
Auoq u(x,t) anotEAEi pia iieT (transient) Auoi) TOU npo6ArnaaTOS apxiKcov-
ouvopiaKuv ouvGriKcov (2.1)-(2.3).
E. Xpovos XoAdpaons (Relaxation Time)
I6iaitpo v6iacpEpov Yia tig EcpappoyEg napouoidi^Ei to opio Uoo(x) tqg Auorig u(x,t)
SoiDrlAniLiDAD noi nodp noiradu noi SLiXioioiiAD 'SLiYnuriox SUxiAoiinLi Soiri oino
i3$iAA3OodLi SLu ortliXo 01 'Q 01 Sodii i3Am Liony LJ IDX i3Apno } 01 5o0ox 1013. -Soiori
-AniiiDAD noi odp oiwdii AOI OLID oiipdi pxuLnoiiOADxi DIDX i30oiAA3Oodu DA isdouri Liony
Li'oYpAsrl pisxdo } oiA'up vsnAxisgoiin pino Drto3Y3ioiiD oj, '-^jp = i IDAIS DQ ()
- ( \ ' Z ) Ae>xLi0Ano AroxDidoAno-AcoxiXdo SoiorlUYgodu 01 DiA SUorodpYoX SoApdX o odv

up i3nX>i pxiY3i

| io| u, = (U 'x)n| u t

110 ISlLIfVXOdll 0 ^ I D 110 5D1A013001IA.

uis U D _^
< + / d \
a \ -XUM I
uis ID = (; 'x)n
oo V '

srlnoXs

j
A
'[d'Q] 9 x noi oiludp^sAD IDAIS IDX nXdpun oidp 01 'up Lio30piinodLi Alii art
1 00<-i 1
- uni =
Z'Z'V |(;'x)n|u[ i
Lu OLID ioi3$ido SUoradpYoX SoApdX o 'Q = (x)n UgDyUg 'LixiiDgoisn IDAJS
1'xln
Li Ugisiis '('Z) - (I'Z) AOxli0Ano AwxDidoAno-ACpxiXdD DrlLiYQpdLi 01 DIJ

OLini AOI OLID 1D135.15


oigoodii aou '(amp SUcoJtilU OAodX 01 3ri SLioodpYoX SoApdX o
OOf-l

|(x)~n-(Vx)n| UI uni =

LiosXo Lu OLID iDi3$ido SOIOLIO


'i (amp uoHBXBpj) SliocodpyoX OAodX 01 OLID 1013919 Luno IIODIDOLID Li pxuoooij
)iuoddooi oprilio 01 OLID LJDDIOOLID LiAsriidxsxAno DIOLIDX so 130Y? DA Driluono 01 SLOCO
!odX OAsrinoiiDiiD AOI 3nno$}dOAA DA (AraAorldocbs Spdnsyu OLID OAori 1X0) oriioLidX IDAJS
OIO131 upx nou Ljoroiii)d3Li ALu^ SoiDriLjiono noi Somoddom oiaitlio 01 Li
liilu>pii> Lu pioidDLi (x)n ox 'oo < ; 01 Sra0ox 'SLiorooj^ SLixidocboig Soirl

89
69

ujpijoi) 3.2.1. Flpinei va loviodei on, at (paivdvxva napa6oji.iK.ov ivnov, evcb 01


^f ouvdrfKeg aio (t = 0) vjiopei va nepiypdcpoviai and v.r\ jleieg avvapir\aei(;,
i uapafaiyv.a iv.r]v.aiiKd ovvex^ig, onog oio napandvco npoSJlrina apxiKcbv - ovvopia-
(2.1)-(2.3), 10 np66jLr]}j.a dixeiai ndvia KAaotKrj Auon, 6rjjia6rj
,,t) C2 ([0,p]) , yia Kdde t > 0. Tito avyKSKpmiva, r\ MOT] u(x,t) eivai -
; npof x/.' Avid K(ppdi TO yeyovdg, du (paivdvxva, nov nepiypdcpoviai and
5ia<f>opiKg e^ioaoeig napaSoAiKov ivnou (dncog dep^dirjia, diaxvorj, KfLn,) anoiejlovv

= 0) efrnaJlvvoviai aiiyv.iaia, u.dAi<; TO t yivei vxyaMiepo lou 0. 'Eioi Mvx dn, ra


\ta.v6\jva diaxvoris 6ia6i6oviai ]JLE dneipr] laxvirjia oe aviideor] v* ra Kv^aiiKd (fawdvxva,
wvonoiav r] iaxvir]ia diddoar]^ eivai nenepaovvr\, dnogexzi r\or\ avapepdei oir^v Evdirjia
.5.2 Kai 9a e&iaaiei Aeniof^epeoiepa oio endvvo KefpaAaio 4. Aa nepanepco emiSeSaiaar]
napairiprjorig napaneu.novvx oio napd6eiyjj.a 6.4.3, dOjld Kai oe djia la
la ora onoia fipiaKoviai aKpuSeig Jivoeig oe napaSoAiKd npo6jlr]v.aia.

3.2.2 Meuctcs Opoycveis DuvopiaKcg EuvGriKc^ - Yncp6axtKe


To aKoAouGo np66Ar)pa nepiypaepei TFJ ]aETa6oori tn QeppotriTas oe ma 90680, oio eva
QKpo tri onoiag exoupe petdGoon Oepvi6Tr|Tag 6x' QKCivoBoAiag, ev6 oio tiAAo aKpo r|
StppOKpaoia Siairipeiiai oia9epd (=0).
u* x (x,t) = k- 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 0, h u ( p , t ) + u x ( p , t ) = 0 , t>0, (2.18)
u(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p,
onou h > 0 (to h < 0 aviioioixei oe eioaycovri QeppiKiis evepyeias ano 10 6ei6 dKpo).
ir)v icxviKii lou ^ajpto^ot) fjia6hrjici}v Qecopouvie on, r\ Auor) eivai iris

u(x,t)=X(x)W(t), 0<x<p, t>0. (2.19)


AvuKdGioicbviag ir) axeori (2.19) oio npo6Ar|pa (2.18) npOKuniouv la aKoAouGa npo-

X"(x) + AX(x) =0, 0 < x < p , X(0) = 0, hX(p) + X'(p) = 0, (2.20)


W'(t)+Ak 2 W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (2.21)
A = K 2 > 0, exoupe ir) yeviKri Auor^ iris 6ia(popiKiig e^iocooris lou npoBAr)-
)iai05 (2.20), r) onoia eivai
X(x) = Cicos(Kx) + C 2 sin(Kx), 0 < x < p. (2.22)
Ano ir] ouvopiaKii ouv6r|Kr| X(0) = 0, ouvendyeiai on CT =0. 'Eioi ano ir| 6euiepr|
HX(p) + X'(p) = 0 IOD npo6Aiivaato$ (2.20) npOKumei on
C2{Hsin(Kp) + KCOS(KP)} = 0.
Av o\tp6oAioouiae ]ae K U , n = 1 , 2, 3, ..., ng unepSaxixes (transcendental) Au

hsin(Kp) + KCOS(KP) = 0,
70 KecpdAaio 3. E^iaaocig TIapa6o\iKOV TunoJ

TOTE 01 unEp6atiKEg i6ioxinEs xat iSioouvapxijoeu; TOU (2.20) da rival

An = K 2 , cp n (x) =sin(K n x), n = 1,2,3,..., 0 < x < p. (2.21

Fia A = A a , n Y^viKr) Aiior) Trjg 6iacpopiKr)g E^iocoorig (2.21) Eivai

W n (t) = Cne-*2"*4, 11 = 1,2,3,..., t>0. (2.2|

EnouEvcog r) AUOTI Tr]g 6iacpopiKr)g s{;iocoor|g TOU npo6Ar)paTOg (2.18), nou ucavonoidt
ouvopiaKEg auv6r|Kg, 6i6ETai ano TO ouvSuaapo TCOV Auoecov (2.23), (2.24) TCOV
npoBAnLiciTcov KOI Eivai

u(x, t) = _ cn sin(Knx)e~ kK " t , 0 < x < p, t > 0.


n=1
Fia va iKavonoiEuai rj apxixri auv6r)Kr) TOU npo6Ar|LiaTOg (2.18), 9a npEnEi va

u(x,0) =f(x) = n x), 0 < x < p,


n=1

onou TO cn anoTEAouv Toug auvrEAEcniEg Sturm-Liouville Trjg auvdpTr)or|g f (x) cog n


Tig i6ioouvapTr)OEig TOU npoBArjuaTOg (2.20). EnouEvcog -yia va aApQEUEi r) (2.26)
va EXOUUE

-7 f p
:n = l l < P n l l ' f(x)sin(K n x)dx, n = 1,2,3,..., (2.27)
Jo

onou
sin(K n p)cos(K n p)

i 6s icrxuEi sin(K n p) = K n cos(K n p)/h, 9a TEAuca

n= ,,2,3 (2.28),

Apa r) (TuniKii) Auor) TOU npo6Ar|tiaTOg (2.18) 6i6Tai ano TO avdnTuviia (2.25), ond
01 OUVTEAEOTEg Cn Opi^OVTOl and Tig OXEOElg (2.27) KOI (2.28).

napaSetyjia 3.2.2. Na Jlvdei ro npdSArj^a apxiKtiv - ovvopiaKobv ovvdrjKav

Ux X (x,t) = k- 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < l ,t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, 2 u ( l , t ) + u x ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = TO, 0 < x < 0 ,

onou TO &oa[tvr\ i aiaBEpd.


1.2 Opoyevtis E^ioaoq Oepjjdrrjta 71

XprioiLionoicbvrag TO x^piauo ueTaBAnrav u(x,t) = X(x)W(t) npOKurnouv TO


ou0a npo6Aii)jaTa
(2.23)
X"(x) + AX(x) = 0, 0<x<1, X(0) = 0, 2X(1) + X ' ( 1 ) = 0 , (|3)
2
W'(t) + Ak W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (y)

(2.24)i it] Auorj Trig eJjiocoarig TOU npo6Ar|uaTog (3) efvai

X(x) = Ci cos KX + C2 sin KX, 0 < x < 1 ,


i
A = K2. H caivopiaKii auv6r|Kr| X(0) = 0 ouvenaYETai OTI Ci = 0. 'ETOI npOKumei

K + KCOS K) = 0 r| tan K = K/2.


(2.25)
'Oncog KQI nporiYOupEV0- OTjp6oAi5oupe Lie K n , n = 1 , 2, 3, ..., Tig dneipeg (unep6a-
eg) gi^eg ir|g TcAeuTaiag e^iocoorig. 'ETOI 01 i6iOTi]aeg KQI 01 avrioroixeg i6ioauvapTiioeig
npo6AiipaTog ( (3 ) eivai

An = K 2 , cp n (x) =sin(K n x), 1, n = 1,2,3,....


(2.26)
eiovrag A = An arr|v E^iocoor) (y), (ipioKoupe OTI q YEVIKI1 ^uorl auTiig eivai

W n (t)=c n e- k 2 K n t , t > 0 , n = 1,2,3,....

Enopevug r) YeviKii Auor) TOU ouvopiaKou npo6AiiviaTog (a) 9a eivai Tng viop(piig
oo
u(x,t) = ^CnSinlKnXJe^ 2 ^ 1 , 0 < x < l , t>0.
n=l

Ha va iKavonoiouvrai 01 apxiKeg auv9r|Keg TOU npo6Ar|LiaTog (a) 9a npenei va

u(x,0) = n x) =T 0)

Enopevug \\a Toug S ouvreAeoreg Fourier 9a

Cn = ||(pn||-2 T 0 sin(K n x)dx = ||(pni = 1 ,2,3, ... ,


Jo

onou
n2 f 7, 1 sin2K n
llVnlr = s i n ( K n x ) d x = - , n = 1,2,3,....
2 4K
JO n
Apa leAiKa r| uovoor|u.avra opiopevr) (TuniKii) Auor| TOU npo6Ar|uaTog (a) eivai
(a)
oo ,
u(x,t)=4To^5-
.
2K
, t > 0.
n-sm(2Kn)
l^= I
72 KecpdAaio 3. Egiocootic; /7apa0oAiKou TunoiB

3.2.3 Mr|-Op.oyevetg ZuvopiaKEg

EwpoupE TO np66Aripa - ouvopiaKcov ouv6r|KCOv p pr|-opoyeveig ouvopiaKq


ouvGrjKEg

.t) = k- 2 u t (x,t), 0<x<p, t>0, (2.2SI


u(x,0) T,, u(p,t)=T2, t>0, (2.3Q
u(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p, (2.311

onou p, TI , T2 SoopEVEg npaypoTiKEg araGepsg KQI f (x) SoopEvr) npaypaTiKii ouvdpTr)0


' auTiiv Tf)v nepinrcoor] 6sv Ecpappo^etai dpEoa r\ pE6o8og xwpiopou TOY pTa6AnTcov, I
So. Enpsns va IOXUEI
Q(0)W(t) = T,, Q(p)W(t) = T2,
yia KdGs t > 0. AUTO opcog aAq0Ui povo OTOV TO W(t) Eivai oraGEpo. flpdypa no
yEviKd Eivai a6uvaTO.
Fia Tnv EniAuor] TOU npo6Ar|paTog (2.29)-(2.30) paoi^opaorE oir\ 6ianiorcoor| OTI, jae
ano QPKETO xpovo (t > oo) r| QsppOKpaoia air] 90660 9a E^apTdTai povo ano
ouvopiaKEg QEppOKpaoiEg TI, T2 KOI Tnv anooraor) x. a EXOUPE 6nAa6ri, yia Kdno
ouvdpTrjori S(x), OTI loxuei

lim u(x,t) =S(x), 0<x<p. (2.2


t*CXD

EupoupE Aoinov OTI, r) Auor) TOU npo6AripaTOg (2.29) - (2.31) 9a EXEI if]

u(x,t) =S(x) + V(x,t), 0 < x < p , t>0. (2.33i

a AspE 6u, r| ouvdpTrior) S(x) anoTEAsi Tr| crtdaijiri Auori KQI r| ouvdpTr|or|
i Tq |iexa6aTtKii Auot) TOU npo6AiipaTO$ (2.29) - (2.31). npocpavcoc, yia ir\ pen
i Auoq IOXUEI
lim V ( x , t ) = 0.
too
AvriKoGioTcovrag Tr| (2.33) OTO np66Ar|pa (2.29) - (2.30) npOKumouv TQ ax6
AouGa npo6AripaTa

S"(x) V x x (x,t)=k- 2 V t (x ) t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 , (2.34)


S(0) V(0,t) = T!, S(p) + V(p,t) = T2l t > 0 , (2.35)
S(x) V(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p. (2.36)

naipvovrag TO opio TOU t ) oo air] pEpiKii SiacpopiKii E^iocoor) KQI Tig auvopiaKEgl
TOU npo6AripaTOg (2.34) - (2.36), ppioKoupE OTI, T\ V(x, t) KO.I 01
v
Trig pr) i?ovTai. 'ETOI KaTaAriYOups OTO trtdoijio np66Ar|pa

S"(x)=0, 0<x<p, 5(0)=!,, S(p)=T2. (2.37)

To np66Ar|pa (2.37) 6extai cog pova6iKii Auor) ir\ ouvdpTr)or|

(T 2 -T,)x
S(x)=T,+ 0 < x<p. (2.38)
ig Egioaoq 73

ouvdpTnor] S(x) ano tp axiar\ (2.38)OTOnp66Anp.a (2.34) - (2.36)


OTO iiexa&rciKO np66Ar)jm

V xx (x,t) = k- 2 V t (x,t), 0 < x < p , t>0,


(2.29)1 V(0,t) = 0, V ( p , t ) = 0, t > 0 , (2.39)
(2.3O)j
V(x,0) = f ( x ) - S ( x ) = f ( x ) - T , - ( T 2 ~ T l ) X . 0 < x < p .
(2.31)1

To np66Arnja (2.39) eivai in$ pop(piis, nou aunTr|9nKe ornv Evotr|Ta 3.2.1. 'Etoi
c<|>app6<Jovias apeoa Tr| u.e9o6o x^piopou TWV petaBAntov Ppioxoupe 6u, r| Auoq TOU
npo6Aiip.ato$ (2.39) 9a eivai

V(x,t) = 2_c n sin e 0<X<p, t (2.40)

onou
2 fP
! nnx ,
rcn flfuCxv lj <?(v11ein
oixjjsm
P Jo p
2 f P ,. TVTTX , 2
= 1,2,3 (2.41)
P Jo P TITT

TeAiKd Aotnov r| pova6iKii (Tunixri) Auor) TOU (2.29H2.31) 6i-


6eiai ano u] ouvdpTnorj

n ~T \
II(Y tl T, -t 1 V r Gir i P"'' 0 < x < p, t > 0, (2.42)
n=l

onou ta cn 6i6ovrai povooiipavra ano ir| (2.40).

3.2.3. Lio napandvw npoSArjua unopoii^ va aKOJloudriooufj f>r\\iaia avd-


jioya avicov rrjg Evdirjiag 3.2.1, yia ir\ nj(iir\ Oefidiav, nou atpopovv irjv ofj.a2onoiriaTj, 10
\iovoor\iiavio, ir\v aau^maiiKri ounnepupopd icov Jiuaecjv, K.a. Pia napddeiy^a,
on, o xpovog x aAdpcjorjg yta ro npoSArjua (2.29)-(2.31) opi&iai and ir\ axior\

1 ln|u(x,t)-S(x)|
- = lim - .
T t>oo t

3.2.4. Na jlvdi 10 npo&1(.r\\jLa apxiKCJV - ouvopiaKcov ouvdrjKcov \i iir}-


ovvopiaKg ouvdr]Kg f*iKiou wnov

u xx (x,t) = k-2ut(x,t) t>0,


u(0,t) = T,, t>0,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x < 1,
dnou k, TI doo^veg npay^aiiKig oiadpg fte k > 0.
74 KecpaAaio 3. FIapa6oAiKOv Tunov

Avar] Lu)4(j>cova pe ta napanavco Qecopoupe to pEtaoxnu-atiavio u(x,t) = S(x) + V(x,t),


onotE avtiKoGimovtag oto ouvopiaKO npoBAnpa (a) KataAiiyouvie oro aKoAouGo ano-

S"(x) V x x (x,t)=k- 2 V t (x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 ,


S(0) V(0,t) = T,, S ' ( 1 ) + V x ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t > 0 , (13)
S(x) V(x,0) = x, 0 < x < p .

AxoAouGuvtag tig i6eeg, nou avantuxGnKav napandvco, oti, ano to npo-


pAr)]aa ( (3 ) oto opio npOKuntei to aidaz^to

S"(x)=0, 0 < x < p , S(0)=T,, S x ( l ) = 0 ,

Vie Auor) tr| ouvdptnor) S(x) = TI. KaGcbg eniong KOI to Hia6aiiKd np66Arjfj.a

Vxx(x.t) k- 2 Vt(x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 ,


V(0,t) - 0, V x ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 , (y)
V(x,0) X-TT, 0 < x < p .

To np66Anvia (y) avr|Kei oe autd tng Evotntag 3.2.1. 'Etoi ecpapiao^ovtag oto (y)
to xcopiapo vieta6Antcov V(x,t) = X(x)W(t), KataAriyoupe ota OKoAouGa npo6Ar|pata

X"(x) + AX(x) = 0, 0 < x < p , X ( 0 ) = 0 , X ' ( l ) = 0 , (6)


W'(t) + Ak 2 W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (e)

Katd yvcooto tpono ppiaKoupe OTI, 01 i6iotipeg KOI 01 avtioroixeg i6ioouvaptr|oeig tot
npo6Aripatog (6) eivai

A n = ^ n 7 t + - J , <pn = sin [(nn + ^} xj , n = l,2,3,..., 0 < x < p.

Fia A = An to npoBAnpa (e) Sexctai Auoeig tng popcpiig

W n (t)=c n e- k2(2n+1)27l2t/4 , n-1,2,3,..., t > 0.

'Etoi (JpioKetai dti, r| tuniKii Auon Tu npo6Ar|patog (y) 6i6etai ano to avdntuypa

V(x,t) = f_ c n sin [(nn + ^) x] 0 < x < p , t>0,


n=1
onou

Cn = l|cpn(x)ir 2 [ [X-T,] sin(n7rx)dx = --[T, - (T, + 1)(-1) n ], n = 1,2,3,...,


Jo nn
i-l
a(pou PpioKOups oti ||(pn(*)ir2 = JgSin2(n.7tx)dx =2.
1.2 0}io\tvr}(; E^i'ooarj epjjorrjrac 75

3.2.5. JVa Ai/ctei to npoSArma


ru/rou

Ux X (x,t) = 0 < x < 1 , t>0,


u(0,t) = Ux(1,t)=T 2 , t>0, (a)
(3)
u(x,0) =

tinov k, TI, T2 6oanVg npayiiaiiKic; aiaBepig \*z k > 0.

Luppcova pe tr) pe6o6o x^piopou peta6Ar)t6v, Qeupoupc 11 to np66Ar|pa (a)


Auocig iris pop^HS ^( x .t) = S(x) + V(x,t). AvtiKaGioravras orriv e^iocoori TOU
(a), npOKuntouv ia QKoAouGa

S"(x) = 0, 0 < x < 1 , S(0)=T,, S(1) + S'(1)=T2, 0)


Vxx(x,t) = k-2Vt(x,t), 0 < x < 1 , t>0,
(Y) V(0,t) 0, V(l,t) + Vx(l,t)=0, t>0, (Y)
V(x,0) = Ti-S(x), 0<x<1.

Aiiarj TOU npo6Aiiu_aToc; ( (3 ) eivai

(6)
(e)
Evo r\ i) Avor\ TOU n (y) XEl tr1

V(x,t) = , t > 0,
n=l

onou K n 01 sinK n + K n cosK n = 0, n = 1,2,3, ... . H


| 8i6ei

(T 2 -T,)x
V(x,0) = = c n sin(K n x),
n=1

onou

2(T 2 -T 1 )cosK n
2
1 + COS K -f
J0
<nn Jo
x s m Knn x d x = -- 5-,
K n (1 + COS2 K n )
,,...

r) TeAiKri viop(pri Tris (TuniKiis) Auoris TOU npo6Aiiu,aTOS ( a) 9a eivai

u(x , t) =
l
+2(T2-Tl) _ Z
, 0 < x< 1, t >0.
-j
- K n (1 +COS K n )
76 3. E^ioaosig /TapafioAiKOi;

3.2.4 ITpo6Ari>iaTa
1. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo napaBoAixo np66Ar)pa apxiKOv - ouvopiaKwv ouv6r|K6v tunou Diridi

u t (x,t) = k 2 u xx (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u(a,t) = 0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x < a ,

dnou k Eivai pia 9EtiKii npaypatiKii ota0Epd. Enior|g va ppEGEi o xpdvog xaAdpoor)g trig Aua
tou npo6Ar|]aatog.
u(x,t) = ^ ^exp[-(*f )2k2t], T =
2. Na AuGei to axoAouGo napa6oAiKd npd6Anvia apxiKcbv - auvopiaKcov ouv6r|Kcbv tunou Dirichlq

u t (x,t) k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
T, 0 < x < a/2,
u(x,0) =
0, a/2 < x < a,
onou k Eivai pia 9ettKr| npay>iatiKr| otaGEpd. Eniorjg va ppEGei o xpdvog xaAdpoor|g trig
tou npoBAiipatog.
. u(x,t) = ^~ =1 ^(1 - cos ^) sin ^ exp[-(^)2k2t], t=^.
3. Na AuGEi to OKoAouGo napaBoAiKO np66Ar)na apxiKcov - ouvopiaKwv ouvGriKwv JJEIKTOU iunou|

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
7TX 37TX
u(x,0) = 3 sin- +5 sin , 0 < x < a,
2a 2a
onou k Eivat pia 9EttKii npayyatiKii otaGepd. Enior)g va i o xpdvog xaAdpoong tr)g
tou

4. Na AuGei to OKdAouGo napa6oAiKO npd6Ar|)ja apxiKtov - auvopiaKov cruvGrjKov tunou Neu-


mann

ut(x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t . 0,


u x (0,t) = 0, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x < a,

onou k Eivai pia 9etiKr| npaypatiKr| oraGEpd.


AKdviTJOTj: u(x,t) = f - ^ ~,, ^ K ^ n - I K x / a lnexp[_ (2n-1) V

5. Na AuGEi to OKdAouGo napa6oAiKO np66Arma apxiKtav - ouvopiaKcov cnjv0r|Kti)v tunou Neu- 1


mann

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t 0,


u x (0,t) = 0, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0,
7IX 37TX
u(x,0) = 3+4cos 1-7 cos-^-, 0 < x < a,
a 2
't>x>o ' ( x - L ) r x = (O'x)n
'0 =
'0 = (V'
nourii Araxli0Ano A - AWxiXdo DrlliYQodii o0noY9xo 01 i30r\Y
-x)q + o = (l'x)n :i
S3d30Dio SsxiiDrlAodu 53MU30 iDAis D 'q '}( noup

't> > x > o '3 = (O' x ) n


'q
'0<;'D>x>0 '(l'

noiini AWxLi0AnD AraxoidoAno - AraxiXdo pxiYogodou o0noYpxo 01 }30riY


. ("v/ Ap ) SOJ ("

53d30Dio SsxiiDrtADdii 53xii30 iDAis D ' q 'n '>[ nou

'D > X > 0 '3 = (O' x ) n

'D>X>O '(^'
uiqoy noiini AxLi0AnD AWXDidoAno - AWXiXdo ortliYgodu pxiYogndou 01 i3Q n Y D\ '8

SLii SUondpYoX SoApdX o }303d^j DA SUoiug -53d30Dio SsxiiDrlADdiJ 53xii30 IDAIS p 'o 'q 'D '

'D>x>o 'P (O' x ) n


'q
xx
'D > x > ';'x n (l'x)'n

uiqoy nouni AWxli0Ano A o0noY<)Mt) o\ i.f()n\- n\

xp(o'x) u n JU'x)"n
53d30DlD SsXllDrlADdll S3XU30 1DA13 1DA13 ^ '

'D>x>Q 'I (O'x)n

'0 < ; 'D > x > o '(;'x) xx n r 5t = (i'x) J n

ujqoy noiini Araxlj0Ano AWXDidOAfio - AWxiXdo ortliYgpdii pxiYogodDii o0noY9xo 01 }3or>Y '

pd30Dio LixiiDrlADdu Lixii30 mrt nouo

Z.Z,
'd>x>o
= [n]i3
(re) 'd>x>0 '(

5i3A3Aorlo-liti 3ri AeraDidoAno - AoraiXdo orlliYgodii SsAsAorio liri 01

IDX SDllll.Olld30 -^IAI UiUidp3ADOAodx C'E

S03

(x t))x = (x)j. UoliidpArvo 111 QUO 1013919 nrldrvo 010 SoiQDdxotidsg lirloADiox LnnXdo
1 ADip 'SnoApdX SnoxiiAOYSti Snoi SriOY? ,o ortdno 010 SDioodxorldsg UrtoADiDii Li i303d^( DM

53xlj0Ar\o
(Ssxigoidsii) S30noYpxo Sii pun imsjpdcbs pino pxiiDrlLi0DiM 'iDiAO^iiriDi r>Q 5Li<t>DLi3
Ilio 010 SoiUipridse Uo3 U IDX DiDDdxorldsQ U 3101 'Ario0OA3 DA D = x IDX Q = x odxp
. 3iora 'OY>irix pifli3YX isJiiotiliXo IDX iDisirirlpx D SnoxLirl orldrxo OAsrloAOti DAS ADIQ, "frl
-_L=
pd30oio LixiiDrlADdij Lixiisg Dirl IDAIS >[ nouo

nouni noxigoid3U AroxU0Ano - AraxiXdo DriLiY9pdu o0noYpxo 01


pd30oio LixiiDtiADdu lixusg Dirt IDAIS >( noup
07
't> > x > 'UTS = (o'x)n
Xli

Anxli0Aao A 01
U'x)n -
pd30oiD lixiiDrlAodu l Dirt IDAIS 7( noiip

o 'X Z UTS = (Q'x)n


U')n '0 - (l'
'0 < ; ' i i > x > o '0= (;'x) xx n z >i (l'x)'n

|-Wd nouni AC)Mb0Ano A - AtpxiXdo o0noYpxo 01 }30nY

' Inounj, c
3Ajoovoavc^dprr/rrj Mn-Ojjoycviis E^iocoarj 79

. T], T2 6oopVg npaypauKEg oraGEpEg ps k > 0 KCU f(x) 6oop.vr| npaypaTiKri


riar). ripoxcopcovrag ps Tig i6g, nou avamux9r)Kav arig nporjyoupEVEg EvdTr|Tg,
OcapouLie OTI, r| Auarj u(x, t) TOU npo6Ar|paTog (3.1) - (3.3) pnopi va 6w0ei cog

u(x,t) = V(x,t), 0 < x < p , t>0. (3.4)

AvuKaGioruvrag Tr| axEor] (3.4) oro np66Ar|pa (3.1)-(3.3) npOKurrtEi TO QKoAouGo


np66Ar|pa apxiKcov - ouvopiaKcov cruvGriKcov

-2t(x,t)-P(x),
Vxx(x,t) = k-V 0<x<p, t>0,
T2) t>0, (3.5)
S(x) + V(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p.

Ano cSu oupnEpaivoupE OTI, av r\ ouvdpTr|ori S(x) anoTEAEi Auop TOU pri-opoyvoug
ouvopiaKou npoBAiipaTOg

S " ( x ) = - P ( x ) , 0 < x < p , I,[S] = T1) I2[S] = T2, (3.6)

KQI r) auvdpTrior] V(x, t) ixavonoiEi TO opoyVg npo6Aripa apxiKcov - auvopiaKcov auv-

Vxx(x,t) = k-2Vt(x,t), 0<x<p, t>0,


I,[V] = 0, I2[V] = 0, t>0, (3.7)
V(x,0) = f(x)-S(x), 0<x<p,

[6i npdypaTi r| auvdpTr]or| (3.4) anoTEAEi Auor) TOU npo6AripaTOg (3.1) - (3.3). 'ETOI
ttAiKd 10 npo6Ar)pa (3.1) - (3.3) EXEI avaxGEi o' EVQ npoBArjpaTcov, yia TO onoia
tivai r|6r) yvcoorti r) 6ia8iKaoia EniAuorig.

napdSeiyjia 3.3.1. No. Jlvdei ro \u] ofMyeves npoSfama 5u - ouvopiaKCJv auvdrjKcbv


:ig avvopiaKlg ovvdrJKeg ivnov Robin

av r) Lxx(x.t) = 4ut(x,t)-e x , 0<x<1, t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, 1^(1,1) = 1, t>0, ()
u(x,0) = xe + 1, 0<x<1.

Miorj Eupcpcova p Tig npor)youpVg 6ia6iKaoig QEcopoupE OTI, rj Auor| EXEI TH popcpri

u(x,t) =S(x) + V(x,t), 0<x<1, t>0.

AxaiKaGiorovrag Tr) auvdpTrior) u(x,t) aro npoBArjpa (a) npoKurrcEt TO OKoAouGo

S"(x) V x x (x ) t)=4V t (x,t)-e x ) 0 0,


S(0) V(0,t) = 0, S'(1) + Vx(1,t) t>0. ((3)
V(x,0) xe + 1, 0<x<
80 KcQdAaio 3. Egiaaoeig JlapaQoXiKOV Tunoil

AKoAouGwvtag ta nponyoupEva Pupate (JpioKOupE oti, ano to np66Ar|pa (|3) np<M


Kuntouv 6uo npo6Aiipata. Acp' Evog to acdmiio np66Arijia

S"(x) = -ex, , S(0)=0, S x (1) = 1, (y)


VIE Auori tr) OTJvdptr)or| S(x) = ex + (1 + e)x + 1, acp' Etaipou 6s to Ticta6aTiKo|
np66Aqpa

Vxx(x.t) = 4Vt(x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,


V(0,t) = 0, Vx(l,t)=0, t>0,
x
V(x,0) e -x, 0<x<1.
Eto np66Ar|pa (6) EiodyoupE to tov pEta6Ar|tcov V(x, t) = X(x)W(t). 1
yia EniAuoq ta npo6Aiipata
X"(x) + AX(x)=0, , X(0)=0, X'(l)=0

W'(t) + t>0.

To nputo np66Ar)pa (e.-\) )27t2 KOI i6ioauvaptr|c


a
<PnM = sin - 2 , n = 0,1,2,3,.... Etovtag A = A n , oro dtiiitpo npoBAnpa
npOKuntouv 01 aic6Aou6g AUOEUJ

W n (t) - cne-(2n7T+7r)2t/16, t > 0, n = 0,1,2,3,....


Enopevug to rtp66Anpa (6) 6sxEtai Auar) tng

V(x, t) = Y_ cn sin[(nn + 7t/2)x]e-(2nn+7t)2t/16, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0.


n=0

Fia tov unoAoyiopo tov ouvtsAEOtcbv cn KavoupE XPn or l IWV


apxiKuv ouv6r|KB\
6r)Aa6ri

n=0
Enopsvog 01 Cn unoAoyi^ovtai ano tr]

cn = sin
(2n+ I)x7t 2 r-1 (e x
- x) sin ax
Jo
= 2e (2n l)n
+(2n+l)27t2 (2n+1)7r]'
Apa tsAiKa n tuniKr) Auon tou npo6Aiipatog (a) 9a eivai tng
u(x,t) = - ex + ( 1 + e ) x + 1
(2n -((2n
(-D n v
n=0
onou 0 < x < 1, t > 0.
81

iypa 3.3.2. Na jLvdei ro }ir\ o^oyeveg npoGsLrma v - ovvopiaKtiv ovv9r]KG>v


ig auvopiaKsg ouvdrjKeg lunov Dirichlet
u x x (x,t) = ut(x,t)-ae-bx, 0< t>0,
u(0,t) 0, u(l,t)=0, t>0, (a)
u(x,0) = (1-e~ b x ), 0<x

i to a, b eivai Ttpay^auKeg oiadepeg.


ecopoupE OTI, n Auor| TOU npoBAripaTOg (a) <Jir
\
u(x,t) = S(x) + V ( x , t ) , 0<: t>0.
AvuKaGicrtcbvTag ir\ axEor) (|3) orpv E^iocoor) (a) KQI aKoAouGcovrag Toug ouA-
aoug, nou avanTux6r)Kav o101 napandvco npoBArjpaTa eupioKOupe OTI, TO ordoipo
\T\]1Q

S"(\} ae~bx
<J V / CIC* ) 0<x<1
V ^**. A ^^ I y S(0)=0, S(l)=0, (y)
1035 Auor) T.T] ouvdpTrior]

)HTa6aTiKO np66Ar|pa EXEI ir| popcpr)


V xx (x,t) = V t (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,
V(0,t) = 0, V(l,t) = 0, t>0, (6)
V(x,0) = -^(1-e- b ) x , 0<x<1.

H Auar] Trig E^iocooris TOU npoBAripaTOs (5), nou iKavonoiEi Tig ouvopiaKEg ouv9riKg
auiou, eivai
oo
V(x,t) = ^c n sin(n7rx)e- n27l2t , 0 < x < l , t > 0.
n=1
Tia va unoAoYiooupe TOUS OUVTEAEOTES cn KdvoupE xpriorl IOV apxiKov auv0riKOv.
'Eioi yia t = 0 exoupE

V(x,0) = -^(1-e- b ) x = , 0 < x < 1,


n=1
onoTe npOKunTEi OTI

CTL it I} /. , O , . . . .
nnb2
Apa TEAiKd r] povooiipavra opiapevr) Auor) TOU pr) opoyEvoug npoBAiipaTOg
- ouvopiciKcbv auvGnKcbv (a) 9a eivai
2a(1 -e- b )
sin(n7tx)e
n
n=1
yia KdGe 0 < x < 1, t > 0.
82 KetpdAaio 3. E^iocJacig FlapaSoXiKOv Ta

3.3.1 IIpo6Ar|jiaxa
1. EcopoupE poii 8Eppotr|tag OE pia 90660 prJKOug a ano pia nnyri, r\ onoia napdyei <
trjta oe puGpb avd pova6a oyKOU, avdAoyo trig anootaong ano tr|v nAEupd x = 0. H i
8ppOKpaaia otr| gd65o Eivai pn6v, EVCJ KOI 01 6uo nAEupEg Siatnpouv autii ir\ 9EppOKpaoia,^
KdGE t > 0. (a) Na SEixGEi oti to paGripatixo npotuno autou tou cpaivopEvou napiotatai and|
OKoAouGo np66Anpa apxiKtav - ouvopiaxcbv ouvGnxov tunou Dirichlet

ut(x,t) k2uxx(x,t) + bx, 0 < x < a , t > 0,


u(0,t) 0, u(a,t)=0, t>0,
u(x,0) 0, 0<x<a,

onou k,b Eivai QEtiKEg npaypatiKEg ataGEpeg. (P) Na PpEGEi r| otdoipr] Auon, U(x), rj
Auor| u(x, t) KaGog KOI o xpovog xaAdpoong T tng Auong tou npo6Aiipatog.
b
(P) U(X) = ' 2 *- X 3 '. T = - ^ T )

2. Na AuGEi to OKoAouGo pr| opoyEVEg (xpovoavE^dptnto) npo6Ar|pa apxiKcbv - ouvopiaKciv (


9nKci>v tunou Dirichlet

ut(x,t) k2uxx(x,t) + g, 0 < x < l , t>0,


u(0,t) 0, u(l,t)=2a0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = ao(1 -COSTTX), 0 < x < 1 ,

onou k, g, QQ Eivai npaypatucEg otaGEpEg pE k > 0. Eniong va i o xpovog xaAdpuorisj


Auong tou npoBAripatog.

onou a n =
3. Na AuGsi to OKoAouGo pr| opoyEVEg (xpovoav|dptnto) npoBAnpa apxiKov - ouvopiaKuv <
9qKuv tunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t) + be" ax , 0 < x < n, t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 t , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = sinx, 0 < x < 1,

onou k, a, b sivai npaypotiKEg oraGEpEg p k > 0. Eniong va ppEGEi o xpovog


Auong tou npoGArjpatog.
Andvir]ari: u(x,t) = e v ~=1 anexp[-k2n2t] sinnx +
6noua n = n^2~+na -;4[(-1)
1
n
e~ a7t - 1] +a'-K.'-n
-7-i n[J-ff-l)"
11 - JI/I
J + i^^[e-
n
Q71
- 1].
4. Na AuGsi to aKoAouGo pr| opoyEVEg (xpovoavEdptnto) npo6Anpa apxiKuv - ouvopiaKuv mil
1
tunou Robin

u t (x,t) 2u x x (x,t) + b, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = sint, u x ( l , t ) = - u ( l , t ) + 2 , t > 0,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x < 1 ,

onou b Eivai pia npaypatiKii otaGEpd. Eniong va ppEGsi o xpovog xaAdpoong tng Auong i
npo6Aiipatog.
83

a Au6d to QKoAouOo pr| eg (xpovoavg'dptr|to) np66Ar)pa - ouvopiaKcbv auv-


i tunou Dirichlet

ut(x,t) = 4uxx(x,t)+4, 0 < x < l , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x/2, 0 < x < l .

; va pp0Ei o xaAdpaor|g trig Auorig tou npo6Aiipatog.

No Au6d to o.K6Aou6o pr) opoyEVEg (xpovoavE$"dptnto) np66Ar|pa apxiKov - ouvopiaKov ouv-


i tunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = uxx(x,t)+b, 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = c, u(a,t) =c, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = d, 0 < x < a ,

onou b, c, d Eivai npaypatiKEg ora0Epg. Enior|g va Pp0ei o xpovog xaAdpoor|g tr|g Auorjg tou

No AuGsi to QKoAouBo prj opoyEVEg (xpovoavEsdptrlto) np66Ar|pa apxiKUv - ouvopiaKcov ouv-


8nKuv ninou Robin

u t (x,t) = uxx(x,t)-6x, 0 < x < l , t > 0,


Ux(0,t) 0, u(1,t) = 1, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x3, 0 < x < 1 .
3
=x
Andvirjarj: u(x, t) =
8. Na Au0i to axoAouOo pr| (xpovoavE|dptr|to) np66Anpa apxiKcbv - auvopiaKtav ouv-
UV tunou Robin

k- 2 u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t) + 4e x , 0 < x < l , t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u x ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = ax + b, 0 < x < 1,

onou k, a, b Eivai npaypatiKEg ota6EpEg pE k > 0.

3.4 Xpovoeapxcb|iEvr| Mri-Ojioyevrig E^iouoi]


3.4.1
tcopoupe Yia ViEAe^r) to np66Anpa apxuccbv - auvopiaKcbv cruv0r|Kcov pe pr|
ri e^iocoor) KQI opOYeveis OTJvopiaKes cnjv6r|Kes

2
Uxx(M) = k tit(x,t)-q(x,t), 0<x<p, t>0, (4.1)
Ii[u] = 0, I 2 [u]=0, t > 0 , (4.2)
u(x,0) = f(x), 0 < x < p . (4.3)
l=u
l
d>x>0 ' ; U Y ^_

\OM3 D1O1IO ll '(C'fO - (I'tO


ISoiortljYgodu noi Strong SLn Ucbdori li miinModii fr'tO tioDiopdoii Aliio (H'tO liosXo
I In 5DiAraioi0D>niAD 'DMIYSJ, '5^30010 53i3diD0ao Sn ACIOYSIOLID UD S3io3Y3iAao 10 ID*

'0 f r_||(x)^*|| = (;)u


dJ
110 3rtnoX3 aoiio

irt)
iDAi3 DIOIIO U '(6'fr) SLiDcooi^ 5Uxido(J)Dig SLii
Lii 3iinoMOidJ " '''3'I = u 30px DiA 'Q ^ u y 119 SDiAoi30oii^ -Sb^pi SUiwdu
s LiMidodJDig U0LiAno LiMirlrlodA LiAsAorio Lirl Dirt }3Y3ioiiD (6'f) ^ "LI 30px DIJ

noiio

t o
U,
liDsXo Ui OLID SnoAsrioido jaunoj S3iD3Y3iAtxo 3ri 'x Sodii Sra (^'x)b,^ SliolndpAfLo
j;jsunoj pdiso LiA3rin3MiA3A U So }30Lidra30 DA pdoiirl (8'^) ^ '1 od30Dio DIJ

iS't) '0 < 'd>x>0 'W u

jdnoMoid^j (i'] }53 LiMido(J)Dig LiMidsrl LIUD (^'f?) '(9- 5n


[=U

00
l=u

Sl3O3Xo Sll
'LioiAraAodDii odg Sodu odp Li iDi3ii3dnu3 'no SDiAoi30oii^ '53iD3Y3iAnD IOA
toido^oAodX io3ioidoigoodu iDAis (i) u 3 IDX u y Ssrliioigi SILO AnoXioioiiAD SSIOLIO 10

'0=Mll 'd>x>o '0=(


amrlnoigi noa3iion3Xono noi SisoLndoAfiDoigi 10 IDMS (x) u d) noiio
l=u
'd > x = (* 'x)n

|tdori UID }3<t)DdA DA pdoiirt SoioriliYgodu noi LIOO.Y U 'no 3rinoi30oii^

+^ . iJ"0"(U nojriyopDdDrj 5i3ocooi$3 owypfay


4Apovoe^apra/jcvrj Mn-Opoyvqg E^ioaoq 85

Fia TOV KaGopiou.6 TCOV auGaipeTcov oraGepcov c n , KCIVOUU.E XPH01!


Iqiqg (4.3) TOU npo6Ar)u.aTOs. 'EXOUU.E 6r)Aa6r|,

U(X,0) = ), 0 < X < p.


n=l

Oi ora0pE5 c a artOTsAouv Toug OUVTEAEOTEC; Sturm-Liouville Tr|g auvdpTr|or|g f ( x ) ,


6u npOKumn OTI,
rp
Cn = - 2 f f(x)cp n (x)dx, n = 1,2,3,.... (4.14)
Jo
Apa teAiKa r| (u.ova8iKii) Auor| TOU npo6Aiiu.aTog av - auvopiaKcov ouv6r|Kcbv
4.1) - (4.3) exei T

u(x,t) = f(x)<pn(x)dx

f* fp
+ gk AnT q(x,t)(p n (x)dxdT ^ (Pn(x) < (4.15)
Jo Jo
0 < x < p , t > 0.
napaTtjpr]oii 3.4.1. Zrryu Kfpimoorj nov ro npoSji^a (4.5), yia KO.KOIO n, 6rai
(4.8)
)ii]6tvu<ii iSiOTtpi]. farw irj AQ = 0, ^ aviiaioixn iSioavvdpirjor] <po(x), rdre 17 yto
f4.4j 5a npinei va dodei oir\

), 0<x<p, t>0,
n=1
(4.9)
OKOV ouvdpiriorj Eo(t) 9a npcnei va npOKodopiatei.
IIapd6ciy|ia 3.4.2. Na jlt/dei ro aKOJlaudo f^rj ofMyeveg (xpovoE^apico^vo) np66jlr]iJ.a ap-
ouvopiaKGJV avvdr]Kd>v ivnov Robin
= u t (x,t)+5sint-2x, 0<x<l, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(1,t)=0, t>0, (a)
u(x,0) = 0 , 0<x<1.
Avar] To auoxETio|ievo TOU npoBAiipaTOg (a) np66Ar|u.a iSiOTipcov etvai
X"(x)+AX(x) = 0 , 0 < x < 1 , X(0)=0, X(l)=0. (|3)
Oi i6ioiipe$ xai avrioTOixes iGioouvapTiioeis TOU npo6Ariu.o.TOs ((3) eivai
A n =n 2 7r 2 , <p n (x) =sin(n7ix), 0<x<1, n = 1,2,.
Eioi ipdxvoupe yia Auaeis TOU npo6Aiip.aTos (a) Trig popcprig

0<x<1, t > 0, (y)


n=l
86 KeipdAaio 3. E^iaoocig JTapafioAtKoi) Tun

AvtiKataGtoTcovtag tnv napdoraori (y) atr| SicHpopuai E^iocooi] tou npo6Ar)pato


9a 6cboi
00

2x 5 sint = y { E n (t) + n 7pE n (t) I sin(rtTtx), 0<x<1, t>0.


n=1
'Etoi npOKuntEi r\ \ir\ opoyvr|g YPaPPllcn ouvr|6ng 6ia(popiKr| E^iouor) npcotrjg td^rig
rl
E ' ( t ) + n 2 7T 2 E n (t) = |!sinn7i|r2 {2x 5sint}sin(n7rx)dx
Jo

= 2['{2x- 5sint}sin(n7ix)dx = Q n (t), t > 0, n = 1,2,3.1


Jo
acpou toxuEt ||sin(n7t)||2 = 1/2, yia KdGs n = 1,2,3,.... Auvovtag autii tr| 6iacj)opu
cog npog E n (t) EXOUU.E tri yEviKii Auori

-^2tI t > 0, n = 1 , 2 > 3 .....

AvtiKaGiorcovtag tnv napandvco popcpii tng E n (t) atr) ouvdptrjor) u(x,t)


doraons (Y) Kai XPH^V10110^^^ Trlv aPXlKIi cnjv6r|Kr| u(x,0) = 0
n = 0, yia Kd0 n = 1 , 2, 3, ... . Eniong PPIOKOUVIE on

Qn(t) = 2f{2x- 5 sin t} sin (TXTTX ) dx


Jo
["4xcos(n7tx) 4sin(n7tx)] 1
sint sin(nTtx)dx +
nn n27i2

-, t > 0 , n = 1,2,3....
nn
'Eioi

n+l
+1] /
3 3 -j-j^
2 z n sint - cost + e r
n 7t n?t(1 n n) V
onou t > 0, n = 1 , 2, 3... . Apa tsAiKd rj (pova6iKii) tuniKii Auor) tou npo6Aiipatog (J
tr| uopcpr)
2
7T2t
-e -n
u(x,t)=
n=1

sint - cost +
n
onou 0 < x < 1, t > 0.
100)017 87

3.4.3. Na Jludei 10 xpovmd nrj- s np66JiT]}j.a ^ o^oysudf ouyopiaxxc

Ux X (x,t) = ut(x,t) + (1 -x)cost, , t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t>0, (a)
u(x,0) =0, 0<x<1.

fcj To ouo-xETioiievo TOU npo6AriviaT05 (a) np66Ar|u.a i6iouu.cbv ivai

X"(x) + A X ( x ) = 0 , 0<x<1, X(0)=0, X(l)=0. ((3)

<ji i6ionpes KQI aviicaoixES iSioouvapTiioeig TOU npoBAripaTOg ((3) eivai

A n =n 2 7i 2 , (p n (x) = sin(nTrx), 0<x<l, n = 1,2,3,....

Eim ipdxvoupe y\a Auar) TOU npo6Aii>iaTOS (a) Tr|$

u(x,t) = 2_E n (t)sin(Tmx), 0<x<1, t>0. (y)


n=1

; tr|v napdoraori (y) orr|v E^iooor) TOU npo6Ar|U-aTOS (a) npOKurtrei


oo
(1 x) cost = y [E n (t) + TX 7pE n (t)] sin(TXTix), 0<x<1, t>0.
n=1
Enopevcog KaTaAriYOUiiE <nr\ \pa}i]i\Kr\ ouvriGr) 6ia(popiKii $"ic

f1 2
-n(t) = 2 (1x)costsin(n7rx)dx = n7r cost, t
Jo
a<pou loxuEi ||sinn7r||2 = 1/2, YIQ Kd0E n = 1,2,3,.... Auvovrag
auvr|9ri SiacpopiKii E^iocoor) npOTrjg 05 npog E n (t) EXCUSE ir|
Auorig

En(t) = L-

n27^(e'n2n2i - cost) - sint] ,


n7i(1 +7t4n 4 )

onou t > 0, n = 1,2,3,.... AvriKaSxorcbvrag Tr]v napandvco laoptpii Tr)g E n (t) air] Auor)
u(x, t) KQI xprioiV101101"^^ Trlv QPXIKI1 ouv9r|Kri u ( x , 0 ) = 0 , npOKunTEi oti, cn = 0,
yia KdGE n = 1,2,3,.... 'Etoi TEAiKd ri Auoq TOU npo6AiiiaaTog (a) }

2
u(x,t) = --V nVte-^ 2 " 2 *- cost)- sin tl . 0 < x < 1 , t > 0.
7t * + J
n=l
88 KecpdAaio 3. E%ioaoi$ UapadoAiKov 1m

3.4.2 Mq-Opoyeveis EuvoptaKcg uv6i]Kcg


Eupoupe yta pEAETq TO np66Ar|pa apxiKwv - ouvoptaKov auv9qKcov ps
opoyEvri $"ioaaq KQI pq opoyEVEig ouvoptaKCg ouv9qKEg
Ux X (x,t) = k 2 u t (x,t)-q(x,t), 0<x<p, t>0, (4.11
u(0,t) = a(t), u(p,t) = 0(t), t>0,
u(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p. (4.11
E6w o oroxog eivat va avaAuooupE TO np66Aqpa apxtKcov - ouvopiaKov ouv9r|Ko|
(4.16) - (4.18) oe 6uo anAouoTEpa npoBAqpaTa, TQ onota avr|Kouv OE r)6r) VVOOTES
Ft' auTO 9copoup OTI r) Auar] \pa.<p.T.ai
u(x,t) =K(x,t) + V(x,t), 0<x<p t>0, (4.19)
Tqv onoia av avriKaTaor:qooupe oro np66Aqpa (4.16) - (4.18) 6i6ei TO aK6Aou9o
apa
K xx (x,t) , 0< x p, t 0, (4.2|
K(0,t) V(0,t) = k(t), t>0, (4.211
K(x,0) V(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<p. (4.21
Fta va ndpoupe ano TO (4.20) - (4.22) sva np66Anpa ps opoyevsig ouvoptaKcg ouv0i|-l
KEg 9opoupe OTI, r) K(x, t) eivat pia napaycoYiotpn ouvdpTqon, nou tKavonoiEi Ttg ]x\\

K(0,t) = a(t), t>0. (4.23)


i unoAoino TOU npo6AqpaTog (4.20) - (4.22) 9a iKavonotei opoyevdg auvopiaKES
cruv9qKg ug npog Tq OTJvdpTqaq V(x,t). Mta ano6eKrq popipq yta Tq K(x,t) anoiEAeij
q ouvdpTqoq
((3(t)-a(t))x:
K(x,t) = , 0 < x < p, t (4.24)

Enopevog icrxuei OTI K X x( x > t) = 0. Apa TO np66Aqpa (4.20) - (4.22) Aap6dvet Tq pop(pr)
V xx (x,t) = k-2Vt(x,t) + [k-2Kt(x,t)-q(x,t)L 0 < x < p, t > 0,
V(0,t) = 0, V(p,t) = 0, t > 0 , (4.25)1
V(x,0) = f(x)-K(x,0), 0<x<p.
To np66Aqpa (4.25) avqKEt arqv KOTqyopia TOV npo6AqpdTwv, nou exouv peAeTq6eij
avaAuTiKd otqv npoqyoupEvq EvoTqTa 3.4.2.

3.4.4. Na Audti 10 o^oyVg np66jlrjij.a HE }j.r]-o^.oYVtg ovvopiaKg ouvdriKg 1


itxx(x.t) = ut(x,t), 0<x<l, t>0,
u(0,t) = sint, u(1,t)=0, t>0, (a)
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < 1.
89

Eupcpuva pe TQ napandvu r| ouvdpTrjor) K(x,t) Trig oxcor|g (4.19) exl Trl

K(x,t) = (1 -x)sint, 0<x<1, t > 0.

AvuKa0ioTcovrag TF| ouvdpTr|OT) K(x,t) oro 6 np66Ar)pa (4.25)


AouGo anoTeAeapa

V x x (x,t) = V t (x,t) + (1 -xjcost, t>0,


V(0,t) = 0, V ( 1 , t ) = 0, t>0, (3)
V(x,0) 0, 0<x<1,

>onoio epnimci air\ \iopfyr\ TOU npo6AiipaTOg (4.1) - (4.3). 'ETOi TeAiKa, r| Auori tou
ug npo6Ar)]4QTOg pe pr]-opOYeveig ouvopiaKEg ouvGriKEg (a) 9a eivai

u(x,t) K(x,t) + V(x,t) =

71=1

0 < x < 1 , t > 0.

3.4.5. Na Audei TO xpoviKd ^rj- i$ np66jlr}na ^ \ir\-onoyEVEic; ovvopia-


Kf ovvdr\K(;

) = u t ( x , t ) - 2 ( l - x ) t , 0 < c < 1, t >0,


^xxl
;
u(0,t) t2, u ( l , t ) = 2 t ,
x(1 -x)(1 +x)
t>0,
u(x,0) = sinTtx- -,

Eup(j)Qva pe tr| 6ia5iKaoia nou exei avanTux6ei napandvco, u(x,t) =


l(x,t) + K ( x , t), onoTe TO npd6Aripa (a) rtaipvei i

= Kt(x,t) + Vt(x,t)-2(1-x)t, , t>0,


vn,t) = 2t, t>o, IW
x(1 x l dJ + x)
K(x,0) + V(x,0) = sin7rx- *U *II v *J /\

etupoupe OTI, q caivdpTr|or| K(x,t) anoTeAei Auor) TOU npo6AripaTOg

K x x (x,t) = 0, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 , K(0,t)=t2, K(1,t)=2t, t > 0. (Y)

Enopevog r) auvdpTr)or| V(x,t) 8a eivai Auoq TOU npo6Aiipa.TOg

V xx (x,t) Kt(x,t)+Vt(x,t)-2(1-x)t, 0<x<l, t>0,


V(0,t) = 0, V ( l , t ) = 0, t>0, (6)
X(1
~X(1'fX
= sin7rx- -K(x.O),
90 K<p<iAaio 3. E^ioaacig FlapaBoXiKOv Tuna

H yEviKii Auor) TOU u.n ou.oyvoug cruvopiaicou npo6Af)u.aTO(j (y) ex^i tn


K(x,t) = xg(t) + f(t), onou 01 g,f anoTEAouv auGaipETEg ouvapTr)OEig. Ano n$|
auvopiaKES auv6r|KS npoKumxi OTI, f(t) = t2 KO.I g(t) = 2t t2. EnoiiEvcog
OTI, K(x,t) = x(2t t 2 ) + t2. 'ETOI TO np66Anu,a (5) yiv

V xx (x,t) = V t (x,t) + 2x, 0<x<1, t>0,


V(0,t) = 0, V ( l , t ) = 0, t>0,
V(x,0) = sinTtx , 0<x<1.

Fia Tr|v eniAuori TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOS (e), 9copouu, TO Trig Auoiw


V(x,t) = S(x) + W(x,t), onou r) ouvdpTnor) S(x) iKavonoid TO \ir\

S"(x)=2x, 0 < x <c l , S(0)=0, S(l)=0,


, , , c, \ x(1-x)(1+x)
p Auor| Tr) ouvapTrior) b(xj = . H 6 ouvdpTnor) W(x,t) EniAuEi to ouiir
:6 np66Aripa

W xx (x,t) = W t (x,t), 0<x<l, t>0,


W(0,t) = W ( l , t ) = 0, t>0, (n)
W(x,0) =
Tqv nporiyoupevri Qecopia r\ Auor) TOU (r\) exei if)

,2-2,
W(x, t) = Y_ an sin(n7Tx)e- n7tt , 0 < x < 1 , t > 0,
n=l

onou 01 an 6i6ovrai ano Tr) OXEOT) an = 2 J0 sin(Trx) sin(n7Tx)dx. EUKO


= 1 KQX an = 0, n = 2,3,4,.... Enou.Evos IOXUEI OTI

W(x,t) = sin(7tx)e~7t2t, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0.

'Apa TEAiKd, r| Auor) TOU xpoviKd pri-opoyEvoug (a) u.e U.II-OVIOY


9a Eivai

u(x, t) = x(2t - t 2 ) + t2 +
2. nl
T
+ sin(7tx)e , 0<x<1, t

3.4.3 Ilpo6Ar|iiaTa
1. Eupoupe por) QEppotniag OE pia pd66o pr|KOug a, r| onoia apxiKti ppioKETai OE
pr|6Ev. H nAEupd x = 0 6iair)pEiTai crcr) pr|6EviKr| QEppOKpaoia EVQ orr|v dAAr| nAsupd x = a]
9EppOKpaoia au|dvEi YpappiKd pE TO xpovo. (a) Na 6Eix9i OTI 10 pa9npaiiKO npotuno auro
TOU epaivopEvou napiataTai ano TO OKoAouGo npoBAnpa apxiKcbv - ouvopiaKQv

u t (x,t) k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) 0, u(a,t) = bt, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, 0<x<a,
92 Ketpahaio 3. iKov

8. No AuGei to prj opoyevEg np66Anpa apxixov - auvopiaKav auvGnKcov pe pn-opoyeveijc


ptaxEg ouvGriKEg peixtou tunou
4u xx (x,t) = u t (x,t), O < X < T T , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 8, u(7t,t)+2u x (7r,t) = 12,
u(x,0) = ax 2 -3, 0 < x < 71,
onou a 6oopevr| npaypattxri otaGepd.
9. Na AuGei to prj opoyeveg np66Anpa apxiKWV - ouvopiaxciv ouvGnjcov pe pn-opoyevdg (
piaxeg OTjvGiixeg tunou Dirichlet
9,u xx (x,t) = u t (x,t)-ae" b x + a , 0 < x < e, t > 0,
u(0,t) = n, u(e,t)=0, t > 0 ,
a
u(x,0) = ^j(x- 0 < x < e,
onou ta a, b efvai npaypattKEg ataGEpEg.
10. Na AuGei to xpoviKd pq-opoyevEg np66Anpa pe opoyevetg ouvoptaKeg ouvGrjKEg tun
Dirichlet
u x x (x,t) = u t (x,t) + (1 -x)cost, O < X < T T , t > 0,
u(0,t) 0, u(7r,t)=0, t>0,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x < n.
11. Na Au9et to np66Anpa pe pn-opoyEVig auvopiaxeg ouvGrjKeg tunou Dirichlet
u xx (x,t) u t (x,t), 0<x<e, t>0,
u(0,t) sint, u(c,t)=cost, t>0,
u(x,0) = e" + sinx, 0 < x < e.
12. Na AuGei to axoAouGo opoyEVEg np66Anpa apxtxcov ouv9r|Ktav KOI xpovoEg'aptupEvuv ouvo-J
ptaKciv cnjv6r|K(i)v tunou Dirichlet
u t (x,t) u x x (x,t), 0 < x < 1, t >0,
u(0,t) sint, ufl.t) =0, t >0,
u(x,0) = sin27rx, 0 < x < 1 .
'' u(x,t) = (1 -x)sint + sin(27rx)e-47r2t +
2
TT t=1 n(l+n 4 7r 4 ) cost) sint].
13. Na AuGei to axoAouGo pr| opoyEveg (xpovoE^aptcipEvo) np66Anpa apxiKOv - auvopiaxcov
ouv9nKeJv tunou Dirichlet
u t (x,t) uxx(x,t)+2(l-x)t, 0 < x < l , t>0,
u(O.t) t2, u ( l , t ) = 2 t , t>0,

u(x,0) = sinTTX , 0<x<l.

14. Na AuGei to OKoAouGo opoyevEg (xpovoE^aptopevo) np66Anpa apxiKUv - ouvopiaxcbv


ouvGnKov tunou Dirichlet
u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t)+2xt-x, 0 x < 1 , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) - t, u(1,t)=t 2 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x2/2, 0 < x < 1 .
u Tunou 91

k, b Eivai 9EtiKg npaypatiKEg crra9pg. (P) Na 6Eix9i oti r| Auor) tou npo6Aiipatog pnopEi
ei orr) popcpii u(x, t) = ^p + v(x, t), 6nou r) v(x, t) Eivai pia npitovuai OEipd Fourier.
b t b(a2xx3) 2b 2
oo ( 1) n 2 2

Na Au0i to aK6Aou9o pr| opoyEVEg (xpovoEg'aptcbpEvo) np66Anpa apxiwav - auvopiaKUV


IKQV pEiKtou tunou
u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t) + l - e " 4 , 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 0, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 100, 0 < x < a ,
ou k eivai pia 9tiKr| npaypatiKrj ota9Epd. Eniong va Ppe0i o xpovog xaAdpcoong tng Auong
punpo6Aiipatog.
Na Au0i to aK6Aou9o pr| opoyEVEg (xpovoE|aptci>pvo) npoBAnpa apxiKwv - auvopiaKWv
1
tunou Dirichlet
ut(x,t) 4uxx(x,t)+xt, 0<x<1, t>0,
2
u(0,t) t, u ( 1 , t ) = t , t>0,
u(x,0) = sinrrx, 0<x<1.
I. Na Au0Ei to OKoAou0o pr| opoyEVEg (xpovo|aptopEvo) np66Ar|pa apxiKUv - ouvopiaKcov
8r|Kwv tunou Dirichlet
to)
ut(x,t) = k2uxx(x,t)+xcost, 0 < x < 7 t , t > 0,
2
u(0,t) = t , u(n,t)=2t, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = sinx, 0 < x < 71,
ou k eivai pia 9EtiKii npaypatiKri ota9Epd. Eniong va ppE0Ei o Tn
S
i npo6Aiipatog.
Na Au0Ei to aK6Aou0o pr| opoyEVEg np66Anpa - o\>vopiaKOv
9nKci)v tunou Robin
ut(x,t) = 4u x x (x,t) 0,

u(0,t) 1, u x ( 1 , t ) = y, t > 0 ,
STTX
u(x,0) = cos-, 0<x<l.

6. Na Au0Ei to OKoAouOo pr| opoyEveg (xpovo|aptopvo) npo6Anpa - ouvopiaKcbv


|ouv0nK(i)v tunou Neumann
k~ 2 u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t) + a cos cut, 0 < x < TT, t > 0,
u x (0,t) = 0, Ux{n,t)=0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, O < X < T I ,
onou a, k, a) npaypatiKEg ataOepEg p k > 0.
?:u(x,t) = -''
7. Na Au9si to OK6Aou0o pr| opoyEVEg (xpovoE^aptwpEvo) np66Anpa - auvopiaKcov
ouv0pKQv tunou Robin
ut(x,t) = u x x ( x , t ) + e-1, 0 < x < 1 , t>0,
tix(O.t) 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t>0,
u(x,0) = 0, 0< x< 1.
1
Turrou
5.5 Mia Mr/ OpoyvrJ napadoAiKi) 93

15 ouvo-
njoi,:u(x,t) = t + (t 2 - t)x + +1 J i . sln(n7rx)e
Na AuBei TO a.K6Aou6o pr| opoyeveg (xpovoeJjapToiievo) np66Ar)pa apxiKOv - ouvopidKcov
v6r)Kci>v runou Dirichlet
u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t) + t, O < X < T T , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = cost, u(7r,t) =cost, t > 0,
u(x,0) = 1, 0 < x < n .
va Ppe6ei o xpovog tr
)5 tou npo6Armato$.

3.5 Mta Mi\ Opoyeviis napa6oAtKi] Mr) O]ioycvcig


EuvopiaKeg
IIoAAcg cpoprg ta iaa6r|iaatiKd npotuna tcov 6ia(popov cpaivopEvcov (cpuoiKQV KQI jar|), a-
Hia KQI atr) YpapiJiKonoiriviEvri pop(pii toug, anotEAouv napaordoeig nio ouvGEtEg ano
lameg, nou ]aAetiier|Kav o' autqv tqv v6tr)ta. EE pia tEtoia nepimcoori, \ia pia Enituxn
avtipet6nior|, oripavtmo goAo nai^ei tooo r) EpnEipia 600 KQI Kdnoia i6iaitpr| Eni6^io-
n)ia tou jacAcTriTii. Mia anAr] nepintoor) autrig tr)g Katriyopiag anoteAEi to napaKdto
prj napa6oAiKO np66Aripa
Ux X (x,t) = Ut(x,t)+4u(x,t)-24, O<X<TT, t > 0, (5.1)
u(0,t) = 0, u(7T,t) = 1, t>0, (5.2)
u(x,0) = 5 + 2x, O<X<TT. (5.3)
To np66Aqpa (5. 1) - (5.2) anoteAEi to paGrjpatiKO npotuno tng 6id6oong Qeppotritag
pia pri QEppixd povcopEvr) ora nAeupiKd toixopata pd66o priKOUg n. H gd68og
IT\ ppioicetai OE nepi6dAAov pE uninAotEpr) QeppOKpaoia, wore va napatnpeitai eiopor)
8tpp6tr)tag otr) 90660 +4u(x, t). Eniong undpxei KQI pia crtaGepri e^otEpiKii eniSpaor)
24. Pia tnv eniAuori tou npoBAripatog (5.1) - (5.2) Kdvoupe xPnorl IOU

u(x,t) = a + z(x,t)e "bt 0 < x < TT, t > 0, (5.4)

onou 01 a, b eivai KatdAAnAeg npoo6iopioi:aieg otaGepEg. And tnv napdotaor) (5.4) npo-
Kuntei
ix(x,t) = zx(x,t)e~ bt , Uxx(x,t) = Zx X (x,t)e- bt , u t (x,t) = (zt(x,t) -
AvtiKaGiatcovtag tig tEAEutaiEg oxEoeig otnv e^iocoar) tou npo6Aiipatog (5.1)-(5.3) e-
| xoupe tqv E^iocoor]
ZxXe"bt = zte~bt - zbe~bt + 4a + 4ze~bt - 24 (5.5)
Fia va o6r)Yr|Oi r) napdoxaoq (5.5) OE pia and tig r|6ri yv^OTEg pEpiKEg 8ia<popiKg
, Qetoupe a = 6 KOI b = 4. 'Etoito npd6Anpa (5.1) - (5.3) Aap6dveitr) popepii
Zx X (x,t) = zt(x,t), 0<x<7t, t>0, (5.6)
z(0,t) = -6e4t, 4t
z(7t,t) =-5e , t > 0, (5.7)
z(x,0) = 2 x - l , 0<x<7i. (5.8)
94 KctpaXaio 3. Eiocboi$ FlapadoAiKOu Tuna

To npd6Anpa (5.6)- (5.8) avr|Ki arr|v KcnriYOpia QUTCOV p ouiOYEvii peptKii 6ia(j>opu
E^iocoor) KO.I xpoviKa pn opOYEvsic; ouvopiaKeg cruv6iiKEg. Ta npo6Aiipcn:a QUTQ i
pATr|0i arriv EvdTr|Ta 3.4.2. Avar|TOUp Aomov Auorj

z(x,t) = W ( x , t ) + S(x,t), 0 < x < 7 t , t>0.

H auvdpTriari S(x, t) iKavonoiEi TO npo6Ar|pa

Sxx = 0, 0 < x < 7 t , t > 0 , S{0,t) = -6e4t, S(7i,t) = -5e4t, t > 0.

To ouvopiaKO np66Ar|iaa (5.9) EXEI Auor) ir\ auvapTr|or| S ( x , t ) = e4t (6 + 1


'ETOI toxuouv S t ( x , t ) = 4e4t (-6+ ) KQI S(x,0) = - 6 + ^ .
iKavonoiEi TO np66Ar|iaa

W (x,t) = W t (x,t)+4e 4 t (-6+- > ) , O<X<TT, i>0,


\ n/
W(0,t) = 0, W(rt,t) = 0, t>0, (5.1

W(x,0) = 2x + 5--, 0<x<7t.


7t

Katd TQ Yvcoord and Tqv EvoTr)Ta 3.4.1, TO npd6Ar|pa (5.10)- (5.12) SEXETOI

00

n(t)cpn(x), 0<X<7t, t>0,

dnou 01 (A n , (j)n(x)) anoTEAouv TO iSio^EUYl TOU OUOXETIOIIEVOU

X"(x)+AX(x)=0, 0 < x < 7 t , X(0)=0, X(7i)=0,


Ol
Oi 6 OUVTEAECTTES E n (t) opi^ovTai cog pr| opOYEVoug npoTo6d6iiii
rig cruvrjeoug 5ia(J>opiKr|g E^i

) t > 0, (5.1

dnou n = KQI

l|cpn(x)|| 2 = = , n = 1,2,3 .....


Jo *
Fia KQ0E n, r) E^iocooq (5.13) 6XTai ) Auoq Tr|g pop'P^S

E n ( t ) = [c n + fe n 2 t Q - n2t , t > 0, n = l,2,3,...,


L Jo
dnou lie

Q n (t) = -- " f - e + ^ xldx, t > 0 , n = 1,2,3,...,


71 J 0 V 7t
5Mia Mr; O;joycvrj HapadoXiKT] E^iaoot] 95

mpt cn ng auGaipeieg oraGepeg Trig Auorjg Tqg pr) opoyevoug ypappiKiig ouvriGoug
aig E^iouorig (5.13). Metd ano npd^eig Ppioxoupe OTI
n_6] 1
En(t) = Cn - e
n7T(n2+4) ~V Vj ' '
Enopevug E

(5.9) W(x,t) = Y_ c ,5,4)


nrr(n2 +4)

0 < x < TI, t > 0. fia TOV npoo6iopiopo TWV oraGEpcov cn II


S
:E$ auv0r|Kg TOU npo6AiipaTOg (5.10) - (5.12). Eni6ii 6

W(x,0) = 2x -- = V c n sin(nx), 0 < x < TT,


71 *

OKurrtEi on, yia Kd0 n = 1,2,3,...,

71
f2x + 5 - -) sin(nx)dx = {[27T- 1](-l) n+1 +5| (5.15)
7tJ 0 V TT/ n.71 L

Apa TEAiKd, AapBdvovrag un' oiyiv Tig oxEOEig (5.4), (5.6) - (5.8), (5.9), (5.10)-(5.12),
i.14) KQI (5.15) ppioicoupE OTI, r| TuniKii Auor] TOU npoBAripaTog (5.1) - (5.3) EXEI tnv
Aou9r) pop(pri

u(x,t) =
n n

(5.16)

yia Kci6 0 < x < n KQI t > 0.

napatiipifot] 3.5.1. Mia djOr] ^iacoor] napa6ojliKOv ivnov, r\ onoia npiypdcpi <f>aivdjuva
)<x<; (diffution - convection), tivai rj

u t (x,t)=k 2 u x x (x,t)-cru x (x,t), 0 < x < b , t > 0, (5.17)

dnou o k 2 u xx (x, t) anoieAei lov dpo 6idxvar\<; Kai o cntx(x, t) lov dpo }iia(popdg. 'Eva
KJiaaiKd napd6iyua 6idxvar\g-vxia(j)Opdg anoiEtei o avadpcJcfKcov Kanvdg. Lio nvvv.a
uhviaiag Evdirjiag, r\ efiawarj (5.17) v.nopi va avaxdti as. anAovoiEpr] \nop(pf\,
driJiadj) ir\v napovaia lov dpou ia lou

,t) ) 0 < x < b , t>0. (5.18)

0 HEiaaxrjuauandg (5.18) anouaKpuvEi and irj jiiiarj lov (KdiiKd) napdyovia, nov ocpti-
r
.ai cno Kivovuvo uioov. Ag ar\uiadi dn, iva t*pog lou KdiiKOv napdyovia K<ppd(fi
to nioov, 10 onoio Kivtiiai npog la 6g\d v laxvirjia a/2.
96 KcipdAaio 3. E^ioaocig FlapaBoAiKOu Tuna

3.6 IloiOTiKri Oecopia Ilapa6oAiKcov E^iacoaecov:


Meyiarou (- EAaxtorou)- Movooi]]iavTO - EuatdGeid
LIT\ cruvEXEia 9a 6iatuncJooup tr]v apxn neyioxou (- eAaxtacou) yia tr)v opoyEvri nol
gaBoAiKii e^iocoori OE tuxaia x"piKr| Sidotaor) N, r) onoia anotsAEi to avdAoyo auujj
twv eAAemtiKcov npo6Ar)pdtov (BAenE, Evotr^ta 2.5.2). H apxn peyiotou anotEAsi to
OIKO EpyaAEio \\a ir\ ou^r|tr|ori npo6Ar)pdtcov ouyKpior|5, povoor|pdvtou Ka9a>s KOI
; tcov Auoeov and apxiKd SsSopsva (Euotd9Eias). Epcotripata
KaAii tono9tnor| EVOS npo6Aiipatos- H apxn pEyunou enEKtEivEtai oe mo ou
popcpEg napa6oAiKcov E^IOCOOECOV, tdoo ypappiKuv doov KOI pr| ypappiKCJv. Le dAri
napouoa evdtr|ta, eKtog av avacpEpetai 6iac})OptiKd, to D 9a 9copeitai dti, eivai i
tppo(Y[Jvo, avoix-cd, auvexuxd unoauvoAo tou RN p xXeiaid xai T[aT]!JaTixci Xefo a>
vopo 3D. EtoupE Eniaris O = D x [0,T]. To auvopo 3O tou n6iou O 9a dvcra
3O = 3D x (0, T) U D X {0} U D x {T}. Fia tnv and6ir| tou (iaoiKOu anotEAEOpatoj
to aKdAou9o anotEAEOpa

3.6.1. Av r\ ouvdpirjarj u(x,t) eivai cno nedio O KO.I iKavonom


6ia(popiK.r\ aviooar]

ut(x,t)-Au(x)t)<0, (x,t)en, (6.19)

idle r] ovvdpirjor] u(x, t) j(.a\uSave.i ir\ ^yiarrj rt^r) rrjf mo fipog TOU avvdpov 9D x (0,
D x {0}.

Av r) auvdptrior) u(x,t) Aau.6dvei tr| laeyicrtri tipii tr|$ o' eva eootepixd oripdo
(,t) tou ne6iou O, auto ouvendyetai dti 9a IOXUEI Au(x,t) < 0 KOI u t (x,t) = 0,1
npaypa nou avtiKEitai OTqv aviooar) (6. 19). AKOU.CI av r) ouvdptr|or| u(x, t) Aau.6dvi tijl
laeYiorr) tipri trig o' Eva or)y.Eio (,t) tou nE6iou D x {T}, auto ouvendyETai dti 9a icrx
Au(x,T) < 0 KOI U t ( x , T ) > 0 , npayiJa nou enioris avtiKEitai atriv aviocoor) (6.19) KCU|
T] an66Ei^r| EXEI oAoKAr|pco9i. 0

Qecjpr|pa 3.6.2. (Apxrj Meyiatou) 'Eaia 611 77 ovvapir\ar\ u(x,t) ivai <no
n6io O KCH iK.avonoii irj 5ia<f>opiK.r] aviaaarj

Ut(x(t)-Au(x,t)<0, (x,t)ea. (6.20)

Ynodiov}j eniar\g on loxvei r\ EKii^riari u(x, t) < M, (x, t) e 3D x (0, T) U D x {0}.


ii u(x,t) < M, yza Kdde (x,t) O..

Anodfittf EnEi8r| to n6io D Eivai cppaypEvo, 9a nEpiicAEiEtai OE pia N-6idotatr| ocpaipa'j


p KEvtpo tr|v apxii KOI aKtiva r, yia Kdnoio r apKEtd pydAo. 'Eorco r) ouvdptrioii
u(x,t), nou iKavonoiEi tig anaitiioEig tou 9copiipatog. TdtE opujoups tr| ouvdptr]ori
v(x, t) = u(x,t) + e|x|2, ondtE

v t (x, t) - Av(x, t) < -2Ne < 0, (x, t) 6 O.


tou Tunou ] eapia HapadoAiKov 97

EnopEvwg ri ouvdpTr|OT| v(x,t) ucavonoiEi tnv aviooir|Ta tou Aiippaiog 3.6.1. Apa

u(x,t) < v(x.t) < max v(x,t)


(x,t)63Dx(0,T)UDx{0}

max u(x,t)
(x,t)3Dx(0,T)uDx{0}

TtAiKd, naipvovrag to e > 0, oti u(x,t) < M KQI TO 9e6pr|via E


i. 0

3.6.3. (Apxn EAaxicrcou) 'Eorcj 6u r\ avvapir\ar] u(x,t) eiv ai


Kai iKavonoiei IT] 5ia<popiKr\ avioaar]

(x,t)eQ. (6.21)

cniorig on laxvei r\ u(x, t) > m, (x, t) 3D x (0, T) U D x {0}.


u(x,t) > m, yia (x,t) e O.

Fia tr|v anoSei^r) 9etou}ie u(x,t) = w(x,t) KQI QKoAouGouiae tr) 6ia6iKaoia
xou nporiyoupevou SecopiipaTOg ing apxiis UEyi010" Yia Trlv eiocaor|. nou npo-
:IQ$ npog w(x, t). 0

HcpuaiKii epvir|veia tov napandvco anoTeAeovidTcov eivai r\ aKoAouSr). H aviocoori (6.20)


i TO YYOVS OT:i Sev undpxei nriyii- H onoia va npooGexei 8ep]a6ir]ia oro eooiepiKO
ne6iou 1. Enopeva$ r| QepjjOKpaoiaOTOeocoTepiKO 8a npenei va eivai viiKpotepr) ano
ptyioto trig apxiKiis KQI tr)g cruvopiaKiig QeppOKpaoias. Avxioroixri ep>iriveta 8i6eiai
KQI air)v nepintcoori trig apxns eAaxiorou.
0 auvSiaayos TUV eoprividtov 3.6.2 KQI 3.6.3 6i6ei dpeoa to QKoXouGo anoteAeovia
6inAr|$ auyKpioris.

6eupi)pa 3.6.4. 'Eoio6ur\ auvdpirjarj u(x,t) eivai auvexns OTO ne6io Q KOI iKavonoiei
VI 5ia<popiKri cio(Dori u t (x, t) Au(x,t) = 0 , yia Kade (x, t) 6 O. Ynodeiou}j eniorjg on
toxi>i r\ EKii^ijori m < u(x, t) < M, yia Kdd (x, t) 9D x (0, T) U D x {0}, idle i
611 m < u ( x , t ) < M, ytaKo5 (x,t) 6 O.

Ta napandvo anoTeAeoyaTa exouv oripavriKii noiotuai tcov


Auotcov ir|g eiocoor|g 9eppoir|Tas. Fia napd6eiYpa, eono r|
\it ]ir\ opoyeveig apxiKEg KQI ouvoptaKeg ouv0r|KEg tunou Dirichlet

ut(x,t)-Au(x,t) = h(x,t), (x,t)eQ, (6.22)


u(x,0) = a(x), xeD, u(x,t)=b(x,t), x e 9 D , t e x ( O . T ) . (6.23)

ecopoupe TO napandvco np66Ar)ija (6.22)-(6.23) yia 6uo SiacpopetiKd aAAd


mpa auvoAa 6e6ovievcov {hi , QI , b] }, {h2, 0-2^2} KOI unoSetoujae OTI TO 8euTepo auvoAo
Kuptapxci TOU npcoTOu, 6r)Aa6ri IOXUEI HI < h,2,Qi < 02, bi < \)2- Euti6oAiKd 6e
ypdcpoupe {hi , QI , bi} X {h2, 02, b2). TOTC EXOU^E TO QK6Aou9o
98 KccpdAaio 3. E^iacoaeig FlapaBoAiKOu Tiino

3.6.5. (Oecopqiia Euvxpunis) 'Eaicodu ia6eoouva {h2, 0-2^2}


lav {h] , QI , bi }. T6i ixovv on, yia rig- aviimoixzs Jiuoeig lou npo6Arnj.aTog (6.22)-(63
auiodirjia Uj (x, t) < U2(x,t), yia Kdds ( x , t ) O .

H ouvdpTr|or| 6ia(popd v(x,t) = U i ( x , t ) U2(x,t) ixavonoiEi Tr) 6ia<|)opii


avioojor) v t ( x , t ) Av(x,t) > 0, Yla Kd9s (x,t) G Q KOI Tr| ouv9r|Kr| oro ovn
v(x,t) > 0, (x,t) 3D x (0,T) U D x {0}. EnopEvog oupcpcova pc TO eopripa 3.6^
. OTI v ( x , t ) > 0 , Yla Kd9s ( x , t ) G O KOI TO 9&>pr|pa EXEI ano6ix9Ei. 0

Oeupi]pa 3.6.6. (Oeoprijia MovooifpciVTOu) To np66jlr}u.a (6.22)-(6.23) Sejerat ro7ia|


JLUOT].

ui(x,t), U2(x,t) 6uo AUOEIS TOU npoBAiiviaTOS (6.22)-(6.23)


i6ia 66oTiva. EnopEvcog TQ 66opva {h.2,a2,b2} Kupiapxouv TQV {hi,ai,bi
avriarpocpa. Apa auiicpcova IIE TO TEAEUTOIO Ecopripa 3.6.5 9a Exouiie ui (x, t) < U2(x,|
UT (x, t) > U2(x, t), yia Kd9E (x, t) O KQI TO 9copr|pa EXCI ano6ix6d. 0

3.6.7. (Qetoprma Euordeeiag - Euvex^S E^dpTqori ano xa


aicj UT (x, t) , U2 (x, t) Jivoeig lov npoSHrmaio^ (6.22)-(6.23), nou avnmoixouv oia
{hi , QI , bi }, {h.2, 02, b2}. 'EOTGJ eniorig on loxuouv 01 ax^

|hi(x,t) h2(x,t)| < a, (x,t)en,


|u 1 (x,t)-u 2 (x,t)| < (3, (x,t) dD x ( 0 , T ) U D x {0}.

auvtna.ye.Tai 611

|u 1 (x,t)-u 2 (x,t)| <

H ouvdpTr)or| 6iacpopd u(x,t) = ui (x,t) U2(x,t) ucavonoid Tr|v c


or| 9pTidTr|Tas TIE 66oTiva, TQ onoia KIVOUVTQI TiETau { a, 13, (3} KQI {a,P,
u(x,t) = v(x,t) + w(x,t), dnou r| Auor) v(x,t) avriaroixEi orr|v
KQI r| Auor) w(x,t) avrioroixEt OE opOYEvri apxiKd KQI owopiaKa 6e6o)aE
TOTE and TO copr|pa 3.6.5 oupnEpaivoupE OTI |v(x,t)| < (3, yia Kd9e (x,t) Q.
W i ( x , t ) = at, W2(x,t) = at ixavonoiouv Trjv E^iooor) 9EppdTr|TasiiE
dpoug a KQI a, avrioroixa. Eniorig IOXUEI on Wi(x, t) > 0, W 2 ( x , t ) <
Yia Kd6 (x,t) 9D x (0,T) U D x {0}. EnotiEvcog TO 66opva \\a Trj Auor) W]^
Kupiapxouv TOV 66oiiv&)v Tr|g Auong w(x, t) KOI TO 66opva \\a IT\ Auor| w(x, t) K
piapxouv TCOV 6E6opEveov Tr|g Auor)g W2(x, t). Eupcpava p TO Ecbprjpa 3.6.5 9a
W
2(x,t) < w(x,t) < Wi(x,t), 6r|Aa5r| 9a EXOUJJE aT < w(x,t) < aT. \ i a
(x,t) O. Euv6id^ovrag TO TeAsuTaio ps TO anoTEAsapa |v(x,t)| < (3
TOU 9G>pripaTOg. 0

Ta napandvco anoTAEO~paTa pnopouv va YviKu0ouv OE opioiiEva i6r| pr| q>pa\\iiv


n6icov Ka66g KOI OE dAAEg pop(pg (ypappiKEg ii prj) napa6oAiKcbv npoBAripdicov (HAnt|
Hpo6Ar|paTa
J/Ioioruoj Scapia Ilapa6o\iKcov Egiaaocav 99

6.1 Ilpo6Ar|uaxa
"Etna D = (0,a) EVO 6idornpa oro E KOI D = D x (0, +00). Na anoSeixOEi OTI, to
axoAouSo pr| ouoyEVEg napaBoAiKO np66Ar|pa apxiKcbv ouvopiaKov ouv0nKcbv tunou Neumann

ut(x,t)-k2uxx(x,t) = h(x,t), ( x , t ) e Q , k>0,


u(x,0) = Q ( x ) , x e D , u x ( 0 , t ) = b i ( t ) , u x ( a , t ) = b 2 (t), 1 6 ( 0 , +00),

aipova6iKii Auon.
;: Na yivEi XPH01! IOU yeyovotog OTI, u x (x,t) ^ 0 OE Kd9e aicpotato onuEio ota x =
tx = a, yia va ouunEpdvEtai oti 01 AuaEig tou avtiatoixou opoyvou$ npoBAiipatog 6Exovtai
f axpoiatEs uueg OTO onpeio t = 0.
Na ano6eix6i oti to nponyouuEvo pr| opoyEVEg napaBoAiKO np66Anua apxiKuv ouvopiaxcov
Ktov PE auv0r|Ks UEIKIOU tunou ri tunou Robin (avti tuv ouv9nK<av tunou Neumann) 6EXtai
ai Auon.
Eato D Evag SioKog ato K2 xai o KuAivSpog Q = D x [0,T]. 'Eoro Enions oti r| auvdptnor]
,t) eivai ouvExiig OTO neSio d KOI iKavonoiEi tri 6ia<popiKii aviooori

u t (x,t)-Au(x,t) + c(x)u(x,t) < 0 , (x,t)Q, c(x) > 0.

iano6Eix6i oti av u(x,t) < M, ym Kd0 ( x , t ) 3D x ( 0 , T ) U D x {0} pE M > 0,


u(x,t) < M, yia Kd0E ( x , t ) H. Ooid avtiotoixn apxn pnopEi va 6iatuno0ei, otav
avticripacpEi to npoonpo otr) SiacpoptKri aviocoor); Iloid avtioroixr) apxii pnopei va 6iaTuno0t yia
ni 6ia<popiKr|

u t ( x , t ) - A u ( x , t ) + c(x)u(x,t)=0, (x,t)eQ, c(x) > 0;

4. 'Eato D Evag 610x05 ato E2 KOI Q = D x [0,T]. ME tq XP>ion XUPIOUOVJ peia6Antcbv va


\ luOei to opoyEVEg napa6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKOv ouvopiaKov auv0nKov tunou Dirichlet

Ut(x,t).-rAit(x,t)+c(xhij(x,,t) = 0, ( x , t ) 6 Q ,
u(x,0) = a(x), x e D , u(x,t) = 0, x 6 3D, t e ( 0 , T ) .

6tav r| c ( x ) Eivai pia ata0pd. Kdto ano noiEg npouno0Oig r\ Auor| autou TOU
ttivEi otr|v
orn tETpippEvr) ordoipri Auorj u(x,t) = 0, Ka06g to t > oo;
5. 'Eotco D EVO cppaypEvo unoouvoAo oto EN , N > 1 KOI O D x (0,+oo). Na ano6Eix0i
6n loxuEi r| apxri tou pEyiorou yia tnv napa6oAiKii

p(x)u t (x,t) - V (p(x)Vu(x.t)) = 0, ( x , t ) 0,

onou p(x) > 0, p(x) > 0 Eivai cppaypEvsg cruvaptiioEtg oto D.


Ynodei&i: EoatE w(x,t) = u(x,t) + e ax KOI EniAsyEtE to a Etoi COOTE p(x)w t (x,t) V
( p ( x ) V w ( x , t ) ) < 0. EupnEpdvatE oti TO w(x,t) 9a npEnEi va SEXEtai to pEyioto OTO t = 0 ii
oioauvopo tou nESiou D, yia t > 0.
6. Na Etao0i av IOXUEI r| apxri tou pEyiotou yia tnv napa6oAiKii iooori

)*bVy{v,t)4-v w w (v,t), - o o < y < a , t > 0,

onou b,c eivai ataOEpsg KOI a > 0.


100 KeQdAaio 3. E^ioaoeig UapaBoXiKOvl

7. 'Eotu D eva (ppaypevo unoouvoAo ato E N , N > 1 KQI fl = D x (0,+00).


noieiate iriv apxii tou peyiorou and to npd6An.pa 5 yia va ano6eiete to povooripavto irijl
tou QKoAou0ou jar) opoyevoug napa6oAiKou npo6Aiipatog apxiKcbv ouvopiaiccov ouv6r|KQvi
Dirichlet
p(x)u t (x,t)-V-(p(x)Vu(x,t)) = p(x)f(x), ( x . t ) e n ,
u(x,0) = a(x), x e D , u(x,t) 0, x 3D, t x ( 0 , + o o ) .
dnou p(x) > 0, p(x) > 0 Eivat cppaypeveg ouvaptrioEtg OTO D.

3.7 Bv6Aioypac})iKes Avacpopeg


Fia nepaitepco ueAetn. napanep.noupe TOV evSiacpepoviEvo avayvoatri vieta^u dAAovj
pi6Ata TUV L. C. Andrews [3], D. Bleecker and G. Csordas [8], R.Courant [ 18], G. Follj
[27], A. Friedman [28], P. Garabedian [29], K. E. Gustafson [33], J. Hadaniard [36],1
Henry (401, J. Kevorkian [46], J Malek, J Necas, M Rokyta and M Riizicka |54],j
McOwen [55], M. A. Pinsky [59], M. Renardy and R. C. Rogers [65], M. H. Protters
H. F. Weinberger [61], S. L. Sobolev [72], I. Stakgold [73], W. A. Strauss [76j
Tikhonov and A. A. Samarskii [78], D. W. Trim [81], Tyn Myint-U and L. Debnath|
H. F. Weinberger [84], E. C. Zachmanoglou and D. W. Thoe [86], KCU E. Zaudererl

3.8 FEVIKQ IIpo6Ai]}icrca


1. Av tono0ETr|oou)j eva Aento cnippa o' eva jaeoov, to onoio avtaAAdooei 8epia6ir]Ki \M
nepiBdAAov, o ypa^zjcbs1 vdfj.og fisicupopag cmcpaveiaKrig dspiMirjtag 6i5ei tpv e^iooori Ut (X
k 2 u xx (x, t) bu(x, t), onou b eivai pia 9etiKii ataOepd. Yno0etoupe oti ta dKpa tou aOp|
eivai povopeva KQI oti toxuei i\ apxiKii ouv0r|Kri u(x,0) = TQ. Na Au6ei to np66Anpa ap;
KQI auvoptaxov ouvGqKCOV.
Ynodei^r]: Na xpnotponotn0ei o petaoxnpatiopog w(x,t) = e b t u(x,t).
2. Na Ppe0et r\ Katavopii 9cppOKpaoiag u(x, t) ae pia pd66o priKoug a, otav 6Aeg 01 oip
exouv povcoar) KQI r\ apxiKii Katavopri QeppoKpaai'ag 6i'6etat ano tr| ouvdptrjorj f(x) = x(a-lj
ufx, t) = - f-l) n jexpf-fn7r/a) 2 tjcos ^.
3. No |3pe0i n Katavopii 8eppoKpaoiag u(x,t) OE pia pd66o priKoug n, dtav to dxpo x =j
6iatr|pEuai orr) ata0Epii SEppOKpaoia u(0,t) = 0 KOI to dAAo dxpo x = TT EXEI o
SeppOKpaoiag p pu0pd avdAoyo trig 9epOKpaoiag u(7T,t) = 0 o' auto to dKpo. H
Katavopii 9ppOKpaoiag 6i6tai and tr| ouvdptr|or| u(x, 0) = x.
4. H Katavopii tdong v(x, t) OE pia ypappii pEtaepopdg nAEKtpiKou peupatog piiKoug a, 6il
and tpv aKoAou0r| e|iouor)
v t (x,t) = k 2 v x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0.
H tdon SiatqpEitai ior| p to pr|6Ev oto dnpo x = a (v(a,t) = 0), EVO> oto dKpo x = I
taoii peta6dAAEtai aupqava pE to vdpo

v(0,t)=bt, t>0,
dnou k, b 6oopEVEg npaypatiKEg oia0pg PE k > 0. Na (JpE0Ei n Katavopii tdong v(x,t)
i Katavopii tdor|g Eivai pn.6EV (v(x, 0) = 0).
101

to tng Auc
6r)Kuv tui
fa ano6Eix0i to povooripavto tcov AUOECOV tou OKoAouOou opoyevoug npo6Aripatog
uvopidKuv auvOnKwv tunou Neumann

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), 0<x<a, t>0,


u x (0,t) - 0, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = f(x), 0 < x < a .

'Otav r| nAEupiKii Eru(pdvia piag gd65ou pri,Koug 7t 6ev Eivai povcopEvn, Aap6dvi xl
ID avioAAayri 9ppdtr|tag pe pta<popd PE to npi6dAAov. Av to npi6dAAov SiatnpEi OTa0Epii
liOKpaoia TO. o puOpdg anuAeiag Qeppotntag and tr| 90660 Eivai avdAoyog tng 6ia<popdg
- TQ. H pa0npatiKii K(}>paor| tou 9aivopEvou 6i6tai and tnv opoyEvr) napaBoAiKii

k 2 u x x (x,t) = u t ( x , t ) + a(u(x,t)-To), 0 < x < n, t > 0.


iano6Eix0i on o peiaaxnpatiopdg

O&iyEi orr)v opoyvr| Eliooor) 9Eppdtntag ag npog z. Eniong va Au0ei to napandvo napaBoAiKO
p66Xr||aa, oiav loxuouv 01 OKdAou0eg apxiKEg KOI ouvopiaKEg ouv0r|KEg

u x ( 0 , t ) = 0 , u x (7r,t) = 0, t > 0 , u(x,0)=x2, 0<x< n

cm 01 otaGEpEg EXOUV tig tipEg k2 = 3, a = 1 , TO = 0.


ut(x,t) jj: u(x,t) = ^-e~l +4^~ =] L^Le-d+3n2)i cos(nx).
oupuar
Na Au0Ei 10 axoAouOo napa6oAiKO npd6Anpa 6idxuong-pEta<popdg apxiKWv KQI ovivopiaKUv
ouvflriKuv tunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) - uxx(x,t)-4u(x,t)+8, O < X < T T , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) 1, u(7r,t) = l, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 2x+5, O < X < T U .

8. Na Au0i to aKoAou0o napaBoAixd npd6Anpa apxixcbv KOI cruvopiaKOv ouv0nKci>v tunou


Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t) + 2 u x ( x , t ) + u ( x , t ) , O<X<TT, t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 r , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
6i6etai u(x,0) = e~ x , O < X < T T .

u(x,t) = ^ t sin(2n
9. Na Au0Ei to OKdAou0o npd6Anpa 6idxuong-pta<popdg KOI ouvopiaKwv o~uv0rjKcbv
= u ri
ninou Dirichlet

Ut(x,t) = uxx(x,t)-4ux(x,t), C t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
t) av
u(x,0) = e2", 0 < x < 1.
102 3. E^iaoatig HapaSoAiKOu'

10. Na AuGei TO axdAouGo npd6Ar|pa Sidxuoris-yEracpopdc, apxiKov xai ouvopiaKcov ow(


Tunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t)-u(x,t), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = sln(7tx) + 0.5sin(37rx), 0 < x < 1 .

: u(x,t) = e
11. Na Au0Ei to QKdAouGo npd6Ar|pa apxiKov KOI auvopiaKov
Tunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = u x x (x,t) -2mt x (x,t), < x < 1 , t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u(1,t)=0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = e x/2 , 0 < x < 1.

12. Na AuGEi TO OKoAouGo np66Ar|}aa 6idxuor|S-peTa<popds apxiKWV KOI ouvopiaKcov


tunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = u x x ( x , t ) - u ( x , t ) + 7 t x , 1, t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 0, u ( l , t ) = 1, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x< 1.
iidxcov ouv6n

KcqxiAcuo 4

ouv6r|Kcl
EljiacooEig YitcpBoAiKOu Tunou

4.1 Ku|iaxiKrj
4.1.1 Eioayuyrj-IatopiKd
*aiv6peva oncog [aeTciBoar] xuiadrtcov, porj TjXexipixou peu^iorroi;, laXavTCOor) xop8r|<;, ne-
ypCKpovrai and rtpo6Aiiu.aTa, TO onoia npiAap.6dvouv Tnv xujaoruxr] e^tacoaT). H Kupa-
i6iaitepa orig 3 6iaarcioeig Qecopeiiai ano u.a6nu.aTiKOug (QeopntiKOus KQI
cpuoiKOug, KOI iinxaviKOUS cog r| nAeov onviavtiKii laepiKr) 6iacpopiKii c-
5ioaoi], atpou nepiypacpEi ]iia ]itya\r\ noiKiAia cpaivopevcov, ano tig 6ovr)oeig tcov
OTjarnpdiQV, tnv pTa6oor| nAeKipopayvriTiKcbv KOI nxntiKcbv KUVIOTCOV,
nepiYpa(pii TCOV crtoixeico6cov OCOVIOTUOV, IT\ yeviKii 9ecopia axetiKOTniag KQI
pieg Evonoiniaevou ne6iou, oncog 01 unepxop6e'g (superstrings).
H eniorripovtKri EvaoxoXnar) }it ir\ aup.npicpopci tng naAAojaevng xevtopevng xop6r|g
ipeoa oe 6uo cna6epd onpeia, KOTO TOV 18o aicbva anoTEAeoe loropiKd TO amo Tng 6ia-
jiopcpcoor|c; KQI ing pEAe'ing Tng KupatiKiig e^iocoong. Eniong KOTO Tnv nepio6o auTri evrovo
Biacpspov avanTux0r]KE Yia Trl cnjp.nepicj)opd TOU aepa, nou KIVEUOI \iioa ora nveuord
opyava, auv6uag"6iaevo VIE 6idcpopg pouoiKeg QscopiEg. METO Tr) Giapopcpcoori TCOV
aoiKcbv apxcov KOI KOVOVCOV TOU AiacpopiKOU KOI OAoKAnpcoTiKOU Aoyioiiou ano Toug Sir
Isaak Newton (1642-1727) orqv AvvAia KOI Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646 - 1716)
air\ Pepviavia, noAAoi 6iaKEKpip.voi paGniiaTiKoi aaxoAr|0nKav VIE Tr) p.ATr| Tr)g naA-
AopEvrjg xopSiig. 4>aiv6]aEvo dpEoa OXETI^OVIEVO pie Tr| paGnpaTiKr) OECopia TOV pouoiKcov
HXUV (YXpSa - 1 6idoraon, Kpoucnd - 2 6iaordoEig). KQTO TO 18o aicbva, o BpEtavog Bro-
ok Taylor (1685-1731), o Jean D' Alembert ( 1 7 1 7- 1 783) , TdAAog pa0np.aTiK6g , 01 Daniel
Bernoulli (1700-1782) KOI Leonard Euler (1707-1783) ano Tnv EA6ua Eivai ano Toug
icupiOTEpoug viEAETrjTeg TOU jaaGrip-atiKOu npo6Aiip.aTOg Tr|g naAA6p.vr|g xop5r|g. IlEpi TO
1747 epcpavi^ETai r\ Epyaoia TOU Jean D' Alembert \\a Tr) u.ovo6idaraTr| KupaTuai E^iocoor)
JJE xcopoxpoviKr) E^dpTr)or|, onou 6i6ETai KOI n. Yvcoarii cog Auor) D' Alembert (BAEnE, Evo-
inia 1.5.2). H cpyaoia auxr) xaxci noAAoug ar)naxo5oTci xnv eiiqxivtoii xng npuxtis
)iepiKi)g 6ia<popiKr|s E^ooorlS- KOTO TOV 19o aicbva r| Kup.aTiKii E^iocoor) Cpapp.6cn;r|KE
aro TQXUTOTO avanTuooop.Evo n6io Tng EAaariKOTnTag, KOTO ouvEnEia KOI arr) pEAEtr) Tpg
6id6oong TOU lixou KOI TOU cpcoTog. Oi KupidTEpEg ouvEiocpopEg eyivav and Toug Simon
Denis Poisson (1781-1840), Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866), Hermann von Helmholtz
104 KecpaAaio 4. E&oaaeig YnepfioAiKOu Tuna

(1821-1894), Gustav R. Kirchhofif (1824-1887) KCU John W. S. Rayleigh (1842- 1918


Tov EIKOOIO aicova n KupatiKii EJjiocoan KOI oi ouv66u.Vg p autiiv g"iocboig (ora
Dirac, Klein-Gordon, Maxwell, KAn.), anotEAouv tov via9r|uatiKO nupiiva auvxPOVCi)V
copicov, dncog r\ KAaaiKr) aAAd KQI r| KBavtiKr) npoEVYiori tcov atoixico6cbv ocouati6icov,l
unEpaycoYiuotnta, r| unEppEuotdtnta (superfluidity). TEAog, r| KupatiKr) E^iocoor) anon
AEI KEvipiKd viaGnviatiKO EpYaAdo otr|v avdntugYi trig QECopiag tcov unpxop66v, r| onoQ
anotsAEt u.ia ano tig tsAEutaiEg npooYYioi tou Evonoinvievou n6iou.
'H6r| ano to 6Kato OY6oo atcova oi napandvco 8iaKKpipvoi
ViopcpwoEi tr) pspiKii 6ia<popu<r| E^iooori, nou npiYpd(pi to cpaivojaEvo (Kuu.atiKii
on), Eixav Ppd tr) YEVIKI] Auon. autqg KQI Eixav npoo6iopioi toug 9u.AiG)6ig naAv
tponoug. H EU-nEipia, nou anoKtr|6nKE trjv snoxn EKEivr) and ir\ viEAEtr) tr|g xupatm
, o6r)YnE crtl 6iatuncoar) trig apXHS TrlS (YviKEuvivr|g) unp6Eor|g KOI Katd(H
atn,v avanapdoraon, tuxaiag ouvdptn,on,g U.E pia tpiYCovoviEtpiKri OEipd. To
auto anotEAEOE tnv anapxr) p-iaS PaKpaS SlQpdxr|g ptau tcov viaGnviatiKcov tqg
Yupco and tnv EYKupdtrjta tcov ouvaptrioEcov, nou napiordvovtai and npitoviKeg oeip
H EpYaoia tou Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) OXETIKCI UE tr| ptd8oariiB
9EpVidtr)tag, nou o6r|Yr|O oe avtiotoixa avantuvpata tcov AUOEQV VIE r)pitovoi6ig oeipl
EVIOXUOE nspaitEpco trj ougV|tr|or|. TEAixd, n uaGnpatiKii pp.r)VEia KQI and6ir| 666r)Ke
1829 and to YCpuavd viaGripatiKO Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805-1859), o onol
og 6coo ouv6r|KEg iKavEg, cbotE uia tpiYcovouEtpiKii OEipd va ouYKAivei OE
ouvdptr|or|.
\ H jaEpiKii 6iacpopuai E^iocoan, nou nEpiypdcpEi tn gori rjAEictpiKOu pEupaiog o' evfl
KaAcb6io, ovovidtai e|iouoi) Ti)Aeypd<t>ou (t\ xqAecpuvou) KOI OE
Eivai

LCUtt(x,t) RC)U t (x,t)-|-RGU(x,t) = U xx (x l t), x e I c R, t > 0, (1


onou R navtiataon, L n EnaYCOYii, C r\ xcopr|iiKdtr)ia KOI G r| 6iappor|, dAa
avd viovd8a vir|KOug tou KaAco6iou. H dYvcootr) auvdptr|OTi U(x,t) napiorc'i tnv iaar\\
to QEuvia cjtr| 9or| x Katd in xpovixq otiYVui t. ME tr| 3oii6ia tcov

R G 2 _ 1 RG
= + = =
L C' CL' CL'
r| E^iocoon (1.1) AajaGdvEi in uopcpii

QU(x,t)=c 2 U x x (x,t), 0.

Eni6ri IOXUEI r) oxor| AC B2 = c2 < 0, r| $"iocoor| (1.2) dpa KOI r| (1.1), CT


unp6oAiKOu tunou, \\a Kd0E nvni tcov OUVIEAEOICOV a, b, c. MEpiKii nEpinrcoon autii$i
E^iocoong (a = 6, b = 0, c = 1 ) anotEAEi n ypaiiiuKn e^iooaii Klein-Gordon

Utt(x,t)-Uxx(x,t)=6U(x,t), x e l c R , t > 0 ,

n onoia ouvavtdtai p.tau dAAcov ornv K6avio^r}xo.viKr\. AAAa cpawduEva ta onoia


pouoid^ouv KupatiKii auvinEpicpopd Eivai :
1. rixrjnKa. Kii^aia - 6ta^rJKtc; dowjacig,
lucou 7\irroi LJ Ku/jaruc/7 105

1842- KUfj.aia wu (pcow^ Km wv r\j(.Kip\.a\iOV,


(one Aovrjoeig air\ aispid - 5ia\^r\Kiq (longitudinal), yKapai<; (transversal) KO.I
lyxpovcov sional),
Kvnaia nidavdirjias au\v KSavioiMixaviKT] (probability waves in Quantum Mechanics),
anoTE- Y6dnva Ku^aia (Water waves) - eyKapoia Kai 6iaur)Kr] Kuuara,
, r| onofl ' SYKdpaia Kuuaia.
L'auto TO KecpaAmo Qa vieAetriooupe tr)v anAouaiepr) 6uvairi popcpii trig
6ia- opoycvoug xupaxtKiig c^iouoiis art) |iia 8idcrtaoq xat oc (ppaypcvo
ota dvm tr)g

tt(x,t)-fl(x,t)I 0 < x < a , t > 0 . (1.3)


:ai KQICI au
| To yryovog Etr|v enopevq cvotr|Ta 9a peAetiiooupe tq 6ta6iKaaia 6iavi6pcpaoris TOU PQOIKOU
ir)g cn ou KQI pr| ypap]aiKOu ]aa6r]viaTiKOU npoiunou, nou nepiypticpei xa KUiaaiiKCi cpaivo-
oeipeg.:
iciSoor] tl
'S oeipeg, 1.1.2 KupaTiKi] E^iotoori: MaGripaxiKr] IlpOTunonoir|ar|
|666r|Ke
I), o onoi- A. Aiapop()>uoq xqg Ku|iaxtKi]s E^iauoi]s. Secopoupe jaia xeAeia euKavintr] (perfectly
lexible) xopSii viiiKoug a, r\ onoia oe Katacrcaor] toopponias eivai npoevreTa]aevii pe
oiaStpd dxpa. EniAeyouviE Kapxeaiavo auairuja CRjvieTaYpevcov, etoi 6ate ta 6uo QKIQ
a' eva IS X0p6rig va eivai aia oiiiaeia (0,0,0) KQI (a,0,0). H xop8r| napaviEiptKonoieitai
pc trjv napdjaetpo s, onou 0 < s < a (BAene Sxnpa 4.2.1). H Ktvr|ari lou oripeiou
S uiS xpSr)S crcov TpioGidataio x^P0 KQTQ tr| xpovmr) oriyiari t nepiYpd(petai ano tr|
r(s,t) = (X(s,t), Y(s, t ) , Z ( s , t ) ) .

(0,0,0) (a, 0,0)


A

4.1.1: Xop5r] oe Kaidaraar) loopponiag.

To Sidvuapa dr/3t 6i6ci tr|v taxuint0 ^ou ornjetou s tr] xPviKIl i t KQI
ttpameicu ir|g xp5iis c710 or]]jeio s, cvw TO 6idvuapa 32r/9t2
S OTO orjiaeio s (BAene Ex^V10 4.2.2).
(1.2)

eivai r(0;t) = (0,0,0)

4. 1.2: naJULduevrj Xop6r\ KOI Aidvuoua Taxvir\iag.


(a na-
Fia va npoxcopiiaou]ae 9a Ecpapvioooupe TOV deiiiepo vduo Kz'urjarjf TOU Newton, nou
avaqjepei OTI : r\ duvaurj OE Kdde luffua irjg xop6r)S toouiai u irj xpoviKr\ napaycjyo irjg
+
"f + 7ie
ahio
(l'.t>)( S Q/jg)
3tinoX3 DQ noi ix orlpA odsinsg 01 3rl 'ioig,
Alii OIID iDisgig DIOIIO
'TO s oisrllio oi> IDX SLigdoX SLii [)'] oriLirli 010 [TO I Q] orlLirli 01 OIID 10113x00
laou 'LirlDAfig Dirt ('Z'l? DrlliX^ '3ii3Yg) srlaoXs 'oupdi oAoYpAD ,IDJ[ ') = s oisrtlio 010
[SiigdoX SLii SliA3rloiiiD(t)3 SLii Soxliti piox LiOAn0n3ig 13X3 5li(t)Dii3 LirlDAng OApiiDdDii li
'LuiirlDxris DISY?! IDAJS ligdoX Li 'up SUosgoiin Slu LiODd(t>M3 LixiiDrlLiQDrt H
(I'l
Alii OLID iDisgig DIOIIO Li ') = s oisriLio OID
fcSUgdoX Slii [) '] SoiDtiLirli aoi 1113 SLi(t>Dii3 LirlDAfig Dirt pxoo SLigdoX SLii [u ')] or!
Ltopi Alii 3ttnoApoi3 'SLi(t)DLi3 5i3iipAng Su srtnofhpdAidsu DA DIJ "SligdoX
n s oisrllio OID So^prt ogpAorl DAD UrtDAfig In AaoADHJidoii ' ( ( I ' s J f j ' J i . ' s J ^ j ^ i . ' s ) t-j)
LjoLudpAtio LiMiiDrionADig oirl So SsAStipcbodA SisrtpAng S3Mid3ira53 iQ 'DiLii
do{) Li Sraiip 'AOYYpgidsii 01 OIID SisripAng S3Mid3ira3 Su IDM SLigdoX Sin omoYpiin 01
UD ' Ddxp DID SLi(l)DiJ3 SisrlpAfig Sn iDioioicbn SLigdoX SLii [) (xi] DtiUrli oj,
IP
SLigdoX SLii [) '] SoiotiLirli noi Liuoa = sp ^ -(s)d
(^' S ) J 6
"f
'SLigdoX SLii [) 'TO] SoiDiilirli noi o^pri = sp(s)d
J
') > s > TO '(s)d So^prl SDiLupAMniJ LioLiidpAno
ioi3gig 'D > ) > > o 3rl [)'] SligdoX SLii o^prt H 'SoivrtUrti noi noinv SUuod
munj, noxiyogdau^ Si3OK>oi$3 - 901
Tunou 11 Kupanxr; E^ioaoq 107

ETCH ano Eva oxoAio nou acpopd TO Tqg ouvdpTr|or|g Taor|g: Av ndpoupE TO dpio (3 > a
(1.4), npoKuniEi OTI T + ( c x , t ) = T ~ ( a , t ) . 'ETOI pnopoupE va napcM]ijjovn
KM va xp^oifjonoiou}^: 10 au^SoJio T(s,t) yia zrjv KOIVT) u^ri irjg idorjg air\
(for; (s,t). Fia va ypdvyoupE Tr| 8iavuapaTiKti oAoKAr|pcoTiKr| $"iocoar| (1.4) arr| popcpii
Eg'iocoorig, napaYcoyioup cog npog 3, SETOUU.E (3 = s KOI (JpioKOupE Tr)v
) tr|g

, o 2 rl s , t 9 f 9 r s , t /9s 1
PS .' - P s P s,t + \ T s.t ' " f, se(0,a), t>0. (1.5)
dt* 9s i |9r(s,t)/9s|J
H 6iavuopaTiKii 6iacpopiKii E^iocoar) (1.5) ioo6uvapd pE TpEig paGpcoTEg 6iacpopiKg
(cooeig cog npog Toug avvcoarcoug X, Y, Z, T. Fia KdGs EAaoriKo uAiKd undpxi pia KaAd
[Bpiopevri ouvdpxr|or| N, nou EKCppd^Ei Tr| oxor| Tr|g tdor|g T(s,t) KOI TOU napdYOvra
s,t)/9s|, r| onoia

T(s,t) = N(|9r(s,t)/9s|,s). (1.6)

napd TO YYOVS 11 H E^iocsori, nou npOKunrei and Tr|V avriKaTdaraori Tr)g


(1.6) cnr|v e^iowon (1-5), anoTEAEi pia auorripri ouvsnEia TOU 6UTEpou vdpou Kivr|or|g
tou Newlon, eviouTOig r| npoondGEia dpEorjg EniAuorig auTf^g auvavtd avunp6Ar|Tg 6u-
OKoAicg. Eioi KaTacpEUYOuviE crrri u.eATr| u.iag npcbTrig npooEYYior|g auTiig Tr)g ^iocoor]g,
6r]Aa6ii Trig Ypau.u.iKonoir|or|g Trig. Ano6iKvuTai OTI, 01 Jluozig auirig irjg ypa^tKO7roirjfz-
w/c; efouorjg 5i6ouv iKavonoirjiiKlg anavirjoeig, eidiKd oc (paivd^va. nou atyopoiiv fiiKpeg
6our)0ig. Fia nepioaotEpEg nAqpocpopiEg oxETiKEg U.E TO 9Epa napanspnoupE OTO KAa-
OIKO oiJYYP0!-1^0 TOU H. F. Weinberger [84] KaGcog KOI aro oripavriKO dpGpo TOU S. S.
Antman [4]. Fia va ppoupE Tr|v npcoTr) npooVYior| TOU npo6Ar|paTog xpr|or|ponoioup
tov QKoAouGo

X(s,t) = x(s,t), Y ( s , t ) = y(s,t), Z(s,t) = ez(s,t), (1.7)


T(s,t) = t), P(s,t) = ef(s,t), (1.8)
onou r| napdpETpog pnopsi va 8copr|6i OTI, Eivai Ta^r|g pEysGoug dor| r|
tiaTonior) Tqg xopSrjg and Tr| Bior\ ou6TEpr|g loopponiag X = s, Y = 0, Z = 0.
AvuKaGiCTTCovrag TO pETacrxripaTiopo (1.7) - (1.8) orig E^iocboEig (1.5), (1.6) KOI ayvouvtag
tig avoTEpsg 6uvdpig TOU e pnopoupE va unoAoYiooupE TO TO, TI. Ei6iKd, TO TO
tKcppd^Ei Tr|v Tdori Tr|g xop6r|g arr| 8oq ou6Tpr|g loopponiag X = s, Y ^ O , Z = 0.
Ano Tig oxsoEig (1.7) npOKunTEi OTI

9X(s,t) _ 9x(s,t) 9Y(s,t) 9yj(s,t) 9Z(s,t) 9z(s,t)


I ~r ^ i ^ z i :; " (1.9)
9s 9s 9s 9s 9s 9s
npOKurrcEi

3r 9x\ dz\
T- r-
9s/ 9s/

(1.4) (1.10)
108 4. Eiocboi(; YnepBoXiKov Tunol

riaipvovrac. Tnv TETpaycoviKii gi<Ja Trig oxEang (1.10) KCU xpnoMJonouovrag TOV
9o Tiino TOU avanTuvuaTOg Taylor: (1 + a)'7'2 = 1 + ^ + O(a 2 ), npOKurrtEi on

Or
9s

EnouEvog IOXUEI oti

(1.11

Tnv TEAeuTaia E^iooor) (1.11) ornv E^iocoor) (1.5), xpnoriP01101"^0? tou


us (1.7) - (1.8) KCU TsAog E^iocovovrag TOUC, OUVTEAEOTES TOU OE KaM
pia ano Tig TpEig npOKunTOUOEg E|IOUOEIS, Aap6dvouu Tig QKoAouSEg YPaWlKOn
UEVES E^iocboEig Yia TIS YKC*PaiS Kai ompriKcig dovqoEtg (longitudinal and transve
vibrations)

T 1 (s,t), 56(0,0), t > 0 , (1.121


2
L 2t )i g ( 0 ) t>0 (1.13)
as
, se(0,a), t>0. (1.14)
3t2 ds
Oi iocooic. nou uag Ev6ia(ppouv, EWQI auTEg nou nEpiypdcpouv Tig eyKdpoicc; 8o\
vrjaeic KQV auTEg EWQI 01 E^iocboEig (1.13) KQI (1.14). Oi E^iocboEig auTEg sivai TOU auioj
Tiinou, o onoiog Eivai auTog Tng AEYOUEvng [aovoSida-ccxTrjc; Ypowixrj<; xu(aaTtxr]<; E^i
UE

, X6 ( 0l ). am
B. ApxtKCg xai uvoptaxes uv6i]Kes - KaAq TonoOexqoq. Ano IT] usxpi iw

u(0,t)=hi(t)

u(p,t)=h 2 (t)

Exn UQ 4.1.4: (a) Luvdr\Kg Dirichlet


LI Kuparixr) E^i'awar] 109

(1.11

4.1.5: (b) LuvdrJKg Neumann

avdAuor) cpaiveiai on, r\ c^iocoor) 9epp6tr|Tag (1.15) nepiYpdcpei TO cpaivou.evo TCOV


oiuv 6ovr)oecov oe ilia gd66o ii xop6ri. Fia Triv nArjpq v1^^11! TOU cpaivoiievou npenei va
id6oup un' oipiv TO 6e6oLieva aro ouvopo TOU 06110105 Ka06$ KOI Tig auvGiiKEg KOTO Tr]v
Kxivr]or| peAeTrig TOU cpaivouxvou, 6r|Aa6r| Tig ouvopiaxec; xai ctp^txet; ouvdr]XE<;, avrioroi-
0. Oi auvopiaKEg auv0r|KEg, nou cruvoSeuouv cruvr|6cog cpaivopeva Tr|g avoTepo poptprig,
o^a6onoiouvrai orig aKoAouGeg Kupieg KOTriYOpieg
1. EAcYXOpeva ouvopiaKa onucta q ouvopiaxes ouvOriKeg npuxou eiSoug t\
Dirichlet ir|g popcpqg (BAcnc, Sxiipa 4.1.4(a) )

u(0,t)=h1(t), u(p,t)=h2(t), t>0, (1.16)

2. AcSopcvq 8uvaut] ota ouvopiaxd onucta q ouvopiaKtg ouv9r|Kcg 8cuTCpou

Lxnpa4.1.6: (c) Zvvdr\Kg Robin

ouv0iiKe Neumann Tqg popcpiig (BAene, Exiipa 4.1.5(b) )

ux(0,t)=f1(t), Ux(p,t)=f2(t), t>0, (1.17)


110 4. Egiaaocig YhepfioAiKOu Tunojl

3. EAacniKii ouvSeot) oro ouvopo rj ouvopiaKEg ouv6r|Kg TpiTOU eiSoog


ouvBijxes Robin iris Liopcpiic; (BAenx, Ex1!!-10 4- 1 -6(c) )

Ux(0,t)-u(0,t)=ei(t), , t>0,

dnou K i] oraGcpd TCOV eAcnripicov KCU T r| idor) QUTCOV.


TeAog, \\a va exoupe eva xaAa xono6exi))icvo npo6Arma tou Tunou ( 1 . 1 5) 9a nper
va auvo6eueTai ano apxiKeg ouv6i]Kes

u(x,0) = f(x), ut(x,0) = g(x), x e ( 0 , a ) . (1.1


cruvexeia auiou TOU KecpaAaiou 9a jaeAetriooupe 6ici(})Opes paaiKE$ popcpeg TOB
npo6Ari]jaTO (1.15), (1.19) auvoSeuovievou ano pia tcov ouvopiaKcbv auvGriKcov (1.16J
(1.17) r| (1.18), crtr) iaia 6idcn;aor| KQI a' eva cppaypevo Sidorrma TOU K.

4.1.3 Ilpo6Ar|iiaTa

'1. Mia lEvtcopEvri XpSr| EXEI TO dnpa trig ora0Epd ouvSESEpEva ora or|pia x = 0 KOI X ^
tou dova tcov x. 10 xpdvo t = 0 6i6ovtai r| apxui pEtatomori f (x) KQI r|
g(x), yia Kd0E x (0, a). Na 6iauopcpco0i to npdGAqpa apxixcbv KOI auvopiaxcbv i
tr| pEtatdnior| tr|g xop6r|g, yia x (0, a) KOI t > 0.
2. Mia tvtcopvr| xp6n ^XEl *a dxpa tr|g EAaotiKd auv6e6Epva ora oripEia x = 0 KOI X =
tou dova tcov x. H xp6ii PpioKEtai pEoa a' Eva poo, nou npOKaAsi 6uvapr| Eni6pd6uvor|51
avaXoyri tr|g taxutr|tag. Eto xpdvo t = 0 6i6ovtai r\ apxiKii pEtatdniori f ( x ) KOI r| apxuaj|
taxutr|ta h(x), yia Kd0e x (0, a). Xcopig va ayvor|0i r| unap|r| pdpoug yia tr| xp6ii
6iapopcpco9i to npd6Ar|pa apxixcov KOI auvopiaxcbv ouv0r|Kcov yia tr| pEtatdniori u(x,t)
Xop6rjg, yia x 6 (0, a) KQI t > 0.
Andviriarj: u t t (x,t) = C 2 Ux X (x,t) - ^yUt + g ( x , t ) , ( 6 > 0, g < 0), 0 < x < a, tl
0, -TUx(0,t) + kiu(O.t) = 0, TUx(a.t) + k 2 u(a,t) = 0 , t > 0, u(x,0) = f ( x ) , ut(x,0}|
h(x), 0< x< a.
3. Mia opi^dvtia KuAw6piKii gd66og PpioKEtai apxiKd OE loopponia KOI xupis napapopipiaoi)!
(unstrained) ptau tcov onpEicov x = 0 KOI x = a tou dova tcov x. Pia xpdvo t > 0 tofl
gtotEpo dKpo Eivai ota0Epd npooSESEpEvo KOI to SE^IO dxpo undKEitai pia ata0Epii (6icnfivouoa)j
(elongating) a^oviKii 6uvapr| F avd povd6a EnicpdvEiag napaAAr|Ar| npog tr| gd66o. Na 6iaviop-|
cpco0i to npd6Ar|pa apxiKCOv KQI ouvopiaKcbv ouv0r|Kcbv yia tr| pEtatdnior] u(x, t)
trig gd66ou, yia x (0, a) KOI t > 0.
AndvirjaiT. u t t (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a, t > 0, u(0,t) = 0, Eu x (a,t) = F,
0, u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) = 0 , 0 < x < a,
4. Mia KataKopucpri KuAivSpiKrj gd65og pr| EKtatrj XQpiS napa)a6pcpcoor| pr|Koug a Eivai nciKio-
pvr| (clamped)o' 6Ao to pr|KOg KOI tr| xpoviKii otiyp.ii t = 0 KpEppEiai cno dxpo in x = 0 ano
EXatiipio ota9Epdg k. to xpdvo t = 0 anopaKpuvEtai o ocpuKtripag (clamp) KOI to
KivEitai Kdtco and tqv Eni6paor| ing 3aputr|iag. Na 6iapopcpo0Ei to npd6Ar|pa apxiKcbv KQI
giaKcbv ouv0r|Kcbv yia tr| pEtatdnior) u(x,t) trjg 6iatopr|g trig pd65ou.
111

i levicojaevri xopSri exei ia dicpa trig ataSepd ouvSeSepeva ara ornaeia x = 0 KQI x = a
i TOV x. LTD xpovo t = 0 r) xp6r| pJpioKEtai oe Katdataor| toopponiag Katd pr|Kog
i twv x KQI arri auvEXEia atpiivEtai va KivpOei xdto ano tr|v en(6paor| tr|g paputr|tag.
o9ei TO npo6Ar]pa apxuaJv KOI ouvopiaKov auv0r|Kcov tr|g ptatonior|g u(x,t) tr|g
5. yia x (0, a) KQI t > 0.
Utt(x.t) = c 2 u x x (x,t) + g(x,t),(g < 0) 0 < x < a, t > 0, u(0,t) = u(a,t) =
0, u(x,0) = u t ( x , 0 ) = 0, 0 < x< a,
napapopcpcoori EAaatiKri 906605 nE(piEi KataKopucpa KQIO ano tr|v Eni-
| U|g Paputr|tag pE KaioKopu^o tov aJjova. 'Oiav r| Taxutrjta trig EIVOI v(x,t) (tr| xpoviKi]
t = 0), r| 906605 Ktund eva OTEPEO ocbpa KOI atr| OTJVEXEIQ napaviEVEi OE Ena(pr| p" auto.
apop<po0Ei 10 np66Ar|)aa apxixcbv KOI ouvopiOKUv ouvGriKov yia tr) pEtatoniori y(x,t) trig
pd65ou.
i To dKpo x = 0 mag opi^ovriag KuAiv6piKrig 906600 piiKoug a KpOTEitai ara0Ep6 KOI ato dXAo
i oTjv6E6E)aevr| pia pd^a m. H pdu m u^iotatai pia opi^ovtai nEpioSucri 6uva)ar|
t, vla t > 0. Av r| pd66og Eivai apxiKO. (t = 0) pr| EKrair) x^pig napapopcpuar) KOI
!KQidaiaor| loopponiag, va 6iaviop(j>co0i TO np66Xr|pa apxiKtov KOI ouvopiaKov ouv0qKtav yia
] 6iapr|Kri pEiatomori u(x,t) tr|g 6iaTO)arig trig pd66ou.
Mia opi^ovtia KuXiv6piKii pr| EKtatii XuPiS napapop(pcoor| 9d66og pr|Koug a KpatEitai ota-
aio dxpo x = 0 KOI ppioKEtai OE Katdotaor) loopponiag, ucpiordpEvr) pia 6uvapr| p
lypevri F xatavEpripEvr) opoidpop{pa oto dXAo dxpo x = a, Yla oAoug toug xpovoug
). Av a<paipE0Ei r\ Suvapr) otr| xpoviKii atiypri t = 0, va 8iapop<j>co0i to np66Xr|pa i
i ouvopiaKuv cnjv0r|KQV, nou nEpivpd())r| tig nEpaitEpco pEtatonioEig tng gd66ou.
Mia KuXiv6ptKri \ir\ EKtatri xupis napapdp(|)coor| 9d66og EXEI pr|KOg a. Edv KpEpEtai Kata-
u<pa ano to Eva dKpo, etoi COOTE va pr|v napatripouvtai 6ovr|oeig, mo Eivai to OKpi6eg pr)KOg

a+

1.2 Ojioyevrig KufiaxtKi]


4.2.1 Eupeoq Auorig -
0ecopou)jE pia xop^H ano opoyeveg uAiKO priKOug p, r\ onoia taAavtouiai Tr v
l
tniSpaari Paputritag KCU pe pucpo nAdtog. Oi EyKdpoieg petaionioeig u(x, t)
ti]$ xop6r|g auvapTrioEi TOU xpdvou anoieAouv Auoeig tqg e^iouong

.t) =c- 2 ittt(x,t), 0<x<p, t>0. (2.1)


t >
OTI, TO cpaivovievo auvo6eutai ano Tig napa.Ka.Tco ouvopiaKeg KOI
apxiKeg auv9r|Keg, avriorotxa

u ( 0 , t ) = 0 , u(p,t) - 0, t > 0 , (2.2)


u ( x , 0 ) = f ( x ) , ut(x,0) = g(x), 0 < x < p . (2.3)

Ha tr|v eniAuor) 9a aKoAou0iiooupe TO


' 1 uis
UIS J u
q+ soo uo I ~~7 = (i ' xVn
\xiiuy J -A
01 3rlnodm3 ' DA3rlidM3>iAno OITJ
ino aoymXcto am UoUcDC Ui Di3X3A.no Luo IDM AliXdo (IDX 5Uo3Qd3iin 5U.i 5UXcto Sluizri
Sin LiAorldDct>3 Alii srl iDi3AiA piny '(6'Z) SLiosXoSlii u q' u t> 53d30oi> S3i3diD0no
[Afiogoidoigoodu DA isusdu DQ SoiorlLiYgodii noi lionY)U3 UdLiYii Alii DIJ
noi liMiAorido -u A!JI Li SliooiApYoi oiipdi - u AOI ISYSIOIID (^'x) u n

VZ) ' A = (;'

1DA13 nou 'Licbdori LiriioLidX


Dili ' ' " ' f 'j'l = u 30pM oiA '(oi'z) Sisony 10 '( u t)/ u q) .ire} = up
01 3tinooLidw3e Ay '(S'3) - (T'S) SoioriLiYgodii noi SuonY 5u AnoY3ioiiD
d d
ire) 'o < * l d > x > o ' XLOi uis uq H SOD

Si3olaidDAno 10 '"' '3 '[ = u 30px DiA 'up i3iiin>iodu


IDM (Q~Z) 5u -53639010 S3i3diD0no ' '''[ = u. >u q ' U D noiio

ft)
IDA13 (g-j;) 5Lioraoi!J3 Sin SisoriY 10 y noi Ssriu 5u
ISsmo ( y -SoioilliYQodii noi u SUt>i oilgidpiDiinx AOI ISYSIOUD u->( oiLupoou Li noiip

ire) XL6U

DI 5i3onY Sco 1013X39 ('Z) '(<S'Z) AWtiiioigi DrlLiYgodii ox

'0=(d)X '0=(0)X
up isiunModii mgs piiy

IDlAOAlA (3-S) S3Xll0AnO SS IQ

'd>x>0 '0=(")XY
Ano
Siio isALigo (i ~z) Liocooi^a Aliio (VZ) SLjoDiopdoii SLii LIODIODIDMIIAD Li 1013,

ft)
Licbdorl In 13X3
Li 'up 3tinoi30oun L 'amU]rgvi3ri am nortoidoX nogp03ii SLu UoLidX srinoApy

AOI Soitmdox - SUoav Sbxiiinx SUi lioadng *y

Zll
Tui 113

C x < p, t > 0. EuKoAa pnopEi va EnaAnGsuGd OTI, r| auvdpTnor) (2.12) anotcAei


]tooo ips E^iocoons ooo KOI TOV ouvopiaKcov ouvGnKcov. Tia va iKavonoiEi TIS
on, n Aut
g 9a npEnci va toxuouv 01

TITIX
u(x,0) = .sin , 0 < x < p, (2.13)
QK6Aou(
n=1
oo
nc7ibn nroc
ut(x,0) = - sin , 0 < x < p, (2.14)
(2.! n=1

unoGeoEi on, Etvai 6uvaTii r\ EvaAAaYii 6iacp6pior|S KQI dneipng dGpoiong.


Ano u$ (2.13), (2.14) npOKumxi on, TQ a u , bn anoTEAouv TOUS rjlMOviKovg ovvieteaizg
wier IGOV auvapTiioEcov f(x) Kai g(x) oro 6idorr|u.a [0,p]. 'ETOI, \\a n = 1,2,3,...,
8a IOXUEI on

2 p UTTX
(2.7) <in = f(x)sin dx, (2.15)
P Jo P
2 fp TITTX
g(x)sm dx. (2.16)
Jo P
(2.8)\ Apa TEAiKa q (povaSiKii) tuniKii Auor) TOU npo6AiipaTOS (2. l)-(2.3) 6i6Tai ano Ti]
I (2.12), onou 01 ouvtEAeoTES a n , b n KaGopi^ovrai ano TIS OXEOEIS (2.15), (2.16).

B. OpaAonoiqor) Ti|s AuariS ' KAaoiKcg Kai AoGevcig Au


avacpEpGsi KOI nporjYOupEva, 01 AUOEIS, nou EXOUV npOKUi^Ei LIE Tnv napa-
(2.9)j i6ia6iKaoia, Eivai xuniKcg ( aoGeveig). E6co 9a pEAETrjoouiiE TIS iKavex; auv6r|KEs,
TuniKii Aiior] va Eivai xAaouu] Aiioq. 'Onus EXOUVIE avacpEpsi oro
ai (2.9) \aio 3, ang napa6ojliKg c^ioaoeig 01 Avoig eivai KjlaaiK<;, apKei 011
leivai inrjuaiiKd ovvexzig. AvriGETa, arig unepSojliKlg e^iacooeig, yia va ixpvvx KjLaoiKr\
ivarj, 9a npcnei va nepiopioovvx apKEid ug apxiKlg auvdriKzg. Uio auYKEKpiy.va, pno-
(2.10)1 poupe va SianioroooupE EUKoAa OTI, r\ OEipd

v(x,t) = Y~ a n cos- sin , 0 < x < p, t > 0, (2.17)


lia dAArj

onou n = | Jo f M sin ^^dx, n = 1 , 2, 3, .... anoTEAEi pia TuniKii Auor) TOU npo6Ar|-
(2.11)

ou npo- ,t) = c 2 u t t(x,t), 0 < x < p , t>0,


poiiv 01 u(0,t) = 0, u(p,t)=0, t>0, (2.18)
fVlKU- u(x,0) - f(x), ut(x,0)=0, 0<x<p,
1KCOV.
r\ OEipd

v , ncTrt UTTX
(2.12) ;(x,t) = > b n sin sin , 0 < x < p, t (2.19)
P P
t\
114 K<paXaio 4. E^iaooEig YhepfioAtKOU Tuq

dnou bn = ^ JJg(x)sin^dx, n = 1,2,3,..., anoTEAd T Auor) TOU npo


pOTOg

Uxx(x,t) = c~ 2 ut t (x,t), 0<x<p, t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u(p,t)=0, t > 0 , (2.2
u(x,0) = 0, ut(x,0)=g(x), 0<x<p.

EnopEvug, p tr|v apxr) Tr|g unp6eor|g, r| ouvdpTr|or|

u(x,t) = v ( x , t ) + w ( x , t ) , 0 < x < p , t>0, (2.2i

9a Auor| TOU npo6Aiipazog (2.1) - (2.3).


0cupi)|ia 4.2.1. ('Ynap^q Auori). 'Eorcj du 01 auvapiriaeig f(x), f'(x), f"(x)
010 diacnrina [0,p] KOI taxvovv 01 oxOi$ f(0) = f"(0) = f(p) = f"(p) ^
eeupniia <
An66ity] Av 01 auvapTiioEig f(x), f'(x) Eivai auvExdg oro 6idor:r)pa [0, pi KOI f(0)| fijLr\naio$ (2
f(p) = 0, TOTE ano6iKvuTai (and Tr| QEUpia OTiyKAiorig TOV oEipov Fourier) on, r\ oeipol fitdairj^a [(
00 Anota i
i(xj / an sin , u < x < p, SEV nAripox!
npo6Ar|pa
ouyKAivEi opoidpopcpa (OE Kd6 nEnEpaapEvo 8idoTr|pa) orriv nepmr] nepiodiKii Enemam yeviKeujie'
fo(x), x ( p,p), Tng f(x). AKoAouGovrag Tr| SiaSiKaoia Trig Auong D'Alembert (BAsnJ r. Movo
EvoTrjTa 1 .5.2) (JpioKOupE on, r| Auor) (2.17) pnopEi va ypatpEi
Tia to np66
_ f o ( x + ct) + f 0 ( x - c t )
V\n.,\,) , V / ^ A . \ ^ , l ^ V , 14.A
eeupniia
(2.3) 6XK
npotpavog r| v(x,t) Eivai cnjvExiig auvdpTnar). EninAeov IOXUEI
An66i^n
Mrt fo(ct) + f 0 (-ct) f 0 (ct)-f 0 (ct) A _, Lup6oAio\
"v^i ; - -j * v, \. ^ v
W(x,t) IK
KQl

v(p ,t] fo(P + ct) + f0(p - ct)


2
f 0 (p + ct) + f 0 (-p - ct)
2
fo(p + ct)-f 0 (p + ct) A
j v, i s u,
a an
6r|Aa6ii anoSEiKVUETai OTI, r| cnjvdpTr|or| v(x, t) iKavonoiEi Tig ouvopiaKEg avvdrfltiM QEOpoupe
Axopa EnaAr|6uovTai 01 a/o^iKff ovvdr]Kg, acpou Exoups Tig oxOig

..^^ _ fo(x) + fo(x) _f_,^_fl^ A


-, 'V-Jl
rj onota (c
rc(f 0 }'(x + ct)-c(fo)'(x-ct)] orivuri t.

c[(fo)'(x)-(f 0 )'(x)]
= 0, 0<x<p.
115

TtAo$ napatrpouLiE on
(fo)"(x (f 0 )"(x-ct)
0<x<p, t

iu 01 v x x (x,t),v u (x,t) Eivai ouvexeig, a(J>ou E unoGEOEOg 1 f"(x) eivai. 'ETOI


oKumn OTI
(fo)"(x (f 0 )"(x-ct) (f 0 )"(x-ct)
=0
'
Kd9 0 < x < p, t > 0 KQI r| an66ir| EXEI oAoKAnpcoGEi.

bpoio Tpono ano6eiKvuTai TO aicoAouGo anoTEAEOpa (BAEnE, [83, osA. 131-133])


9wipi)na 4.2.2. ('Ynap^ri Auaqg). H a\jvaprr\ar\ w(x,t) eivai Kj(aaiK.r\ Avar] wv npo-
rgiawg (2.20), av ot ouvapir\aei<; lav apxiKcov ouvdrfKcbv g(x), g'(x) eivai
[0,p] KO.I loxvouv 01 oxzoeis g(0) = g ( p ) = 0 .
Anota napandvco npOKunTEiOTi, avoiauvapTrjOEig f(x), g(x) TCOV apxiKcov OTJv0r)K6v
i nAripouv TI$ iKavsg ouvGiiKES, TOTE lanopEi va pr|v npoxunTEi KAaoiKii Auor) \\a TO
\r|pa (2.1) - (2.3). Z' OUTII Tr|v nEpinrcoor) r| TumKii Auor| u(x,t) anoTEAEi p.ia
eupevi) i\ aoOcvq Auoi) TOU npo6ArnaaTog.

. Movooq|iavTO TI\S Auoi).

to np66Ar)pa (2. l)-(2.3) IOXUEI TO QKoAouGo anoTEAEOiia povooripdvrou


4.2.3. (Mova6ixoxqTa) To apxiKtbv - avvopiaKav avvdr\KC3v (2. 1)-
2.3] 6exiai ^ovadiKr] Avar].
OTI undpxouv 6uo AUOEIS u(x,t), v(x,t) Yia to np66Anp.a (2.1) - (2.3).
up6oAi<Jouja LIE w(x,t) u(x,t) v(x,t). Eivai EUKoAo va 6ouu. OTI, r\ cruvdpTnor]
x,t) iKavonoiEi TO npo6Anp.a

Wxx(x,t) = cT 2 w u (x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 ,


w(0,t) = 0, w ( p , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
w(x,0) = 0, w t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < p.
a ano8doup OTI w(x,t) = 0, Yia KdGs 0 < x < p, t > 0. Fia TO oxono OUTO
8topoup. Tr| pr) apvr)TiKr| ouvdpTnor],

E(t) == .t) + w?(x,t)} dx, t > 0,

ijonoia (cpuoiKa) napiordvEi Tnv oAiKii EVEpyEia Tng 6ovouu.evrig xp5ii KOTO TJI xpovucr)
iii 1. Eni6ri r\ w 6 C2 ((0,p) x (0, +00)), napaYOYi?ovtaS tnv E(t), npOKunrei
/*

'(t) = | t>0.
116 4. YnepSoAiKOv Tun

'Opog

c 2 w x (x,t)w xt (x,t)dx = |c 2 w x (x,t)wt(x,t)lJ c 2 w t (x,t)w xx (x,t)dx.


Jo o Jo
And Tig ouvopiaKEg auv0iiKg OTI, w t (0, t) = w t (p, t) = 0, 6nAa6ii
rp rP
(Awxfatj =- c 2 w t (x,t)w xx (x,t)dx.
Joo Jo
EnopEvag e
/*U

E'(t) = | w t (x,t){w t t (x,t)-c 2 w x x (x,t)}dx = 0, t > 0 ,

TO onoio anpaivEi OTI, r) oAuai EvepyEia E(t) Eivai oraGEpd, EOTU ior| p a. End
w ( x , 0 ) = 0 , via Kd0e x 6 (0,p), EXOUPE on w x ( x , 0 ) = 0 . AapBdvovrag 6t un' J
du, w t (x, 0) = 0, npoKurrcEi (BAsnE, [83, oeA. 133J)

E(0) - = | dx = 0.
/ Jo t=o
EnopEveog E(t) = 0, TO onoio oup6aivEi, av KQI povo av w x ( x , t ) = 0 KOM
vv t (x,t) = 0 auvxPovoS' Yta Kd0e x (0,p), t > 0. AUTO ouvencryETai OTI, w(x,tj
ora0pd, navrou OTO (0,p)x(0, oo). To TEAEUTQIO orjv6ua5dpvo p Tn OXEOH w(x,0)l
6i6Ei TEAiKd OTI, w(x,t) = 0, Yta KQ0E x (0,p), t > 0. npcrvpa nou ano6iKvueiJ
pova6iKOTr|Ta Trig Auang TOU npoGArjpaTOg (2. l)-(2.3).

A. 4>uoucr| nuaoia

(i) Oi AuoEig (2.10) ri (2.11) ovopd^ovrai ardotjia xiiuaxa (standing waves) tfl
npoBAiipaTOg (2.1)-(2.3). FIOTI Kd0 pia an' auTEg Tig AuoEig pnopEi va 9copr|9ei <B
EXEI oiadepo oxnua. sin ^^ aAAd ^laSaM^evo ruidiog W n (t). Ta oqpEia, 6ifl
sin 3^- = 0, ovopdovrai xou6oi (nodes) Trig Auor)g KOI anoTEAouv TO otdoipa DIM
peia TOU npo6AripaTOg apxiKwv - ouvopiaKcbv 0uv6r)Kci)v (2.1)-(2.3), aepou
pr)6EviKii pETOToniar) Tng xop6iig, \\a Kd0 t > 0. AnoSEiKvuETai OTI, r\ Auor) u n (x,B
(n 1) Kdp6oug. LTD napaKdTco Lxnpa 4.2.2 ^aivovrai 01 KopBoi,

(il) And TOV Tuno (2.11) Tng Auong pAenoupE dn, yia ora0pd x 01 AuoEig vtnf'fl
napiordvouv anAsg appoviKEg TaAavtcooEig yovtaKiig
ncn

KOI nAdToug

H ouxvotrlla ^n anoTEAEi Tnv n-cpuoixti ouxvoTnTa i\ appovmrj TOU npo6Aij)ia-|


TO (2.1) - (2.3) , EVO r) a>i anoTEAsi TI-| OeueAiuSq ouxvoTnTa OUTOU.
i3A}Dgrlno OISQIIAD 01 OAg '(-}.'x)n Uony Lii Dig) Alno iDiAodscboisrl ACOiprlLiygodii AB
-ogdsiin ACOI isxUgLAno i>3XiXd 5uo isisXsAnox) A9Xai no 'pgcoisrtUo DA \3ii3dii 'Soysj,
(^'x)n Spdiso Slai lioiyMAno 3rlnoX3 noii 'Uocoiujdsu AliiD IDM 0119x0 ISAI\
lirl DA (I'x)""!! pdiso Li AoiDAng iDAp ^.ti noi SoionodDii Slii SDUID^S '119
uis soo ~7 - = (i '
u
Licbdorl Ui 3rtnoiADAno DrlAugodoij oi
AcpMiyogdsiin ACOI Uoraiuidsii AliiD 'Di30}iAV 'oo < u inx oo < i i
Ui 5odu 5co ynx nyou iniAodstbidsurinD (T.'X)>TI < (i. < x) x x
10 IDM SWQDM 'Acosorooi^ AOMiyogodou ACOI 53di3o-5i3oriy 10 5nA3rlou3 (
-idisrioACoAidi) i OAodX 01 iodu 5co iod9 lOAsHnoiAXjyTOi AnoXdpua Ssdsinsg Siio i
'oo 4 u'l. DI SCOQDM 'odoAUdA pi3xdo Asglirl 010 AQOAISI loiouo 10 'i OAodX 01 1
!>co lodo loxusgixs ioxu(xAdK iDiAO$pionodDii Ssiradii A3tl Siio 'no S9AOA3A OID IDIS^IU
i53 AO)Miyogd3iin AOI IDM AOMiyogodoiJ ACOI Aco3or\Y ACOI n^oisrl pdocboig SUgnui
Sn OIID AOMiyogndDij AOI pdo<J>my
> ' 'Z ' I = u. DjA SUgdox 5ha3rio\r]ir>jj Svirl iogr1py{ my. mviinyj vriwpi^ : \ 'Z'
0 =
I iF
3rlnog D(j Scou9 "yi'X 'pirc\3Aii 'pica
p ogdoXAs-Liri DI A3g aoii IIDM ' l m u = urn aocto
dsipylithn 10 Ssy9 '119 59AOA3A OID v
'ogdoXAs DAS 9110 iDiAoApdoii noii 'ioXU loxionori IQ 'd Snoi SoxLirt 01
ACpgdoX ACOI j_ Liopi LJ iDisAp^no 009 'iDisAp^rxo Sortin 01 '119 srinousyjj
3g Ligoiig -SoXU o IDAIS 5od3i9yUfhn 0001 ' l m Li IDAIS Ud3in.yDA3ri 009
Ui 9110 oosrlp iDipido3 'aocidoXAa 5OA3 noXU noi
L\\
118 KecpdAaio 4. E^iaooeig YntpdoXiKOu Tun

air\v npimcdor| TCOV napa6oAiK6v sljiacboEcov, onou toao 01 aouve^EiEi; ooo KQI 6idq>o0
dAAES iSiojaopcptec; TCOV apxiKcbv ouv0r|Kcbv e^acpavi^ovrai auTopata yia t 0. MdAioiol
6e, T] Auor) u(x, t) Etvai avaXuTixr) a' 6X0 TO neSio optojaou TOU

riapd8iypa 4.2.4. Na 10 v KCLI ovvopiaKcbv auvdriKav lin^


Dirichlet

= c- 2 utt(x,t), 0 < x < 1, t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x(1-x), ut(x,0)=0,

Aiior] Ecpapuo^ouuE TO u(x,t) = X(x)W(t) OTO np66Ar|pa (fl|


OnOTE npOKUnTOUV Ol E^lOOOElg

X"(x) + AX(x)=0, 0<x<1


2
W"(t) + Ac W(t) = 0, t>0.

Ano TIC, ouvopiaKEg ouv6r|Keg EXOUUE

X(0)=0, X(1)=0.

To np66Ar|ua ((3) KQI (6) EXEI iSiOTiuEg An = k2 = n27t2, UE 16100


4>n(x) = sin(nTtx). Tia A = An r| eiocoor| (y) EXEI yEviKri Auor)

W n (t) = a n cos(ncTrt) + bn sin(nnct), t > 0.

'ETOI r) Auor| TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOg (a) 8a Eivai Tng

u(x,t) = Y" {ancos(n7tct) +b n sin(7icnt)}sin(n7rx), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0,


n=l

onou a n ,b n npooSiopioraioi OUVTEAEOTES. Ano T^V npcoTr) apxiKii ouv6r|Kri i

u(x,0) = x ( l -x) = a n sin(n7tx), 0<x<1.


n=l

EnouEvcog TQ an anoTEAouv TOUS r)uuoviKOus OUVTEAEOTES Fourier Tr|c.


x), 6r|Aa6r| 8a

a n = 2 [ f(x) sin(n7tx)dx = 2
r 1 xsin(n7ix)dx 22 r1 x sin(n7tx)dx
Jo Jo Jo

ano Tr
l i ouv0r|Kr| OTI

u t (x,0) = 0 = n7tcbnsin(n7Tx), 0<x<1.


n=1
E^iaaoq 119

KCU 6id(pc Enoiaevcog 9a EXOUU.E OTI, bn = 0,n = 1,2,3 ..... 'Apa TEAuca r| Auoq TOU
0. MciAi (a) sivai
oo .
u(x,t) = L -5-, L[l + (-1) n+l lcos(rt7TCt)sin(ri7tx),
5~ Tv>7f3 J
0 < x < 1 , t > 0.
n=l

ety)ia 4.2.5. Na Jlt/Sei ro npd6jiri^a apxiKav Kai ovvopiaKcbv ouvdrjKav liinov

(a)
uxx(x,t) = cr2utt(x,t), 0 < x < l , t>0,
JArjpa u(0,t) = 0, u(l,t)=0, t>0, (a)
u(x,0) = f(x), ut(x,0)=0, 0 < x < 1 ,

0) (foot/
(Y)
4x, yta 0 < x < 1/2,
f(x) =
4(1 -x), yia 1 / 2 < x < 1.

(6) yliiar; ME TO 5 TCOV u.Ta6Ar|Tcbv u(x,t) = X(x)W(t), npoicunTEi acp' Evog to


npoBAqiia i6iOTipcbv
i6ioau-
X"(x)+AX(x)=0, , X(0)=0, X(l)=0, ((3)

An = k2v = n27t2, (j) n (x) = sin(nTtx), 0 < x < 1 , n=1,2,3....


0,
o<p' ETepou 6e to XPOVIKO np66Ar|iaa

W"(t)+n 2 7t 2 c 2 W(t) = 0, t > 0. (y)

Tia ng TiviEg TOU A = A n , r) xpovo^apTcopEvr| E^iocoor) (y) EXEI AuoEig Trig

W n (t) = ancos(n7ict) +b n sin(n7rct), t > 0, n = 1,2,3,....

'ETOI r\ YEviKii Auor| TOU cjuvopxaKou npo6Ariu.aTOg (a) ]it apxiig


unep0orig Eivai Trig u.opc{>rig

u(x, t) = [an cos(nTtct) + bn sin(nTtct)] sin(nTrx) , 0 < x < 1, t > 0.


n=l

Kdvovrag XPH01! TrlS npQTrig TCOV apxiKcov cnjv9r|Kcov E

u(x,0) = f ( x ) =
n=1
ondTE 9a

an = 2\f' f (x) sin(nTrx) dx,


Jo
rl/2 rl
= 8 xsin(n7rx)dx+ (1 - x)sin(nTrx) dx,
Jo Ji/2
16

And Tn 6UTpr] TQV apxiKov auv6r]Kcov ( g ( x ) = 0 ) , EHETQI OTI b n = 0.


Auar) TOU npo6Ar|paTOg apxiKcbv KOI ouvopiaKcov ouv9r|Kcbv (a) EXEI TEAmd Tr| 11

1f /"*) \
u(x, t) = cos(n7TCt)sln(n7rx), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0.
Tl*
n=l

H jaopcpri auTr) Tng Auong SEV pag EnupEnEi va (JpoujJE TO Trig


'-opEg cipEg TOU xpdvou t. EvrouTOig, enEi6ii yia t = 0 EXOUU.E
EXOU

16 v~ sin(n7i/2)
f(x) = -j Y -~--sm(nnx), 0 < x < 1 ,
n=1

dti, vi Kd0 x, r| oeipd ouyicAivEi ornv nEpiTTrj enEKraor] fo(x) arc 6ida
(1,1) Tr)g f( x )- Xprioiponoicovrag Tr|v

sinAcosB = ~[sin(A + B) +sin(A-B)],

pnopoupE va EKCppdooupe Tnv TuniKii Auor) (6) arr| popcpri

16 1
u(x,t) = sin ( ) {sin [nn(x + ct)] + sin [n7i(x - ct)]}
n=1

o(x-ct)}, 0 < x < l , t > 0 .

H napandvco popcpri anoTEAei EiSiKii nEpinTcoor) Trig Auor|g D'Alembert \ia Tr|v KUJ!
Kii e^iocoor) opiapevr] oe nenepaopsvo 6idarnpa. E6co 9a npenei va napaTnpiioouiieotiB
Auor) cruvioraTai and 6uo anAd KupaTO, Ka9' EVO and TO onoia 6ia6(6Tai avriorotxa np
TO apiarepd KOI 6id p araSEpr) xaxuTi)Ta <pdoqg c. H TEAeuTaia popcpri Tqg Auongl
eniTpEnei va EAevxoupE TO oxr|pa auTrjg, \ia 6idcpopEg TtpEg Tr|g t, dncog cpaivETai an
xiipa 4.2.6. ETr|v nporjYOupEvr) EcpappOYr) r| TpiycoviKii popcpii TCOV apxixcov
uno6r|AcovEi dti. r| f (x) 6sv opt^ETai navrou aro [0,1].
txou Tunov 2 0poywj Kujjaruoj E^ioaoq 121

u(x,t)

aornpa

4.2.2: Meiaioniarj mac; Ucuijl6fjvrig Xop5r\<; Kara 10 flpaio ' IJpi66ov.

'Eioi oupcpcova U.E TO Ecopnpa 4.2.1 T] Auon, nou EXEI pp0d, anoTsAd aadeur\ Avar\
lou npo6Aiip.aTOg. AUTO avjp6aivt E6co \\aii TO pa6n,paTiKO npoTuno, nou e>
3i apKETd anAouoreup.vo, acpou eivai aSuvaTO va ExoupE Xp6r| oe aucrrn,pci

upaTi- 4.2.2 Ilpo6Ar|jiaTa


1. Na AuGei to QKoAouGo unep6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKtov - ouvoptaKcbv caivGnKciiv tunou Dirichlet
inpog
u t t (x,t) = c 2 u xx (x,t), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,
no TO
u(0,t) - 0, u(1,t)=0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x(1-x), u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < 1 ,
onou c eivat pia 9EiiKr| npaypaiiKii otaGepd.
r122

Andvirior): u(x,t) = ~=1 (n ^ )3 [1 - (1) n ] cosnnct sinnjrx.


4. E^iodoeig YncpBoAiKov Tu

2. No Au9i to QKoAou9o unspGoAiKO np66Anpa apxixwv - ouvopiaKcov auv9r|KcJv tunou Dirichld|

t) = C2Uxx(x,t), 0<X<7T, t>0,

u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 T , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 3sinx, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < rc,

I:
onou c Eivai \iia 9etiKii
Andvirjar]: u ( x , t ) = Scosctsinx.
otaOEpd.

3. Na Au0i to aK6Aou9o unepBoAiKo np66Ar|pa apxiKwv - auvopiaiccov ouv0r|K6v tunou '.

Utt(x.t) = C 2 \i xx (x,t), 0 < x < TT, t > 0,


u(0,t) 0, u ( n , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) =8sin 2 x, 0 < x < 7t,

onou c Eivai pia 9etiKii npavT-iatiKii ota9epd.

Andviriarj: u(x,t) = HrvLi 3 4 7icT\^(n 2 -4 s i nrlcxcosnx -


4. Na Au0Ei to aK6Aou9o unep6oAiKd np66An)ja apxiKuv - ouvopiaKcov ouv0r)Kuv uunou Dirichl(

utt(x,t) c 2 u x x (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,


u(0,t) 0, u ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, Ut(x,0) =xsinx, 0 < x <

onou c Eivai )aia 9EtiKii npaypatiKri ata9epd.


5. Na Au9ei to aK6Aou0o unEpBoAiKO npoGAnpa apxiKov - ouvopiaxcbv ouv0nKcbv tunou Dir

utt(x,t) c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x(1- u t (x,0) = x - t a n -,

onou c Eivai pia 9etiKrj npaypatiKri ora9epd.


6. Na Au9Ei to OKoAou9o unep6oAiKo np66An)ja - ouvopiaKcbv auv9nKcov tunou Dii

utt(x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), O < X < T T , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 r , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = sinx, u t (x,0) = x2 TOC, 0 < x < 7t,

onou c Eivai u.ia OEtiKii npaypatiKr] ota9Epd.


7. Na Au9si to aK6Aou9o unep6oAiKO npo6Ar|)aa - ouvopiaxov ouv9nK6v tunou Robin I

t) c 2 u x x (x,t), O < X < T T , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) 0, u x ( 7 t , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) x + sinx, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < n,

onou c Eivai pia 9tiKii npayviatiKri ota9Epd.


j E^ioaaq 123

I AuGd to QKoAou0o unEp6oAtK6 np66Anpa v - ouvopiaKcov auv0r)Kcbv tunou Neu-


mann

utt(x,t) = C 2 u x x (x,t), O<X<TI, t>0,


u x (0,t) = 0, u x ( 7 r , t ) = 0 , t>0,
u(x,0) = cosx, ut(x,0)=0, 0 < x < TT,

c Eivai uia QetiKri npaypatiKii ota0Epd.


1 Auttet to aKoAou0o opoyEVEg unEp6oAiKO np66Ar|pa - ouvopiaKcbv ouv0nKv tunou

utt(x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0<x<7t, t>0,


Ux(0,t) = 0, Ux(7t,t)=0, t>0,

u(x,0) = 1 2cos3x, u t (x,0) = 5cos2x, 0 < x < TT,

C etvai pia npayuatiKr) crta0Epd.


Na Au6i to QKoAou0o opoyEveg unp6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKov - ouvopiaKOv auvOnKuv
j Dirichlet

u t t (x,t) c 2 u x x (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t>0,
u(x,0) = x(l-x), ut(x,0)=0, 0<x<1,

U c Eivai pia SEtixri npaypatiKf) ota0Epd.


Na Au0Ei to QKoAou0o opoyEVEg unp6oAiKO np66Aqpa v - auvopiaKciv ouv0r)K6v
i Dirichlet

u u (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u(a,t) = 0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = asinhx xsinha, ut(x,0)=0, 0 < x < a,

C eivai pia 9EtiKii npaypatiKii ataOepd.


Na Au0Ei to QKoAouOo opoyEVEg unEp6oAiKo np66Anpa apxiKtiv - ouvopiaxov orjv0nKcov
nou Dirichlet

.t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,


u(0,t) 0, u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t>0,
3
u(x,0) = asin 7tx, ut(x,0)=0, 0<x<1,

I dnou a, c Eivai npaypatiKEg otaOEpeg p to a apKEtd pixpo KQI c > 0.


[ Anavirjor]: u(x, t) = ^ sin TTX cos CTrt f sin STTX cos ScTrt
13. Na Au0Ei to QKoAou0o opoyEVEg unp6oAiKO np66Aqpa - ouvopiOKtav ouv0qKOv
' tunou Dirichlet

u u (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0<x<a, t>0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( a , t ) = 0 , t>0,
c/b, via 0 < x < b,
ut(x,0)=0, 0 < x < a,
a x)/(a b), yia b < x < a,
124 4. EiacJ0ei Ymp6oAiKOi> Tunovl * Mrl

onou c eivai pia 9etiKr| npaypatiKri otaOepd.


u(x, t) o L ~=, sin cos sin

14. Na Au0ei to aK6Aou6o ou.OYEveg unep6oAiKO np66Anpa apxucciv - ouvopiaKwv


tunou Dirichlet

utt(x.t) c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t>0,


u(0,t) 0, u ( a , t ) = 0 , t>0,
n f * 01 0 O^v^n , fv 01 - / k ocos[7r(x-b)/e], Yia |x-b|<e/2,
t(
' ' ' ] \ 0, Y.a |x-b|>/2,
onou 0 < b < a. c, e, ko eivai npaYpatiKeg oraGepes pe to e > 0 apxetd piKpo KQI c > 0.

4.3 Mi] Oiioyevi]s KufiaxtKi] Eiooat]


Mc6o8og ripoa8iopiapou xcov
4.3. 1 reviKri Ocupta -

ECopouviE TO ]ar) oiiOYEveg np66Ar))aa apxiKUv KQI cnjvopiaKcov ouv0r)Kcbv

Ux X (x,t) = c 2 Ua(x,t) P(x)sin(tut), 0 < x < p, t > 0, (3.1)


= 0, t > 0 , (3.2)
= 0, t > 0 , (3.3) |
u(x,0) = f(x), ut(x,0)=g(x), 0<x<p, (3.4)

onou TQ , ..., 0*22 anoTEAouv 6o0Eiog ara0pg. H Auori u(x, t)


(3.1) - (3.4) 9a sivai TO d0poiapa Tr|g lio(x.t) TOU op.OYevoug

Ux X (x,t) = c~ 2 titt(x,t), 0<x<p, t>0, (3.5)

= 0, I 2 [u]=0, t > 0 , (3.6)

KQI IJIQS , t) TOU ]ari-op:OYEVOus npo6AiiiiaTOg

) = c~ 2 u t t (x ) t)-P(x)sina)t, 0 < x < p, t > 0, (3.7)


] = 0, Z 2 [u]=0, t > 0 . (3.8)

To np66Ar)u.a (3.5) - (3.6) AUVETQI KQTQ TQ YVCOOTQ TIE Tf| u.0o6o xcopiopou tiETa6Ar]Tcov, |
onoTE npoKunTEl OTI 6EXTai Auor) Tr)5 pop<t>r|g
00

uo(x,t) = [an natn(knCt)]<|>n(x)i 0 < x < p , t > 0, (3.9)


n=l

onou TQ An = k2 KCU 4>n(x) anoTEAouv Tig i6ioTiu.g KQI i6iocnjvapTr|OEig, avriaroixa,


TOU op-OYEvoug ouvopiaKOU npo6Ar)p.aTOg

X"(x)+AX(x)=0,, 0<x<p, Z][X]=0, Z 2 [X]=0. (3.K


3Mil Opoyevjjg- KU/JQTIKIJ 125

Fio va (Jpoupe pia pepiKii Auor| TOU pn-opoyevoug npoGAiipaTOg (3.7) - (3.8)
(lonoiouiie, ipononcnr|pevr| KQTaAAriAa, Tr| yvcoorii ano Tig ouvr|9eig 6ia<popiKeg eJjiocboeig
380 npoaStopia^iou itov auvTeXeatcov. YnoGeTOupe 6nAa6ri OTI, r\ Auor| exei ir\ popcpri
ouverjKGiv
u u (x,t) = Y(x)sincut + Z(x)coscut, 0 < x < p, t > 0, (3.11)
inou Y(x), Z(x) auvapTrjoeig npog npooSiopiopo. AvriKaGiorcovrag Tnv napdoraor)
P.ll) an'euGeiag orr) pepiKii 6iacpopiKii e^iocooq (3.7) npoicunTei r|

Y"(x)sincut + Z"(x)coscut = - f ) Y(x) - P(x)| sincut - f } Z(x)coscut,


\ C/ \ C/
c > 0. f
Inou 0< x < p, t > 0. E^ioovovrag Toug ouvreAeorcg TOV ouvapTrioeov sincut, cos cut,
npOKuntei TO OKoAouGo auorripa

Y"(x) =-P(x), 0 < x < p , (3.12)

Z"(x) =0, 0 < x < p . (3.13)

Enei6ii p.ag apKei va Ppoup.e pia onoiaSiinote p.epiKii Auor) TOU npo6Aiip.aTOs (3.7) -
S.8), yi' auto Oetouvie Z(x) = 0. 'Exoi exoup.e Yla EniAuoq p.6vo ir) 6iacpopiKr| e^i
(3.1) 0.12) pe ouvopiaKEx; ouv0r|Keg
(3.2)
= 0, I2[Y] = 0, (3.14)
(3.3)
(3.4) onoio anoTeAei eva ^^oro ouvopiaKO np66Ar)p.a. 'Exovtag Aoinov npooSioptoei \r\
Y ( x ) , r\ Auor] TOU npo6Aiip.aTO$ (3.1) - (3.3) 9a eivai

u(x,t) = Y ( x ) sincut t) + b n sin(k n ct)](j)n(x). (3.15)


n=l

(3.5) \ Pia va iKavonoiouvcai 01 (3.4) TOU npo6Aiip.aTO9 (3.1) - (3.4) 9a


nptnti va icrxuouv 01
(3.6)

a n 4> n (x), 0 < x < p , (3.16)


n=1
oo
g(x)-cuY(x) = J^k n cb n (|) n (x), 0 < x < p. (3.17)
n=l

Enoiievcog auptpcova pe Tr) Qecopia TUV oeipov Fourier 01 ouvreAeaTEg a n , b n , n =


2,3,..., unoAoyi^ovrai ano Tig aKoAouGeg

(3.9) Qn = f(x)4) n dx, n = 1,2,3,..., (3.18)

P
[g(x)-cuY(x)]<j> n (x)dx, n = 1,2,3 (3.19)
knc Jo
Apa TcAiKa r| Auor] TOU npoBAiiyiaiog (3.1) - (3.4) 6i6eTai ano Tnv napaoraor) (3.15),
>u 01 cruvTEAeoteg a n , bn unoAoY^ovrai ano Tig oxeoeig (3.18) KOI (3.19).
126 K(pdXaio 4. E^iodoig YnzpSoAiKOv Tunon j Mri Oj.

IlapaTiipiiari 4.3.1. H ^do6og nou xpTloi^ionoiridr]K via irjv EniAuai] lov napano.\>\
npo@jbjij.aiog, Eivai dvxaa ^apvr\]jutvr\ and ITJV EidiKr] ujopq>r\ (r\\m.oviKr\) ir]g
Enidpaorjg. 'Onag KOI oiig ouvrjdEig 6ia(popiKEg E^iacooEig r\ )jdo6og npoabiopiaytov nf
avvijlo~icjv jjinopEi va 6oKi}j.aaTi KOI OE 6id(popg dJlJlEg nop<f>ig wv \u
gov, via napd6ivfj.a, noJiuavu^iKri, EKBEIIKT], ovvr]u.iioviK.ri r\ ouvduaajAoi aviav. H1
nEpiniojor] avzyjEianigEiai )j irj nidodo rou avamvynaiog iSioouvapirioEov, r\ onoia j
napouoiamEi OTTJV nd^ivrj riapdypacpo 4.4
4.3.2. Na Jludsi 10 \ir\ onayEveg npoSJlrma OUJOVEV&V apxiKcov Kai ouvopiaxm

:,t) = c 2 titt(x,t)-qsintut, 0 < x < n, t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( n , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < n ,

onou 10 q anoij(i fj.ia aiadpd.


Avar] AKoAouOovras tri yeviKii pe0o8o, nou avamux0r|Ke napandvo, avacpepoupe H
iiv on, TO np66Anvio i6iOTiycov

X"(x)+AX(x) =0, 0 < x < 7 r , X(0) = 0, X ( 7 t ) = 0

iSioAuoeig TO An = n2, 4) n (x) = sin(nx), n = 1,2,3,.... 'ETOI r\ Auori m


avriaroixou OU.OYEVOUS ouvopiaKOu npo6AiipaTOg 9a eivai
oo
uo(x, t) = y (a n cos net + bn sin net) sin(nx).
n=l

Fia va ppoujae pia Auor| TOU u.n-ou.OYevoug npo6AriviaTOS, 9a npenei va AuooupeJ


np66Anvici ouvopiaKcov ouvGnKov

= -q, O<X<TT, Y(0) = 0, Y(7i) = 0.

k= , og Auor| TOU napandvco npo6AripaTOg (y) tnvaKoAo


napdcrraor)
qq(coskx 1)) qq ( l coskn) sinkx
'
onou k / 1,2,3,.... 'ETOI r\ Auor| TOU apxiKou ouvopiaKou npoBAiipiaTOs (a) 9a eivJ

u(x,t) = Y ( x ) sin tut + [ancos(nct) + b u sin(nct)] sinnx, 0 < x < n, t > 0 .


n=l

Fia TOV npoo6iopio\i6 TCOV au6aipeTcov oraSepcov 9a KOVOULIE XPr)


9riKcov, onoTE 9a npOKUipouv 01

u(x,0) = 0 = ), u t (x,0) = 0 = a>Y(x) + ncb n sin(nx), 0 < x < 7 t


n=1 n=l
ucou Tunou Mr/ Opoyevrj KULIQUKIJ E^iaaoq EifiiKrjg- Mop<pr) 127

Tta/oa/rat ouvEndyovTai oti a n = 0, n = 1,2,..., bn = 0, n = 2,4,6


faH/OJK n = 1,3,5,..., pptoKEtai vi^d ano apKEtEC, npd^Eig on IOXUEI r|
tpiou.ou TCJV
_2cu p 4ouq
neb. Y(x)sin(nx)dx = -
v.H " Jo man1
onoia Oa
Apa pe ir|v npoun66eari on, IOXUEI ri aviootnta iv ^ nc, Yia n
= 1,3,5,..., rj
i trig Auanc, tou npoBArjjaatoc, (a) eivai
VVOpldK.G)V\
qc2 sin cut tux
4qccu ^- sin((2n + 1)ct)sin(2n + 1)x
L r[cos ii
-1]
71
n=0
qc2 sin(cux/c) sin tut r, cuTii
(a) 2 1 cos , 0 < x < n, t > 0.
cu sin(tU7T/c) c J

4.3.3. Zrrju mpimwat] nou ixpv\j. laviior] ir\<; (f>vaiKr\g ouxvdirjia^ u.iag
. u. auujv Kdnoiag ^cjipiKr)^ dpdarjg, 6rjAa6r) 6iav ioxui tun = nc, n =
3,5,..., ioi ro nAdiog ir\(; iaAdviaor](; yivim dnipo, ondi ixpvyn. ro cpawopevo au-
novia]iou. UpaKiiKd fiiSaia, a' 6Aa la (puaiKd (faivduxva Adycj ipiSav undpxouv opoi
, 01 onotoi 5v ixouv Ar\q>di un' dtyiv OTO avyKKpiuvo u.adr)u.auKO npdruno
i'oi ouvisAouv air\v eAdiiaar] nqg npay^anKr/f njuTJg- mu nAdioug. 'Ou.ag yta va
uv i8i6iiop(pg auu.npi(f>opig q>uoiKav ovairju.diG)v, da npinti ro nAdiog ir\g la-
va u.r\v unp6ei Kdnoio dpto aa(f)dAiag. 'OAa auid ixouv du^or] oxor\ ux ir\v
luiat7Kt;r) (uAiKd, axr\u.a, KAn) TOU und laAdvicoor] oucnr]u.aTog, doov Kai Tig mdavig E^CJTE-
f>d<;5uvduic;. nou enidpouv o' auid (BAen ir\v npiniaor] Trjg yecpvpac; Tacoma Narrows,
jSeatle, USA (1940), KAn). Pia npioadTpa oroixia oxTiKd u TO (paivouxvo TOU OUVTOVI-
jiov napaniujiouux OTO axTiKd npoocpaTO or\iiavuKd dpdpo avaoKdniorig TCOV A. C. Lazer
uooujae P. J. McKenna [50] Kai air\v Ki fli6tAioypa(pia.

L3.2
(y) 1- Au0ei TO aK6Aou0o unep6oAiKO np66Ar|pa
I ^
u Dirichlet
DKoAouGrj
Uxx(x.t) = c 2 u t t (x,t) - q cos cut, 0 < x < n, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(7t,t) = 0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t { x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < 7 i ,
9a eivai C, q, cu Eivai npayviaTiKeg otaSEpEg pE c > 0.
U(x,t) = H
t>0. . 4qc ^~ cos(2n + 1)ctsin(2n + 1)x Q t>0

No Au9i to tir|-oi_iOYVs unEpBoAixo np66Ar|)ja apxiKwv ouvopiaKQv cruvGriKcbv tunou Diri-


1KCOV

u xx = e~ 2 u u q cos cut, 0 < x < 27t, t > 0,


< X < 71. u(0,t) = 0, u ( 2 n , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = e", u t (x,0) =27tx, 0 < x < 2n,
128 Kc(paAaio 4. Egioaaeig YmpdoAiKOu Tiinom 4.4 Mr; O).i

onou q, u) Eivai npaypaTiKEg


3. Na AuGsi TO pn-opOYEVEg unEpBoAiKo np66Ar|pa apxiKUv ouvopiaKuv ouvGnKcbv Tunou 1
chlet
uxx = 7t~ 2 u t t + e~ l cosx, 0 < x < n, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(7t,t)=0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) x 2 , u t (x,0) = 2x, O < X < T T .
4. Na AuGsi TO OKoAouGo pn-opoyEVEg unEp6oAiKo np66Anpa apxiKCov - ouvopiaxav ouv6iiK
Tunou Neumann
u x x (x,t) utt(x,t)-l, 0 < x < l , t>0,
u x (0,t) 0, u x ( l , t ) = 0 , t>0,
u(x,0) 1, u t { x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < l .
5. Na AuGEi TO pn-opOYEVEg unEpBoAixo npoBAqpa apxiKcov ouvopiaKov o\)v9nKuv Tiinou Dj|
chlet
utt = c 2 u xx + qsinhx, 0 < x < a, t > 0,
u(0,t) = b, u(a,t) = d, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) =0, 0 < x < a ,
onou TO b, c, d, q Eivai npaypaTiKEg ara9Epeg pE c > 0.
7: u(x,t) = w(x) + v(x,t), onou w(x) = f r sinhx + {^-sinha + d b}^ + b,
sin
v(x,t) = W cos ^sm^
6. Na Au9si TO Eg unp6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKuv ouvopiaKuv ouv9r|Kov Tunou Dili-
chlet
uu = c 2 u xx + qx, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) 0, u t (x,0) =0, 0 < x < 1,
onou TO c, q Eivai npavpauKEg ara9pg pE c > 0.
Andvir\ari: u(x,t) = ^-X 2 (l ~ x ) + 2^^=i in/n)i cos(nTrct) sin(nTrx)
7. Na Au9Ei TO pn-opOYVEg unp6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKCov ouvopiaKcov ouvOr|Kuv lunou Diri-
chlet
utt = c2uxx+x2, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 0, u ( l , t ) = 1, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < 1 ,
onou TO c Eivai pia QETIKP npavpaTiKr| ora9Epd.
8. Na Au9Ei TO aK6Aou9o pn-opOYEVEg unEpBoAiKO npoBAnpa ov - auvopiaKciv ouv9riK
Tunou Dirichlet
u x x(x,t) = u t t ( x , t ) s i n x c o s t , 0 < x < n/2, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(n/2,t)=0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < n / 2 .
7 : u ( x , t ) = xcoxcot + 1 Y ,(A~l]\n,i cos2ntsin2nx.
lunt OpoycviiS KuiiaiiKtj E^ioaarj rcviKtjg Mopiprjg1 129

4.4 Mi] 0|ioyevi]g KuvmxiKr) B^tocooi] FcviKrjg Mopcpr|g


3V I U I I O U DlTM MedoSog AvantuyiiaTOg I8oauvapxf|aecov
1,4.1 TCVIKII Ocupia - napaSeiyiiaxa
>io pi] opoyeveg np66Ar)pa apxtKcov KGI ouvopiaKov OTJv6r|Kcbv

Uxx(x.t) = C - 2 u tt (x,t)-q(x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 , (4.1)


I,[u] = 0, I 2 [u]=0, t > 0 , (4.2)
u(x,0) = f(x), ut(x,0)=g(x), 0 < x < p . (4.3)
tr| pe8o6o TOU YEVIXEUJJEVOU avaKTUYiatXTOc; tSioauvocptrjaecov, nou na-
do0riKe OTO KecjxiAcao 3, EvoTr)Ta 3.4.1, unoGEtoupE on, TO np66Ar|u.a (4.1)-(4.3)
3t Auor) Tr)

nW, 0<x<p, t>0, (4.4)


n=l

inou ra (A n , 4)n) sivai 01 i6ioAuoig TOU avrioroixou npo6ArmaTOg i6iOTipcov

X"(x)+AX(x)=0, 0<x<p, I,[X] = 0, 0 (4.5)

jltoi auvapTiioeig E n (t) anoTeAouv Toug dyvocrTOug npooSiopioraioug auvTeAEareg TOU


avamuypaTOg. AvriKaGiarcovrag TO avdnTuyp.a (4.4) orr)v E^ioaor] TOU npo6Ar)y.aTog (4. 1)
- (4.3) npoKurtTEi
oo
c 2 q(x,t)-^[E^(t)cj) n (x)-c 2 E n (tX(x)] ) 0 < x < p, t > 0,

>^(x) = A n (J) n (x) = Ic2c|)n(x), ano Trjv


napdaraor) 6u,

) n (x), 0 < x < p , t > 0. (4.6)


n=l

'Eioi, yia crtaGspo t, T] E^iocoor) (4.6) pnopei va 9ecopr)0ei cog r) OEipd


Fourier Tf]g napdcrtaorig C 2 q(x,t) pE ouvTEAEOTEg

) > t > 0, (4.7)

onou ||cJ3n||2 = jQ[4) n (x)] 2 dx, n = 1,2,3, .... Me Trjv npoun66eor| oti, IOXUEI kn ^ 0,
'yia Kd0E n N, r| oxEor) (4.7) anoTEAei pia pq opoyEvr) 8UTepo6d0pia ypappiKii
' ouvr|9r| 6ia(popiKii cijioaor], Tr|g onoiag r| YEVIKT) Auori EupioKETai OTI, eivai Tr|g popcpiig

c f1
E n (t) = :- sin[knc(t - r)]Q n (r)dr + an cos(knct) + bn sin(knct), t > 0, (4.8)
K
n Jo
130

yta Kd6e n = 1,2,3, ... , dnou TO a n ,b n anoTeAouv Tig au6aipETg ora6epes.


I
Ke<pciAaio 4. Eioaoi$ YnepfioAiKOu Ttt

KaSiorwvrag Tr|v aKoAouSia (4.8) otr|v napdcn:aor| (4.4) exoupe OTl- 1 cruvdpir|O
iKavonoiei TO npd6Ar|pa
00
f rt

u(x, ,t) = Y\r~\


^i I kn Jo
yta Kd0e x e (0, p) KQI t > 0. TeAog, Kavoviag XPH01! TWV apxiKcov auvGriKov ppioKM
OTl,

I OO OO

u(x,0) =f(x) = ^a n (Jj n (x) ) u t (x,0) =g(x) ^^knCbn^nfx), 0 < x < p]


n=1 n=l

ETOI o-ujj<puva pe Tq 8eopia TUV oeipov Fourier npOKunrei OTI, 01 auvreAeoies am


TOU avanruypaTOg (4.9) 8i6ovrai and Tig oxeaeig

an = )dx, n = 1,2,3,...,

g(x)(j) n (x)dx, n = 1,2,3,....


kn.C JO
Apa TeAucd r| Auor| TOU npo6AripaTOg (4.1) - (4.3) 6i6eTai and TOV Tuno (4.9), on
auvreAecnieg an, bn unoAovi^ovrai and Tig oxeoeig (4. 10) KOI (4. 1 1).
napaxrjprioi] 4.4.1. (i). Av Kdnoia and 115 A n , eaico r\ idvoriyaf] AQ = 0
idioauvdpirjori <$>Q(\)], idi r\ doKi^amiKr) Avar] 6i6iai air\

U(x,t) = E 0 (t)4) 0 (x) + Y_ En(t)<f>n(x).


n=l

(it). Aa rov i/rcoloyzaptd ir/g Moris (4.9) Kavov^E XPAarl WS TiteupiKrig ouvdpiriarig Gr|
(BMjtE, K(pdAaio 7). Mnopouv va XP^oii^onoiridouv KO.I dAA<; npoacpopoi iisdodoi, 01 <
9a o6rjYnaovv fiiSaia OE 6ia(f>opiiKOug Tunovg yia zoug ovviAo~Cs a n , bn.
4.4.2. 10

.t) = c~ 2 u tt (x, t)-qsincut, 0 < \ < n, t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 r , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , O<X<TT,
6nou 10 q ivai fj.ia npayn.ai\.Kr\ madepd,
Avar] 'Oncog eivai r|6ri yvcocrud, TO auoxeTiopevo npd6Ar)pa i8iOTipcov eivai

X"(x)+AX(x) =0, O<X<TT, X(0)=0, X(7r)=0,


i6tOTipcJv KQI i6ioouvapTrioeav

An=n2, 4)n(x) =sinnx, 0 < x < n, n = 1,2,3, ....


j Kuparucrj 131

. Seupcbvras on, r\ Auor| TOU npo6Ariua.Tos exei Tr| uopcpii TOU xpovoeapTr|u.evou
00

u(x,t) = ^E n (t)sin(nx), 0 < x < TT, t>0


n=l
KQI avuKdSiOTCovrac; arr)v e^iocoor] )
oo
qc 2 sin(cut) = J^ [E" n (t) +n 2 c 2 E n (t)] sinnx, t > 0.
n=1
upe OTI, Yia KdGe t, r| napdaraor) ueoa orr|v aYKuAr] TOU 6e$"iou ueAoug
d TOV riuuoviKo auvreAecrtii Fourier Trig cnjvapTr|ar|$ TOU 6e^iou ueAoug. Enouevog
ei

f n (t) + n 2 c 2 E n (t) =
2
_ f [4qc/(7m )]sin(tut), y\a Ka6e n = 1,3,5, ... ,
\ 0, YIQ KdGen = 2,4,6, ... ,
i npOKunrei OTI

M an cos(nct) + bn sin(nct) ,
Inyia Kd9e t > 0. Enei6r| 01 apxiKeg ouv6iiKeg eivai ouOYeveig, euKoAa npOKurrcei
n, an = b n = 0, Yia n = 1,2,3,.... 'ETOI TeAiKd q Auor] TOU apxixou npo6AiipaTOS

4qc sin(2n + 1 )x
[tusin((2n + 1 )ct) - (2n + 1 )csin(cut)],
< U n + 1 ) 2 ( a > 2 - ( 2 n + l ) 2 c 2
n Tl^O

6nou 0 < x < 7 t , t>0 KQI uno6eTOuue OTI, tu ^ nc, n = 1,3,5,.... AAAag 9a exUUE
e(i<t>tiviar| TOU (paivoiiivov lov auviovioitou.
napatiipr]or| 4.4.3. (reviKO Mq-OnoyEVEg np66Arma). H ^5o6oJloyt'a nou ioxvi orrjv
lupimoai] lou yEviKoii \a\ ofj.OYvoug npoSJliinaiog ivai avcuioyri avTt)g, nov Xi nor] n-
ptypcupti yta ug napa6ojiiKg ^iod)Oig. Uio ovyKEKpt^iva, iy^ovvs. va SiaKpivovux ng OKO-
\ tovdeg npinicjOig
[]]. 'Eoio m U.TJ ovjoyVg np66j(.r\v.a vs. xpovoav^apir]ig v.r\ ovjoyzveig ovvoptaKeg avvdr}-

= c2utt(x,t)-q(x,t), 0<x<p, t>0, (4.12)


= a, I2[u] = (3, t > 0 , (4.13)
u(x,0) = f(x), ut(x,0) = g(x), 0<x<p, (4.14)

dnou ex, (3 npayv.aiiKg o~tadpg. Aa irjv niJivorj lov (4.12) - (4.14) 9a>povv on, r\ jivor]
avioii u(x, t)

u(x,t)=S(x) (4.15)
132 KcQaAaio 4. E^ioaocig YnepfioAiKOt) Ttol

6nou r) auvdpir/ar/ S(xJ anoTEjiei Mori TOU npoGAr/ficiTog v fir/ onoyeveig


OUVdrJKZg
S"(x)=0, 0<x<p, I,[S] = a, I2[S] = |3 (4.1f
Kai ri ovvapTr\or\ V ( x , t ) iKavonoizi TO au/znJlrjpa^anKd np66jir}iia

Vxx(x.t) c- 2 V t t (x,t)-q(x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 , (4.17)1


Ii[V] 0, I2[V] = 0, t > 0 ,
V(x,0) = f(x)-S(x), V t (x,0) = g(x), 0 < x < p. (4.

To np66jir]v.a (4.17) - (4.19) jivveTai V u^866ovg, nov ixpvv r\5r\ avanTvxdci OTr\v nfxn\\
yovitvri EvdTrjTa 4.2.2 KCLI TTJV napovoa 4.4.1. Eva TO (4.16) anoTetei eva KJiaam
oujoyeveg ovvopiaKd np66jir]v.a idtouuMV Tvnov Sturm - Liouville.
E6cj npenei va or}HiK>oovv on, rj V(x,t) 8ev otKoieXet TTJ faeTa(3aTtxiq Xuarj, u
cvvoia, nov 66dr\K orrjv e^iaaaT] OepujOTrfTag (BMnz, Ev6ir\ia 3.3), a<pov ev yevei 6ev iiu|
OTO 0, Kodag TO t > oo.
[21. Av TeAog ioao T] e^[acoor) oao xai ot auvoptax^ auvd^xd; efvai
TOTE. r\ 6oKiu.aoTiKri vjop<pr\ Trig Avorig u(x, t) eivai avdj\ayr\ avTf]g, nov
mr]v %ioaar\ QcpiidTrjTag (BMne, Eudrrjra 3.4.2).
4.4.4. Na jlvdei TO v.r] ovjoyevig np6Sj(.r]v.a apxiKcbv KOI avvopiaKcov ovvdrjKim
Tvnov

,t) = u t t(x,t)-10, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 2, u x ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) 2, ut(x,0) =sln(37rx/2),
Avar\ Ha to np66Ar|pa (a) Qecopoupe Auor) tr)s popcpiig u(x, t) = S(x) + V ( x , t), ono
r| OTJvdptr)or| S(x) anoteAei Auor) tou opOYevouc; auvopiaKOu

S"(x)=0, 0<x<1, S(0)=2, S'(1)=0,

r| onoia eival S(x) = 2. 'Etm r| o^jvdptr|ori V ( x , t ) 9a iKavonoiei to oTjpnAr)pco]aat


u,ri oiaoYeveg np66Ar]]aa apxiKcov KOI ouvopiaxcov auvGrjKcov

V xx (x,t) = V t t(x,t)-10, 0 < x < l , t > 0 ,


V(0,t) = 0, V ( 1 , t ) = 0, t > 0 ,
V(x,0) = 2 - S ( x ) = 0 , V t (x,0)=sin(37rx/2),
co$ i Auor] tou npoGAiipatog (y) to avr
i6ioouvaptriOcov

t>0, (5)
n=l

onou <J> n (x) 01 i6ioouvaptiioeis tou ouoxetiavievou npo6Aiipato$

X"(x) + AX(x) =0, 0 < x < 1 , X(0)=0, X'(1)=0.


I O^oycvqg Ku^ariKi] E^iacoaq rcvuajs1 Moptyqg 133

i 6ia6iKaoia ppioKOupe OTI, TQ iGio^euYr) TOU TeAeuTaiou npoBArnaaTOs eivai


avvopic

(4.;

AvtiKaGiaicovTag irjv napdoraor] (6) OTqv iou npoBAripaTOg (y) npOKumei


(4.17) on
oo
(4.18) (2n - 1 )TTX
10 = {E(t) + k*E n (t)}sin , t>0.
(4.19) n=l

:icnrjv npor\- 9a

(2n - 1 )TTX
10sin- -^ -dx, t > 0 .
o 2
Enti6ii

\sin
(2n-1)7
r Jo
(2n-1)7

40
, t>0.
1)7t

eniAuor]
g 6i8ei
()

sin[knc(t - r)][40/(2n + 1 )n] dr + an cos(knt) + bn sin(knt)


. t ) , onou kn Jo
= -=-[1 -cos(k n t)] + a n cos(k n t) + b n sin(k n t), t > 0, n = l , 2 , 3

(31
Ztoi r) popcf>ri (6) Tr|g Auarig TOU npoBAiipaTOg (a) Y

(2n-1)7rx
r-^-Il - cos(k n t)] + a n cos(k n t) + b n sin(k n t) } sin
n=1

(y) nou exouiie oti 0 < x < 1, t > 0. Ano ug apxiKeg ouvGriKcg npoKumei OTI, an = 0,
n = 1,2,3, ...,b n = 0, YIQ n = 2,3,4,... KQI bi = 4-. EuvSudtovrag 6Aa TO.
1

imuypa avcotepco exouiae OTI, r) TeAucri laop^pii TrlS Auoqg TOU npo6Ar|LiaTOg (a) eivai

f . - 2 37rt 37TX
u(x,t)=2 + sin-sin ^r-
O7I Z /
(6)
^ L (2r7TT)3 i1 s (^y^jj sln^-r^'
160^ 1 /(2n-l)7rt\~| (2n-1)?tx

onou 0 < x < 1, t > 0.


134 KetpdAaio 4. EiaaJai YnepfioAiKOu'

napd6eiyjia 4.4.5. No. Avdei np66'j(.r\\i.a af>xiKc^v Kai


ovvopiaKav ovv
limov Dirichlet

Ux X (x,t) = u u (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,


u(0,t) = sint, u(1,t)=-t 2 /2, t>0,
u(x,0) = 0, ut(x,0) = 1-x, 0<x<1.

Avar] EuiacpGova U.E ooa EXOUV avanrux0Ei napandvQ, \m Tnv EniAuor) TOU npc
(a) avanTOuu. Auon Tng pop(piis u(x,t) = K(x, t) + V(x,t). onou 9opouu.e i
ouvdpTnor) K(x,t) anoTeAEi Auon TOU pn opOYEvouc; ouvopiaKOu npo6Ar|u.aTO$

K x x ( x , t ) = 0 , 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 , K ( 0 , t ) = s l n t , K ( 1 , t ) = -t2/2, t > 0.

'ETOX r) ouvdpTr|or| V(x, t) 9a npmEi va iKavonoiEi TO npoBAqiaa

V x x (x,t) = Ktt(x,t)+Vtt(x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,


V(0,t) = 0, V ( l , t ) = 0, t > 0 ,
V(x,0) = -K(x,0), Vt(x,0) = 1 - x - K t ( x , 0 ) , 0<x<l.

H Auon. TOU npo6AiipaTOg ((3) EupioKETai OTI Ei'vai K(x,t) = x(sint + t 2 /2)+J
'ETOI npOKunTEt OTX

Ktt(x.t) =-x(1 -sint) -sint, K ( x , 0 ) = 0 , K t (x,0) = -x+ 1, 0 < x < l , t:

TO np66Any.a (y) Aap6dvi Tr| popepri

Vxx(x.t) = V u ( x , t ) - x ( 1 -sint) -sint, 0<x<1, t > 0,


V(0,t) = 0, V ( l , t ) = 0, t > 0 ,
V(x,0) = 0, V t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0<x<l.

Fia TO np66Anu.a (6), ouvicpcova U.E TO nponYOupEva, Qa Auor) Trig

,t>0,
n=1

onou 01 4> n (x), n = 1,2,3,..., anoTEAouv TUJ i6ioouvapTiioEis TOU


ouvopiaKOu npo6Ar|TiaTOg iSiOTivicov

)=0, 0<x<1, X(0)=0, X(1)=0,

TOU onoiou TO , KOTO yvworri 6xa6xKaoia (Jpx'oKETax OTI EX'VQX

tft]2, 4>nM = sin(nTtx), 0 < x < 1, n = 1,2,3,....

napdoraori (e) arr) pEpxKii SxacpopiKii E^xocoor) TOU npo6Ar|X]


(6) npOKunTEi OTI,

t > 0.
n=1
iooai] Fevuc/jj Mopcprfo 135

Ktiv auvdrj* 01 ouvTEAeoreg E n (t), n = 1,2,3,..., opi^ovrai cog 01 Auosig Trig OEUTEPO-
ig auvr|9oug 6iacpopiKiig ^tocoor|g

kjE n (t)=||sIn(n7ix; 11-2 f'wi- sint) + sint]sin(n7tx)dx,


Jo
t > 0. (t)

fl
||sin(n7rx)||2 = sin2(n7tx)dx = 1/2,
Jo
OTI, r\ (C) Aap6dvEi Tr) popcpr)

n (t) = [(-1) n + 1 +sint] t>0.


TTTt L J

H Auor] trig TEAEUTaiag auvqGoug 6ia(popiKrig Eiacoor|g, LIE Tr| por|0Eia Tr]g ouvdpTr)or|g
Been (BAEHE, KECpdAaio 7 ) 6i6Ei Tr| auvdpTr|or|

r^- f +sinr]dr+a n cos(k n t) + b n sin(k n t)


kn Jo
i) n + 1 2 fl
55s
6 [1 cos(nTrt)] HT~Tz sin[n7t(t r)]sinrdr
n n*-n J 0
bn sin(knt)
2 sin(n7rt)-n7tsint
n^rr 1 n2n2
+ a n cos(k n t) + b n sin(k n t), t > 0, n - 1,2,3, ....

ETOI r) napdoraar) (e), 8nAa6r| r\ Auor] TOU npo6Aiiu.aTOg Km ouvopiaKcov


IS popcpr)g v ( 6 ) , AapBdvEi Tr| popcpr)

V(x,t) = [1 cos(nTrt)]
I T\-"TT-'
n=1

Eiioiaevou 2 sin(nTtt) UTtsint


a n cos(k n t) + bn sin(k n t)
n 7t2
2

>u 0 < x < 1, t > 0. And Tig apxiKEg auv0r|Keg TOU npo6Ar|]jaTOg (a) npOKumsi
Qn = bn 0, YIQ n = 1,2,3,.... uv6ud5ovtag ug napandvco oxEOEig npOKunTEi
n TsAiKii u.opcpii Tng TuniKrjg Auong TOU jar] oviOYEvoug npo6Aii>iaTOg apxiKcov
ouvopiaKcov auvSnKOV (a) Eivai

u(x,t) = x(sint+ y) - -[1 cos(nTrt)]


n=1
2 sin(nTrt) nTisint
0. 2 2 , 0 < x < 1, t > 0.
n 7t n27t2
136 KccpdAaio 4. Egiocbozig YncpdoXiKOU Tan

4.4.2 ripo6Arjiaaxa
1. Na AuGei to >in-o]joYEveg unEp6oAu<6 np66Ar|ua apxiKcbv ouvopiaKcbv ouvGnKQv tunou Rd|

u xx = e~ 2 u u + sin3xcosu>t, 0 < x < 7t/2, t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u x (7t/2,t) =0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = e x , u t (x,0) =27rx, 0 < x < n/2,
onou to cu Eivai pia SEtucr) npaYViatiKii ataGEpd.
2. Na AuGei to pn-opOYEVEg unEp6oAiKO npoBAnpa UE pn-opOYEVEig apxiKEg KOI ouvopia
o\)v6r|KEg Dirichlet
i
uxx = u tt x~2sint, 0 < x < 1, t > 0,
u(0,t) = sint, u ( l , t ) =-t 2 /2, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, ut(x,0) = l - x , 0 < x < l .
3. Na AuGEi to OKoAouGo pn-ojjOYEveg unEpBoAiKO npoBAnpa apxiKuv - auvopiaKcov
tunou Robin
Utt(x.t) 4uXx(x,t)+xt, 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) 0, u x (1,t) = 1 + t , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0<x<l.
4. Na AuGEi to axoAouGo opoyeveg unp6oAiKO np66An)aa apxiKwv - auvopiaKov
tunou Dirichlet
Uxx(x,t) utt(x,t)-l, 0 < x < 1 , t>0,
u(0,t) = t 2 /2, u ( l , t ) =-cost, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = -x, u t ( x , 0 ) - 0 , 0 < x < 1 .

Arcaunjar,: u(x,t) == ^^ - xcost + ~=1 [1-ffg'}7tt - 2'c;^M^t']LiJIl-l slnra


5. Na AuGEi to OKoAouGo ojJOYEveg unp6oAiKO npo6Anu.a apxucuv - auvopiaKcov auvGqxcov i
Dirichlet

u t t (x,t) = u x x (x,t), 0 < x < l , t>0,


2
u(0,t) = t , u(1,t)=cost, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = x, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < l .
6. Na AuGEi to axoAouGo opoyEveg unp6oAiKO np66An(aa apxiKov - auvopiaKQv auv6r|Ka'
tunou Dirichlet
u x x (x,t) = utt(x,t), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = slnt, u ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = l - x , 0<x<1.
7. Na AuGEi to OKoAouGo opoyEVEg unEpBoAiKO np66An)ja apxiKUv - ouvopiaKov ouvGnKttv tunw
Neumann
utt(x,t) = 9u x x (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,
u*(0,t) = ^, u x ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,

u(x,0) siny, u t (x,0) = l + x , 0<x<l.


TU/TOU 137

Ma6rniaTiKr)g
runou Robin nen6|jEva leooepa napaSEiypata 9a E5etao9ouv xapaxtqpiatiKEg nEpimcboEig ypappixcbv pepi-
w6ia<popiKCov EJjiocboEcov unp6oAixou tunou, nou npoxuntouv Katd tr) 6ia6ixaaia pa9qpatixqg
poiunonoir|or|g 6iacpdpcov cpuoixcbv xai dAAcov cpaivopEvcov.

4.5.1 EJjiocoar) Klein - Gordon / uoxi]ucrca uc Aiaonopd


nporiyoupevu napuSEiypaia Ei6apE on, q taxutr|ta cpdor|g tov 6uo Kupdtov, nou ouviotouvtr)
ai ouvopiciKEg Orj D' Alembert iqg anAqg KupatiKqg iowor|g, eivai ota9Epii yia 6Ag tig appoviKEg (BAEnE,
paSnypa 4.2.5). 'Opcog yEvixotEpa ta cpaivopEva tng Kivrjorig, Aoyo tr|g noAunAoKOtntag tr|g
|g toug, oSqyouv oe nepioootEpo ouv9ta paGripatixd npotuna. EE npoBArjpata ps autd ta
xtripiatiKd, q SidSooq 6Awv tcov appovixciv SEV yivEtai p tqv iSia cpaoiKq taxutqta (phase
) oAAd pE taxutqta, q onoia E^aptdtai ano tov avtiotoixo xupatdpi9po. EE tEtoia ouotiipata
cpdoqg ptau tcov appovixcbv tpononotEitai. TEtoiou Ei6oug ouottipata avacpEpovtai cog
pc 5taonopd (dispersive systems).
civ ouvOrjKov
Mia tEtoia nEpintcooq anotEAEi to axdAou9o npo6Aqpa. To np66Aqpa auto, pia 6iatapaxq
Kupatmrig opoyEvoug, npoxuntEi otav 9EcopqooupE dti, Kd9 tpqpa piag SovoupEvqg xopSqg
pi)KOug a ucpiotatai npoo9tq 6uvapq avdAoyq tqg pEtatomoqg autqg. H 9cbpqoq autq o6qyi
oti)v QKoAouOq popcpq tqg c^iauat]g Klein - Gordon

Uv (x,t) = -hu(x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0, (5.1)


>v ouv0r)K
iu SsupoupE dti IOXUEI o nEpiopiopdg h > 0. Pia napd6iypa, q g"iocoaq (5.1)
rtEprypacpq tqg oupnEpicpopdg xivoupEvqg xopSqg Env66upvqg p cpuAAo EAaotixou. 'Etoi,
tictog ing Suvupqg Enavacpopdg, nou aoxEitai and tqv tdoq, EpcpavigEtai pia dAAq Suvapq Ena-
vafopas aoKOupEvq OE xd9E tpqpa tqg xopSqg ocpEiAdpEvq oto cpuAAo EAaotixou. H ioooq (5.1)
ouvavtdtat enioqg atq pa9qpatixq npooEyyioq tqg K6avto-Mqxavixq tou Pa9pcotou pEooviou.
Ha Aoyoug anAdtqtag 9Ecopoup oil, TO npd6Aqpa (5.1) ouvo8Utai and tig opoyEVEig ouvo-
sin TITTX. auv9qxg tunou Dirichlet, 6qAa6q ata dxpa IOXUEI
IKQV tunou u(0,t) = u ( a , t ) =0, t > 0 . (5.2)

Tta tqv EniAuoq tou npo6Aqpatog (5.1) - (5.2) xdvoupE XPO01! TrIS p9d6ou x^ptopou tcov
peiaBAqtov, 9CopoupE 6qAa6q dti, q Auoq pnopd va ypacpei u(x,t) = X(x)W(t). 'Etoi, and tqv
ffinr.tnn (5.1) npoxuntEi q oxEoq

W"(t) X"(x)
2 = -k2, 0 < x < a, t > 0, (5.3)
c " X(x) '
HfiinAq E^iocooq (5.3) o6qyEi atig iocboig

X"(x) + k 2 X(x)=0, 0 < x < a , (5.4)


2 2
W"(t) + (k c + h)W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (5.5)
uv mnou
Oi auvopiaxeg ouvGqxEg (5.2) 6i6ouv

X(0)=0, X(a)=0. (5.6)

fia to auvopiaxd np66Aqpa iSiotipcbv (5.4), (5.6), Katd yvcoatq 6ia6ixaoia, Ppioxoup on,
6e'xtai tig i6ioAuoig
T17T
k n = , X n (x) =sin(k n x), 0 < x < a, n = 1,2,3 (5.7)
a
138 Ke<paAaio 4. Ynep6oAiKOV ' 4.5 Eiawaet A

Ha k = k ri xpovixr] (5.5) 6EXtai AuoEig trig MOp<j>iig

W n (t) = a n cos ht + b n sin


J t > 0.
"Etoi teAiKd, (}>appd<;ovtag tr|v apxn tr|g unp9or|g, ouvdyoupE 6ti, r)
iris yevtKiis Auor|g TOU npoBAiipatog (5. l)-(5.2) eivai
OO r

u(x,t) = ^sin(k n x) Qncos + b n sin c2 + ht


n=l
onou 0 < x < a, t > 0.
IIapcrciipi|0i] 4.5.1. Aa ^dyot/j- a7t/idr77i(3f, af 9ecjpriaoiifj on iox<Ji b n = 0, n = 1,2,3J
Toie ]t aJiAr) ipiyavoneipia anoSetKVueiai 611, rj Avar] (5.9) jla^iSdvei irj \u)p(pr\
i OO r ,

u(x,t) =
= 2X Qn s i
nU n x +sin k n x -
u=1 '
(5.1

drcoiy 0 < x < p , t > 0 . E6o npenei va napairjpriaov^E on, 77 Jit/or? ^5. ]0^ egapidiai roool
gaiepiK<; Tiapaneipovs. onog 10 h (moixcio, nov EKippd&i njv rdarj KO.I irjv nuKvoirim
doo Kat and xov KU\jLaidfn8}Juo k n . AKOHO. 01 emipendj^eveg avxvoirjieg eivai
nov avuaioixovv aio h = 0. Flpdyna ava\jL\x>\tvo Jiaya irjg avfrmevris aKa^if/iag lou
orjuaoia rrjf Siaanopd^ otpEifeiai oio yeyovot, on, av r] Avar) eivai vnepdear] 6ia6oxtKav K
air\v avirj Kaicvdiivarj. idle rj axsorj <f>dari<; ^teiaf u lav 6iacp6pav ap^oviKov civai xpovoE^api

4.5.2 EJjiacjori TiiAeypd(t>ou-TiiAe<t>uvou-AepliatiKi] EniSpaoq.


A. Ti)Acypa<|>io - TijAccpuvia.
Etriv nporiyouvievr) Evoirjia Et6ape OTI, pia liiKpr] diaiapaxn <nr]v Kv^aiiKt a
Mar], cnrjv onoia Kdde avviaioaa 6ia5i6im )j ir] 5iKr) ir/g <j>aaiKr) iaxi>ir]ia. E6u 9a peeiiooi
eva KupatiKO (paivopsvo, onou r| cnjyKEKpijjvr| Statapaxri QXI povov npOKaAEi SiaoKopniot
Kupata, aAAd xai eK6UKii anoo6or| tou nAdioug KaGog to xupa pEtaStSEtai. Auio cain6a
oiav, KQTQ it] 6iap6p<pcoori tou pa0r)patixou npo6AiipaiO5, ApcpGei un' ovpiv r| Eni6paor) TOU
9i6dAAovtog tr| xopGri peoou. Etr|v nepimcaori Kara tr|v onoia 9a EXOUPE eva piKpou nAd
KupaiiKO (paivdpEVO, pnopoupE va 8E<apr|ooup oti, r) avtOEap tou nEpi6dAovto$ uAiKou
Katd 6iu6uvor| avtiGetr) tns Kivpons ^r)S Xp6riS Kat noootiKd avdAoyr) tr|g taxutr|tag a
'Etoi r| e^iowoq tr)g Kivr|or)s 9a EXEI tr| pop(J>r|

u t t(x,t)+2hut(x,t) =c 2 u x x(x,t), 0 < x < p , t > 0 , (5.11


onou EXOUV Ar|(p0Et un' dipw r] tdor) tension Kat r| tpi6ii friction tou PEOOU, aAAd oxi
stiffness KOI r| eocotEpiKii tpi6ii internal friction. To anoteAEOpa trig tpi6rig eivai va
an6o8eor| otr|v eAeu9epr| 66vr)or). H E^iowor] autii anoteAEi to paGnpatmo npotuno (paivopsvovj
nou npOEpxovtai and 6id(popEg nepioxEg trig eniatiipng, onog nAKtpopayvr|iiop6g, tqA
K.a. . Fia lotopiKOug Adyoug r| (5. 1 1) cpspEi to dvopa tng ciaooiis tou xriAeypdcpou i\
vou. Ag 9ewpr|ooupE 6u, r| E|iooor| (5. 1 1) cruvo8EUEtai and ouvopiaKEg ouvGriKEg tunou Diricl
u(0,t)=0, u(p,t)=0, t>0. (5.12
Tia tr|v EniAuon tou ouvopiaxou npo6Aripatog (5. 1 1)-(5. 12) Etpappd^Etai o xwpiopog peta6Ai)-J
tov u(x,t) = X(x)W(t), o onoiog o6r|yi Katd ta yvuatd ata aKoAouGa 6uo npo6Aiipata
X"(x) + k 2 X ( x ) = 0 , 0 < x < p , X ( 0 ) = X ( p ) = 0 , (5.13
W"(t) + 2HW'(t) + k 2 c 2 W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (5.14)1
BoAiKou Ttii 139

Ano trjv EniAuor] tou auvopiaxou npo6Aripatog i6iotipwv (5.13) pAenoupE oti, TO oxiipa tav
KSV iponwv (normal modes) 6ev EnnpEd^Etai ano tnv friction, EIOI ta iSio^Euyr) wv AUOEWV
(5.1 i 9a rtvai ndAi

kn = KQI X(x) = sin( ), 0<x<p, n = 1,2,3 ..... (5.15)


P P
Era nepioaotEpa cpuouxd cpaivdpeva IOXUEI r) aviodtnta k n c > h. 'Eioi r| yeviKri Avior| ing
(5.< ; (5.14), nou napouoid$Ei Ev6iacpEpov aiig E(pappoyg eivai r|

W(t) = e' ht | An cos ( Y/k^ c2 + ht) + Bn sin L/\^c2 > -

AS i on, crcqv nEpintoor) nou SEV iKavonoiEiiai r) napandvco ouv0r|Kri, r| Auor| tng
i ouvSuaopd 6uo EK0EiiKd cpOivououv AUOEWV. And ta napandvco oupnEpaivEtai
htiixd on. r| pop(pr| tng yviKr|g Auong tou npoBAripatog (5. 1 1) - (5. 12) eivai r) aKo
(5.10)

H(x,t) = Y sln(- -)e~ ht ^ A n cos ( ^/knc2 + ht j + B n sin ( yk n c 2 + ht J I ,


n=i P I V / V /)
(5.17)
p KQ0E 0 < x < p, t > 0. Sir) Auor) (5.17) EXOupE va napatnpriooupE oti, npcotov, dAEg
01 apiJOViKEg Eni6pa6uvovtai Aoyw tqg napouoiag tng tpi6r|g KOI 6Eutpov, 6Ag 01 appoviKEg
f onoo6aivivtai.

IIapaTiipr|oii 4.5.2. (TijAeypcupia) Oi npoSMifjEig and irjv EniAvorf tr/c E^iaaorig ir]j(ypd<f>ov
EviriKav, diav cna UEoa lov nponspaoulvov aiova (1850) eyKaiaaiddriKav la npoia uitepa-
ra xaXwSia Tr)XeYPa<p'a?- -Aoy rot/ uEyd/iov urfKovg lov Kd/loSiov, napair]pr)dr]Kav and rot/c
oatprjiEg aiadrjiEg XPOVIK^S uoTEpr/aEig usyedovg 6EuiEpoMmav aia EKnEundueva arjuaia Kai
oec airfv laxvirjia 6id6oar]g 5ia<popEiiKov avxvoirfiav. Avid 10 yeyowc EIXE we anoiEJlEaua
vnapaudp<paar] Kai nspidpioE IT]V tajf t/rrjia or/uaiog OE nepinov 60 xdpaKnjpEg avd 6vipdJlnio.

ji\pi\ai\ 4.5.3. (Tr|Aecf)covia) AvaAoya npoSArjuaia napovoidairjKav, diav mo isJlog lov


2OUEVOV aiova dpxioE va EyKadsimaiE r] TTjXecpuvCa jjeY(^AWV omoaT<iaea>v. Ot
{ViTjia Uiav avxvoitjiav nepidpioE la SiKiva OE uEpiKEg dEKdSeg XLttiovxipav. Ta ;
i avid aviiUianimr}Kav UE Emivxio. OTIC apx^S lov nspaauEvov aiova (1901), diav o Michael
(Columbia University) npdiEWE irjv npoadrjKr] nrfviov (inductors or loading coils) OE Kavo-
i 6iaoT.riv.aia Kaid ur)Kog irjg ir)Ji(paviKrig ypauuf)g Kai iim rj ir/JlEcpavia UEydAov anoaidoEov
OVOE nMov va yivsi npayuaiiKdiriia. napduoisg npoidaEig Eixav yivEi vopiiEpa and mv ciyyjio
(5.11)j Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925) xapis ouog npaKiiKd i
IKapyna B. Acptiaxuu) EniSpaoii (Skin Effect).
OKAr)0ei iouor) tnAEypdcpou ouvavtdtai KOI atnv rfJiEKipouayvriiiKri Oscopia icov Kvudiav nov 6ia6i6oviai
OPEVCOV, \tioa a' Eva ouoyevrj dmipo ayayd. AnoSEiKvuEtai oti, to pa9ntaatiKd npdtuno, nou nepiypdcpEi
ypaqna, 1 6id6oon Evog Kupatog o' autriv trjv nEpintwon, Eivai
lAecpci-
irichlet = E x x (x,t), 0 < x < + o o , t > 0 . (5.18)
(5.12)
dnou E(x,t) Eivai to pAEictpiKO neSio Katd pr|Kog tou d^ova twv y, c n taxutnta tou cpwtdg,
ta6Ari- K n 6inAEKipiKii ota9Epd tou PEOOU, p r| SianEpatdtnta (permeability) tou uAixou KOI a
r| aywyipotnta tou PEOOU. (Fia nEpioootepa pAEnE, Bom, M & E.Wolf: Principles of Optics
Pergamon Press, 1975 ). Vaxvoups yia AuoEig tng e^iowong (5.18) tng popcpiig

E(x,t) = X ( x ) cos(cut)+Y(x)sin(tut), 0 < x <+00, t > 0. (5.19)


140 KecpdAaio 4. Egiouazig YnepdoAiKOv TunM

napdoraor] (5.19) arr|v |iocoor| (5.18), npoKunTEi r| CTXar|

^a)Y(x)-(-X"(x)) cos(urt) =

sin(u)t), 0 < x < + o o , t > 0 . (5.20)

EnEi6ii n o^Eori (5.20) icrxuEi yia Kd0E t, 9a npEnEi KdGE u.ia and Tig napv9Oig va avai
iin6EV. 'ETOI npOKumouv 01 |iocboig

= 0, 0 < x <+00, (5.21)

= 0, 0 < x <+00. (5.22)

AnaAEicpovrag Tr| ouvdpTr|or| Y(x) and Tig 6uo E^iocboEig (5.21), (5.22) KaTaAiiyoupE orr| axe

f -X(x) =0, 0< x < +00. (5.23)

Adyo TOU u cpaivoiiEvou, E6ci) 9a 9EO>pr|oou)-i OTI TO nAEXTpopayvriuKo KUUQ 6iaJ


orr) I KaTEuSuvor] TOU d^ova TCOV x. EnopEvog, r| yEviKii Auor| Tr|g E^iocoong (5.B

X(x) = e~ YX [Acoskx + Bsinkx] + e vx [Ccoskx +Dslnkx], 0 < x< +00. (5.24)

Av uno9oouiiE on IOXUEI y > 0, TOTE 9a npdnEi va QEOOUPE C = D = 0, SIOTI 6ici(j>optiKM


r| Auor) 9a EKKpayEi Ka66g TO x audvi. AvTiKaGiorcovrag Tnv napdoraor) (5.24) oinv E^iooon
(5.23) npOKumouv 01 Tunoi

k = (H\/K 2 +4(J 2 T 2 ) 1 / 2 , (5.25)


2c
(5.26)

dnou T = 271/u). ndAi pnopouiiE va napaTr|pr)ooupe OTI TO KupaTO eivai 6iaoKOpnioiuca


AoGEvrog Evdg k, iinopoupe va AuooujaE Tr|v E|iooor| (5.25) ug npog TO w. 'ETOI TO w
and TOV KUiaaTdpi9iio k KOI E^QTEpiKEg napaiiETpoug.
4.5.4. (Aepvia-ciKii EniSpaoq) To nMov or^aviiKo vxpo^ avwv lou
': rj napavf]pr\ar\ on, Kadag 10 KU)j.a iai6Ui ir/v anooiaarj 2n/"y, 10 :
Kaia 10 yloyo e npo$ 1. EnonEva^, avid 10 fj.riKO vjiopzi va QEopr]8ci oc; iva
EvjSiteias r) 6iia5viiKrig 6vvav.rjg lov Kvu.aio^. Pia napd6EiyiJ.a, aia iiia2a IOXVEI 2ai > > K. inn I
OOIE va exovfte y = k = ^/jIoT. Pia ro^a/iKd ixpvv <j = 5.14 x 10'7, \a = 1. 'Omug1 f>a['veaal
airo la napandvo, la riUzKiponayviiiKd Ku^aia 6ev iinopEi va 6iio6voovv aia vxiajia nipav ivo$
noJiv prixov fiddoug. Avid 10 tpaivdvxvo aTiorcJkt ITJ 5cp|iaTiKij cniSpaor) (skin effect).

4.5.3 E^tocjon xrig AOKOU


A. E^iocoari Trig AOKOU: MaGqpaTUUf IIpOTUnonou)OT).
L" auTii Tr|v napdypacpo 9a u.AETr)oou)aE Tig EyxdpoiEg 6ovr|OEig opi^dvriag 6oKOu. Yno6eiou)iE J
OTI r| 6oKdg Eivai oupu.ETpiKr| yupco and TO EninESo TCOV xy KOI dAEg 01 SiaTOjaEg, 01 onoiEg tivai
ornv anouoia pdpoug, napau.evouv EninESsg KOTO Tr| 6idpKia TCOV SovqaEcov. 'ETOI oil
nEpiypdcpovrai and Tr| 9Eor) y(x,t) TOU d^ova TCOV y. AiaTdoEig (stretches) Kan
ouyniEOEig (compressions) ora Sidcpopa pepr) Tr|g SOKOU 6rniioupyouv EowiEpixeg Suvdpeig KQI
141

xEt anoSeixOei neipapatiKd, 6u r| ponii Kdpiyrig (bending moment) M(x,t) arr) SeJjid
i ir]g 6iatoprig trig SOKOU air) Sear) x oq>eiA6pevr| aco un6Aoino trig SOKOU cna 6e$"id trig
ai pe tpv npoonpao-pevr) KapnuAotnta k(x,t) tou d|ova tcov y peoa> tr|g e|iocoor|g

M(x,t) = E(x)I(x)k(x,t), (5.27)

^ E(x) eivai TO petpo eAaotiKdtr|tag tou Young (ejjaptupevo ano to uAiKO tng SOKOU) KQI
eivai r) ponq aSpaveiag (moment of inertia) tng 6iatopr|g tng SOKOU. 'Exei anoSeixSei ano
\10 OTI
3 2 y(x,t)/ax 2
k(x,t) = (5.28)

eiovtag on p^eioupe Sovrioeig, nou npoKaAouv noAu piKpeg KAioeig, TOTE 9a exouPE
! 9y/9x 1. Enopevog eivai AoyiKO va Qecopriooupe on r| KapnuAotnia SiSetai ano tr|

6 2 y(x.t)
k(x,t) = (5.29)
3x2 '
Enopevug, yia 6ovr|oeig, nou npoKaAouv noAu pixpeg KAioeig, rj ponii Ktipiyng
fc|v KapnuAointa peoa ano tnv OK6Aou0r|

, t ) = E(x)I(x)0. (5.30)

M(x,t)=Elg

-M(x,t)=-Elg

4.5. 1 : Mia AoKdg nou aipicpei la KoLUa npoc; la endva.

EneiSrj r\ 3*1' eivai 9etu<r|, oiav r| SoKOg OTpEtpei TO KoiAa npog m endvo (concave
(upwards), auvendyetai oti r| M(x, t) 9a npenei va eivai 9etiKii orr) Se^id nAeupd tqg 6teu0uvor|g,
fonog cpaivetai oro LxHV10 4.5. 1. H ponri orr|v apiorepd nAeupd trjg iSiag Siaioprig ocpeiAopevr) oro
uAiKo trig SOKOU oia apiorepd trjg 9a eivai M(x,t) = E(x)I(x) Q^'*
Axopa oe Kd6e Siatopii tr)g SOKOU Spouv repvouoeg Suvdpeig (shear forces). EupBoAi^oupe
I HE Q(x,t) trjv y-ouvretaYpevri ir|g Tepvouaag Suvapr)g, nou Spa atr) Se^id nAeupd trjg Siaiopiig
air| 9eor) x, ocpeiAopevr) oro 6eio pepog ir|g SOKOU. Tote Q(x,t) eivai r\ tepvouoa Suvapq,
' nou Spa otr|v apiotepri nAeupd. E(pappo$oupe to Seutepo vopo tou Newton \\a nepiatpocpiKri
Kwr|or| tou tpiipatog tpg SOKOU and to ota0epo oqpeio x = a pexpi tnv au6aipetr| tipii x = x:
ro ddpoiafia dAuv iov ponav oJiov icov 6uvd^iav o' avio 10 r/tfft/a npinti va laouiai \iz ir\ gan.r\
nojLHcntftaaiaa}jvri fj rrj
142 KecpdAaio 4. Eiaa>Oi Yrrepo'oAtKou Tunou

EnEi6ii r| Kivr|or| Yupco and tr) Ypawi x = Xi U.EOCO tou KEVtpou tr|g u.aa-S tou
Eivai auorripd pEtacpopiKf] strictly translational, 01 gortEg vupco and to x = Xi 6i6ouv

M ( x , t ) - M ( Q , t ) + ( x - x 1 ) Q ( x , t ) - ( a - x 1 ) Q ( a , t ) + f (z-x 1 )F(z,t)dz = 0, (5.311


Ja

dnou F(x,t) Eivai to d6poiovia dAcov tav SUVQLIECOV atr| 6oKd avd povdSa p.r|KOug cog npogu]J
6iEu9uvor| tou d|ova tcov x. napayoYion ins E|iocoor|g (5.31) cog npog x u.ag 6i6Ei

'~9x~ J -J~ax~
P(-^)F(z)t)dz+(x-x1)F(x,t)=0. (5.32)

-A Q X X

ri , .
-M(a,t) } M(x,t)

-Q(a,t) I Q(x,t)
w(x,t) F(x,t)

4.5.2: AJUlrjJifTrifipaoTj rou EocoiepiKtiv Poncbv Kd^jfjrjg KOI roi> TJJ.VOVOCOV Avvdv-
av, zou E^coiepiKou <Popitov KOI tajf E^coiepiKav Auvd)jcov o V.ICL AOKO vs. la KoiHa
ia endvco.

naipvouu-E to dpio orr|v Eiocoor| (5.32) Ka66g to x > a (ondtE EXOUU.E Eniorig dti XT a),
onotE npOKuntEi dti

3M(a,t)
Q(a,t)=0. (5.33)
dx
i to a eivai auGaipEto KataAiiyouviE otriv aKdAouGrj cr^iar\ viEta|u tepvouocov SuvdpEUV
KOI poncbv

dM(x.t)
Q(x,t) = - dx '
(5.34)

Oi 6ovr)OEig tr|g SOKOU KaGopi^ovtai ano tr|v aAAr|Ani6paor| tcov EOcotEpiKcov goncov
KOI teu.vouocbv 6uvdu.ECov U.E to e$'coiePlKO cpoptio w(x, t) avd jaovaGa Katd vir|KOg tou d^ova tcov
x (nEpiAau.6dvovtag to pdpog tr|g SOKOU) KOI 6AEg tig EcotpiKEg 6uvd)aEig F(x,t) avd viovdSa
Katd pr)KOg tou d|ova tcov x (npiAau.6dvovtag to cpoptio). H ouvdptrior) w(x,t) anotEAsi tr|
i tou cpoptiou KOI cog tEtoia Eivai apvntiKii, EVU q F(x,t), r| y-ouvtEtaYtJEvr| dAcov
143

c&otepiKuv SuvdpEwv, pnopEi va EXEI onoio6r|notE npoonpo r| pn6Ev (BAEnE, Ex^pa 4.5.2).
((apno(|ovtag to SEutEpo vopo tou Newton otnv EyKdpoia pEtacpopiKii Kivpor) tou tpiipatog
;6oKOu, npOKuntEi r| aAAnAEniSpaor) tov napandvo 6uvdpEov otr|v aKoAouGr) oAoKAnpcotixii

_
F(z,t)dz-Q(x,t) + Q(a,t) = i (5.35)
at at
i apiatEpo oAoKAiipwpa EKtppd^Ei tr|v oppr) tou tpiipatog [a, x] trig 6oxou (to xAdapa
6i6ei tr| pdga to otoixEi6oug tpiipatog dz tr|g SOKOU xatd pr)KOg tou d|ova tQV x
> yivbpEvo p tqv taxutnta 3(z,t)
""^'" 6ioi tEAixd tr|v oppr).
i oAoKAripopa crta 6Etd anotEAEi ta dSpoiopa 6Aov tuv E^wtEpiKCJv SuvdpECDV oro tpiipa
trig 6oKOu KOI 01 Q(x,t), Q ( a , t ) EKCppd^ouv tig tEpvouoEg SuvdpEig otig 6iatopg ata
a, x, avtiotoixa. napayuyior) tr|g Eg'iouarig (5.35) wg npog x 6i6Ei

w(x,t) 3y(x,1 3Q(x,t)


= F(x,t) (5.36)
3t

AvtiKaSicrtcovtag to KOI to M(x, t) an6 tig (5.30), (5.34), Aap6dvoupE tq


| 6ia<popiKii E|ioa>or|, nou npiypd(pi tig EyxdpoiEg 6ovr|Oig tng SOKOU

w(x,t)3y(x,t)
fr E(x)Kx) = F(x,t). (5.37)

i 'Otav to peyEGri E(x), I(x) Eivai avdptr|ta tou x KOI to cpoptio w(x,t) e
0 (w(x,t) = vv(x)), totE naipvoupE tr) nio yvcootr| poptpr) tng pEpiKr|g Eg"<OG>or)g,
[nou nepiypd(pEi tig EyxdpoiEg 6ovr|OEig tng SOKOU, r| onoia Eivai

F(x,t)
(5.38)

EAcuSepo uvopo

4.5.3: a) Zvvopo Antics Eir\piri<;, ft) vo Opi^ovriag Lvvopo, y)

5 yvootov, yia va Eivai to np66Anpa tng SOKOU KoAd tono0EtnpEvo, 9a npEnEi va ouvoSEUEtai
16 KOtdAAriAa eniAsypEVEg ouvopiaKEg KOI apxiKEg ouv6r|KEg. Yndpxouv Sidcpopa Ei6r| ouvopia-
iv auv6rjK<av. Oi nio ouvr)OEig tunoi auvopiaxov ca)v6iiKOV EWOI 01 OKoAouGoi.
1. Euvopo AnAiis Etripi^ris (simply supported boundary), oiav r\ pEtatonior) KOI r| Kapnu-
lAotnta (gonr|) Eivai apq>6tEpa pr|6EV (BAEnE, Sxnpa 4.5.3a)

3 2 y(0.t)
y(o,t)=o, 3x2
(5.39)
144 KecpdAaio 4. E^iaoacig YnepSoAiKou Tui 4.5 Egiocbc

2. naKTcopevo Opigovcios Exivopo (built horizontally boundary), oiuv q


KAi'ori eivai avKpoiepa ]ar|6ev (BAene, Exiipa 4.5.36) And TIC
c

3. EAeuGepo Euvopo (free boundary), OTQV r) KapnuAoTr|ta (ponq) KQI r\ (shear??) EIVQII
cpdTEpa jar|6v (BAdnE, ExHV10 4.5.3y) KOI 01
3iouv Tr|
3 2 y(0,t) 3 3 y(0,t)
= 0. (5.4
3x2 6x3 Un(x,t) =

TEAog, yia tr)v KaAii Tono0Tr|ar) tou npo6Aiipatog Tr|g SOKOU, onog ava(pepa)jE, yia Kd0
CU va iKavonoiouvrai OTJv0r)KEg apxiKov tipcov, 01 onoisg Eivat trig ysviKiig ]aop(|)r| OUVOplQKE
j. Enoy
y(x,0)=f(x), V t ( x , 0 ) = g ( x ) , 0 < x < a. (5.4
- (5.45) TO
r. E^iacooq tr)s AOKOU: EniAuor) xat Aiepeuvrjon.
Lt noAAEg ECpapuoyEg, 01 EocoTEpiKEg 6uvduig Tr|g 6oKou Eivai TOOO LiEydAEg coare i) j U(x,t
ni6paoq Trjg 6uvaving F(x,t) va Eivai aiiuAr|TEa. E' auTEg Tig nEpmTcboEig, i\
(5.38) avriKaGiaraTai VIE TO opoyEVEg avdAoyo. EcopoupE Aoindv TO opoyEVEg avdAoyo i Fia Tnv IK<
E^iocoorig Tr|g 6oKou, dnou yia Adyoug anAoTriTag QETOULIE ^^ = 1. Eniorig QscopoiS
OTI, r| E^iocoorj Tng SOKOU cnjvo6EUTai and ovvopiaKZg ouvdr\K(; limou arrJirjc vnoair,
(simply supported boundary), dncog nEpiypdcpovrai napandvco orr] axor| (5.39). U(x,0)
yia va Eivai TO npoGAnpa OUTO KaAd TonoGETriiiEvo KaAsuai va iKavonoiiioEi KOTOJ
xg cruv0r|Kg. 'ETOI EXOULIE KOTaAii^Ei oro aKdAouGo ouoysvis leidpirjt; Td&c, 6nou 0 <
a npofijlriua apxiKav KO.I ouvopiaKav ovudriKcbv ivnov And Tr| QE^
6i6ovraia
U t t (x,t) = -U xxxx (x,t), 0<x<1, t>0,
U(0,t) 0, Uxx(0,t)=0, U ( l , t ) = 0 , U x x ( l , t ) = 0 , t>0,
U(x,0) f(x), Ut(x,0)=g(x), 0 < x < 1 . (5.4

Fia Tnv eniAuor) TOU npo6AiivaaTOg (5.43) - (5.45) KdvouLiE XPn or l TOU
QEcopcovrag OTI, r\ Auor] EXEI Tr|v aKoAou6ri nEpto6iKii popcpr)
Apa T
U(x,t) = X ( x ) T ( t ) = X(x)(Asincut + Bcostut), 0, cu > 0. dnou 01 o
(5.53).
AvriKaGioTovrag ir\v napdoraor] (5.46) orr|v E^iocoor) (5.43) npOKunTEi r| ouvr|6i
cpopucii E^iocoori 4.5.4 '
X(4)(x)-cu2X(x)=0, 0<x<1, (5,|
E6cb 8a
r| onoia EXEI ysviKii Auor| Tr|g popcprig
auTd, Ady
X(x) = Ci cos \/cux + 2 sin \Awx + Cs cos h\/tux + 4 sin K\/u7x, 0 < x < 1, (5.4

Fia TOV npoo6iopiopd TCOV auGaipETcov oraGEpcov , , 4 KOVOUUE xpiiarl


ouvopiaKov ouv0r|Kcbv (5.44), ondTE npOKunrouv 01 S

= Cs = 0 KOI C4 sin Hi/uJx = 0, C2 sin \AJux = 0. (5.


4.5 EfiocooEic MadnuariKtic <t>voiKnc 145

Ano tig teAeutaieg axeoeig (5.49) npOKuntei 4 = 0 KQI sin ^flu\ = 0. Enoiaevcog 01
uxvoTHTeg tou napandva npo6Ar|uatog 6i6ovtai ano tnv aicoAouGia

cun = (n.7i)2, n = 1,2,3,...,

Km 01 deiieAioSeis Auoeig U n , n = 1,2,3,..., 6r|Aa6ri 01 ouvaptiiaeig nou, ucavo-


noiouv tr) pepiKii 6iacpopiKii eiouar| KCU tig ouvopiaKeg ouv6iiKEg, eivai
(5.41) U, n (x,t) = X n (x)T n (t) = [an sin(n7t)2t + bn cos(n7i)2tl sin(nTrx), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0,

yia Kd6e n = 1,2,3,.... Enei8ii r| pepiKri 6ia(popiKii eiocoor| eivai ypai^V11^ Kai Ol
ouvopiaKEg auv6r|Keg eivai opoyeveis, pnopouvie va etpapvioooupe triv apxii ir^s unepGe-
or|$. Enopevcog pnopouyie va Qecopiiaouiae ug GoKnaacrciKii Auori TOU npo6AriviaTOs (5.43)
(5.42)
i - (5.45) to avdmuvpa trig iaop(pr|g
oo
[ U(x, t) = Y_ [Qn sin(n7t)2t + bn cos(n7t)2t| sin(nTtx) , 0 < x < 1 , t > 0. (5.50)
n=1
[Fia ir|v iKavonoir|or| TOV apxiKcov auv6r|K6v (5.45), 9a npenei va IOXUOTJV 01
00

, U t (x,0) = g(x) = , (5.51)


n=l n=1

lou 0 < x < 1 KOI to a n , b n , n = 1,2,3,..., eivai npoo6iopiotaioi ouvteAeoteg.


no ir| Qecopia tcov oeipcbv Fourier npOKuntei oti, 01 ouvteAeoteg a n , bn, n = 1,2,3,...,
oviai ano tig oxeoeig
(5.43)
(544)1 2 f1
an = ry g(x)sin(n7ix)dx, 0 < x < 1, n = 1,2,3,..., (5.52)
(5.45) (TiTtr J 0

bn = 2 | f(x)sin(n7rx)dx, 0 < x < 1 , n = 1,2,3,.... (5.53)


Jo
Apa teAucd r\ Auor| tou npoGAiiuatog (5.43) - (5.45) 6i6etai ano tnv napdotaori (5.50),
ou 01 ouvteAeoreg a n , bn, n = 1,2,3,..., npoa6iopi$ovtai ano tig oxeoeig (5.52),
5.53).

5.4 'Eva OuoYEvcg rpauuiKO np66Anua


9a eniAuoouue eva nio ouvGeto opoyeveg YPauulK npoBAnu-a, Kdvovtag dueoa
r|ori tng ue6d6ou x^pioviou uetaBAntcbv. 'Oncog 9a uno8eix6ei ato teAog, to np66Anu.a
i, Aoyco tng eiSiKiig uopcprig nou exei, pnopei va eniAuGei KOI ue xpriarl KatdAAnAou
raoxnpatiauou. ecopouue Aoinov to ouoyeveg unepBoAiKO np66Aqua

Uxx(x,t) + 2u x (x,t)+u(x,t)=u t t(x,t) 1 0 < x < 7 t , t > 0 , (5.54)


u(0,t) = 0, u(7t,t)=0, t > 0 , (5.55)
(5.49) u(x,0) = e~ x , tit(x,0)=0, O < X < T I . (5.56)
146 4. iKOi) '

EcpappdouLi to pTa6Ar|t6v u(x,t) = X(x)W(t), ondte


QKoAouGa npo6Ar|Liata

X"(x)+2X'(x) + ( A + 1 ) X ( x ) = 0 , X(0) = X(n) = 0, 0 < x < 71, (5.!


W"(t) + AW(t) = 0, t > 0 .

To ouvopiaKO np66Anu.a (5.57), Lie ouvdptr|or| fSdpoug r(x) = e2", ppioKEtai on, I
tig OKoAouGEg iSiOTiuEg xai avtiotoixeg i6ioouvaptr|oeig

An='n2, 4>n(x) = e~ x sinnx, n = 1,2,3,.... (5.!

IV auTEg tig tiLieg TOU A = An 01 Auoeig Trig (5.58) Eivai trig u.op(j>r|g

W n (t) = a n cos(nt) + b n sin(nt), t > 0, n = 1,2,3 .....

onou a n , bn, n = 1,2,3,..., auGaipetEg araGEpEg. EuvSud^ovrag tig (5.59),


(5.60) KQI tr) yeviK.v}AivT] apxii vis unepdeoris npOKuntEi oti, r\ cruvdptr|ar|

u(x, t) = e~>; y {an cos(nt) + bn sin(nt)} sin(nx), 0 < x < TT, t > 0, (5.61)'
n=1

anoteAsi Auor| tdoo Tr|g $"iooor|g 600 KQI tov auvopiaKcov auv6r|Kcov TOU
(5.54) - (5.56). Pia va ixavonoiEi Tig apxiKEg auvGiiKEg, 9a npsnEi va loxuouv 01
00
x x
u(x,0) = e = e a n sln(nx), 0 < x < n, (5.62) I
n=l

vtt(x, 0) = 0 = e~ x ^nb n sin(nx), 0 < x < TT, (5.63)


n=l

onou EXOUPE unoGEOEi OTI, EIVOI 6uvaTii r| EvaAAaYli 6ia(p6piOT|g KOI dneipng dGpoioqg.
EuLicpova LIE Trj OEOpia tou avarituyLiatog Fourier, and Tig oxsoeig (5.62), (5.63) npOKij-
nTEi oti, ta a n , bn anotEAouv toug minoviKovg ouvitdemes Fourier oto Sidornpa [0,n]
tcov auvaptiioeeov f (x) = e~x, g(x) = 0, avtioroixa. 'ETOI 9a loxuouv 01

bn = ||e xsinnx|| z
r
TP
Oe x sinnxdx = 0,
(1 )
nn '
n = 1,2,3 .....
-, n = 1,2 (5.64)

(5.65)
Jo

Apa TEAixd r| Auor) TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOg (5.54) - (5.56) 6i6Tai ano Tr|

u(x,t) = e - x Y ~ 0 + (-1) n+1 )cos(nt)sin(nx), 0 < x < TT, t > 0.


* UTt V /
n=l
|>AiKOu Tunov 147

OKumouv ta x
4.5.5. Me 10 u(x,t) = z(x,t)e ro (5.54) -

(5.57) ! Zx X (x,t) z u (x,t), O<X<TT, t>0,


(5.58) z(0,t) 0, z(7i,t)=0, t > 0 ,
z(x,0) 1, zt(x,0)=0, O<X<TT.
OTt,
I\a
4.2.1.
(5.59)
4.5.5 npo6Arjpata
L HSiacpopiKri e|iocoor| tcov 6iapr|Kcov (longitudinal) ToAavtooecov uiag pd66ou uiiKOug a Eupi-
pEoa o' EVQ i5<a6Eg (viscous) uypo EXEI ir| popcprj
(5.60)
) + 2bu t (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0,
>eic (5.59),
lou c eivai r| taxutnta tou nxou atr| pd66o xai to b anotEAEi tov auvteAEOtii anoo6eong.
HopouuE oti r| pd66og EWQI ota9Epr| oto dxpo x = 0 KQI acpr|vetai va taAavtoutai oto dKpo
= a , SnAaSii loxuouv 01 ouvopiaxeg ouv0r|KEg tunou Robin
(5.61)
u(0,t)=0, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t>0,
*a ppE0ei n auvdptnor) u(x,t), nou nEpiypdcpEi tig taAavtcooEig tng pd66ou ato xpdvo t > 0, av
6Arjpatc>s Eg auv6r|KEg tou npo6Aiiuatog sivai u(x,0) = x, u t (x,0) =0, 0 < x < a.
Dl i

: u(x,t) = [cosqt + q =

(5.62) Ol taAavtcooEig (SiaKupdvoEig) niEarig p(x,t) KOI taxutntag u(x,t), nou npOKoAouvtai ano
u6pauAiKO nAiiypa (water hammer) OE EVO ocoAiiva piixoug a ue tpi6Eg (friction) 6i6ovtai
o tig e$"iocboig
(5.63)
c""2p t ( x , t ) = -pu x (x,t), pu t (x,t) = -p x (x,t)-fu(x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0,

fonou 10 c Eivai r| taxutnta tou nxou oto vepd, to p eivai r| nuKvotnta tou vEpou KOI to f
9poiar|g. lanoieAEi tov ouvtEAEOtri tpi6r|g. O ouv6uaopdg autov tcov 6uo EJjiocooecov o8nyEi atr| 6eutpo6d6pia
npOKU-
a {0,n]
c 2 p x x ( x , t ) = p t t ( x , t ) + 2hut(x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0,

I onou 2H = f/p. Na PpE0i n ouvdptnor) p(x,t), nou nepiypdcpEi tig taAavtcooEig tng nieong p
,(5.64) 1010 xpovo t > 0, av 01 01 auvopiaKEg ouv0r|Kg tou npo6Ar|patog Eivai p(0,t) = po, u(a,t) =
10, t > 0.
(5.65) -1)nx
i:p(x,t) =p 0
2 2
4h|3co pt + 2h2 sin Pt-2p 2 sin (3t onou g _ -l ) 2n
^/(2n-^) 7i^c
2 -2ah 2

3. Mia opi^ovtia Soxog piixoug a EXEI EninESa dxpa ata x = 0 xai x = a. EcopoupE oti ta
(JEyE0r| E(x), I(x) Eivai avE|dptr|ta tou x. To dxpo x = 0 Eivai naiacopEvo opi?ovticog KOI to
dKpo x = a eivai eAEu6epo. Av oto xpdvo t = 0, n Soxog 3pioKtai oe Katdoraor) loopponiag
aAAd o d^ovag Eivai KEKapEvog (deflected) oupcpcova p tr| ouvdptnor) f(x), 0 < x < a, va
148 KefpdAaio 4. E^ioaoeig YnepBoAiKOu TunoB

6iapop<j>a)0i 10 np66Ar||ja apxiKcbv KOI cruvopiaKov auv9r|KQV yia ir| peTatoniari y(x,t)
trig SOKOU KQI yia dAoug Toug XPOVOUS t > 0.
/: y t t ( x , t ) + c 2 y x x x x (x,t) = g, 0 < x < a, t > 0, (c 2 = EI/p); y ( 0 , t ) = y x (0,t
0, y x x (a,t) =y x xx(a,t) = 0, t > 0; y(x,0) = f(x), y t (x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a.
4. Mia opi^dvua 60x65 yriKOUS Q ^Xl EnineSa dxpa aia x = 0 KCU x = a. ecopoupe 6
pye0r| E(x), I(x) eivai ave|dptqta tou x. To dKpo x = 0 eivai naKtopevo opi^ovtiog KQIB)
dKpo x = a ewai eAeOSepo. Le xpovoug t < 0, n SoKog ppioKEiai oe Katdaiaori loopponiaj,
aAAd o d^ovag eivai KeKapevog Kdtu ano tr|v enifipaor) cpoptiou HEyeSoug F crto dxpo x =
KQI TOU (Bdpoug trig SOKOU. Av tr| xpovuai atiwiri t = 0, anEAu9epci>viai TO dxpo x = a
TO cpoprio, va 6iaiiop(pQ6ei TO np68Ar|na apxiKcbv KOI ouvopiaKuv auv9r|K6v \\.a ir\ pr,iai6ra(
y (x, t) Tr) 6iaTopiis Trig SOKOU, yia oAoug Toug XPOVOUS t > 0.
Ynd6eirr. 2tr| ordoiu.r] Katdaraori t < 0 01 ouvopiaKeg ouv6r|KEg oio Se^io dKpo x = a
6u eivai: y x x ( a , t ) = 0 , y x x x (a,t) = F/EI.

4.6 Bi6Aioypa(j)iKEg Avad>opeg


Fia nepauepo laeAeir] napaneunouiae TOV ev6ia<})ep6pevo avavvcbcn:r| pexa^utiAAcovaia
piBAia icov S. S. Antman [5], G. Arfken [6], D. Bleecker and G. Csordas [8], R.Courant |
[18], G. Folland [27], A. Friedman [28], P. Garabedian [29], K. E. Gustafson [33],
Hadamard [36], J. K. Hale [37], J. Kevorkian [46], J Malek, J Necas, M Rokyta andM
Ruzicka [54], R. McOwen [55], M. A. Pinsky [59], M. Renardy and R. C. Rogers [65], S.I
L. Sobolev [72], W. A. Strauss [76], R. N. Tikhonov and A. A. Samarskii [78], D. W. Trim
[81], Tyn Myint-U and L. Debnath [83], H. F. Weinberger [84], E. C. Zachmano^lou and
D. W. Thoe [86], KQI E. Zauderer [87|.

4.7 npo6Ai)iiaTa
1. Na Au0Ei TO aKoAou6o unEp6oAiKo npd6Ar|pa p.e ando6eor| ouvopia
ouv9r|Kci)v Tunou Robin

u t t(x,t) + 2bu t (x,t) = c 2 u xx (x,t), 0 < x . < a , t > 0 ,


u x (0,t) = 0, u(a,t) = d, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a ,

onou TO b, c, d eivai npayviaTiKeg ora9epeg ys c > 0.


2. Na Au9ei to aKoAou9o opoyevEg unep6oAiKO np66Ar|u.a anoo6Eor| - ouvopio
auv9r|K6v TUROU Dirichlet

u t t (x,t) + bu t (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) =h(x), 0 < x < a ,

onouta b, c eivai npaytiatiKeg ora9Epeg ye c > 0 KOI h(x) KatdAApAr) npaypaTiKii ouvdpt
Tcvucd /7po6Ar)para 149
llKOU

HaipertuKii TaAavTuar) (tortional oscillation) EVO$ d^ova (shaft) KUKAuciig 8iaTOpiig


ano Tr| LiEpiKri 6ia<j>opu<r| E^i

= yx(o,t) = e t t (x,t)=4e x x (x,t) 1 o < x < n , t > o ,


u 9(x,t) eivai r| ycoviaKii pETaTomor) Tr| 6iaTOiir|g. Ta dKpa TOU ajjova unaKOuouv orig
POUUE Ott TQ
vGiiKEg tunou Robin
3Vtiag KQI TO
9x(0,t)=29(x,t), r,t), t > 0,
loopponiagj
IKpO X = OpioSei n ycoviuKr) pEiutoiuor) ing Siatopqg, av q apxiKii ywviaKr| UETaTomor) 8i6ETai ano Tr|
a uiio |wvdpir|or| cosx.
I Oi SiapiiKEig 6iaTapaxE5 longitudinal vibrations Evog KoAoupou KOVOU (truncated co-
BpriKOug a KOI aKiivag pdoris T nEpiypdcpovrai paGqpaTucd ano TO aKoAouGo ouoyEVEg
Bp6oAiK6 np66Anpa apxuav - ouvopiaKuv oOvGnxuv Tunou Dirichlet

0<x<a)t>0,

u(0,t) = 0, u ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = h(x), u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , O < X < Q ,
ciAAcov crta = ^, E TO peTpo eAaoriKOTnTas (elastic modulus), p Eivai n nuxvoTnTa TOU uAiKOu KQI
^.Courant |^. Na AuGEi TO napandvco np68Anpa.
n 133], J.
p. Na AuGEi TO aKoAouGo OLIOYEVES unep6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKOV - ouvopiaKov ouvGnKCov Tunou
and M fchlet
rs [65], S.
W. Trim utt(x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t)-2ku t (x,t), 0 < x < 1 , t > 0 ,
glou and u(0,t) 0, u ( l , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = asinTrx, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < l ,

a, c, k Eivai npaypauKEc, oraGEpEg ps c > 0, 0 < k < nc. O 2kut(x,t) anoTEAEi TOV
Tng E^iocoaqg KQI nEpiypdcpEi ir\v avtioraori TOU aEpa, r| onoia Eivai avdAoyr) Trig
Tr|g ToAavroupEvrig xop6r|g.
VOptdKttV kt
Ivnjorj: u(x,t) = ae {coso~t + sino~t}sin7rx, onou cr = \/7t2c2 k2
Na AuGEi TO axoAouGo opoyEVEg unep6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKcbv - ouvopiaxov ouvGnxuv Tunou
richlet

u t t (x,t) = u x x (x,t) + 2u x (x,t) + u(x,t), 0 < x < 2 7 t , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 r , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = e~ 2 x , u t (x,0) = e~ 1 , 0 < x < In.
OplQKCOV
7. Na AuGEi TO aKoAouGo pr| opoyEVEg unEp6oAiKO np66Anpa apxiKUv - ouvopiaKQV ouvGriKuv
rtnou Dirichlet, TO onoio nspiypdcpEi pixpEg opi^ovriEg pETOTonioEig (deflections) ano Tr| 9Eor|
loopponiag TOV oripEiov Evog (JapEtog KaAo6iou piixoug a, KpEpaopEvou KOGETO ano TO Eva dxpo

, 0<x<a, t>0,
y(a,t) = 0, t > 0 ,
apinoT).
y(x,0) = f(x), VJ t (x,0) = g(x), 0 < x < a,
150 KecpdAaio 4. Eiaaoei<; YnepdoAiKOv Tim

onou p Eivai r| (ojaoi6)jopcpri) nuKvotr|ta tou uAucou, g < 0 Eivai r\ Emtdxuvori trig (iapui
Kai f ( x , t ) Eivai r) y- auviatapEvri 6A<av tuv E^wtEpixov 6uvd)ae(av avd povd6a pr)KOu >
Katu6uvori. H apxn TOV a^ovuv EWQI ato Kdtco dicpo tou KoAcoSiou, oiavauto PpioKEtal atr|<
loopponiag, EVW o SEtixog rmid^ovag tcov x Eivai xatd pf)KO5 tou KaAco6iou.
ftccjxiAato 5

2 KCU 3 XcopiKeg Aiaordacvg

5.1 Eioaycoyri
nvopeva uTd6oons 9epuoTr|Tas ii TaAavrcbaecov nou Aa.u6d.vouv x^pa OE Aeneas nAd-
mt T\ uep6pdvg, OE KuAivSpoug, opGoYcovia napaAAnA6Ypauu.a r\ ocpaipsg, unopouv va
InEpiypacpouv ano UEPIKES 6ia(popiKg E^iocooeig, nou opi^ovrai OTU; 6uo ii TpEig 6iaordois
ue TOUC; nEpiopiououg.
9a cpavEi orr| OUVEXEIO 01 TEXVIKEJ, nou xpr)luonoiuviai Yia Tnv EniAuar)
6ia(popiKcbv E^IOQOECOV oe nepioootEpes 6iaancdoEis, anoTeAouv cpuoioAoYiKii \tvi-
EnEKraor) TOV r)6r) YVOOTCOV pe6d6ov, nou avanruxOnKav \\a pepiKEg 6iacpopiKes
oe uia 6idoraon.
EVTOUTOIS npEnEi va TOvioGEi OTi, 01 6ia6iKaoiE$, nou aKoAou6ouv Eivai noAunAoKES
Ixai auxv o6r|YOuv oe npoSJlrmaia Sturm-Uouville, TOV onoiov 01 Auoeis eivai yeviKsv-
ouvapir)Oi<;. Ei6iKOTEpa, npo6Ar)uaTa opiopEva OE KUKjliKd r\ KvHwdpiKo. nedia
ae Auoeig, nou nepiExouv auvapiriaeig Bessel. Evcb npo6AiiuaTa opiauEva OE
ne6ia oSnYOUv OE Auoeig, nou nEpucAeiouv nojlvcovu)j.a Legendre. H
ii TCOV E^IOCOOECOV, nou 9a UEAETnGouv o' auTq Tnv EvoTnTa, Eivai

V 2 u(x,t) =c- 2 utt(x,t),


. V 2 u(x) = 0, Auva^itKOU,

V 2 u(x)=-q(x), Poisson

' OUTO TO KECpdAaio QecopoupE OTI, TO x D, dnou D eivai Eva OVOIKTO


[unocnJvoAo TOU !iHn, n = 2,3 KQI t > 0.

5.2 Auo Aidordoeis


5.2.1 OpGoycovio IIe6io
! A. H KuuaTiKii E^iocoari oe pia OpGoyuvta Me]i6pavq. 'Earco uia 6ovouuevr| op6o-
Uu6pdvr| D = ( 0 , a ) x ( 0 , b ) , i\ onoia eivai araGepd npooSeuEvr) ortg TE
152 KecpdAaio 5. 2 KOI 3

x = 0, X = Q, y = 0 , y = b. Enioris 9copouu. OTI, orov apxiKO


(t = 0) T] u.p6pdvr) napauxvi aKivrnri KOI r\ napajadpcpcooii Tr|$ 8i6Tai and ir\ ouvdp-1
Trjor) f ( x , y ) . TOTE r\ napau.dpcpoor| T^C; pp6pdvr|c; OE Enduxvouc; xpovoug 9a 6i6etar
ano Tr| Auor| TOU QKoAou0ou unp6oAucou npoBAripaTOc; apxiKov auvopiaKcov ouv0r)K(iv
Tunou Dirichlet

Uxx(x,y,t)+uyy(x,y,t) = c~2Utt(x,y,t), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , t > 0, (2.1


u(0,y,t)=0, u(a,y,t) = 0, 0 < y < b, t > 0, (2.2) |
u(x,0,t)=0, u(x,b,t) = 0, 0 < x < a , t > 0, (2.3)1
u(x,y,0)=f(x,y), Ut(x,y,0)=0, 0<x<a, 0 < y < b . (2.4)
Ecpapiad^ovrac; TO x^picrvid TCOV u.Ta6Ar)T6v uno0TOuu. OTI, r\ Auori u(x,y, t) pnopJ
KOT' apxiiv va YP-<t>Ei orr) uopcpri

, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , t > 0. (2.5)

napdoraori (2.5) (2. 1) KOI EJjiocbvovras TOug KOivoug


TIE TO X npoKurtTEi r\

= 0 (2.6)

and TO npd6Ar]via (2.1) - (2.4) npOKunTOuv TO aKoAou0a 8uo npo6AriviaTa

y) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,


= 0, 0<y <b, V(x,0)=0, H'(x,b)=0, 0 < x < a
Kat
W"(t)+Ac 2 W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (2.9)
H oxEori (2.7) anoTEAEi Tnv eiouoq Helmholtz Fia Tqv EniAuor) TOU npo6Aiipaio$|
(2.7) - (2.8) Ecpapvad^ouviE EK VEOU x^piopd yTa6Ar)Tcbv, QETOVTOS
H'(x,y)=X(x)Y(y), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b . (2.10)

X"(x) Y"(y)
- X = -|i, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,
X(x) Y(y)
onou TO anoTEAsi vaia KaivoupYia ora0pd x^pioviou. EnoviEvcog TO npd6Arma (2.7
(2.8) ara aKdAou0a 6uo npo6Ar]u.ciTa ouvopiaKcov ouv0r)Kcbv Tunou Diric

X"(x) = 0, 0 < x < a , X(0)=0, X ( a ) = 0 ,


= 0, 0 < y < b, Y(0) = 0, Y(b) = 0.
And npor|YOuviVs nEpinrcboEis EXOUV (ip0i TO TCOV npo6Ar)u.d.Tcov iSioTip
(2.12), (2.13) KOI civai, avrioroixa
riTtx
X n (x) = sin 0 < x < a, n = 1,2,3,...,
f Aiacndi lAuoAiaaidaeig 153

6 tr) ouv<M
S 9a 6i , 0<y<b, m = 1,2,3,., (2.15)
b2 b
v auv9r)K<j
101 iSioiipeg KCU 01 avriotoixec; iSioouvapTiioeis TOU npo6Ariy.aTO$ (2.7) - (2.8) 9a eivai

A = A mn = ( ^r + ^ r j T t 2 , m,n = 1,2,3,..., (2.16)


\ a. b /
riTTx m.7Ty
im(x.y) = sin- -sin- , 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, m,n = 1,2,3 (2.17)
a b
ita A = A mn 01 AUOEIQ TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOS (2.7) 8a eivai
/
t) pnopeij A mn ct), t > 0 , m,n = 1,2,3,.... (2.18)
tnv apxr| iqs YEVlKeuV1cvn5 unepGeons, ava^riioupe Auoeig tou npo-
(2.5) (2.1) - (2.4) tr|S popcpiis
oo oo oo oo
KOlVOUg tl(x,y,t) = Y_ X. Wmn t <Pmn X>y
^ ) ( ^ =
H Y-
m=l n=1 m=l n=l
n7TX
+ Bmn sin sin sin (2.19)
(2.6) a b
Inou 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, t > 0. Oi auvTEAeaies A m n, B mn , m, n = 1,2,3,...,
npoo6iopi?ovrai etai ware va iKavonoiouvrai 01 apxixeg auv6r|Kg (2.4).
a npenei va loxuouv 01
(2.7)
oo oo
T17TX
a (2.8) f(x,y) = , 0 < x < a, 0<y < b, (2.20)
m=l n=1
a b
(2.9) ! . v r _ /r nn\
rwix rtr/iy
0 = > > B mn c\/A mn sin sin -. 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b . (2.21)
* * na nb
m=l n=l
I Ano Tnv napdoraor] (2.21) npoKunTEi OTI Bmn = 0, yia KaQt m, n = 1,2,3,.... Evcb
sjiouor] (2.20) oDVEndyETai OTI
(2.10)

f(x,y)sin a sindydx, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, m,n,= 1,2,3,...


OD Jo Jo
(2.11)1
Apa TeAiKd, r) u.ova6iKd (TuniKii) Auor| TOU unp6oAiKOu npo6AriviaTog apxtKov au-
vopiaKcov ouv6nK<av Tunou Dirichlet (2.1) - (2.4) 6i6eTai ano Tr) ouvdpTnor) (2.19), onou
a (2.7) - ixouv avTiKaTaora0i 01 OTjvTEAeoTES A mn , B mn ano Tig napandvo <
Mrichlet 5.2.1. Av avii Trig jf avvdrJKrjg (2.4) e.ixa\t. vr\
) ovvdr\Kr]
(2.12)!
(2.13) u(x,y,0) =0, ut(x,y,0) = g ( x , y ) , 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b,
. (paiveiai 611, 9a ixpvyte. Amn = 0, m., n = 1,2,3 Oi 6e ouvieteaieg Bmn
iionjacov
Ttpoadioptfpviai and ir\
fQ fb UTTX TTlTTy
g(x,y)sm sin-dydx, m,n = 1,2,3
(2.14) /A mn cab Jo Jo a b
154 KzcpdAaio 5. 2 KOI 3 XopiKcg A

napatrjprioq 5.2.2. (Koji6iKg Fpappes) /Ira* nf oxOig (2.16) - (2.17) TtpOKuma dn,
yia 6e6ofiva a, b a Kdde idtaiifiTJ A mn avnmoixouv apKzizg i5toavvapir\oi^. &VOIKO,
avid nac; Mei 611, nia 6ovoufivrj fifjjSpdvrj eniipinei 6id(popov<; iponoug 6ovr\aov \tz trji;
i6ia

tUmn = , m,n = 1,2,3,...,

tajf 6ia(popUK(; KOpSiKes ypaiapcs 6rjJla6rj Ka}j.ni>jlg Kara //r?KOf rwi; o-


?7 \i.\j&pdvr\ }jvei aKt'urjrrj Kara tr] 6idpKia rr?f Sdt^orjf KOI 01 onoig npocpavw;
anoijiovv Avaig

.y) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , m,n = 1,2,3,... .

4>12 4>21 <J>12+4>21 2 4>21

,
...
.

5.2.1:

Aa fa yivovv Karauorjrd ra TrapaTrdvcj, EOTO 611 ixpv\Jt& diaei a = b = 1. Tou oil


Sovqoqs ivai cumn = 7tc\/m.2 + n2, m,n = 1,2,3,... KOI ot xponoi
i mn (x) = sinnTtxsinmTTx, m,n = 1,2,3,.... @iovrag m = n = 1]
naipvoujj ro dcyicAtcb5r| xpono, yta lov onoiofipioKOvii6n

= nc\/2, cpn(x,y) = sin Ttx sin Try, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b .

SEU undpxovv KO{*6iKg ypa^iig a' aurrjv rrjf nEpiniaar]. 'Q^ag OEZOI
m. = 1, n = 2 r) m = 2, n = 1 ixov^ie la aKdjlouda 0)12 = "J2i = 7tc-\/5 KOI

i'U) sto7OC8in27ry, .y) = sin 2?rx sin Tty , 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b .
tdiaard< 155

IJ V } y = 1/2 cai o
1
) x = 1/2. Eniorjg r\ CD 12 avuoioixi cnovjjiKi6 rpdno
+ c 2<P2i(x.y) = Ci sin27rxsin7ty + C2Sin7rxsin27ry, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b,

],C2 anoieJlouv audaipig madepig. Avculoya f* ir\v enti(oyr\ raw


npOKvmouv dicupope^ KO}j.6iK<; ypa^/ff, dnog <pa.iviai mo LxWa 5.2.1. Eivai
va 6iamoradi on, KoBag la n, m av^dvovv, o apidfMg icov idioauvapiriosav,
aftj iov rpdncjv Sovrjoris, nou aviimoixouv o H.ICL yajuiajcr) avxvoirjia cumn = c\/^m.n

B. H Ejjtocoaq OeppoxqTas oe pia OpOoycovia nAdxa. 'Eorco r| opGoycbvia nAdKa


e (0, a) x (0, b), n onoia etvai anoAuTa SepiiiKd jaovcoiaevn cnic rtAeupec x = 0, x = a.
IdAAeg 6uo nAeupeg 6iaTnpouvrai arn 9epvaoKpaoia vir)6ev. Eniang 9eupouvie on n
q (t = 0) KOTavopii QeppOKpaotag 6i6eTai ano TP ouvdpTnon. f ( x , y ) . TOTE n
ii OEpjaoKpaoiag ae Enopevoug xpdvoug 9a 6<6eTai ano Tr| Auan TOU OKoAou6ou
|nflpa6oAtKou npo6Ar|paTOg apxiKcov ouvopiaKcbv cnjv9nKov Tunou Robin

patay.tj+Uyylx.y.t) = ^^(x.y.t), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , t>0, (2.22)


B,t)=0, Ux(a,y,t) = 0, 0 < y < b , t > 0, (2.23)
ifx,0,t)=0, u(x,b,t) = 0, 0 < x < a , t > 0, (2.24)
u(x,y,0) = f(x,y), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , (2.25)
fcl
|4nou k Eivat ina 9ETiKr| npay>iaTiKii oraSEpd. Ecpappo^ovrag TO xcopiorao TOV viETa
eioupE OTI, n Auon, u(x, y , t) pnopei KOT' apxr)v va ypa<pei can popcpri,

u(x,y,t) = , 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , t>0. (2.26)

Tnv napdoraon (2.26) ornv Eciocoon (2.22) KOI Eg"iocbvovrag Toug KOI-
; Aoyoug ps TO A npOKurrtEi n

(2.27)

fctoi ano TO np66Anpa (2.22) - (2.25) rtpOKunTouv TQ aK6Aou9a 6uo npo6AiipaTa


T /
i xx(x,y)+^ y y (x,y)+AM'(x,y) 0, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, (2.28)
.'x(O.y) =0, Vxfa.y) =0, 0 <y < b, V(x,0) =0, Y(x,b) =0, 0 < x < a (2.29)
KQl
W'(t)+Ak 2 W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (2.30)
H oxEori (2.28) anoTEAei Tnv e^iouot] Helmholtz. fta Tnv EniAuon tou npo6Ar|patog
J(2.28) - (2.29) (papp6oup EK VEOU x^piopd pTa6Ar)Tcbv, 9tovrag

Y(x,y)=X(x)Y(y), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b . (2.31)


1
Etoi npOKunrei n oxon
X"(x) Y"(y)
- A = p, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , (2.32)
X(x) Y(y)
KigAiacndi
iAiaoiaoi<; 157

TeAiKd, r) povaStKd (Tunucri) Auor] TOU napa6oAiKOu npoBAriparog apxtKcbv ou-


ICQV auvGnKcov Tunou Robin (2.22) - (2.25) SiScTat ano Tf| ouvdpTnor) (2.40), onou
iavuKaTaoraGet ot ouvreAeoreg ano Tig oxeoetg (2.42)-(2.43).
:
0,
1.2 KuKAiKa IleSia - Euvapxiiacig Bessel
[va entAu9ei pE TFJ p0o8o xcopiopou pTa6AnTcov EVO np66Anpa 9ppoTnTag r\ KupaTi-
[0 KUKAiKd n6ia, 9a npni npcoTa TO np66Anpa va EKCppaaGet oe noAiKeg i
ej. 'Exoupe anoSei^ei (BAEnE KscpdAaio 2, EvdTnTa 2.4.1) OTI, r\ Laplacian OE
(r,9) exi tn pop<pii

V2u(r, 9) = u rr (r, 9) + -u r (r, 9) + -=z


r r

H Kupaxucq Eijtoooi) oe yia KuxAtKi] Me|i6pdvq - Axxtvuui


Bnu OTI r) ouvdpTnar) u(r, 9, t) napiordvei (pixpii) EYKdpoia peTOTonior) piag
iBpdvng pova8iaiag aictivas pe araGepd dxpa, r| onoia E^apTdTai povo ano TO r
It TO t, 6nAa6ii Exoupe QKTIVIKII oiifiiieTpta u(r,0,t) = u(r,t). Enopsvog 9a
Aet UQQ(T, 9, t) = 0. TOTE, r| pspiKii SiacpopiKii e^tooon, nou nspiYpdcpEi Eva
l^aivopevo, 9a eivat o axTtvixci au^iae-cpixoi; TUKO<; IT]? xu[aotttxr]<;

1
0. (2.44)
r
T ouv9r|Kr| \ia TO npoBAnpa Dirichlet 9a Eivai

u(l,t)=0, t>0. (2.45)

Eupcpuva pE nporiYOUpsvri napaTiipnor) (BAsnE KscpdAaio 2 , EvoTnTa 2.4.2)


Jraoripeio r = 0 anoTeAei iSid^ov onpeio \ia Tnv e^iocoor) (2.44), 9a npenet va 9eooupe
P yeviXEU^Evr) auvopiaxr] auvOn]xr]

|u(r, t)| < +00, KaGcog TO r 0+, YIQ ^a Ta t > 0. (2.46)

E6co 9a npenet va TOvioGei KOI ndAiv OTI, r\ TeAeuTaia ouvQr|Kr| etodYEiai Aoyco
KXviKiig, nou aKoAouGeuai KOI oxi Aoyco Tqg cpuong TOU npo6AiipaTOg. EnopEvcog, OTO
' itAog 9a npenEi va YVVEI ava(pECTT) irjt; tSojaopcpiac; auTr|g, 8nAa6r| 9a npsnsi va ano6ixGt
; on, q Auori TOU npo6Ar|paTog opi^ETai KOI OTO onpeio r = 0. TsAog, av apxiKd r\ pp6pdvr|
' EXEI tn popcpii f ( r ) KOI KIVEUE pe TaxuTnTa g(r), 01 apxiKEg ouvGiiKeg eivai

u(r,0)=f(r), ut(r,0)=g(r), 0<r<1. (2.47)

Fta Tnv eniAuor) TOU npo6AiipaTOg (2.44) - (2.47) ecpappo^oupe Tnv TE^VIXT] TOU
iwu TCOV (JEiaj3XT]Tcov, 9ecopcbvtag OTI, r) ouvdpTnor) u = u(r,t), Ypacp^a1

u(r,t) = R(r)W(t), 0.
156 5. 2 KOI 3XapiKtg Aiamaaeigl
5.2 Auo Aia

3 H anoTEAEi uia KaivoupYia araospa x^piouou. c/nouEvcog TO npooArjpa i^.^oj


Apa TEA
(2.29) 6iaxcopieTai ora aicoAouGa 6uo npo6Ar|uaTa ouvopiaKcov auv6r|Kcbv, TO npcoTO ano 1
VOplQKCOV Ol
TO onoia Eivai Tunou Neumann, EVCO TO SEUTEPO Eivai Tunou Dirichlet
EXOUV QVTIK
X"(x)-uX(x) = 0, 0 < x < a , X'(0)=0, X ' ( a ) = 0 , (2.33)1
Y"(y) + (A + u)Y(y) = 0, 0 < y < b, Y(0) = 0, Y ( b ) = 0. (2.34)1 5.2.2 Ku
Ano nporiYOUuEVEg nepincooEig EXOUV Pp6i TO i6ioUYn TCOV npo6Ar|u.dTcov i6iOTipuv 1 Fia va eruAi
(2.33), (2.34) KOI eivai, avrioroixa Klig OE KUKy
uVg. 'EXO
u. u.tx ^ z-, , V l~\
/\ A ^
n i A.I /T.n v-ua , f\ ^ ~ ^
w v. jk v. u, ~
11. 1 T 2
i , z., j, ... , (OOCll
1^-vJul I OTJVTETaYur
a a
KOI

2-J TRTTIJ
X
A i(4.i , 14j t Y
' r a i(t\\
yj ' R cin
Dm Sin , 0
U *
C11y *
<0h, m
Tn 1 7 ^ ... .
1 ,^.,0, (9 ^fil 1
IZ.JD)
D b
'ETOI 01 i6ioTiueg KOI 01 avrioroixEg i6ioouvapTrioEig TOU npo6Ar|TiaTOg (2.28) - (2.29) 1 A. H Kuvic
8a "Eorco OTI r) i
x
pu6pdvi-|g
A = m n = f ^Q I + S-W,
b
m,n = 1,2,3,..., (2.37)1 KOl TO t,
V /
laxuEi u 0 o(
cpn ...,'X , lyi jt A R cos
AVn^DT^ one Gin
oin , uC\<**- xYv^ n uA<^ ^i iy< <-.
> u, ^ Vu,
i Im
I I , FnI
1i , 7z .-, j^, . .(z.ooj
f9 ^St 1
Q b q)aivouvo,
Tia TO A = A mn 01 AuoEig TOU npo6AiipaTOg (2.28) 9a Eivai
f /_2 rn2\ ^|
W mn (t) =E m n exp<^ - [ f + -^ } T^kh L t>0, m,n = 1,2,3,.... (2.39)1
I \fr VJ } H ouvopiaK
Ecpapuo^ovrag Tnv apxii Tpg YviKuuEvr|g unEpGEorig, ava^riTouuE Auoeig lou npo-l
pAiIpaTOg (2.22) - (2.25) Ti]g uopcprig
OO CO

U(x,y,t) = J^ ^_W mn (t)cp mn (x,y) Zuyicpcov


m=1 n=l to oripeio i
ooco
V \!
f / 2
/ H
2\
TTl \ 7, 7
^
H7TX TTTTTy
tr] yevixeujj
N > n fvr\ J 1 7TzVzt \ r>oc cin f9 4T
* ^ V a oz / a b
m=1 n=1
6mau 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, t > 0 KOI amn = A n B m E mn , m,n = 1,2,3,.... Oi
OU1kTEAEoreg a mn , m, n = 1,2,3,... , npoo6iopi^ovTai ETOI COOTE va iKavonouiuvtai od
E6co 8a
apXiKEg ouv6r)Keg (2.25). EUYKEKPIU.EVO, 9a npsnEi va icrxuei r\ oxor| texviKiig, n
TeAog 9a np
CO CO
U -ffv
x ill \ on, r] Auor|
y 1! (\\
u("U J ~ H > y J / / Qn mn cos
\ oro sin
cin , i uC\<*^xY<**a n, uH< ^. yi i<^on.
EXEI Tr| pop.
m=li n=li a b
HitEAEUTaia anoTEAei uia 6inAri OEipd Fourier. 'ETOI 01 ouvrEAeoTEg 6i6ovrai ano Tig operas
a m7ty
mO T^x,yjsin
fit i l l Qin
b
Hayax,
iiHv nTV 1i ,7z ,3j , . . . , (9d4 fia Tr]v
ab Jo Jo ojaou TWV u
n -ffv i l l one cin HuHv m n 1 7 3 (9 4.1
Jo Jo
158 KctpaXaio 5. 2 KOI 3 Xopmig biaaiaasA 2 Avo Aiao

AvTiKaGioTcbvrag THV napandvco jaopcpii oro np66Ar|via (2.44) - (2.47) KCU aKoAou0ti-
es 6ia8iKaoieg KaTaAr)YOUVi ora aKoAouGa npo6Aiijaaia

=
0, 0 < r < 1, (2.41
+
|R(r)| < +00, KoGcbgTO r - > 0 , \\a 6Aa ta t > 0, R ( l ) = 0 , (2.491
2
W"(t) + Ac W(t) = 0, t > 0 . (2.50)|

H (2.48) anoteAei pia e^touoq Bessel vir)6eviKiis Taris iae yEviKii Auor|

R(r) = C, Jo(kr) + C 2 Y 0 (kr), 0 < r < 1, onou A - k2 > 0. (2.51)1

Fia va ucavonoieuai r\ Y^viKEUviEvri ouvopiaKii ouv6r|Kri oro dKpo r = 0 TOU npo-


(2.48) -(2.49), 9a npensi va IOXUEI C2 = 0, acpou TO Y 0 ( k r ) KaGiataim
cppavpEvo, KaGcig TO r > 0+. 'ETOI ano Tq ouvopiaKii ouvGriKr) crto onpEto r =
on,
= CiJ0(k)=0. (2.52)1

6nou 01 auv

5.2.2: Ko}j.6iKg Fp

OTI, r) Jo xei dneipEg AuoEig oro QETIKO npid^ova, EOTCO Tig ki , k2 ..... .k,,,
.... EnoiiEvcog r| E(ocoori (2.52) vinopEi va IOXUEI y\a Ci ^ 0, av KOI viovo av E
k = ki, i = 1 ,2,3, ... , 6nAa6ri TO np66Ar|pa (2.48) -(2.49) EXEI i6iOTivig A n =
i6iooi;vapTrjaig

4>n(r) = Jo(k n r), 0 < r < 1 , n = 1,2,3,.... (2.53)

ETOvrag A = An (ipioKOuviE OTI, 01 AuoEig TOU npo6Ar|paTOg (2.50) EWQI

W n (t) = a n cosk n ct + b n sink n ct, t > 0, n = 1,2,.... (2.541

Ano Tig napaardoEig (2.53)-(2.54) npoKunrei i] ansipia TCOV Auoecov

n ct + b n sink n ct)/o(k n r), 0 < r < l , t > 0, (2.551


(we) (SS'S)
UxldOAnO i Alii 3K>Drlp$Di3dX SUofiY SLii oiADrlUooAori 01 DIJ
[0'.1)6 = (o'0 '.i)*n '(0 'a).f = (Q'0 '-i)n
(^9'2)
1 *9' l)^ '4.0 ^ *L ^^ Sc>0DM *OA3riADdd) |(^. *g *J,)TI
i i
1 fl J-j^^TX--1 -|- (1 fl iX) TT -|- (1 O J.)^"^Tl
i i
(99 C)
Ucbdorl U0noYpxo Alii 13X3 OAsripAio* 01 isctpdAidsii nou 'DriliYgpdii 01 'Q < ^ '(K'K-
9 0 ' ( l ' 0 ) 3 a D1^ '3191 '0 D)AoA Ui piro IDM iDipido3 SoiDtlAisgodDU noAsrlnoA
-Uodu noi SliApdgrlsrl SlixiyMnx SLiAsrtnoAog SLii AWistlLio AWI (3. '0 'a)n LioiiipiDisrl 3rl ^ =
srinoXs AD
liMiA3j - liApdgtl3iv L Dill 3D llOCOO}5a t 'fl
(09'Z) U
= l
(eg -
s DQ ScoAsrloiig -AraxLi0Ano AWxiXdo ACTI (a)6'(iy
SisoLiidDAno Su DiA 5?o(i3D Su AnoysioiiD (sg'Z) '(Z.9'2) SisosXo I
l=u
'Z) L>a>0
oo
l=u
u
DlDrlAnHIDAD Dl DA 31OP5 1013 ID1AOA3YILI3 q ' u D S31)3Y31AnD 10 I
l=u
(99 -
(ZS'Z)
SoiDtiAnuiDAD noi lid
I -= J. oisrilj
Lii 13X3 DQ (LVZ) ~ (tt'Z) SoioriliYgodii noi 53xU0AnD SsxiXdo 5n IDM ISIOIIOADXI i
ID1D1D1QDM
'LioliidpAno Li up srlnoxoid^j SLio30d3iin SLiAsrtnsxiAsA SLii LiXdo Alii
-odii noi
'(Z'Z'9 DrlLiX3 '31I3YQ) uyx 'SsrlriodA 53
Z AnoXdpun f = u DiA OA3 LitirtDdA Lixigtiox oiri isXdpun j = u DIJ [
DiA 'LirlrlDdA Lixigrlox isXdpiin A3g [ = u DIJ SsttrlodA Ssxtgilox SsAsrtp^DrioAO 3
'Snovxax SnodxAsxoilo 30 iDiAO^pionodou Acoiprlnx Aoriiopir) ACOI Ss^id 10 993 Slig
SLii DtiLiYgodii 01 3ti LIOSQIIAD 33 -no^dpXAa SOAS Apino OIID Sodo6pig Snpy31 iDA)3^ (09 ~Z)
onvurini DAS OIID loisApdoii nou 'SoXU o oApy 01 pino ( ij 'DAOD 0x1139 AGIO mine
-TO-X.OOI fi3Q 0| SU^pi SU.y.i(\3Qkri jassag SUoliictpano 5Ui 53%d 10 Srorio. '( (!) V I 'Z'fr Dl1
'3U3YQ) SUgdoX SLii oriLtYgodii oXioioiiAD 01 3ti DiAoyoAD Dirt srlnog DA srlnodoutl od
'(1)UM ^o^X11 QA3rio\Y!Ofj70i3r) IDX (au->()0| nriliXo pds^aoio srl oiorlnx
Anodoiirl iioiA Diorlfix nrtiopio iDiAo^prioAO (9Q'g) Sisony IQ ..... f ' r ' l = u ID
69 T
'0
uui
UoLiidpAfio Lii OIID ioi3gig (89'C) SUi U ->i =
30 ;3iqouiQ ^X5) 1 , ,1WU
)30nvDN ' ^ ' [ = ui 'Q = ti |0^ J "
n .Uolusivii'v Li(t)dori LiMiA3A Ui AnoXs noi 5i3or\Y 10
DAIS o noiip
iDi3AiA Li 'uui^ Sn S3ifiD ( ij -u{ pssag SUolndpAOO Sin.
Siio AnoXioiciiAD noil '[ = iu' uut ^( Ssrtu AfioXdpiin 'u 30p>i oiA 1013,
30 }3[lpUIQ
i30nyDM 'X
1DX = \Q
( }( = Y) 1DA13 LlOf\Y
Li SDIOIIO SUi 'u 5Upi pssag Uorooi^s 13Y310110 (IL'Z) ^ = '"rl 01 DIJ
U > 0 > U- ' - '' ( = U
(U'Z) =
Si3oLiidDAnx)oigi
3ri ' 'g 'j ' [ = u. ' u = url = rl Ssriiioigi 1013X39 (QZ'Z) orlLiYgpdii ox
' . 0 <- J. 01 '0 =
' I > J. > 0 '0 + (-0,^ + (^)/;J
01 AnomriModii 310110
AnonXoi DA wz) -ii>e>M- ' i > - i > o '(e)H(-Oii=(0'-0/fi
AOiliYgoisrl orioidraX odsiasg 3Tino5otidDct)3 LIOC\Y ^ DU
liocooi3 LiAsriraidD^OAodX Lrio
' K > 0 > i i - '+0<-J- 'OAsrlAod* '0=(0'L)/fv
: '119 srinoXs
o^idoigoodii
^ A. 10 nouo Lptiuoigi DtiLiY9pdij 010 pAligo SortoidroX
-g 091
OIKES Aiaardaei 161

BArjpa tSiottiacov y mn , 6 mn dvai auGaipeTeg araGepeg. EuvSud^ovrag 6Aa TO napandvco, enava-


l6iopioviag toug auvTEAeoreg KOI ecpappo^ovrag Tr) YEviKeupevr) apxn Tng unepGeong
peon, T] Auari TOU npo6AiipaTOg (2.61) -(2.64) 9a etvai Trig popcpifc

u(r, 9, t) = Y_ [Am0 coskm0ct + Cm0 sink m0 ct]Jo(k m0 r)


m=l
oo oo
+ ) / [Amn cos n9 + Bmn sin n6] cos kmnct
m=l n=1
- D mn sinn9)sink mn ct]J n (k mn r), (2.76)
6 < r < 1, -7i < 9 < 7i, t > 0. Oi ouvTEAeoreg A mn , B mn , Cmn, Dmn, n, m =
3,..., unoAoyi^ovrai pe Trj Por|9eia TCOV apxiKcbv ouvGnKcbv (2.63), 6nAa8ii 9a npenei
uouv 01 axeoetg
oo
/ A m oJo(kmO r )
tn=l
oo oo
y ^(A mn cosn9 + B mn sinn9)J n (k mn r), 0 < r < 1, n < 9 < n
m.=l n=l

avrioroixeg
L m=l
OO 00

+ y~ y~ kmnc(Cmncosn9 + D m nSinn9)J n (k mn r), 0 < r < 1, n < 9 < n.


m=1 n=l
lir\ auvexeia ecpappd^covrag Tig 6ia6iKaoieg Tng Qecopiag TCOV SinAcov oeipcov Fourier
^oupe Toug auvreAeoreg. Ag onpeicoGei OTI r| arcAr) oeipd onr) Auor) (2.76) avriCTTOixei
i nepinTcoor) Tng aicciviKr|g ouppeTpiag.

1.2.3 Opo6Ar|uaTa
I. Na Au0ei to o.K6Aou0o opOYeveg unep6oAiKo npoSArjpa apxiKciv - ouvopiaKcov ouv0r|KQv tunou
Bichlet OE Teipdvcovo n6io
u x x (x,y,t) + Uyy(x,y,t) = c 2 u t t(x,y,t) ( 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1, t > 0,
i|0,y,t) = 0 , u ( l , y , t ) =0, u(x,0,t) = 0, u ( x , l , t ) = 0 , 0<x<1,0<y<1,t>0,
u(x,y,0) =sin 2 7rxsin7Ty, u t (x,y,0) =0, 0<x<l,0<y<1,
c eivai pia SeuKii npaypaiiKri ora0Epd.
: u(x,y,t) = =- Y.^=-\ 3 4 n7n^-4) cos V^^+^TrctsinUTTXsinn?ry.
Na Au0ei to QKoAou0o opoyEVEg unep6oAiKO np66Ar|pa apxiKcbv - cruvopiaKciv au 'iv Tunou
richlet oe teTpdycovo ne6io
uXx(x,y,t) + uvu(x,y,t) = c~2Uu(x,y,t), 0<x<1,0<y<J,t>0,
'u(0,y,t) =0, u(1,y,t) =0, u(x,0,t)=0, u(x,1,t)=0, 0<x<1,0<y<1,t>0,
u(x,y,0) =0, ut(x,y,0) =x(x- l)y(y - 1), 0 < x< 1, 0<y < 1,
162 KccpdAato 5. 2 KQI 3 Xapmig Aiaaiaaag 3 TP1

onou c eivai pia i npaypatiKri ora9Epd.


Andvirjar]:
1
u(x,y,t) = Zn,m sin[7tc v/(n2 + m2 )t] sin nroc sin trwcy.
3. No Au9i TO OKoAou9o opoyEVEg unep6oAiKO npoBAnpa apxiKtov - auvopiaKuv ouv9nKuv i
Dirichlet OE KUKAIKO neSio
1 1
u r r (r,9,t) + -u r (r,9,t) + ^-u e e(r,9,t) = c'-'uufr.G.t), 0 < r < a, 0 < Q < 2n> t>(
r r^
|u(r,0,t)| (ppaypevo Ka96gTO r-> 0 + , u ( Q , 0 , t ) = 0 , 0 < 9 < 2n, i > 0,
u(T,9,0) =r 2 sin6, u t (r,9,0) = cos9, 0 < r < a, 0 < 9 < 2rt.
onou c Eivai pia SETIKF) npaypaTiKii ora9Epd. 1
4. Na Au9Ei to aK6Aou9o unepBoAiKO np66Anpa apxiKtov - ouvopiaKcbv cnjv9nK6vi
Dirichlet oe KUKAIKO ne6io

-u r (r,t) = c- 2 u t t(r,t), 0 < r < 1, t >0,


|u(r,t)| cppaypevo, +
t o r > 0 , u ( 1 , t ) = 0 , t>0, ou c Eivai pia
u(r,0) = 1-r 2 , u t ( r , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < r < 1.
onou c Eivai pia QeTiKii npaypaTuai ora9epd. ', TO

t, 6nou Jo(lc n ) = 0, n = 1,2,3,....


5. Na ppE9ouv 01 op9oycbvia pEpSpavng 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , ota6
ato OTJvopo, 6o9evtos oti r| i taxutnta Eivai pnSEV KOI to axripa tng apxiKrig napapopq
6i6Etai ano tq ouvdptnori
STTX 7m
u(x,y,0) = f(x,y ) = dsin - sin .
a b
6. Na ppE9ouv 01 piKpeg napapop(puaeig piag tEtpdyovng pEpBpdvqg pova6iaiag nAeup
ata9Epr|g oto ouvopo, 6o9evtog oti r) apxiKii taxutnta Eivai pn&EV KOI TO oxripa tng a
napap6p(pcoong 6i6Etai ano tp auvdpTnor)
u(x,y,0) = f(x,y) =xy(l -x)(1 -y). Mr
7. Na Au9si TO aK6Aou9o opoyEVEg napaBoAiKo np66Anpa - ouvopiaxov auv
tunou Dirichlet OE op9oyovio neSio
fx.y.t) =u t (x,y,t), 0<x<2, 0 < y < 3 , t > l
u(0,y,t) = 0, u(2,y,t) = 0, u(x,0,t) = 0, u(x,3,t) = 0, 0<x<2, 0 < y < 3 , t > l
37TX 27ry
u(x,y,0) = 4 sin - sin Try 2 sin sinTtx, 0 < x < 2 , 0<y<3.

: u(x,y,t) = 4exp[-7t2[(3/2)2 + 1]6t] sin[37tx/2] sin Try -


- 2exp[-TT2[(2/3)2 + 1]6t] sin[2Try/3] sin roc.
8. Na Au9Ei TO aK6Aou9o opoyEVEg napa6oAiKO np66Anpa j - auvopiOKOv ouv9nKcbv tur
Robin oe tEtpdytovo nE6io
u x x(x,y,t) + u u u ( x , y , t ) = u t ( x , y , t ) , 0 < x < 1, 0<y < 1, t>
u x (0,y,t) =0, u x (1,y,t) =0, u(x,0,t) =0, u ( x , l , t ) =0, 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1, t > (
u(x,y,0) = 2sin 2 (2Trx)sinTry,
163

Na Au9Ei TO OKoAou9o napa6oAu<6 np66Ar)via auv9nKcbv


nou Robin oe TETpdycovo n6io

Uxx(x,y,t)+Uyy(x,y,t)=ut(x,y,t), 0<x<l)0<y<1,t>0,
J0,y,t) =0, u(l,y,t) =0, u(x,0,t) =0, uu(x,l,t) = 0, 0<x<1,0<y<1,t>0,
7t(3x + y ) 3TDC TO)
u(x,y,0)=sin -sin cos-^, 0<x<1,0<y<1.

mvirjarj: u(x,y,t) = exp[-TT2[(3/2)2 + 1]t] cos[37rx/2] sin(7ry/2).


Na Au9Ei TO aKoAou9o ovioyEveg napa6oAiKO np66Ar|pa apxiKcbv - ouvopiaKcbv ouv9r|Kov
nou Dirichlet OE KUKAIKO n6io
1
Tune T r (r,9,t) + u r (r,9,t) + ,0,t) = c~ 2 u t (r,0,t), 0<r < 1, 0 < 9 <2n, t > 0,
+
|u(r,0,t)| cppayvievo, Ka96g TO r -4 0 ,u(1,9,t) = 0, 0 < 9 < 27i, t > 0,
u(r,9,0) = rcos0, 0 < r < 1 , 0<0<2Tt.

nou c Eivai vita 9eTiKr| ara9Epd.


' Eva viQKpu, ouvinayii K\JAiv6po viovaSiaiag aiccivag KOI ovioiovioptprig KaTavoLiiig 9Epvio-
Qoiag TI, E(papvi6$ETai Evag paKP1-1? 6aKruAioEi6r|5 icuAivSpos VIE Staordoeis Pdor)9 1 < r < 2
i (610 uAiKO OE ovioioviopcpr) 9EpviOKpaoia ~\2- Yno9TOv>viE 6Ti r| 9EppoKpaoia orriv Eniepdveia
^eoTEpiKOu KuAiv6pou SiaTnpEuai ora9Epr| KOI ion V1^ ^2, Na ppe9Ei r| KOTavoviii 9Ep>iOKpa-
05 oroug 6uo KuAiv6poug OTO xpovo t. Floid r| TEAmr) 9EpviOKpaoia oroug 6uo KuAiv6poug;
k t
: u(r,t) == T2 ' , onou J 0 (2k n ) = 0,n =
2,3
H KOTavoviri 9EpvioKpaoiag o' EVO AEHTO KUKAIKO 6ioKO viova6iaiag aicuvag VIE avraAAayri
OTriTag ano Tig 6uo nAEUpEg tou VIE TO nEpiSoAAov, TO onoio (JpioKETai oroug 0C, iKavonoiEi
) QKoAou9o ovioyEVEg napa6oAtKO np66Anvia apxiKcbv - ouvopiaKcov ouv9nKuv tunou Dirichlet
t KUKAIKO nE6io

0 < r < 1, t >0,


+
|u(r,t)| (ppayviEvo, Ka96g TO r > 0 ,u(1,t) = 0, t>0,
u(r,0) = l, 0 < r < 1.

ou b Eivai viia 9ETiKii ora9Epd. Na ppE9fii r| KaTavoviii 9EpviOKpaoiag OTOV KUKAIKO


KO.
" t , onou I o ( k n ) - 0 , n - 1,2,3,... .
3.

J5.3 Tpeig Ataataocu;


IKOV Tunot Kapxccnaves EuvreTayiieves: E^iooaii Laplace OTO OpGoyovio Ila-
paAAriAeninc6o - EuvBqKes Robin.
no to opeoycbvio napaAAnAenine6o D = (0, a) x (0,b) x (0,c). Ecopouvie to npo-
Kaiavopiis ing ordoiviris QepviOKpaoiag OTO EocotepiKO TOU D, onou 01 nAeupec,
j= 0, y = b Eivai QEPVUKO, VIOVOVIEVES, 01 nAeupeg x = a, y = 0 Siainpouvrai
164 KccpdAcrio 5. 2 KQI 3 XapiK$ Aiaaiaot\$ I 5.3 Tpeig L

no pn6ev KQI 01 evanopevouoeg nAeupeg 6iaTnpouvtai oe 9eppoKpaoieg nou | onou 0 <


rapiypdcpovtai and Tig ouvapuioeig f ( x , y ) , g ( x , y ) . H xatavopiig tr|g oidoiprig Ssppo- unepGeong
Kpaai'ag OTO eocoTepiKO TOU D 6i6eTai cog r| Auor) TOU aicoAouGou opOYevoug eAAnmiKou ,
npo6Aripatog auvopiaKCov ouvGnKcov Tunou Robin U(x,y,z) =

,y,z) = 0, (x,y,z)eD,
onou (x, y
u*(0,y,z)=0, u(a,y,z) = 0, (x,y,z)eD,
ETOI coare vc
u(x,0,z)=0, -Uylx.b.z) = 0, (x,y,z)eD, (3.3) loxuouv 01 <
u(x,y,0)=f(x,y), u(x,y,c) = g(x,y), (x,y,z)6D. (3.4)
U(x,y,C
Icov
Ecpappd^ovrag ir\ pe6o6o TOU x^piovou peTaBAnTCov unoGeTOupc on, r\ \\x
u(x,y, z) pnopei va \patpci orr) popcpr) U(x,y,c

u(x,y,z) =X(x)Y(y)Z(z), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , 0 < z < c . (3.5)


m=l n

AvTiKaGioTcbvrag Tnv napdoraor) (3.5) ornv eiocoor] (3.1) KOI e^iocovovrag Toug KOIVOUJ onou 0 < ;
Adyoug pe TO A, cnipcpcova pe vvcooroug ouAAoYiopoug, npoxunTei r| oeipeg Fouri

Y"(y) Z"(z)
, 0<z<, (3.6)
A, L -f Jo

EnavaAap6dvovrag ta nponYOupeva, (ipioKoupe cm, \\a Kdnoia dAAi] crtaGspd | B, si:


rj oxeor) xwpiopou
onou m, n
Z"(z) AeinTiKOu np
= p, 0<x<a, 0<y<b.
Y(y) Z(z) ouvdpTnari (i
(3.17) - (3. If:
Enopevcog, oupcpQva pe tig oxeoeig (3.6) - (3.7) TO npd6Anpa (3.1) - (3.4) 6iaxcopiCT
ora aKdAouGa Tpia npo6Aripata
5.3.2 KuA
9r\K
X"(x)+AX(x) - 0, 0 < x < a , X'(0) = 0, X(a) = 0,
Y"(y) + pY(y) = 0, 0 < y < b, Y(0) = 0, Y ' ( b ) = 0 , EOTCO evag KU
Z"(z) - (A + p)Z(z) = 0, 0 < z < c. (3.10B 6u, n napdn.
pq6ev. TeAog
Ano npor|Youpeveg nepinrcooeig exouv PpeGei TO i6io<JeuYr| TCOV npo6AnpdTcov i6ionno iri ouvdpTnor]
(3.8), (3.9) KOI eivai, avticnoixa To rjAeKpu
Laplace, r\ on
(In -])2n2 [2 (2n - 1 )TTX
-' X n x = A / - C O S - -, 0 < x < a ,
V a 2a
KOI 6nou 0 < r <
(2m - 2 (2m-1)7iy Tunou Dirichle

onou m,n = : 1,2,3,.... Eniong r) i Auor] Tng e^iocoong (3.10) 6i6etai ar


ouvdpTnor)
Z(z) = A cosh z \/An + M-m + +
\Tpcic; Amordocig 165

o 0 < z < c, in, n = 1,2,3,.... E<papu.d<Jovras Aomdv Tnv apxn Tns YvlKEUP^vrlS
^nroujaE AUOEIS TOU npo6Ar|paTOS (3.1) - (3.4)

ly.z) = 2_ ^X n (x)Y m (y){A mn coshz v / A7+l^+B m nSinhzv / A7+Tim}, (3.14)


m=1 n=l
D (x, y, z) D. Oi OUVTEAEOTES A mn , B mn , m,n = 1,2,3,..., npooSiopi^ovrai,
pioore va tKavonoiouvrai 01 ouvopiaKEs ouv6r|KES (3.4). EuYKEKpuaeva, Oa npenEi va
[BXUOUV 011
00 00
A
U(x,y,0) = f(x,y) = Y_ Z mnX n (x)Y m (y), (3.15)
m=J n=1
U(x,y,c) = g(x,y) =
00 00
:
Y. Y_ A mnX n (x)Y m (y) |Am B mn sinh (3. 16)
m=1n = l

onou 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b. Oi TEAEUTOIES OXEOEIS (3.15), (3.16) anoTsAouv TIS 8inAs
I wipes Fourier TG>V avrioroixcov auvapTiioEwv. 'ETOI 01 ouvreAEOTES 6(8ovrai ano T
rQ rb

f(x,y)X n (x)Y m (y)dydx, (3.17)


Jo Jo
C f a ,b
1
< 9(x,y)X n i x)Y m (y)dydx - A mn coshc\/A , (3.18)
sinhcv'An [Jo Jo
onou in, n, - 1,2,3,.... Apa TsAiKQ, n pova6iKii (TuniKii) Auan U(x,y,z) TOU eA-
ItimiKOU npo6Ar|u.aTOS ouvopiaKov ouv6nKcbv Tunou Robin (3.1) - (3.4) 6i6ETai ano Tr|
ouvdptr|oi] (3. 14), onou EXOUV avriKaTaora6i 01 OUVTEAEOTES Aram Bmn ano TIS
1.17) -(3. 18).

5.3.2 KuAivSpiKeg EuvreTaypeves: Laplace OTOV KuAivSpo - Euv-


Dirichlet.
Eotu evag KuAiv6pos aiciivas r = a KQI uipous z = I Au0pos cpopTiou. Yno9TOUp
6u. n napdnAsupn ni(pdvia KOI n dvco pdon EIVOI YEIWU-CVES, 6nAa8r| EXOUV SUVOLIIKO
pn6v. TsAos OEOpouLiE OTI, r| KOTavoiin SUVOLIIKOU orn (Jdon z = 0 nEpiypdcpETai and
PiauvdpTnon f ( r , 0 ) , dnou f ( a , 0 ) = 0 (BAsnE Zy.r\)ia 5.3.1).
To nAEKpiKO SuvapiKO u(r, 9, z) oro EOQTEPIKO TOU KuAivfipou iKavonoid Tnv
Laplace, n onoia OE KuAivSpiKES auvTETaviiEVEs E
1
V z u = Ur r (r, 9, z) + -u r (r, 9, z) + -yiiee(r, 9, z) + uzz(r, 9, z) = 0, (3.19)

0 < r < a , 0 < z < I, n < 9 < 7t. Enians loxuouv 01 ouvopiaKES o\jv0r|Ks
inou Dirichlet

u(r,0,0) = f(r,9), 0 < r < a, -n< 9 < n, (3.20)


u(a,0,z) = 0, - 7 r < 9 < 7 r , 0 < z < I, (3.21)
u(r,e,l) = 0, 0 < r < a, -n < 9 < n. (3.22)
Axou-a \\a va EXOUU.E 9paYlJVg KOI u.ovooiiu.avra opioviEVEg tig Auoeig, 9a npeneiM
Auorj va aujanEpicpEpETai KaAd Kovtd ornv apxii, 6nAa8r| va IOXUEI o npiopiau.6c;

|u(r, 9, z)| cppavpEvo, Ka96$ TO r -> 0 + , 0 < z < I, -n < 9 < n, (3.23)

KOI va ucavonoiEuai r\ aKoAou6r| cruv0iiKr| npio6iKdtriTag TCOV AUOECOV

u(r,-7i,z) =u(T,7t,z), ue(T,-7i,z)=iie(r,7t ) z), 0 < r < a , 0 < z < I. (3.24)

Oi AuoEig TOU

-*-y r| onoia anot

5.3. 1: AVVCLHIKOU Tiinou Dirichlet at KuJliv6piK6

Fia Tr|v EniAuor| TOU npo6ArmaTOs (3.19)-(3.24) TOU X(|


aiiou TCOV u.ETa6Ar|Tcbv, 8riAa6r| npoanaSouviE va npoo8iopioouu.E Auar) Trig

u(r,6,z) =R(r)H(9)Z(z), 0 < r < a , 0 < z < I, -n< 9 < n. (3.25)

AvTiKaGiaTcbvrag Tnv napdoraor) (3.25) ornv E^iocoor) (3.19) npOKumEi r|


Aoycov 6iaxcopiau.ou \\a Kdnoia npavpaTucri ora0pd A
Tia K00E n
anOTeAouv v
R(r)/ H(9)
v i Z(z)
\i

onou A r\ aiadepd lou diaxapiaiuou. And Tri oxEor) (3.26) U.E yvcoaTii 6ia8iKaoia :
; Tnv looTnTa TCOV Adycov, nou acpopd u.6vo Tig auvapTiioEig R(r), H(9)

r 2 R"(r) + rR'(r) H"(9)


= M., 0 < r < a, 0 < z < I, n < 9 < n, (3.1
"H(6)
STpeig A 167

bu n T) SsuiepT] aioflepd TOU 8ta)(copia(aou. ETOI TO np66Ar|pa (3.19) - (3.24) Eivai


Siivapo pc TQ ctKoAouGa Tpia npo6AiipaTa

m"(Q) + pH(0)=0, -7T<6<7t, H(-7i) = H(7i), H'(-n) = H'(TI), (3.28)


V(z) + A Z ( z ) = 0 , 0<z<l, Z(l)=0, (3.29)
2
P"(r) + rR'(r)-(Ar + p ) R ( r ) = 0 , 0 < r < a, (3.30)
+
Ha) = 0, |R(r)| eppaypEvo, Ka96gTO r -> 0 . (3.31)

I To np66Ar]pa (3.28) 6i6i i6ioTipg p = pn = n2, n = 0, 1,2 ..... LIE avrioroixEg


oauvaptiiaeig sinn0, cosnQ. 'ETOI ot Auoeig TOU npo6Ar|paTog (3.28) 9a Eivai Tr|g

H(9) = A n cosn0 + Bnsinn6, -n< d < n, n = 0,1,2,....


iou npoBAripaTog (3.29) eivai Trjg popcpris

Z(z) = Csinh(k(l-z)), 0 < z < t, onou A = -k2.

0 )aTaaxqpaTiOTi6g , = kr orpv E^iooor) TOU npoBAqLiaTOg (3.30) - (3.31) o6r)yi


)V napdaraari

Jonoia anoTEAEi Tr|v e^ioaorj Bessel zdfrjg- n pe YeviKii Auar|

Rn(.) = DJn(,) + EYn(,), 0 < , < ka,

piou J n (), Y n (f,) 01 avvapiriaeig Bessel idrj$ n npmov KOI 6eviEpou ei6ovg , avri-
i2g npog Trjv apxiKii pTa6Ar|Tr| r 8a )

R n ( r ) = D J n ( k r ) + EY n (kr), 0 < r < a.

Eni6ri rj ouvdpTriar) Bessel Td^rig n 6EUTpou d6oug Y n (kr) > oo, KaGcog TO
-* 0+, YIQ va ucavonoieitai r\ ouvopiaKri ouv6r|Kri OTO dKpo r = 0 TOU npo6Aripa.TO$
(3.30) - (3.31) 9a npenei va 9EooupE E = 0. H dAAn ouvopiaKii ouv6r|Kri R(a) = 0
OTI
J n (ka) = 0. (3.32)
JAa Ka9e TI = 0, 1,2, ... , 01 gi^Eg Trig ^iooor|g Bessel npcoTOU Ei6oug Td^r|g n (3.32)
pnoieAouv pia au^ouoa QKoAou9ia

nm p a mn TO m > oo.

ETOvrag k nm = ^^ npOKunTEi on, 01 AuoEig TOU npo6AripaTog (3.30) - (3.31) Eivai


fes
Rn(t) - DJ n , 0 < r < a.
168 Ke<pd\aio 5. 2 KOI 5.3 Tpei Amt

Enopevcog r| Auorj TOU npo6AiipaTog (3.19)-(3.24) 9a Eivai Trig popcpiig

oo oo / if^nm.r1 \ (l-l
Jn [anm cos n.0 + bnm sin n0] sinh ( k nm
a
n=0 m=1
onou 0 < r < a , 0 < z < l , n < 6 < n KQI 01 ouvtEAEcniEg a nm , b nm , 9a npenei npoo9TOvtac
Eivai TETOIOI COCJTE va iKavonoivcai i] auvopiaKii ouv9r|Kr] (3.20), 6r)Aa6q

[anm cos n.9 + b ntn sin n0] sinh


a
n=0tn=l

onou 0 < r < a, n < 0 < n. H TEAEUTQIQ crxEor) anoTEAsi Tr) yeviKsvuivr] aeipd Fo
Bessel Tr|g auvtipTnar|g f (r, 0). Eupcpcova U.E Tr| yEviKii 9Ecopia TCOV 6inAcbv OEipobv Foi
9a npEnsi va KJXUOUV ot
1
f(r,9)Io(k
v 0m
-)rdTd9 )
Jo J-TI a'

Qnm = f(r ) 9)J n (k n m -)cos(n9)rdrd0 (


Tia2 sinh(k nm i)[J n+ i (knm)]2 Jo J-n a/

2 . UM ^ 7} ^7 f r f(r,6)J n (k nm -) sin(n0)rdrd6.
7Ta 2 sinh(k nm i)[J n+1 (k nm )] 2 J 0 i-n a/

5.3.3
A. Etoaycoyr)

Oi o(paipiKEg ouvretayiieves 6i6ovrai ano tig

x = r sin 4) cos 9, y = rsin<t>cos9, z = rcos4>, (3.3

onou 01 ywviEg (J), 9, 6iaTpxouv ta 6iaorr|paTa 0 < (() < n KOI 7t < 9 < n, avric
(BAms ^xiipa 5.3.2). 'Earco u = u(x,y,z) pta AEIQ o-uvdpTr)or| KOI

V 2 u(x,y,z) = A u ( x , y , z ) = - lx.y.z) +u y y (x ) y,z) +u z z (x,y,z)

o TEAEomig Laplace Tng u(x,y,z) OE KopTEOiavEg ouvTETaypEVEg. Tia va


TOV TEAEorri V 2 u(x,y,z) OE ocpaipiKEg ouvTETaypEVEg r, 4>,9 aKoAou9oup Tr|v nap
KQTCO 6ia6iKaoia. Ano Tr)v tKcppaar] TOU TEAEorri Laplace ortg KuAiv8piKeg
(p,9,z) npOKurrcei
1 1
+ Uyy = upp + -Up + -UQ0. (3.3-
Ol noAlKEg OUVTETOypEVEg (p, 9) IKOVOnOlOUV Tig OXEOElg

x = pcos9, y = psin9.

Ano (3.33) |3Anoup OTI, 01 (z, p) eKcppd^ovrai cog npog (r, 4>) cog

z = rcos({), p = rsinc[).
.\iauidaeig ]3Tpig Aiaataocig 169

PIS AiamoTcovoupE 6r|Aa6ii OTI, 01 auvrETayiJeveg (z, p) iKavonoiouv cog npog (r, c}))
prfkix; Tig i6ig oxeoeig, nou iKavonoiouv 01 (x,y) cog npog (p, 6). 'ETOI 8a
-2
1 1
-Ur + - (3.35)

a npcnei va
npooGaovrag Tig oxEOEig (3.34) KCU (3.35) s

1 ]_
= Ur (3.36)
P

>d Fourier -
uv Fourier

5.3.2: np66Jlrifj.a AiivafiiKQu Tunou Dirichlet as. LtpatpiK.6 fledio.

AUTO nou anoiievei, Eivai va EKCppaoGsi r\ u p cog npog Tig ocpaipiKEg ouvrETaviiEVEg.
Ano TOV KQVOVQ Tig aAuo(8ag Exouu.e

3r 30
Up = U r " + UA + Ue .
3p *3p 3p

O u-ETacrxniaaTiopog ano Tig KuAiv6piKg (p,0,z) OE ocpaipiKEg ouvrETaypeveg (r,0,4>)

(3.34; z'
16 THV TEAsuTaia oxor| npoKunrsi OTI

3r _ p 3c{> _ coscf) 30 _
3p r1 3p r 3p
Tr|
p coscb
- (3.37)
Y i + l A T t-
aouo
Slnbdoti Slii liony UxiAsA 3ti Jajng noiini toAya fcf'9) SoiDtilaygodii
nOl llDWO}53 ' ' Z ' L '0 = *" 'zm = ^ SOLID 13110110 UxU0Ano lixigoidsii H
5li(t)dori Sin Liony UxiAsA loisXsg (e^'9) orlLiygpdu
E) ^ <l0 '0=
M& '+0 <- -i 01 S(P9DM 'OAsrlAodcb 'D > a > Q '0 = + V*
( i4 ^/ it sia
oiortLiygodii Snodsrhm SLi^s DID srlnoAUyoiDx (i^'e) - (69'9)
dii OID ((() '0 'a)n SLioLudpAno SLii (zt') Liooiopdoii Alii
SLj(J)dori SUi Liony UxiiDDtiiMog Dirt 3rlnodco3e acp
-
vX ogogzri In ii > g > ii ' i t > ( J ) > o 't> > a > Q 019311 010
01 '0'a.)n| '(cj)'
d) 7uis
'0 = ^z
orlLiygodii 01 }30nyiii3 DA isiis
LlO3XD Ul plID D13ADdniI3 ALllD OA3rtDldO0DX IDA13 O1OLIO Ol
5od)D(J)o Soirl pxid3ioo3 OID ((j)'0'j.)n noxirtDAng noi prloidoigoodii AOI DIJ
30 -g
6 t e L
a.
''"''n ) = (c|)' 0 'd)n_A
V L I
U0noypxD U IDAIS
30 (z' ft 'x)n SUi aoBjdBq LiiD3y3i noi lioodcbxs Li 'up pxiysi isiuaxodu Sliino
SnOl SDlAODOplDigOAD IDX (99'9) LlOWO}3 AlllD (/.C'C) LlO3Xo III SD1AC51D10DX11AV
'9 OLl
171

61110 (3 anoTeAei Auan Trig e?;iouar|g (32 + (3 - A = 0. Enei5ii TO R(r) 9a npenei


napapdvei cppaypevo, KaGcog TO r > 0 + , emBdAcTai va 9eoouu.e D = 0. Enou.eva)g
(3.44) 6exeTai Auoeig Tng pop<pr)g

0<r<a. (3.47)

, = cos cj) OTO np66Ar|p.a (3.45) o6r)Yi E$"iocoor|


. (3.38)

(3.48)

;aKTi'vag a, oia anoTeAei p.ia e^iaaar] Legendre. Ano6eiKvueTai OTI, 01 p.6veg cppayiaevEg Auoeig
; (3.48) 6i6ovrai Yia (3 = n, n = 0, 1,2,3, ... KOI exouv Tr| YviKr| p.op(pr|

FQ^(cos(|))1 0 < d ) < 7 t ,


n1! Qn1 eivai TO noAucavu^a Legendre id^rjg n npaiou KO.I deiiiepov t'6ouc,
avriarotxa. H cruvexeia Tr|g O(4>) caaar|p.eia 4) = 0 KOI 4> = TT, avuoroixei orr| ouvexeia
I HIS $(,) ora ornaeia , = 1 . Enei6r| TO noAuovupo Legendre Q(,) nepucAeiei opoug
(3.39)
' trij popcprig log(j^|), eivai ^avepo OTI, 01 opoi OUTOI 6ev opigovtai ora arjpeia , = 1.
, (3.40)
Enopevajg 9a npenei va 9eooup.e F = 0. 'ETOI 01 Auoeig Tr|g e^iocoor|g (3.48) 9a eivai Trig
(3.41)
), 0 < 4 > < 7 t , n,Tn = 0,l,2,3,....
Euvencog 01 Auoeig Trig e^iooor|g Laplace oe oipaipiKeg ouvreTavpeveg 9a 6i6ovrai ano
' I to QKoAouGo

(3.42) u(r,e,4)) = bnmsin(me)], (3.49)


n=0 m=0
np66Ar)iaa
onou 0 < r < a , 0 < ( | ) < 7 T , n < Q < n. Fia va iKavonoieuai r\ ouvopiaKr) ouv9r|Kr|
[(3.40) 9a npenei va icrxuei r\
|, (3.43)
', (3.44)
(3.50)
n=0 m=0
|i. (3.45)
yia 0 < 4> < TT, TT < 0 < rt. H (3.50) anoTeAei TO yzviKEVitzvo avdnivyna Fourier-
LegendreTr|g ouvdpTr|or|g f (9, (J)). Kdvovrag y,pr\or\ Tr|g op6oYoviOTr|Tag TCOV ouvapTrjoecov

(3.46) R^(cos(())cosTn9, R^(cos(j))sinTn9,


npoo6iopi^ouvie Toug auvreAeoreg TOU avamuviaaTOg (3.50) ano Tig oxeoeig
dtoor) TOU
anr = (2n+1)(n-Ta)! f71 r f ( 9 | ^ ) R m ( c 0 8 ^ ) c o 8 m e 8 l n ( ^ d9d(})> m]TX = 1)2 ,3,....
27ran(n + m)! J_ n J 0

n f (0,4>)R(cos (j>) sin m0 sin <J> , m,n = 1,2,3,...,


(n + m)! J - n J o
(2n
^i:j:"- (j))Rn(cos(J))sin(J)d(t)d0, n = 0,1,2,3,....
feQ'C)
SLitbdori SLii Liony LixmsA 3ii jajng-fiipnoo Uocoo^3 Dirt IDAIS "u 30DM oiA 'DJOIIO U
>
(89'e) [>i>o '0= (a)a(l + u ) u - ( a ) / a ^ + ( a ) / / a z a
Licbdort Ui i3ApgtiDY (CG'S) Liomoi3 Li ([ + u)u = uy DIJ
SisoUidDACtooigi srl
ADK>
(gg-g) SLii 5i3oaY SsAsrUodtt) SsApri 10 '119 srlnoMDidj) odiocbo UID DO3rl LiAsrlADdcb IDA13 DA
liony Li uLisdii D$ Aorloidoidsii AraMiond) wA9Y Ligisiig -ajpuaBaq Uo(oo3 IDAIS DIOIIO U
xp
(SS'S)
p
11 ALllD (}) SOD = X 5D1AO130
cj>p (J) uis
(we) '0
'o
~p r~
Snod3iiiij3
(ig'c) DriLiY99dii 01 'SoidisrlririD SLJMIAIIMD SLii UXogodou DiDiri3Y3i Alii
a =
tSi3030oua 53A3rlnoALiodii 5u Ssyo 9110 319X '(^)o( )H (41 ' a ) n ^CT }3(J)DdA DA isdoirti
pi lioLiidpAfiD la 119 5DiACodcD36 'AWiLiYgoisrl AOAsrio^idraX nog903ri SLu UoUdX srinoAp^
LiMidisrttitxo DMIAIIMD IDAIS ((j) 'g 'a)n
lioLiidpAnD U '119 3rln.odo36 Uoraoi^ WApiiDdDii ALii^ '(cj) 'a)n = ((J) '0 'i)n isnXoi AD
Ug 'g 5LiiLiY9Di3ii SLii Lnliidp^sAD IDAIS AD 'Svidisririno SUy.Mnuv 5Ui viUigigi Alii i
\\i\fMdi3ririno pwauMV IDAJS ((() '0 'a)n LioLiidpAno Dirt Sisopiooig g SIID '119 3rl3\ D@
10 noiio
Sodiocbo SLii 9Mid3irao3
OID noMirioAng LirloADiDM Alii Anogig SoiDiiLiYgodu no0noY9MD noi Sisoo-Y 10 3191 '
SLii Di3Apd)iLi3 Aliio noMirioAng LirloAoiDM Li iDiSApiDidou (({)).). LioLndpAno Ui 3rl
$DdiD<t>o SLii pMid3icoo3 010 oiido* DYYP AnoXdpiin A3g no srtnodcose SUomg -0
SLixDi0norii5D SLii LiiLiidp3AD IDAIS DA 3iro 1013 'aoxirlDAng noxiiDiDodixsY
lid30DiD oiri iDipdLiiDig 'SDAIIMD SoiDigoAorl Sodiocbo Soirl Di3Apdnii3 ALii> 119 3rinoi30ou^
lixtAiixy - DdiD<t>3 Dili 30 oxiito/vnv pxiioioodixsyH 'J
ZL\
173

f fio. va napapEvouv <ppaYpV$ 01 ouvapTiioEig R n ( r ). naipvoupE bn = 0.


npOKumei on, 01 AuoEig TOU npo6AiipaTOS (3.53) 9a EXOUV ir|

Rn(r) = a n r n , 0 < r < 1 , n = 0,1,2,.... (3.60)

Apa, icAiKd r| TuniKii Auor) TOU npo6Ar)paTO5 (3.51) 9a Eivai


00

u(r, cj)) = ) a n r n P n (cos4>), 0 < r < 1 , 0 < ( j ) < 7 r , (3.61)


n=0

(3.51)

(3.52)
6nou 01 ouvtEAEOTEg an Eivai TETOIOI COOTE va iKavonoiEuai r\ ouvopiaKii ouv6r|Kri (3.52)

n=0
(3.62)

To avdntuviia (3.62) anotEAEi T^ oetpd Fourier-Legendre Tr)g oruvdpTrior|g f (4>)-


9a
/ 1\ f"
a n = ( n +2- f(4))R n (cos4))sin(j)d4), n = 0,1,2,3,.... (3.63)
V / Jo

A. H E^iouor] Schrodinger atif <paipa.


1. E^iocjor) Schrodinger: Ma9r]paxiKr| npOTunonoir)or|. O evepyctaxos xe-
(3.53) :qS (q Hamiltonian) orr|v K6avropr|xaviKIi oupSoAi^ETai pE H KOI opi^ETai and Tr)
(3.54)

(3.64)

I onou p = i/iV Eivai q oppr| EVOS oopaTiSiou pd^ag M, r| h = 2nH anoTEAsi TII
(3.55) maOcpa Planck KOI TO V(r) EIVOI i\ 6uvapiKii EVEpyEia. H KaTdoraor) Evdg ocopaTi6iou
mo xpovo t nEpiYpdcpETai apKETd iKavonoinTiKd ano T^V xupatiKii ctuvdpTriori \\)(r, t).
H mGavoipia TO ocopaTiSio va pp0i orr) 9or| r = (x,y,z) para orov nsnEpaapEvo
dV = dxdydz Eivai

(3.56) KMr,t)| 2 dxdydz. (3.65)

Eni6ii TO ocopaTi6io 9a npni va ppioKETai ndvra Kdnou poa OTO x^po, 6riAa6ii
i) ni0avoTr|Ta TO ocopau6io va ppioKETai peoa OTO X"P 9 npsnEi va Eivai povd6a, 9a
(3.57) va
roo roo roo
= 1. (3.66)
Joo
-oo J-oo
J-oo Jc
Joo
(3.58)
Ano8iKvuTai OTI, rj xpovoE^apTUpEvr) YpappiKr) E^iooor) Schrodinger, nou IKOVO-
Dieuai and Tr)v KupaTiKii ouvdpTr)or) \Jj(r,t), Eivai
IS

(3.59) , t > 0. (3.67)


174 KctpdAaio 5. 2 Kai 3 XapiKeg Aiaacaai$ I

'Eva onpavTiKd npd6Anu.a arnv K6avrovinxaviKii anoTEAsi rj upor| U-IQS Auong TOU
npo6Aiip.aTOg (3.67), 6o6vrog TOU 6uvajaiKOu V(r), rj onoia va ucavonoiEi npOKa0opi-
oriEva apxiKd 66ou.va v[)(r, 0). Tia Tnv EniAuar) TOU npo6Arip.aTOg q>apu.d5ouu.;
ViETaBAnTcbv, 9copouu. 6nAa6ii OTI r\ Auorj ypdcpETai orr) viop^H

\ l ( r , t ) = T ( t ) p ( r ) , r e R 3 , t > 0. (3.68)
H avciKaTdoraor) Tng oxEong (3.68) ornv E^iocoor) (3.67) 6i6i Tig

dt n T(
t)-o, t >o, (3.6

A<p(r) =E(p(r), (3.70


2M
onou TO E anoTeAei ir\ araeepd 6iaxwpioviou KQI exei Tr| 6idoTaor| Trig evepYeiag. H
eniAuari Tr^g xPovtKI1S E^iocoorig (3.69) 6i8ei Tr| yeviKii Auori

T(t) = aexp t>0, (3.71)

onou TO a anoTEAEi pia auGaipETr) oraGEpd. H E^iocoor) (3.70) anoTEAd Tr( xpovoave-
^dpTnTr) E^iooor) Schrodinger, r| onoia anoTEAEi u.ia E^iocooq i6iOTip6v. E6u 9a npdnEi va
oniiEicoGEi OTI r\ oniiaoia auTi^g Tng E^iooong npOKunrsi and TO YEyovog OTI o xaP'
iiTa6AnTC)v 6sv 8i6i TIOVO KdnoiEg Ei6iKg Auong auTr|g, aAAd EV \ivti anotpEpEi 6\
Tig cpuoiKd onLiavTiKEg AuoEig TOU npo6Ariu.aTOg. Av (PE(*) Eivai ]aia Ei6iKr| Auor) Tr
E^iocoong (3.70), nou avrioroixEi arnv i6iOTiLir| E, TOTE pE (idori Tnv apxr) Tng unp6or|g
r| YCviKr) Auor| Tng E^iocoong (3.67) Eivai

), t > 0, (3.72)

onou r) d,0potor| AapBdvETai og npog 6AEg Tig ano8EKTg Tiu,Eg Tng oraGspag 6iaxopioiioii
E KQI QE Eivai auGaipETEg oraGEpEg, nou 9a KaGopioGouv and Tig apxiKEg ouv6r|KEg. Fm
Tnv sniAuori ^HS E^iooong i6iOTiiicov (3.70), KO.VOUU.E Tnv napaSoxn OTI, TO 6uvaiiiKd sivai
o(paipiKd auppETpiKO, 6nAa8ii IOXUEI V(r) = V(r), r = >/x2 + y 2 + z2, (x.y.z) R3.
H \\a THV i onpiiETpiKri Aiior) 9a Eivai

+ K[E-V(r)](p(r) = 0, 0, (3.73)

onou K = ^ KQI V2 Eivai o Tpio6idaraTOg TEAEorrig Laplace. Fia Tnv EniAuori OUTOU TOU
npo6AiiviaTOg anoSEiKvucTai nio npdocpopo va yivEi XPnorl TCOV ocpaipiKcbv auvTETaviievav
(r, 0, 4>), 0 < r < +00, 0 < 4> < 7t, n < Q < n. 'ETOI r| e^iocoor) (3.73) OE
naipvEi TF| popcpr)

1 d / ^3<p 1 ?M
sin4) T 2 2 = 0. (3.74)
8r 9r sin cp o(p \ ocp sin (b 39

uu.(l>CDva U.E Tig (iaoiKEg apXEg Tng r| KUViOTiKii ouvapir|or| cp ( r, 0, <\>)


Evog ouviaTi6iou XUP^S spin???? 9a npenEi va E opiauxvri Tiviii OE Kd6s onu.Eio tou
LJI 9110 DAsrkndo 'M 9 ) srl ' ( I + ))) = Y isnXoi nouo 'tu Sli^pi IDX
nort0DJ (dpsoojjld ajpuaBaq vrinncpnirou vajrtonsXono OAStioAsY DI iDA>3 (e8') aJpuaS (W.-8)
5liooo}3 Sin SisofiY SsAsrLAodd) SsAori 10 'no iDisfiAXisgouo 'Q ^ ui isnXoi nou 'uoraiuid3ii
^^1 'M 9 l 3ri (l + ))( = i3nXoi nouo ') norl0D{) ((j)soo)^d
DI iDAis (frg'C) 3Jpua9^ SLrocooi3 Sin Si3onY SsAsrlAodd) S3A9rl 10 '119 53>ndiD
ACOAStiA
'I I- '0= - 1) noi noi
iDi3AiA
U 'o = iu srlnoXs nou 'Lioraiuidsu Uxigis Abi^ -aipuaBari Uocooj^s Aln }3Y3iouo DIOL (e/-e)
(E8'S) e<fli -
1DA13 O>
U munxodu 3i9uo '(() soo = "j S9rioiiDrlLi)(oDi3rl o IDI DIJ -S3XJ
-do(J)3 Uio I30oido0ox OQ y pd30oio Lii3diD0nD li nouo I norloidp
Ucbdorl Ui (Z'C)
(8Z'C) SoiDiiLiYgodu noi SisoriY 10 'no 3rinoxoid{) 1013. ..... ^ '3^: ' [q iu '_ui = ri
IDM 0 9 Srauo piiDUD LiMLi0Ano Lrxigoidsu H 'S3d30DiD S3i3diD0nD IDAIS g 'y
a
a 4- QT^JV = (9)0
SU(t>dorl Sin lior\Y I
(08'E) 'D > - i > 0 '0= +
o '0=
(IZ.')
DiorlLiYgodu 5nod3tim3 SLi^s DID srtnoALiYDiDM
DriUY99c'u ((j)'0'a)d) SuouidpAfio SLn (.') LjODiopdou
H 'SoisAc
(LL'S] n>Q>n-
(OZ't;)
iDiAod)pdA (9//e) - (frZ'e) SoioriliYgodu noi SisonY 10 119 3rinodc530 acoiU]rvi3rl no
(69 -C)
dnX ogoQ&ri" In SoiAo^oridDcbg lu>kAn3d3iv-tumY}u3 ' JaSutppJiios Uoooijg 'j |
(SZ'E) '00+ j. IDM 01 5w0Dx OAsrlAod* |(4>'0'i)d)| (89'e)
S3xli0AnD S30noY9MD Sno iDiAO^ithoAno Ssino Sisolidli
IQ '0 LiA3rlADi3iAn) LiMDi0notii5D AUI Sodu So lixigoidsu IDAIS DA isiisdu og mil
-orlAodu Alii 3rl biDgrino iDA}3 DA DiA ((J)'0'a)d) UoliidpAno lixiiorlnx li SliDiiig
Sin UouidpAno liAsrlADd* UrlnpAorl Dirt IDAIS (dp'0'a)d) li no srinodosg 1013, -c
92.1 SlsopioDiy
176 KttpaXaio 5. 2 KQI 3 XopiKcg Aiaaiao

Eivai cpavEpd 6u, TO noAuovupo pn6vi<|Tai, \\a m > (3. Fia m 4


ano6EiKvuETai OTI IOXUEI r|

napaTnpoupE 6nAa8ii OTI, 01 ouvapTrjOEig Pg m (,), PgM,) SiacpEpouv KOTQ piai


9Epd. EnopEvog apKEi va nEpiopioTEi TO m oroug QETiKOug aKEpaioug KOI TO pr
Apa TO ouoxcTiopEva noAuoovupa Legendre Pgl(coscJ)), p |m| < (3 anoTEAouv ug pove;
pr| iSid^ouoEg cpuoiKd anoSEKTEg AuoEig Tng E^iooong Legendre (3.83). AoGEvrog TOU
undpxouv aKpi6cog (2(3 + 1) SiacpopETiKEg npsg TOU m, m = (3,...,1,0,1, ...,(3.
apiGpoi (3 KOI m ovopd^ovrai ipoxidKog K.6aviiKd<; apiB^og (orbital quaniuni number)
KOI ^ayt^nKOc K^auriKOc apidndg (magnetic quantum number) , avrioroixa.
Oi AuoEig Trig iocoar|g (3.83), KavoviKonoinpEVEg o' dAo TO x^P0- ovopd^ovrai i
KOI, yia m > 0, 6i8ovrai ano Tr|

23
(3.8
4n
onou 0 < 4) < TT, TT < 9 < TT. Fia (3 < m < 0, 01 ocpaipiKEg appoviKEg 6i6ovrai(

Fia Tr]v EntAuor) TOU npo6AiipaTOg (3.80) KdvoupE xpr)orl IOU peTaoxripaTicJpou R(
P(r)/r, onoTE rcpOKumEi r\

P"(r) + - V ) - ^ ! P(r)=0, 0 < r < a . (3.8

Oi rtAsov Ev6ia<})pouog nEpinTOOEig ano cpuoiKii dnoijjn, Eivai EKEWEg orig ono
anauEuai TO 6uvapuc6 va Eivai nnpaopvo navrou siaog Tr|g apxng. Eniorig ic
OTI, V(r) > 0, Ka6cog TO r > oo. TuniKii nEpinrcoori TETOIOU 6uvapiKou anoTEAeij
6uvapiKO Coulomb V(r) = ~^e , nou napiordvEi Tr|v EA^r] pETag^j Evog aiopiKOu nupi^
cpopdou +Ze KOI Evdg KivoupEvou r)AEKTpoviou ^opTiou e. Fia napd6Eivpa,OTOa
u6pOYdvou Exoups Z = 1 KOI OTO idv TOU nAiou p povaSiaio (poptio ExoupE Z =
onou TO Z napiordvEi TOV apiGpd TCOV povdSuv cpopTiou CTTOV nupiiva. EE pia \t(
TOU r = 0, TO SuvapiKo V(r) pnopei va avvonGsi ouYKpivdpEvo p TOV dpo -
(3.89) Aap6dvi Tr| popcpri
+D
P"(r) - -P(r)=0, 0 < r , (3.S

Yia oAsg Tig KOTaordoEig pE (3 0. H TEAEUTOIO Eivai Tunou Euler p


Auori
-DT-P, 0 < r ,
onou C, D Eivai auGaipETEg oraGEpEg. And Tr| ouv6r|Kr| P(0) = 0, ouvsnayETai i
D = 0. Apa r| Auor| Eivai avaXo\T] Tng napdoraong r1"1"'5. And Tr|v dAAr| nAEupd, eneij
. unoGEor) OTI V(r) > 0, KaGcog TO r > oo, q E^iocoor) (3.89) Aap6dvei Tr| pop
P"(r) + KEP(r) =0, 0 < r, (3.S
177

\a in < 0, tytviKri Auor) Tn,g pop<pr|g

P(r) = CieirVRE + c2e~irv/RE, 0 < r. (3.92)


(3.86) HAuor) (3.92) sivai TaAavroupEvr) yia E > 0 KQI K6ETiKii yia E < 0. Oi TaAavroupE-
KAuoeig 6v Eivai cpuoixd anoSEKTEg, yiati r| KupaTiKp ouvdpTr|or) SEV TEIVEI OTO pr)6EV
td uia ara- i96g to r oo. 'Ocav E < 0, o 6euTEpog dpog otr\ popcprj (3.92) anEipi^ETai, Ka6cog
TO prj6ev. r -^ co. Enopsvcog 01 pdvEg ano6KTg AiioEig yia E < 0 EXOUV Tr)v aoupmcoTiKri
tig poveg I oupnepKpopd
cog TOU (3, P(r) = C]e~ ra/2 , 0 < r , (3.93)
...,(3. Oi
i number) Bnou KE = a2/4. Apa r\ ysviKii Auor) TOU npo6AripaTOg (3.89) EXEI tr) popcpr)

P(r) = f(r)e- ra/2 , 0 < r, (3.94)


vrai o<pai-
onou ] ouvdpinori f ( r ) EIVQI Auan. Tr|g ouvr|0oug 6iacpoptKiig E^t

(3.87) (3.95)
dr
ovrai and I H tEAEUTaia E^iooor) Auveiai, otav 6eo6Et ouyKKpipvr| popepr) OTO 6uvapiKO V(r).
TtAixd, r\ Auor) TOU apxixou npo6Ar|paTOg Tng xpovo^apTQpvn,g ypappiKiig E^iowon.g
(3.88) [Schrodinger (3.67) 6i6ETai and Tig oxeoEig (3.71), (3.82), (3.87), (3.94) KCU ir\ yviKupEvr)
|)u R ( r ) = opXr) Tng unp9or|g.

5.3.4 npo6Ai)|Krca
(3.89) [l. Na Au9ei to aKoAou9o opoyeveg eAAemtiKO np66Ar|pa cruvopiaxov OTjv9r)Kci)v lunou Neumann
ID nova6iaio Ku6o D ={(x,y,z) K3; 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1, 0 < z < 1}
onoieg
.zl+u^x.y.z) = 0, (x.y.z) 6 D,
TO Ux(0,y,z) =0, ux(1,y,z) = 0, u u (x,0,z) = 0, (x.y.z) e D,
Inuprjva u u (x, 1,z) =0, u z (x,y,0) = cosTTxcosTry, u z (x,y, 1) = 0, (x.y.z) D.
jco dtopo cosh y/27tz
: u(x,y,z) = I cos rrx cos Try.
Z = 2.
I'EOTOVld 12. Na Au9ei TO aK6Aou9o opoyevEg eAAemTiKo np66Ar|pa ouvopiaxcov o\jv9r)Kciv Tunou Robin OTO
r. 'Etai JKuBiKo neSio D = {(x,y,z) 6 K3; 0 < x < n, 0 < y < n, 0 < z < n}
U x x ( x , y , z ) + u u u ( x , y , z ) + u z z (x,y,z) =0, (x.y.z) 6 D,
u(0,y,z) =2y, ufn.y.z) = 0, u u (x,0,z) =0, (x.y.z) D,
(3.9O)
u y (x,7r,z) =0, u z (x,y,0) = -hu(x,y,0), u z (x,y,7r) =-hu(x,y,7t), (x,y,z) e D,
ysviKrj I onou h eivai pia npayuatiKq otaBepd.
3. Na Au9ei TO QKoAou9o opoyeveg eAAeinTiKo np66Ar|ua ouvoptaKcov OTJv9nKciv Tunou Dirichlet
|ffto napaAAr|Aenine6o neSio D = {(x,y,z) 6 K 3 ; 0 < x < 7 r , 0 < y < 27T, 0 < z <
Eiai OTI
jenci6ii Uxxfx.y.zJ + u ^ u f x . y . z l + u ^ t x . y . z ) =0, (x,y,z) 6 D,
u(0,y,z) = sin-sin-, ufn.y.z) =0, u(x,0,z) =0, (x,y,z) 6 D,

(3.91) u(x,2n,z) =0, u(x,y,0) =0, ufx.y.Sn) =0, (x.y.z) D.


178 5. 2 KOI 3 XcopiKcc; Aiamaot%,

, slnh*/ l / 2 ) 2 + 1/3 2
Ti-x u
Anavnnarr. u x, y , z) = -y , 2 2
z
- sin 4 sin f.

4. Na Au6Et to aKoAou6o ouoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Ar|ua ouvopiaxov auvBnKOV tunou RobinB


KuAivSpiKo nE6io D = {(r,9,z) e R3; 0 < r < a, 0 < 9 < In, 0 < z < b}

e i z) + u r r ( r > e , z ) = 0 , (r,9,z)eD,
+
|u(r, 9,z)| cppayuevo, Ka0(i>g to r 0 , (r,9,z) D,
ur(r,e,0)=0, uz(T,e,b)=0, u(a,0,z)=29, (r,9,z)D.
5. Na Au0Ei to OKoAou0o onoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Anu.a ouvopiaKcov auv9nKuv tunou Neumann
OTO Ku6iKO nESio D = {(x,y,z) e K 3 ; O < X < T T , 0 < y < 7 i , O < Z < T T }
u x x (x,y,z) + u u v ( x , y , z ) + u Z 2 (x,y,z) =0, (x.y.z) D,
u x (0,y,z) = 0, u x (7t,y,z) =0, u u (x,0,z) =0, ( x , y , z ) e D,
\iy(x,n,z) =0, u z (x,y,0) =cosxsin 2 y, u z (x,y,7t) =0, (x,y,z) 6 D.
6. No Au0si to QKoAou0o ouioyEVEg sAAEintiKO np66Ar|va ouvopiOKcbv ovivOqKov luiiou Dirichlet
cao napoAAnAEninE6o nt&io D = {(x,y,z) e R3; 0 < x < 3n, 0 < y < 2n, 0 < z < 1}
u x x(x,y,z) + u u u (x,y,z) +u z z (x,y,z) = 0, (x.y.z) 6 D,
u(0,y,z) = 0 , u(37t,y,z)=0, u(x,0,z) = 0, ( x , y , z ) D, tunou Nenni
u(x,27t,z) =0, u(x,y,0) =sinxsiny, u(x,y,1) =0, (x.y.z) D.

(1 )
r . u ( x . V . ) = *'^ry
slnhv/2 -' .
7. No Au0Ei to QKoAou0o opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Anua ouvopiaKcbv ouvOnKcbv tunou Dirichlet
UE aictivuai auuuEtpia ato KuAiv6puco nE6io D = {(r,0,z) e R3; 0 < r < a, 0 < 8 < 2n, 0^
z<b}

u r r (r,z) + - u r ( r , z ) + u z z ( r , z ) = 0 , (r,8,z) D,
|u(r,z)| tppay]jEvo, Ka06g to r > 0 + , (r,8,z)eD, tunou Diric
u(r,0) =0, u(T,b) =0, u ( a , z ) = z ( b - z ) , (r,9,z)eD.
8. Na Au0Ei to aKoAou0o O]aoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Anpa ouvopiaKcov ouv0nK6v tunou Dirichlet
UE aKtiviKii oujauEtpia ato KuAiv6piKo nE6(o D = {(r,0,z) e R3; 0 < r < 1, 0 < 9 < 2n, Om

u r r (r,z) + -u r (r,z) +u z z (r,z) = 0, (r,9,z) D,


|u(r, z)| (ppayuevo, Ka0ug to r 0 + , (r, 9,z) D,
u(r,0) =0, u ( r , l ) =Io(k 3 r), u(1,z) =0, (r,0,z) 6 D,
onou to kj opi^Etai cog r| tpitr) pi^a tng Eg'iocoong Jo(k) = 0.
9. Na Au0Ei to aKoAou0o opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Anpa ouvopiaKcbv ouv0nK6v lunou Dirichlet
OE nui-KuAiv6puc6 nE6io D = {(r, 0, z) R 3 ; 0 < r < 1, 0 < 0 < 7 t , 0 < z < 1 }

u r r (r, 0,z) + -u r (r, 9,z) + ^u e e(r, 0,z) + u zz (r, 8, z) = 0, (r, 0, z) 6 D,


|u(r,0,z)| <ppayiaevo, Ka0cbg to r > 0 + , (r,0,z)D,
u(r,0,z) = 0, u(r,7t,z) = 0, u(l,8,z) = 0, u(r,8,0) =0, u(r,0,1) = r 2 cos9, ( r , 0 , z ) 6 D.
feci Aiaatdoeig 179

a Au0Ei to QKoAouGo opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Anua ouvopiaxciv auvGriKwv tunou Neu-


\aio otpaipiKo nESio D = {(r, 4>,9) 6 K3; 0 < r < 1, 0 < (j> < n, -n < 9 < n}
Robin oe
u rr + -ur + -yUfrd, 4- .
r r2 r sim2
u r (1,9,4>) = 27Tsin(J), |u(r, 9,4>)| cppaypEvo, Ka0cb5tor-0 + , (r, (J),9) D,
T,-7r,<J>) u(r,7r,4>), u0(r,-7r,<j>) =ue(r,7r,<l>), (r,<J>,9)eD,

UEI r) ouv0r]Kr] OTJu6i6acrt6tr|tag J0 J0 f (9, <{>) sin 9d9d<{) = 0.


Na AuOr i 10 QKoAouGo ojjoyEVEg EAAEinttKO np66Anpa auvopiaKwv ouv9nKcov tunou Dirichlet
io D = {(r, cj), 9) e K3; 0 < r < a, 0 < fy < n, -n < 9 < n}

D
'
2 +
u(a,9,4)) = cos 9, |u(r, 9, 4>)| 9paypEvo, Ka06s to r > 0 , (r,4>,9) D,
u(r, -n, 4>) u(r, TT, (J)), ue (r, -TT, 4>) = ue (r, 71, (J)), (r, (|>, 9) D.

Na Au9Ei to QKoAou0o oiaoyEVEg unp6oAiKO np66An)ja apxiKciv KQI ouvopiaKwv cnjvGnKcov


i Neumann oro povaSiato Ku6o D ={(x,y,z) 6K 3 ; 0 < x < 1, 0<y < 1, 0 < z < 1}
u x x (x,y,z) +u u y (x ) y,z) + u zz (x,y,z) = c 2 u t t(x,y,z,t), (x.y.z) D, t > 0 ,
u(0,y,z,t)=0, u(l,y,z,t) =0, u(x,0,z,t) =0, (x.y.z) D, t > 0 ,
u(x,l,z,t)=0, u(x,y,0,t)=0, u(x,y,1,t)=0, (x.y.z) D , t > 0 ,
u(x,y,z, 0) = sin TTX sin Try sin TUZ, u t (x,y,z, 0) = 0,
u c Eivai pia QEtiKii npayjaatiKri ota0Epd.
;: u(x, y , z) = sin TTX sin Try sin TTZ cos -\/37rct.
. Na Au9Ei to QKoAouGo ovioyevEg unp6oAiKO np66Xr\\io apxtKOv KQI ouvopiaKcov cnjv9nKcov
nou Dirichlet oto KuAivSpixo n6io D = {(r, 9, z) e M3; 0 < r < a, 0 < 9 < In, 0 < z < bj
1 1
U rr ;*r+? =C (r,9,z)eD, t>0,
|u(r, 9,z,t)| cppayviEvo. xaGos to r - ^ 0 + , (r,9,z)6D, t>0,
u(T,9,0,t)=0, u(r,8,b,t) = 0, u(a,e,2,t) = 0, (r,9,z) e D, t > 0 .
u(r,9,z,0}=r9, u t (r,9,z,0) = 9 -z, (r,9,z)eD,
C Eivat pia 9tiKrj npayiaatiKii otaGEpd.
Na AuGEt to QKoAouGo opoyEVEg napaBoAiKO np66Ar)(aa apxiKwv KQI ouvopiaKcov
u Neumann crto napoAAnAninE6o nE6io D = {(x,y,z) 6 R3; 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 2 , 0 <

:hlet
lu x x (x,y,z,t)+u u u (x,y,z,t)+u z z (x,y,z,t) = k ^(x.y.z.t), (x,y,z)eD, t > 0 ,
u x (0,y,z,t) =0, u x (1,y,z,t)=0, u^x.O.z.t) = 0, (x,y,z)D, t > 0 ,
D, vi v (x,2,z,t)=0, u z (x,y,0,t) = 0, u z (x,y,3,t) = 0, (x.y.z) e D, t > 0,
u(x,y,z,0) =slnxsiny, (x,y,z) e D,
D
-
D. nou k Eivai )ata 8Etucr| npayuatiKii crta0Epd.
180 5. 2 KOI 3 XapiKcg Aiaaraoi

15. Na Au9ei to aic6Aou9o opoyEVES napaBoAiKO npdBAnpa apxiKcbv KOI ouvopiaKuv ouv6r|Kav
uinou Robin ato KuAivSpiKO neSio D = {(r, 9, z) K 3 ; 0 < r < TT, -n < 9 < n, 0 < z < 3?:}
1 1 = c -2,
Urr + ~U r + -j ( r , e , z ) D ,t > 0 ,
+
|u(r,9,z,t)| tppaYpEvo, Ka9wg to r > 0 , (T,8,z)eD, t>0,
u(T,9,0,t)=0, u(r,e,37t,t)=0, u r (7t,e,z,t) = 0, (r.e.z) e D, t > o .
u(r,8,z,0) =sin9, (r,e,z)6D,
onou k eivai pia 9tiKrj npaYpatucrj ota6Epd.
'
16. Mia ocpaipa aiccivag a EXEI ocpaipiKd oupviEtpiKr) apxiKii (t = 0) Katavovir) 9eppoKpaoia,
nou 6i6Etai and tq oxEor) u(r,0) = f(r), 0 < r < a. tou$ EndpEvous XPVOUS (t > 0)
EnicpdvEia pEtacpEpEi 9eppdtnta o Eva npi6dAAov pnSEviKrig 9EpviOKpaoiag oupepcova ps to vojio
ijjui;ng tou Newton, 6nAa6ii laxuouv 01 ouvopiaKEg auv0r|Kg tunou Robin k '1 + viu(a,t).
Av IOXUEI k < pa, va ppEGsi r\ Katavopii 8EppoKpaoiag u(r, t) ato EootEpiKd trig oepaipag
dAoug toug Endpsvoug xpdvoug (t > 0).
17. Na AuGd to aicdAou9o opOYEVEg napaBoAiKo npo6Ar|pa apxiKov KOI ouvopiaKcbv ouv6q:
tunou Robin pE OKtiviKr) cruppEtpia ato KuAivSpiKO n6io D = {(r,9,z) 6 K3; 0 < r < a, 71
9 < TT, 0 < z < b}
,
-ur+uzr = k (r,9,z)D, t>0,
|u(r,z,t)| cppaYiaEvo, Ka9cb$ to r - > 0 + , (r,0,z) 6 D , t > 0 ,
Uz(T,0,t) =0, u ( T , b , t ) = 0 , U r ( Q , Z , t ) = 0 , (r,0,z) D, t >0,
u(r, 2 ) 0) = ( Q 2 - r 2 ) ( b - z ) , (r,e,z)D,

onou k Eivai pia 9EtiKii npaYpatiKii ataGEpd.

5.4 Mi] Ovioyevrj npo6Armaxa:


A. Mc6o6o IStoouvapxqaccov
'Eorco n unep6oAiKii e^iooorj

,t) = < r ( x ) u t t ( x , t ) - q ( x , t ) , aio Dx

onou D C R N N = 1,2,..., a(x) QsiiKr) npaYpatlKIi ouvsxiis ouvdptnori


q(x,t) OUVEXHS auvdptnori. EupouviE OTI, r| E^iooor) (4.1) auvo8Eutai ano
Ka6opioyeveg auvopiaKEg ouvGriKEg ato auvopo 3D TOU n8iou Tng pc

I[u(s,t)] =0, (s,t) 3D x R + |


Km and tig

u(x,0)=f(x), ut(x,0) = g(x), xeD.

OTI, TO avriotoixo O]aoYVg unxpBoAiKO np66Ar)via

Au(x,t) ^(xjUtUx.t), (x,t) e D x R+,


I[u(s,t)] = 0, (s,t)63DxR+, fl
] Opoyevrj /7po6Ar)para - A. Mcdodog JSioauvaprrjaewv 181

at cog [JovaSixrj Xuar] TTJV Teipifajjevr) u(x, t) = 0. TOTE ano6iKvuTai on, 01


{tou npo6Aiip.aTOg (4. 1) - (4.3) (av undpxouv) pnopouv va napaoraGouv OE uopepii
i6ioouvapTiioQv TOU auo)(eTia[aEvou 7rpo(3X>][aaTO<; tSiOTt[acov Helmholtz

+ A<r(x)(|>(x)=0, xGD,
I[c|>(s)] 0, S65D.

1.1 E^avayKao]ievi) Aovnor] OpGoyovias Meii6pdvr|g ue Oiioycveig Euv-


Dirichlet
poviioeig u.iag opGoYwviag u.u.6pdvng D = (0, a) x (0, b) UE oraGEpd auvopo, r| onoia
ai e^coTEpiKii EniSpaor) G(x,y,t), nEpiYpdcpovrai and TO OKdAouGo ur)-ovioyVg
:d npo6Ar|u.a apxiKov ouvopiaKcbv ouvGrjKov Dirichlet, dnou EXOUUE 9Ecopr|-
T| napapdpcpcoorj Tng Tau.6pdvng f ( x , y ) KOI apxiKr) TaxuTr)Ta napau-dpcpaorig

utt(x,y,t) = c 2 V 2 u(x,y,t) + G ( x , y , t ) , aro D x R+, (4.6)


u(0,y,t)=u(a,y,t) = u(x,0,t) = u ( x , b , t ) = 0, ( x , y ) D, t > 0, (4.7)
u(x,y,0) = f(x,y), u t (x,y,0) = g(x,y), (x,y) D. (4.8)
tou (4.6) - (4.8) OUOXETIOIIEVO npd6Arma t6iOTiy.G>v Eivav
A4>(x,y)+A(j)(x)y) = 0, oro D, (4.9)
4)(x,y) = 0, OTO 3D. (4.10)

Eupcpcova px TO npor)YOuiiEva (EvdTr|Ta 5.2.1, (2.14) - (2.15) ), 01 i6ioTiu.g


(4.9) - (4.10) Eivai

, m,n = 1,2,3,... (4.11)


i6ioouvapTiioig
U7TX TRTTy
<Pm.n.(x,y) = sin sin , (x,y) e D, m,n = 1,2,3,.... (4.12)

i, atpou QEcoprjoouuE OTI r\ i ni6paori avanTuooETai OE OElpd Trig laopcprig


oo oo
G(x,y,t)= ^ ^ G , ( x , y , t ) D x R+, (4.13)
m=l n=l
a b

01 xpovog"apTcouvoi ouvTEAEOTEg G m n(t) 8{6ovTai and TO 8mAd oAoKAripoiia


4 fQ fb ^ T17TX TUTTy
Gmn(t) = - G(x,y,t)sin sin- -dxdy, t > 0, (4. 14)
ab J 0 Jo a b
ma m,n = 1,2,3,..., pnopouviE va 6oKiu.doouLiE og AuoEig TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOg (4.6) -
4.8) TO aKoAouGa YcvtKEupEva 6inAd avanruYVia^ci Fourier

u ( x , y , t ) = 5~ 5~u m n (t)sin^^sin^, (x.y.t) 6 D x R + . (4.15)


m=li n=1i a b
182 KecpdAaio 5. 2 KQI 3 XwpiKeg Aiacrcdacig

AvuKa6ioiwviag Tig ouvapiiioEig u(x,y,t), G(x,y,t) and TO avaniuYVaia (4.13),


(4.15) airjv E^iocoori (4.6), npOKumouv 01 n x m. TO nAqGog YpauuiKEg ur|
6euipo6d9uig auvii9ig 5iaq>opiKg E^iocboEig

;t) = G mn (t), m,n = 1,2,3,..., t > 0.

Auvovrag 119 6ia<popiKg EJjiocooEig npoKuntei on, 01 xpovoE^apicbuEvoi


in Yevuai iaop<j>ri

-V
, m,U = 1,2,3 ..... t > 0. (4.16

Ano triv npwii! apxuai auvGriKri otig (4.8) naipvouye 6i\

II./IA. m.7Ty . , .-.


u(x, y, 0) = f(x, y) = A mn sin sin , (x, y) 6 D.
o
m=l n=1

Av 8copr)oouvi oil, n ouvdpinor) f(x,y) Eivai ouvExns cog npog x,y, IOIE 01
Eg ing 6inAr)g oEipdg Fourier 6i6oviai ano ng oxE

' m,n = 1,2,3,.... (4.17)


Jo Jo a b
H apxiKi] laxuinia ano ir| axEorj (4.8) Eni6dAAi dncog
oo oo
Ut(x,y,0) =g(x,y) = Y Y B mn a mn csin- -sin--, (x,y) D.
m=l n=l

Av Eniorig 9copr|aouvi 611, n cmvdpiriori g(x,y) Eivai auvExng cog npog x,y, TOU
npOKurciEi r|

, m,n = 1,2,3, .... (4.l


aba ranc
Cc Jof Jo
f'
Jo b
EnouEvug r| Auorj TOU npo6Aiiuaiog apxiKcbv ouvopiaKcov ouv9r)K6v 6i6iai ano a)
;ari (4.15), dnou 01 6id(popoi auvieAeaiEg npoaSiopi^oviai and ng oxEOEig (4.14) KQI]
(4.16)-(4.18).

5.4. 1. No. Avdei ro nporjyounEVO np6&K.r\\t.a oirjv nepimaorj, nou dvai 1


6n r] e&TpiK>i enidpaorj eivai irjg ^opiprjf G (x, y , t) = ex+y cos cut, (x, y ) D , t > 0. 1

Avar] E.ir)v nEpimcoari autli H ^coipiKr| Eni8paor| avaniuooEiai ouucpova UE loug iunou$ I
(4.13) - (4.14) OE oeipd, ir)g onoiag 01 xpovoE^apicouEvoi auviAOTg G mn (t) Eivai

4-TTl T\ TT
E? Aiaorcdoei i TIpodArjpara - A. Me0o6o ISioouvaprrjaeov 183

(4.13). m,n == 1,2,3,..., t > 0. 'Eiai aupcpcova p Trj o)(or| (4.16) npOKuntei OTI, 01
:apicbpvoi auvTEAEOTEg u mn (t), m,n = 1,2,3,... tr|g Auor|g TOU npo6AiipaTog

C mn coscursina mn c(t-r)dr =
a
55"
c w
(COS CUt-COS Q mn Ct),
0 ( mn ~ ~>
m,n = 1,2,3,..., t > 0, p Tr)v npoun60Eor) OTI, IOXUEI o nepiopia^og \i.r\ fj.cpdvioT]g
wuioviafMu, 6rjJia6ri ixpu\jL. cu ^ QmnC, m, n = 1,2,3,.... Enopsvag, oupcpcova p TOV
Bio (4.15) r| (TuniKr|) Auor) TOU npo6Ar)paTOg 8ovr|0cov Trjg op6oyd)viag pp6pdvr|g D
uno tr)v EniSpaor) Tng E^coTEpiKr) 6uvapr|g G(x, y, t) = ex+y cos cut, Eivai Tr|g
> 0 . (4.16) mrx. rriTry
^-mn

( u(x,y,t) =
m=1 n=1
u (x,y) e D, t > 0.
2
aC -a> ) 2 (cos cut cos QmnCt) sin
a
sin - ,
b

5.4.2 EJjiocjori Poisson ]ie Mn-OpoyEvcig Euv6r|KE Tunou Dirichlet

e 01 auvce- 0upoupe TO np66Anvia Poisson pe pn-ojaoveveig auvopiaKEg auvGriKeg tunou Dirichlet


Au(x,y) = -h(x,y), (x,y) e D, (4.19)
u(x,y) = f(x,y), (x,y) 3D, (4.20)
(4.17)
onou D Eivai Eva cppaypEvo ouvoAo OTO R 2 KQI 3D TO AEIO cruvopo QUTOU. .
[on, r| Auar) TOU (4.19) - (4.20) anoTEAsi TO a6poiopd Trig Auorig u^(x,y) TOU opoyEvoug
npo6Ar|paTog ps pr| opoysvEig ouvopiaKEg ouv6r|Kg
Au(x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) D, (4.21)
u(x,y) = f ( x , y ) , (x,y) 3D, (4.22)
. TOTE KCU Tr)g Uo(x,y) TOU pr| opoyEvoug npo6AiipaTOg p opoyEVEig cruvopiaKEg ouv-
8r|Kg
Au(x,y) = -h(x,y), (x,y) 6 D, (4.23)
(4.18) u(x,y) = 0, (x,y) e 3D. (4.24)

ano trj Fia Tqv EniAuori TOU npcbTOu npo6AiipaTOg (4.21) - (4.22) QKoAouGoupE Tig i8EEg, nou
14) KQI avanTuxQEi orr|v EvotnTa 5.2.1 (Mn-opoyEVEig auvopiaKEg auv6fiKg Dirichlet).
Fia Trjv EniAuar) TOU 6EUTpou npo6AiipaTOg (4.23) - (4.24) QEOpoupE OTI, oncog KOI ornv
nporiyoupEvr) EvoTriTa 5.4.1, undpxEi Auori Trig popcpiig

t>0. C m n*mn(x,y), (x,y) D, (4.25)


m=l n=l
Tunoug
vai trig onou 01 auvapTioEig cjmn l ) , m,n = 1,2,3,..., anoTEAouv Tig i8ioouvapTr|OEig TOU
ouaxETiapEvou npo6AiipaTOg Helmholtz
A(J)(x,y) + Ac|)(x,y)=0, (x,y) 6 D, (4.26)
cos cut, 4)(x,y) = 0, ( x , y ) 3D, (4.27)
184 KecpciAaio 5. 2 KQI 3 XaipiKec Aiaordoeid

pi6iOTipg A = A m n , m.,n = l , 2 , 3 AvriKaGionccbvrag TO avdmuYpa (4.25) T


arr| pEpuai 6iacpopiKri E^iaoor) TOU npoBAiipaTOg (4.23) - (4.24), npOKurrtei r\ oxor|

H(x,y) = ,y), ( x , y ) G D. (4.28)


m=1 n=l
'Opcog TO TEAEUTQIO avdmuYpa anoTEAEi Trj yeviKEVuivr] 6mjlr) atipa Fourier ir\$ ou-
vdpTr)or|g h(x,y). AKoAou0cbvrag avdAoYn 6ia6iKao(a auTrig TCOV (anAcov) YEVIKEUIIEVCOV
oeipcov Fourier (noAAanAaoiaauog Tr|g Eiocoor|g pE Tig i6iocruvapTiioig ( J > i j ( x , y ) , oAo-
OTO neSio D, K.A.n.) KaTaAiiYOupE arr)

H(x ) y)cp mn (x,y)dxdy, m,n = 1,2,3,..., (4.29)


D
onou TO pETpo (norm) Tr|g i6ioouvdpTr|or|g 4>mn(x,y) opi^ETai ano Tr| o)(Ear|

ll*mnl|2 = l*mn(x,y)| 2 dxdy, m,n = 1,2,3,....

5.4.2. &cjpouu 10 npoSjirjua Poisson u ^ri-ouoyVig ouvopiaxxg ouvdriKQ


limou Dirichlet OE ZEipayaviKd n6io

U(x,v)+u vv (x,v)=-xy, (x.y) D = (0,7t) x (0,n), (a)I


u(0,y) =0, u(7i,y) = 0, y (O.n), u(x,0) =0, U(X,TT) = a, xe(0,7i). ((3)
Avar] Eupcpcova pE TQ nporiYOupEva, TO np66Ar)pa (a) ( | 3 ) avaAuETai OE 6uo npo6Aq-
paTa. To npeirco, Eivat TO aKoAou6o ur]-ouoyV<; ovvopiaKd np66j\.r]ua ivnov Dirichlet aio

Uxx(x,y)+Uy V (x,y) = 0, (x,y) D, (Y)


u(0,y) =0, u(7i,y) = 0, y (O.rt), u(x,0) =0, u(x,n) = a, x(0,7i). (6)

Evco TO 6EUTEpo, Eivai EVQ ouoyevig auvopiaKO Tip66Arjua ivnou Poison Tng popcprig

=-xy, (x,y) 6 D, U)
u(0,y) =u(7i,y) = 0, ye (O.Ti), u(x,0) = u(x,7r) = 0, xe(0,n). (0

To npoBAppa Dirichlet (y) (6) EXEX Auor] Trjg popcpiig


oo
u-n(x.y) = ^a n sin(nx)sinh(ny), (x,y) 6 D,
n=l
onou 01 ouvTEAEOTEg a n > n = 1 , 2, 3, ... , Eivai Trig popcprig

a n sinh(n7r) = - 1 7l Q S in(nx)dx = [1 -(-1) n ], n = 1,2,3,..


7T Jo TITT

EnopEvcog r| Auor) TOU npo6Ar|paTog (y) (6) eivai Trig popcpiig

sinh(2n-
Un sin(2n-1)x, (x,y) e D.
n *sinh(2n
n=l
a 9 (ft 1 *) '(*'*) p(0'ft'
3tl
'a 3 (fi'x) '(*' ft '*)E> = (
DriliYgodii OA3rioiiDriLiXoDi3ri OSA <
e'tO - (Oe'fr) orlLiYgodu 010 (KTtO LioliidpAno Lii SDIAWIOIQDMIIAV '
DA ui3du VQ DIOLIO Li 'LiiliYgDisrt LiA3riliidD3 DiAdnoAiox Alii 13Y310UD (i.'ft'x)/w Li nou
SUcbdoti SLii noiini noi noino AOiptiliYgodii UDOYJUS Alii i
C?)
(3)
si
(9)
AWMllQACU) ACTXDldC
w
SoiDtiLiygodii noQcxoypxD noi lioay U Sco 1013919 '(.V ft'*.^ UoDd9\ii3 U
o\ouo U 'S3M\iQAC\D 53>ir)\doAnD S3A3T\o\\DgDi3T\ pxtAodX 3tA (q '()) X Ol) J91H3
= Q SLiApdgrisrt SoiAroAoodo SLiAsrlnoAog Smrl (i'fl'x)n SLiDiiipiDisri -LiYQodii
(fl)
(!
Q 9 ( f t ' x ) '(fi'x)0n+(fi'x) r l n= (ft'x)n
SzMUgano
1DA>3 ()) (TO) uossiod SoioriliYgodu SnoAsAorlo-Uri noxiXdo noi Uony U l
(fi'x) '(ftiu)urs (xu)uis + "7 ^7 ^ = (fi . X )On
60 "So
3ttnoX3 (5) (3) SoioriLiYgodii noi (ft'x)On Lioav lii oiA (62^)
( ^ + ^=fipxp(fitu)uis(XU)UISfix f f ^(r^ + r^) =
( l~J liJ liJ P -OYO '(ft 1
ACTASrlnSMl
5l3O3XD Sll OLID
-no SLii jai
jaunoj 5pcti3D SUn 5U]ruig SLii 'f '3 ' i = u 'iu 'UU1^ SSIOSYSIAQD 10
'(ftiu)uis(xu)uis= (ft' = (8't-)
SisoLiidDAftooigi SsXioioiiAD IDM Ssrhioigi 13X3
pdii oxDidoAno OAsrloiisXoaD 01 'up srlno^idcoAA (5) (3) DtiLiYgpdu 01 Dij
98 T -y - Si30piDm^(
186 KecpdAcno 5. 2 xat 3 XapiKtg Aiaoiaoeql

KOI ou-oyevEig (xpovoaveJjdptntEg) auvopiOKEg auv6r|Kg


W(0,y,t) p i ( y , t ) - U ( 0 , y , t ) = p T ( y , t ) , y e (0,b), t > 0,
W ( a , y , t ) = p 2 ( y , t ) - U ( a , y , t ) = p 2 ' ( y , t ) > y 6 (0,b), t > 0,
W(x,0,t) = q1(x,t)-U(x,0,t) = x e ( 0 , a ) , t 0,
W(x,b,t) = q 2 ( x , t ) - U ( x , b , t ) = x e ( 0 , a ) , t 0.
Etovtag p 7 = p 2 = q7 = q 2 = 0 to npd6Ar|pa
cnjvopioKcov cjuv9nK6v cog npog W ( x , y , t )
W tt c2(Wxx + W vy ) = G ( x , y , t ) , ( x . y ) e D , t 0, (4.35)
W(0,y,t) = W(Q,y,t) = 0, y e (0,b), t > 0, (4.36)
W(x,0,t) = W(x,b,t) = 0, xe(0,a), t>0, (4.371
W(x,y,0) = f(x,y), W t (x,y,0) = g(x,y), (x,y) D, (4.381
tou onoiou r| Auor) orr| 6ia6iKaoia tcov npo6Aqp.dtcov tr|g Evo-
tr|tag 5.4.1. Fia va eivai auu.6atg 01 ouvopiaKEg ouv0r|KEg QEcopoupE 6u, unapxouv
ouvaptr|OEig (j)(y),i|j(x) tEtoiEg cbcrtE cj)(0) = (j)(b) = ij)(0) = i\)(a) = 0 KO.I 01 onoitj
mavonoiouv tig

Pi(y,t) 4>(y)pi(y,t), P2(y,t) = <t>(y)p5(y,t), y e (o,b), t >o,


qi(x,t) \|(x)q|(x,t), q2(x,t)=\|)(x)q5(x,t), x e ( 0 , a ) , t > 0.
Enou.Evcog r| ouvdptriori U(x,y,t), nou ucavonoiEi tig E^iocboEig
U(0,y,t) = pifo.t), U ( Q ) y , t ) = p 2 ( y ) t ) , y ( 0 , b ) , t > 0,
U(x,0,t) = qi(x,t), U{x,b,t) = q 2 ( x , t ) , x e ( 0 , a ) , t > 0 ,

[q| + (ql-qt)], (x,y) D, t > 0. (4

Apa tEAixd, oup.cpcova p. tov tuno (4.34), r\ Auor| OTO npd6Ar|pa (4.30) - (4.33) 6i6etaJ
cog to dGpoiavia tr)g Auar)g W(x,y, t) tou npo6Aiip.atog (4.35) - (4.38) KOI trig
U(x,y,t), r) onoia 6i6Etai and tr| oxEor) (4.39).
5.4.3. Na Audti mo opdoycbvio D (0, a) x (0,b) 10 aKdAoudo
AiKd np6SArj}j.a yuz xpoviKd fjia6aAA6}*veg avvopia.Kg ovvdr\Kg ivnov
u t t(x,y,t) = c 2 Au(x,y,t), ( x , y ) 6 D, t > 0,
u(0,y,t) = 0, u ( a , y , t ) = 0 , 0 < y < b, t > 0,
7TX
u(x,0,t) = 0, u ( x , b , t ) = s i n sint, 0 < x < a, t > 0,
a
u(x,y,0) 0, u t (x,y,0) = ^ s i n , ( x , y ) D.
b a
To np66Ai]iJ.a avid anoieAei 10 ^aSrj^ariKO upon/no mpiypcxpris lav 6ovr\oov \aan
opdayavias ^f^pdwjc; diamdoeav D = (0, a) x (0, b) eAevdepr] ^cjiepiKcJv 7ii6pcio^
15.4 Mr) O^ioycvrj /TpoftA/jpara -A. MiQodog /Sioauvaprijaccov 187

Mi/a?) fia tr|v EntAuor) npo6Ar)jadTcov ir]g uopcpiig (a), oncog EiSapc napandvco, 6iaxco-
Koupe ir] Auori OE 6uo u.pr|

u(x ) y ) t)=U(x,y,t)+W(x,y,t) ) (x,y) e D, t > 0, (P)

inou r\ \V( x, y , t) anoTEAsi tr|V Kaivoupyia E^aptntiEvri u.Ta6Ar|Tii, r| onoia 9a npsni va


I ica6opto6ei. AvtiKaOiatovtag tr] auvdpTtior) (|3), cno np66Arnaa (a), npOKuniEi TO VEO
np66Ar)pa cog npog ir^v ^apir)LiEvri LiETa6Ar]Tii W ( x , y , t )

(4.35)
^sin sint = G(x,y,t), ( x , y ) e D , t > 0 , (y)
or b a
(4.36) Eg cruvGriKEg
(4.37)|
W(x,y,0) = 0, W t ( x , y , 0 ) = 0 , (x,y) e D (6)
(4.38)

KOI opoysvEig (dpa KOI xpovoav^dpir)tEg) ouvopiaKEg

W(0,y,t) = 0, W(a,y,t) = 0, y e (0,b), t > 0, (e)


W(x,0,t) = 0, W(x,b,t) = 0, x ( 0 , a ) , t > 0, (0

ou r) cnjvdpxr|ori U ( x , y , t ) , nou iKavonoiEi Tig ouvopiaKEg

U(0,y,t) = 0, U(a,v,t)=0, 0 < y < b, t >0,


TtX
U(x,0,t) = 0, U(x,b,t) =sin sint, 0 < x < a, t > 0,
a
tai ano TOV tuno
U ( x , y , t ) = f-sin sint.
b a
'Etoi E a' Eva np66Anpa, \\a ir\ Auor) TOU onoiou Tr
l
[6ia6iKaoia, nou avancuxGnKE orqv EVOTHTO 5.4. 1. I~ho ouyKEKpiLiEva, acpou 9Ecopr|oou]j
lou r E c o T E i K i i Eni6paari G (x, y , t) avamuooETai OE osipd ir\g vaopcpiig

G(x,y,t)= , (x.y.t) D x
m=l n=l
[onou 01 xpovoe?japTcbuvoi auvreAEOTEg G m n (t) SiSovrai ano TO 6inA6 oAoicAiipcovaa

4 fa fb nrrx mTty
G mn (t) = G(x,y,t)sin-a -sin^dxdy,
ID Jo JO
(a) n+1
2(-1) ,.
^ = 1,2,3,..., t > 0 .
an
MnopoupE va 6oKipdoouvi cog AuoEig TOU npoBAiipaTOg (y) TO OKoAouGa YEVIKEUJJEVO
6inAd avanruYT-iaTa Fourier

W ( x , y , t ) = Y Y u m n (t)sin- -sin- -, (x,y,t) 6 D x R + . (TI)


*. * a b
ra=1 n=l
188 Ke(pdAaio 5. 2 KQI 3 XcopiKec; Amoiaat\$

us auvapTiioEis W(x,y,t), G ( x , y , t ) ano TQ napandvw avaniuy-j


JJOTO ornv E^iaaoT) (y), npOKurrtouv 01 n x m TO nAr|0os YPaPpu<S PI ojioyeveij
6UTpo6a6u.iS auvr|9Eig 6ia<popiKs E^IOQOEIS

W^ n (t) + c 2 Q^ n W mn (t) = G m n (t), m,n = 1,2,3,..., t > 0,

onou ano ir\ oxor| (4.11) EXOUU.E on, 01 i6iouy.S a mn TOU OUOXETIOU.EVOU npoBAiipa
6i6ovrai ano TOV Tuno

mV
Qmn. = , m,n = 1,2,3,....
a 2
b2
Auvovras TIS 6ia(popiKs E^IOOOEIS npOKunrsi OTI, 01 xpovo^apTcovivoi OUVTE
W mn (t) EXOUV T

W mn (t) = + A mn cos(a mn ct) + B mn sin(a mn ct)


+ G m n (r)sin(a m n c(t-r))dr, m,n = 1,2,3,..., t > 0.
a TTin^f* JO
I /\

Ano tqv np6tr| apxucri ouv6r|Kr] 0115 o^eoeig (6) naipvoupe OTI

v T TTTTTX
W(x,y,0) = 0 = Y Y_ sin -, ( x , y ) D .
rtv=li n=l,
Ano Tnv TsAsuTaia npOKunrsi OTI Amn =0, m, n = 1 , 2, 3, ... . H apxiKii
ano TIS OX^OEIS (S) Eni6dAAEi o

i /-^ / \ ^ \ T-, ri/ix ni/iy


Wt(x,y,0) = g(x,y) = > > B mn a mn csin sin--, ( x , y ) e D.
* *: a b
m=l n=1

'ETOI npOKunrEi ri oy(Eor\


4 y TTX. nTix m.7ry 2l
Brrm = (-sin ) sin sin-dxdy = -
aba mn c J 0 Jo b a a b ar
Enou-Evcos Ol ouvTEAeoTES W mn (t) naipvouv Tr) iiop^ii

2(-1) n (a 2 -7t 2 c 2 )
W mn (t) = sin(amnct) H r- = j-(sin(a
2 mn ct) - a mn csint)
a mn can QnvnCQ^nll - Q^nC )

onou m,n = 1,2,3,..., t > 0. Apa TEAIKO r| Auor) TOU OU.OYEVOUS unp6oAiKOu np
(a) LIE xpoviKa u.Ta6aAA6iiVs ouvopiaKEs ouv6r|Ks Tunou Dirichlet 8i6Tm<
(r|), onou 01 6ici(popoi OUVTEAEOTES npooSiopi^ovrat napandvco.
) TEAiKr) popcpii Tns Auons ei

U7TX TU7
u(x,y,t) = U ( x , y , t ) + W(x,y,t) = sin sint+ W mn (t) sin - - sin
m=1 n=1
b
5.4 Mr] Opoyevr) /TpodA/jpara - A. Mido8og Jfiioauvapr/jaewv 189

5.4.4 IIpo6ArjiiaT:a
I No Au0Ei TO QKoAouGo \ir\ opoyEveg eAAEinTixo (E^iocoor) Poisson) np66Ar|pa auvopiaKwv auv-
pproviunou Dirichlet OTO opOoyawo n8io D ={(x,y) R2; 0 < x < 7 t , 0 < y < 1 }
Uxx(x,y)+Uyy(x,y) = -1, (x,y) e D,
u(0,y) =u(7r,y) =u(x,0) =0, u(x, 1) sinx, ( x , y ) e D,

: u(x,y) = Ssinx+ 1|~=1 ,, .^^^^V..'^'^'^^^)


L Na Au0i TO QKoAouOo \ir\ opoyEVEg EAAEIHTIKO (EJjiouor) Poisson) np66Ar|u.a auvopiaKcov ouv-
fc]Kcjv tunou Dirichlet OTO TETpayoviKO nE6io D = {(x,y) M2; 0 < x < n, 0 < y < TT}

Uxx(x,y) + u u u (x,y) = -sin3y, (x,y) e D,


u(0,y) = u ( 7 r , y ) = 0 , u(x,0) = 1, u(x,7t) = 1, (x,y) 6 D,

(2n-l) s lnh(2n-1)n - 1W
i 4 sin 3u sln(2m 1 )x _
m=l

1 3. Na Au6i TO QKoAouSo pr| oiioyevEg EAAElnTlKO (E^iooor) Poisson) np66Ar|iia ouvopiaKov OTJV-
IfoiKQv nirtou Dirichlet OTO opGoycovio n6io D = {(x,y) K 2 ; 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b}

Uxx(x,y)+Uyy(x,y) = -xy(a-x)(b-y), (x,y) 6 D,


u ( 0 , y ) = u ( a , y ) = 0 , u(x,0) =0, u(x,b) =0, ( x , y ) e D,
[ 4. Na Au0Ei TO aKoAou0o pr| oiioyEVEg unp6oAiKO np66Ar|iia apxixcbv - ouvopiaxov ouv0r|Kcov
tunou Neumann OTO op0oywvio nE6io D = {(x,y) M 2 ; O < X < T T , 0 < y <
= c 2 u t t(x,y,t) + 2xy2,
l (x,y,t) (x.y) 6 D, t > 0 ,
u x (0,y,t) =Ux(7t,y,t) = U y ( x , 0 , t ) =Uy(x,47t,t) = 0, (x,y) e D, t > 0 ,
u(x,y,0) = sinrrx, u t (x,y,0) = sin Try, ( x , y ) D,
onou c Eivai pia QETIKF) npayyaTiKii ora0pd.
[5. Na Au0ei TO aK6Aou0o p.r) ou.oyVg unEp6oAu<6 npo6Ar)iia - auvopiaKov
ou Dirichlet OTO Ku6uco n6io D = {(x,y) 6 R 2 ; 0 < x < T t , 0 < y < 7 r }
x . y . t J + U y y f x . y . t ) = c" 2 utt(x,y,t)-2xycost, (x,y) 6 D, t > 0,
u(0,y,t) =u(7t,y,t) =u(x,0,t) =u(x,7r,t) = 0, (x,y) e D, t > 0,
u(x,y,0) = 1, u t ( x , y , 0 ) = 0 , (x,y) e D,
6nou c Eivai pia II npayiiaTtKr) ora0pd.
I 6. Na Au0i TO QKoAouOo \ir\ ouoyEVEg napa6oAiKO np66Ar|iia apxixov KOI auvopiaKov
tunou Robin OTO napaAAnAEnin6o n6io D = {(x,y,z) E 3 ; 0 < x < 7 t , 0 < y < In, 0 < z <
3rr}
- Uyy + U zz = k 2
U t + XZ 2 t, (x,y,z)eD, t > 0 ,
u(0,y,z,t) =0, u(7t,y,z,t) =0, u(x,0,z,t) =0, (x,y,z) 6 D , t > 0 ,
u(x,27t,z,t) =0, u z ( x , y , 0 , t ) = 0 , u z (x,y,37t,t) = 0, ( x , y , z ) 6 D, t > 0 ,
u(x,y,z,0) = zcosx, (x.y.zjeD,
onou k Eivai \iia SETIKI] npayriaTiKii ora0Epd.
190 KctpdAaio 5. 2 KQI 3 XapiKcg Aiaoiaaei$

7. Na Au0i to aK6Aou9o ur| OU.OYEVES napaBoAiKo np66Anua apxixcov KOI ouvopiaKOv ouvOipcav
tunou Robin ato Ku6iKo ne6io D = {(x,y ) e R2; O < X < T T , 0 < y < 7 t }
u X x ( x , y , t ) + U y U ( x , y , t ) = k~ 2 u t (x,y,t) -2k" 2 , (x,y)GD, t>0,
u(0,y,t) = 0, u ( 7 r , y , t ) = 0 , (x,y)eD, t>0,
u u (x,0,t) = -u(x,0,t), u u (x,7t,t) = -u(x,7t,t), (x,y) e D , t > 0 ,
u(x,y,0) =0, (x,y) D ,
onou k Eivai uia 9tiKr| npayuatiKri ota9Epd.
,: u ( x , y , t ) =
m cos my ) .
8. Na Au9Ei to OKoAou9o u.r| OU.OYEVES sAAEintiKO (E|iocoor| Poisson} np66Anu.a ouvopiciKov ouv-
Qqxov tunou Dirichlet UE aictiviKii oupp.Etpia OTO KuAiv6piKO nE6io D = {(r, 9, z) 6 K3; 0 <ll
1, -7i < 9 < 7t, 0 < z < b}
1
u r r (r,z) + -u r (r,z) +u(r,z) = -1, (r,9,z)eD,
|u(r,z)| (ppavpEvo, Ka9cos to r-4 0 + , (r, 9,z) D,
u(r,0)=0, u(r,b)=0, u(l,z) = z(z-b), (r,9,z) e D.
9. Na Au0Ei to OKoAouOo opoyEVEg napaBoAiKO np66Anpa apxucwv KOI pr| opoyEvciw ouvopiaKOv
ouvOnKcbv tunou Dirichlet OTO KuSiKo n6io D = {(x,y) G R 2 ; 0 < x < 7 t , 0 < y < TT}
U x x ( x , y , t ) + u u v ( x , y , t ) = k- 2 u t (x,y,t), ( x , y ) G D, t > 0,
u(0,y,t) =u(7r,y,t) = u(x,7i,t) = 0, u(x,0,t) = x(x-7r)cost, ( x , y ) 6 D, t > 0,
u(x,y,0)=0, (x,y)GD,
onou k Eivai \i\a 9tui npavpatiKri ora0pd.
10. Na Au0Ei to aK6Aou0o OUOYEVES unp6oAiKO np66Anua apxiKCOV KOI ur) OU.OYEVQV ouvopu TOU 01 ax
auv0r|KcJv tunou Dirichlet OTO KUKAIKO n6io D = {(r,9) G R 2 ; 0 < r < a, n < 9 < 7t}
1 1
( r , 9 ) e D, t > 0,
r r2
|u(r,9,t)| cppayuEvo, KQ06s to r-> 0 + , u(a,9,t) = tsin9, (r,9) G D, t > 0, j
u(r,9,0) =r 2 sin9, u t (r,9,0) = 9 , (r,9) G D,
onou c Eivai uia 9tiKf| npayuatiKri ota0Epd.
11. Na Au0i to OK6Aou0o ou.oyEVEg napa6oAiKO npoBAnua apxuubv KOI pr| opoyEvcbv ouvopu
ouv0r)Kci>v tunou Neumann OTO KUKAIKO n6io D = {(r,9) G R 2 ; 0 < r < a, n < 9 < 7t}
1 1 2
u r r (r,9,t) + -u r (r,9,t) + ^ru
z e e(T,9,t) = k~ u t (r,9,t), (r,9) G D, t > 0,
r r
+
|u(r,9,t)| (ppaypEvo, Ka06gto r-> 0 , u r ( a , 9 , t ) =rsin9, (r,9)GD,t>0,
u(r,9,0) =rcos9, (r,9) G D,
6nou k Eivai uia 9tiKii npayuatiKii ota0Epd.
12. Mia ocpaipa aKtivag a ppioxEtai OE apxuoi Katavopii 9eppoKpaoia u(r, 9,cJ),0) =r 2 -
Fia t > 0, r| Eni(pdvEia tng ocpaipag SiatnpEitat orr| 9pu.OKpaoia u(a,9,(|>,t) = sint, ev6
ouYXpovcog napdyEtai 9pu6tnta OTO EOOtEpiKo tr)g o<paipag \it gu0)-i6 re5"1. Na
Katavouri 9EppOKpaoia u(r,9,(J),t) o' 6Aa ta onuEia tng oq>aipag.
(Mr) Opoyevi) npo6\r\^aia - B. Mc6o8os Meraox^panapwv 191
KcovouvOqKcov
5.5 Mr] O|ioyevri npo6Ar|paTa:
0, B. MeGo6o OAoKArjpcoTiKcbv
),
,\
JJ.l nencpaouevos Mexaoxr|uaTioii6s Fourier
L Eioayuyq - Opiouos - I6ioxr|TEs

ranepaouEvoi UETaoxniJQTiouoi Fourier (IIUITOVIKOS KQI ouvnuuoviKos) anoTEAouv uia


nx(sin my - - ' t i K i i tExviKii EniAuons "n ouoyevcbv npoBArmaTov (apxiKwv) auvopiaKcbv npo6Ar|-
v. Oi UEtaaxnuaTiauoi auToi avriUETcont^ouv TQ uri opoyEvri xpovoE^apTupEva KQI
|xpovoav$apTr|Ta npoBAripaTa UE TOV 1610 Tp6no. Enioris EnEKtEivovrai duEoa OE npo-
PICIKCOV auv- "rjpaia nEpioooiepcov Siaordoecav. 'Earcj TO np66Ar)pa Sturrn-Liouvllle
R3; 0 < r <
=0, b, (5.1)

= 0, (5.2)
= o. (5.3)

' Eivai YVWOTO on TO ouatriua (5.1) - (5.3) 6XTai uia artEipia i6ioTiuov A n , n =
OUVOpldKQV
2,3,... KOI i6ioouvapTiioEcov (|)n(x) = 4>(A n ,x), n = l,2,3,... . 'Eorco uia turiuauKd
Ikia auvdpTnori f ( x ) opxapEvr) oro KAEIOTO Sidorriua [a,b]. TOTE r\ auvdptriori f(x),
t>0, to QVOIKTO 6idorr|pa (a, b), EKCppd^ETai UE ir\v aKoAouGr) OEipd Fourier
t>0.
00

(5.4)
n=1
OUVOplQKCOV
Bnou 01 oxivreAEOTES Fourier opi^ovrai ano Trj

Cn = f q(x)f(x)|> n (x)dx. (5.5)


Ja
t>0,
ETC oripsia aauvEXEidg Tng r) ouvdptnori f (x) avriKa9ioraTai orr| (5.4) ano TO
[f(x + ) + f(x_)]/2.

JUVOplQKCDV Opio]i6s 5.5.1. Opiov}* &)f nenepao)ievo o Fourier


<7T} njf avvdpir}ar\g f ( x ) aro 6idorr}}j.a ( a , b ) irjv {cn}, nov
I opi&viai and 177 OXEOT] (5.5) KCLI oun6oJli&Tai y /n[f (x)] =: ftA n )- 5r]j(a5r\ i

ffAn) =/nlf()] = f q(x)f(x)(j) n (x)dX. (5.6)


Ja

Eva) o avriatpoipos nenepaoucvos (YEVXKEUIIEVOS) uexaoxniia'clCTU6s Fourier


r 2 -1. |f(x) =^ 1 [f(An)] tr/fowdpirjaryf f(An) opi&iai 0$ 77 oeipd
slnt, evcb
a ppeSsi r| (5.7)
n=1
192 Ke<poAaio 5. 2 KQI 3 XwpiKeg A

napatiipr|or} 5.5.2. O nEnEpaouEvog (yEviKEUuEvog) UEiaaxriuauoudg Fourier ^tagoB


vdpirjorjg f (x) opi&iai Kara uovadiKd ipdno. AviidEia, Eivai tpavcpd and lov ipdno opio^oii
611 noJIMg ouvapiijoEig EXOUV wv i6io UEiaaxnuauaud. Fia napddEvyua ouvapir)aEig, aM
noizg 6ia(ppouv udvo OE Kdnoia ar\uia da EXOUV lov 1610 uEiaoxilH-aiioud. Fia napantpa
avdniv^r\ xou Oiuaiog air]v nEpimaori, nou 10 aviiaioixo np66Ar\ua Sturm- Liouville fx ifS
idioauvapirioeig cosnx rj sinnx, napanEunouuE mo ouYYpauua [74, Ojii6g 601-6051
'Onog 9a cpavei orr) ouvexEia o napanavco nenepaauevoc; (yeviKeupevog)
os Fourier xpnoiuonoieitai euputata \\a inv eniAuar) ur| opovevcbv uepiKcbv 6\a(po-
PIKCOV e^iocooecov opicrpevcov oe Kapteoiaveg

B. Mcptxeg Ata<t>opiKes Eiouoeis


5.5.3. (KupaniKri E^ioooq orr| Mta Atdoraoi]) H Kivrjor] Evdg EJiairfpiov
ur\Kovg n UE oiadEpd dKpa Kdia and irjv Enidpaor] uiag E^aiEpiKrjg Enidpaorig g(x,t) I
npiypd(j)Eiai and to aKdHoudo ur\ ouoyEVEg npo6Jir]ua

u t t (x,t) = c 2 Uxx(x,t) + g(x,t), 0 < x < 7 t , 0 < t , (5.8)


u(0,t) = 0, u(7t,t) =0, 0 < t , (5.9)
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0)=0, 0 < x < n . (5.10)
ME ir] XPn01! lov nEnepaouEVOu rjuiioviKOu UEiaoxriuauauou Fourier va jlvdsi ro napa-
ndva npoSjirjua.
Avar) 'Eotco U(n,t) o nenepaouevoc; r)uuoviKOg petaaxriuaTiouog Fourier trig auvtip-
Tr|or| u(x,t) cog npog x. Tote ouucpcova ue tig i6ioTr|TES TOU uEiao)(r|uauoviou (BAene
[74, oeAi6es 601-602]) exouue

fn[utt(x, 1)1=^(^1), f n [u xx (x,t)]=-n 2 U(n,t), (5.11)


onou r| Seuiepri oxeor] exl npOKuxpei pe ir| (ioii0ia tcov ouvopiaKcov ouv6r)K6v (5.9).
opi^ouue tov nenepaouevo r|uitoviKO uetaoxr)uatiouo Fourier G(x,t) tpg ou-
g(x,t)

fntg(x,t)] = - [ g(x,t)sinnxdx = G(n,t), 0 < t. (5.12)


7T Jo

'Etoi to np66Ar|ua (5.8) - (5.10) ur| ouoyevri 6iacpopiKii


6eutepris td

U t t (n,t)+n 2 c 2 U(x,t) = G ( n , t ) , 0 < t, (5.13)

r) onoia Sexetai tr| ycviKr) Auor)

1 fl
U(n,t) = a cos net + (3 sin net 4- G(n,t)sinnc(t -T)dT, 0 < t. (5.14)
nc Jo
H XPnorl ICOV apxiKcbv ouv0r|Kcbv 6i6ei

7I
f n [u(x,0)] = - u(x,0)sinnxdx = U ( n , 0 ) = 0 , f n [ut(x,t)] = U t (n,0) = 0. (5.15)
7t Jo
$ Aiaaidaeis 5Mi) Ouoyevri npoBAqpaia - B. Medodog MeraqxrjuanoucJv 193

Jrter uiag av- r\ (pova6iKii) Auor) TOU npo6Ar|paTOg apxiKcbv auv0r|Kcbv (5.13), (5.15) Eivai
ipono opiouoii 1 fl
apiriai. 01 o- U(n,t) = - G(n,t)sinnc(t-T)dT, 0 < t. (5.16)
TVC J 0
"ia
uville j Ecpapuo^ovtas TOV avriorpocpo nEnspaapEvo npuoviKO pETaoxnpaTiapo Fourier arq
U ( n , t) ppioxoupE TEAixd OTI, r) Auor) TOU npo6Af)paTOg (5.8) - (5.10) EIVQI
$601-605].

[U(n,t)] = _ U(n,t)sinnx
IKCOV 6tacpo- n=l
f 1 f 1 1
= Y~ G(n,t)sinnc(t-T)dT sinnx, 0 < x < n, 0 < t. (5.17)
^LncJo J
IIapdSciy>ia 5.5.4. (EJjiocoari Aidxuor|g oe OpBoyuvta IIAaKa) eapouue uia opitp-
SEJiairjpiov
ftaopdoyavia nAdKa (0, a) x (0, b) ue OepuiKd novaueveg ug dvco Kai Kdio difjeig
s g(x, t)
JKoi ir\v aK^ii y = b. ApxiKd 77 OepuoKpaaia eivai naviou ur]6iv Kai yia t > 0, 01
= 0, x = a Kai y = 0 diairipouv madepeg 9epfj.oKpaoig T], 0 KOI T2, avi
(5.8) H depnoKpaoia oe Kdde or]ueio irig nAdKag Kai yia dAoug iou$ enduevovg XPOVOV9
(5.9) I ano IT] Auor] lou aKoAoudou npo6Ar\uaio<;
(5.10) lut(x,y,t) =k 2 (u x x (x,y,t) + U y y ( x , y , t ) ) , 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, 0 < t, (5.18)

ti 10 napa- u(0,y,t)=T!, u ( a , y , t ) = 0 , 0<y < b, 0< t, (5.19)


u(x,0,t)=T2, u(x,b,t)=0, 0 <x< a, 0< t, (5.20)

auvdp-
u(x,y,0) =0, 0<x<a, 0<y<b, (5.21)
MOU (BAe'ne '6nou k eivai o ouvieAeoirig 6idxvor\g jj k > 0. Me ir\ xP'nor] lou
fjiaoxT]uaiio)4.ou Fourier va Avdei to napandvco np66Ar]ua.
\Auar] To np66Ar|pa Sturm-Liouville cog npog x, nou npoKunTEl ano TO np66Anpa (5.18)
I-(5.21) pETd TO x^piov0 tov pTa6AnTcov, sivai
X"(x) + AX(x) =0, 0 < x < a, (5.22)
X(0)=X(a) = 0, (5.23)
To np66Ar)pa (5.22) - (5.23) EXEI TO aKoAou0a i6io^UYr|
An = n27T/a2, 4> n (x) = \/2/asin(n7Tx/a).

Ecpappo^ovrag TOV nErepaopEvo (YEVIKEUPEVO) pETaoxnV10110!-10 Fourier cog npog Trj


pTa6AnTr| x, nou opi^etai ano TO napandvco iSio^EUYn, orriv E^iocoor) (5.18), oAoKAripco-
vovrag KOTO psAr) KOI Kdvovrag XP1!01! TCOV auvopioKcbv ouv0r|KQv, npoKunTEl r\ aKoAou0r|

pa ra
^(x.y.tjc^nlxjdx^ + k2 (u x x (x ) y ) t)+uy y (x,y,t))4) n (x)dx
(5.14) Jo Jo

(5.15) . 0 < y < b , 0<t. (5.24)


194 KecpdAaio 5. 2 KOI 3 XwpiKcc Aiaardaeij 5.5 Mr] Ouoy

'Ecrcco U(n,y,t) onEnepaouEvoguEtaoxnuatiouoc,Fouriertnc.auvtiptnons u(x,y,t)| TotE oAoK


cog npo$ x - 6nAa6ii E

U(n,y,t) =f n [u(x,y,t)] = f u(x,y,t)4) n (x)dx. (5.25) 3t


Jo

TotE ano tig cnjvopiaKEc, ouvSiiKEg (5.19) KOI tr| oxEar) (|)^(x) = X n <t>nM )
tq i Siacpopucii E^i onou

n y.t) > 0 < t.(5.26)


ot ouvi

H auvdptnori U(n,y,t) unoKEitai orig UEtaoxnuauouEVES ouvopiaKEg KOI


OX)V0r)KEg
dW(n,m,
U(n,0,t) = T2fn[l], U ( n , b , t ) = 0 , 0 < t, (5.27) dt
U(n,y,0) = 0, 0<y<b, (5.28)
YXO KQ0E t
onou (5.35) SE

JO JO W(n
To npoBAnua Sturm-Liouville cag npog y, nou npOKuntEi ano to np66Ar|ua (5.18)-I
(5.21) UEta to x^piouo tov UEta6Ant6v, Eivai Txa va
UEtaaxnuc
Y"(y) + nY(y) = 0, 0 < y < b, (5.29)
Y(0)=Y'(b) = 0. (5.30)1 u(x,y,

To np66Anua (5.29) - (5.30) EXEI ta OKoAouGa H avtiKati

Hm = [(2m- 1)V]/(4b2), ^ m (y) = N/2/bsln[(2m- 1)7i u(x,y,t)

E(papu65ovtas tov nEnEpaousvo (YEVIKEUUEVO) UEtaoxnV10110!-10 Fourier ug npogu|| onou


UEtaBAntii y, nou opi^etai ano ta napanavco i6io^UYn, ornv e^iocoor) (5.26), npOKumn

U t (n,y,t)^m(y)dy =
5.5.2 I
5.5.1 H
1. Me tri
QKoAouOo
'Eorco oti W (u, m, t) Eivai o UEtaoxnuatiauog Fourier tr|S ouvaptiio Dirichlet
U(n,y,t) cog npog y, 6nAa6r| EXOUUE

W(n,m,t) = f m [U(n,y,t)] =
- U(n,y,t)U> m (y)dy (5.5
MAr] Opoyev/j /7po0A/)para - B. 195

Tou oAoKAripcbvovrag KOTO iieAr) Tr)v crxeor) (5.31) KCU Kdvoviag xprior) rov ouvopiaKcbv
v i|)m(0) =0, 3U(n,b,t)/3y =0,

(5.25) r rt A n vv ( i i , in, ij - T *. i i t y n i v j i m i i j K. 1 -M'i, y, M ^ m i y J / un


ot
rb
+ U(n,Y,tNC(y)dy, 0 < t, (5.33)
<f>n(x) Exoupe Jo
Hnou
f b il), fill/Ill I
f b i /[2 c i n ,(2m-1)7ry. 2^2b
'ml'J I'raiyj'^y \/ , Sl^^l . . -. - m il
juy .
>. 0-.. (.(5.26) Jo Jo V b 2b (2m -1)71
Sir] auvEx^ia Kdvovrag XP1!01! IWV cajvopiaKCJv o\jv6r|K6v (5.27), Trjg c)(Eor|g i^rn.(y ) =
r(tm^m(y ) KQI Tr|g pTao)(ripaTiaiivr|g apxiKiig 0uv9r]Kqg (5.28) KQTaAriyoupE oro npo-
-S KQI apxiKeg
pAripa apxiKov ouv6r)KCJv

(5.27) 3t Vn^i

(5.28) W(n,m,0) = 0, (5.35)


UKd9e t > 0. AKoAouScovrag yvcoorr) 6ia6iKaoia (JpioKoupE OTI, TO np66Ar)pa (5.34) -
(5.35) SEXETQI tr| (pova8tKr|) Auor|

T 2 Xl>m(0)f n [l] + Tld)' (0)f m [1] /, V2fx U\

tiTM-a (5.18) -
\ T\a va ppoupe Tr| Auor) u(x,y,t) TOU apxiKOu npo6Ar)po.TOg avtiorpE(poup Toug
naaxripQ^K^oug (5.25) KQI (5.32), onoxE npOKurrcEi
(5.29) 00 OO

(5.3O) 1 u(x,y,t) = _ ^_ W(n, m,t)(J) n (x)\|> m (ij), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , 0 < t. (5.37)
n=1 m=l
HaviiKaiciaiaar| TCOV c() n (x), tl) m (y), VV(n, m, t) ano Tig avrioroiXEg oxEOEig 6i8Ei
OO OO / ** j \
f 2 r 2 2 Z 2 2 21 2 2 \ TT_TTX. 1 2- TT1 1 1 TT1J
W*iy.t) o y / bnm l i e 1 sin sin ,
* * V / a 2b
n=l m=1
"S npog Trj
Hnou ExoupE 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , 0 < t KQI
npOKUrtTEl

bnm
n(2m - 1 )[4n2b27t2 + (2m - 1 )27t2a2] '

5.5.2 npo6Arjuaxa
1. (5.31) 1 5.5.1 Ilcncpaoucvos MexaoxiiuaTtouos Fourier
1 1. ME IT] xprjor] TOU KaT(lAAr|Aou nEnEpaapevou pEtaoxr|paTiapou Fourier va ppE9Ei r| Auor) TOU
1 QKoAouSou pr) opoyEvoug napaBoAixou npo6Aiipatos apxiKov KOI auvopiaKuv ouv6r)K<av Tunou
vapTr)orjg 1 Dirichlet
u x x(x,t) = u t (x,t) + tsinx, 0 < x < 7t, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(7r,t)=0, t > 0 ,
U(X, 0) = COSX, 0 < X < 7T.
196 o 5. 2 KQI 3 Xaputeg Aiamdotin

T. u(x,t) = ~=1 J0 e n (t T) a n (T)dTsinnx+^ =1 b n (0)e n ~ l sin nx, onou i


^ Jo sinxsinnxdx, b n (0) = ^ Jg cosxsinnxdx.
2. Me tr| XPH01!IOU KatdAAnAou nenepaopevou petaoxnpatiopou Fourier va Ppe0ei r) Avion i
OKoAou9ou pr| opoyevoug napa6oAiKOu npoBAqpatog apxiKUV KOI auvopiaKcov ouvOqKuv lunou |
Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = k^xxfx.tj + e- , 0 < x < a , t > 0,


u(0,t) a, u(a,t) = p, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a ,
onou k, p, CT eivai npaypatiKeg ota6epeg pe k > 0. Na 6iepeuvn9ei r| oupnepitpopd tqg
Ka66g to t > oo.
Anduirior): limt_,oo U-(x.t) = ^j- JZ^L] ^ [o" (1) n p] sin (^jp)
3. Me tr| XPH01! TOU KatdAAnAou nenepaopevou petaoxnpatiopou Fourier va Ppe9ei r\ Auori tou I
aKoAouSou pr) opoyevoug napa6oAu<ou npo6Aiipatog apxiKuv KOI oxivopiaKwv ouv9qKov tunou |
Robin

Uxx(x.t) = U t ( x , t ) + t2, 0<X<7t, t>0,

u(0,t) = 0, u x (7r,t) + bu(7t,t) =0, t > 0 ,


u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < TI,
onou b eivai pia npaypatiKii ota0epd.
4. Me tr| XPH01! Tou KatdAAnAou nenepaopevou petaqxnpatiopou Fourier va Ppe9ei r| Auari i
aKoAou9ou pr| opoyevoug napaBoAiKOu npo6Ar|patog KOI auvopiaKOv ouv9r|Kuv peu
tunou

u x x(x,t) = u t (x,t) + e 'sinSx, 0 < x < n, t > 0,


u(0,t) = 0, u x (7r,t) = 0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < 7 t .
5. Me tr| xpriorl tou KatdAAnAou nenepaopevou petaoxnpatiopou Fourier va |fy>r()d r\ Auoi),
tou aKoAou0ou opoyevoug napaBoAiKou npo6Aiipatog apxiKcov KOI ouvopiaKcbv ouv9qKov iiinou
Neumann

= k 2 u x x(x,t), O < X < Q , t > 0 ,


) = 0, U ( Q , t ) = 0 ,
x t>0,
u(x,0) = b, 0 < x < a ,
onou b , k eivai npaypatiKeg ota9epeg.
6. Me tr| xPnorl IOU KatdAAnAou nenepaopevou petaoxnpatiopou Fourier va Ppe0ei T\
tou OKoAou9ou opoyevoug napaBoAiKou npo6Aiipatog apxiKcov KOI ouvopiaKcbv ouv9qK<av tunou
Neumann

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x(x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


Ux(0,t) = 0, u x (a,t) = e- t , t > 0,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a ,
onou k eivai p\a 9etiKr| npaypatiKq ota9epd.
ME in. XP1!01! IOU KaidAAqAou nenEpaopevou peiaoxqpaTiouou Fourier va PpeGei q Auoq
9 axoAouGou opoyevoug napa6oAiKou npo6AqpaTog apxiKWV KOI ouvopiaKcov ouvGqKOv Tunou
6ei q Auor) TOU ilet
Tunou
Uxx(x.t) = u t (x,t)-hu(x,t), O < X < T T , t>0,
u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 t , t ) = 0 , t>0,
u(x,0) = sin3x, 0 < x < n,

nou h Eivai pia npaypaTiKq criaGEpd.


opd iqg Auor|g 8. ME in. xpqoq TOU KOTdAAqAou nEnEpaopxvou pTaoxqpaTiop.ou Fourier va ppeGei q Auoq TOU
pXou9ou opoyevoug napa6oAiKou npoBAqparog pq opoyevcbv apxiKuv KOI ouvopiaxcov ouvGq-
pnJnou Robin

)EI q Auorj TOU ut(x,y,t) k2(uxx(x,V,t)+iigv(x,v,t))I 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , t > 0,
v0r|Kcov Tunou u(0,y,t) Ti, u(a,y,t)=T2, 0 < y < b , t > 0,
uu(x,0,t) T3, uv(x,b,t)=T4, 0 < x < a , t > 0,
u(x,y,0) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,

pou Ti,T2,T3,T4 eivai npaypoTiKeg oraGepeg.


ME iq xpri01! iu KOTaAAqAou nenepaapevou peTaaxqpaTiopou Fourier va ppeGei q Auoq TOU
AoiiGou pq opoyEvoug unep6oAiKOu npo6Aqpaiog apxiKcov KOI ouvopiaxcbv ouvGqKov Tunou
umann
EI p Auar|
HKWV
Utt(x.t) = u x x(x,t) + b, 0 < x < TT, t > 0,
u x (0,t) = 0, u x (7T,t)=0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) = 0, 0 < x < 7 t ,

ou b eivai pia npaypaTucq oraGepd.


Me Tq XPn or l IOU KOTdAAqAou nenEpaop.Evou peTaoxqpaTiopou Fourier va PpeGei q Auoq TOU
ptOei q Auoq
\o00ou pq opoyevoug unp6oAiKou npo6AqpaTog apxixcbv KOI auvopiaKcov ouvGqKCov Tunou
tunou
rtchlet

Utt(x.t) = c 2 u xx (x,t) + xe~ t , 0 < x < a, t > 0,


u(0,t) = sint, u(a,t) = 1, t > 0,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < a ,

fcnou c Eivai pia QeTiKq npaypaTiKq oraGepd.


111. Me iq XPn or l tou KOTdAAqAou nnpaop.Evou peTaoxqpaTiO]aou Fourier va ppeGEi q Auoq TOU
)0ei q Auor)
loxoAouGou pq opoyEvoug unp6oAiKou npo6AqpaTOg apxixov KOI ouvopiaKcbv ouvGqKov tunou
)r|Koiv Tunou
fcirichlet

Uu(x,t) = Uxx(x,t)+COSX, 0<X<7T, t > 0,

u(0,t) = 0, u ( 7 t , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < ? t .

12. ME iq XPH01! TOU KOTdAAqAou nenepaopEvou pETaoxqpaTiopou Fourier va PpEGei q Auoq


liou QKoAouGou opoyevoug unEp6oAiKOu npo6Aqpaiog apxixcbv KOI ouvopiaKcov ouvGqKov Tunou
198 KecpciAaio 5. 2 KOI 3 XapiKcg Ammaoa$

Neumann
u t t (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,
u x (0,t) = t, u x ( a , t ) = 0 , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < a ,
onou c eivai pia Setixii npaypatiKii otaOepd.
13 Mia tetpdycovr) pep6pdvr| nAeupdg a, r| onoia ppioxetai apxixd (t = 0) or
OTO enoneSo xu, exei oraGepeg tig nAeupeg trig ndvo crto enine6o. Av pia nepioSiKri 6uva)ai| I
F cos(tut) (F eivai pia ora6epd) avd povd6a eni(paveiag aoxeitai oe KdGe or|peio tng pep6pavns I
yia t > 0, va ppeGei r| petatomor) tqg pep6pdvr|g yia oAoug toug enopevoug xpovoug t >
AiaKpivetai tig nepmtwoeig: (i) cu ^ C7T\/n2 + m 2 /a, yia xd9e n, m SetiKOug aKepaioug, (ii)l
cu = VInc/a, (iii) cu = -v/TSOnc/a.
14. Me tr| XPiiorl IOU KatdAAr|Aou nenepaopevou petaoxripatioriou Fourier va Ppe6ei r\ Auoi)
tou aKoAou9ou opoyevoug unepBoAiKOu npo6Aripatog apxiKov KOI auvopiaKcov ouvOr|Kwv tunoul
Dirichlet
u t t (x,t) + c 2 u x x x x (x,t) = 0 , O < X < T T , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) 0, u(7t,t)=0, U x x ( 0 , t ) = 0 , u x x (7t,t)=slnt, t > 0,
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < n ,
onou c eivai pia SetiKii npaypatiKii otaGepd.
15. Me tr| XPnori tou KatdAAr|Aou nenepaopevou petaaxnpatiopou Fourier va ppeOei n Auor| tool
aKoAou6ou pr| opoyevoug unep6oAiKO\j npo6Aiipaiog apxiKov KQI ouvopiaKuv ouvGqKcbv iuno\) 1
Neumann
u t t(x,t) = c 2 u xx (x,t) + f(x)sintut, 0 < x < a, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(a,t) = 0, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) - 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < a ,
onou c eivai pia QetiKr) npaypatiKf) otaGepd KOI uno9etoupe oti loxuei cu / nytc/a. No
6iepeuvr|6ei r| oupnepicpopd tr|g Auorig KaGog to u> > UTtc/a.
16. Oi 6iapr|Keig petatonioeig piag opoyevoug gd65ou pr|KOUg a KOI Siatopiig P unoKeiuxvrig
oe ecotepiKii eni6paor| FP e<j>appoapevr|g OTO dxpo x = a, 6i6ovtai ano tig Auoeig tou aKoAou6ou
opoyevoug unep6oAiKOu npo6Ar|patog apxiKtiv KOI pq opoyevcbv ouvopiaKcbv ouv9r|Kuv tunou
Dirichlet
u t t (x,t) = c 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 0, Eu(a,t) = F, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a ,
onou c = eivai pia npaypatiKii otaGepd, E eivai to petpo tou Young, p eivai r| nuicvotrita
KOI F, c eivai ota9epeg pe c > 0. Me XPH01! tu KatdAAr|Aou nenepaopevou petaoxnpa^'ouou
Fourier va ppe9ei r| Auoq tou npo6Aiipatog.
17. Me tr| XP1!01! tou KatdAAr|Aou nenepaopevou petaoxripaticrpou Fourier va Ppe9ei r| Aiioii
tou aKoAouGou opoyevoug eAAemtiKou npo6Aiipatog ouvopiaKcov ouvGqKcbv tunou Dirichlet OTO
opGoycovio
UooJx.yJ+Uyyfx.vj) = 0, 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,
u(0,y)=f(y), u(a,y) = g(y), 0 < y < b,
u(x,0)=h(x), u(x,b) = r(x), 0 < x < a.
vcupopig 199

Me tr| XPH01! tou KatdAAr|Aou nErtEpaopEvou pEtaoxrjpatiopou Fourier va ppe0ei r\ Auor|


KoAouOou pr| opoyevous eAAeintiKOU npo6Ar|patos (e|iocoar| Poisson) auvopiOKwv auv0r|Kci>v
i Neumann oro opOoyovio

) = -G(x,y), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,


u x (0,y) = f(y), u x (a,y) = g(y), 0 < y < b,
u u (x,0) = H(x), u u ( x , b ) = r ( x ) , 0 < x < a.
OE
6uva(jr) npoo6iopio6ei r\ auv0r|Kr| aup6i6aatotr|tas, nou npenei va r| ouvdptr|or| F(x,y) KQI
lowoptaKEg tip$ trig Auorjg, cootE to np66Aripa va SEXETOI Auar|.
t > 0.
paioug, fit) r(x)dx - J" H(x)dx = - g(y)]dy - G(x,y)dxdy

0t H Auarj
r|Kvlunou
5.6
ITia nepanepco ]aeAetr| napaneunoupe TOV evSiaepepopevo avaYvcborr) peta^u dAAov ora
|pi6Aia TUV L. C. Andrews [2], L. C. Andrews [31, G. Arlken [61, D. Bleecker and G.
ICsordas [81, RCourant [18], L. Debnath [20], G. Folland [27], A. Friedman [28], P.
Garabedian [29], J. Hadamard [36], E. Jahnke and F. Emde [42], O. D. Kellogg [45],
Auorj tou J. Kevorkian [46], W. Magnus, F. Oberhettinger, and R. P. Soni [53], R. McOwen [55],
KCJV tunou [M. A. Pinsky [59], S. L. Sobolev [72], W. A. Strauss [76], R. N. Tikhonov and A. A.
I Samarskii [78], D. W. Trim [811, Tyn Myint-U and L. Debnath [83], H. F. Weinberger
[84], E. C. Zachmanoglou and D. W. Thoe [86], KQI E. Zauderer [871.

5.7 npo6Ari]iaTa
tc/a. Na
11. Na Au0Ei to OKoAouOo opoysvEg EAAEinttKO np66Ar)pa ouvopiaKuv ouv0r|Kov tunou Dirichlet
ato nE6io pEta^u 6uo opoxEvtpwv otpaipwv D = {(r,()>,9) M3; n < r < In, 0 < <$> < n, n <
le<7i}
coAou9ou
runou 2 1 cot $ 1
Ur u9e =0,
T r 2 sin 2 c)>
u(7r,9,(J)) = cos2 9, u(27T,e,<})) =sinc)> > (r,(|),0) D,
u(r,-7r,4)) u(r,7T,(|)), u 9 (r,-7t,(j)) =u e (r,7r,<|)) ) (r,4),e) 6 D.

2, Na (Jp0ei r\ Katavopii tr|$ ordoipris SEppOKpaoiag a' Eva KuAwSpo aKtivag Paoris p = 2n,
iKvotr|ta av o KuAiv6pog 9ppevtai pe pia ota0epr| noootr|ia T ato axpo z = 0, EVO r\ napanAEUpr)
auapou p = 2n KOI r\ civo pdor| z = 4n Siatripouvtai ata0Epd otr| pr|6EviKii SeppOKpaoia.
3. Na ppe0Ei to 6uvapu<6 tou riAEKtpootatiKou nE6iou ato Eootepixo evdg KuAiv6pou aictivag
1 AuoT) pdorig p = a KOI uvpoug b, av apipotEpEg 01 pdoEig tou KuAivSpou sivai yEiwpEVEg, evo r|
ilet OTO napanAEUpr) Enicpdveia p = a eivai ata0Epd cpoptiopEvr) pe Eva 6uvapiKO UQ.
4. Na ppE0Et to SuvapiKO tou r)AEKtpiKOU nESiou OTO EocotEpiKO piag o<paipag aKtivag p = a, av
to dvo r|pio<paipio Eivai ota0Epd tpoptiopEvo pE Eva 8uvapiKO UT , EVO to xdto r)pio(paipio Eivai
ota0Epd cpoptiopEvo ps EVO 6uvapiKO U2 .
5. 'Eva dvo r|pioc))aipio aKtivag p = a, EXEI navtou ata0Epo cpoptio noodtr|ta$ q. Na pp0Ei to
200 KecpdAaio 5. 2 KOI 3 XapiKcg Aiacnaoi$ 5.7 TeviKd

Suvapixd tou r|AxtpiKou n6iou ato EocotEpmd tou r|pio<j>aipiou, av r| ocpaipiKii Em<J>dvia ei
crta6pd cpoptiopevr) p Eva Suvapucd Ui, evo r\ tnim5r\ pdor) Eivai ota0Epd cpoptiopEvr] U.E EVQ
SuvaptKO U2, onou Ui ^ U2.
6. Na ppsGEi r| Katavopri 9ppOKpaoiag orr|v opGoywvia nAdKa D = {(x,y) 6 R3; 0 < X
1, 0 < y < 2}, trig onoiag r\ EmcpdvEia axtivo6oAi. H xatavopii 9ppoxpaoiag nEpiypdcpetai ai
to axdAouGo opoyevEg napa6oAixd np66Ar)pa apxixcbv KOI ouvopiaxcbv cruvGnxov tunou DiriclMet I u(x,t) = '
I pEtaoxnPa
UXx+Uyy=k 2
Ut+h(u Ufl), (x,y) D, t > 0 ,
14. 'Eoiw
u(0,y,t)=0, u(l,y,t)=0, u(x,0,t)=0, u(x,2,t)=0, (x,y) 6 D , t > 0 ,
u(x,y,0) =sinxsiny, (x,y) D ,

dnou k Eivai pia 9etiKii npaypatiKii otaGEpd.


7. Na AuGEi to axdAouGo opoyevEg unEp6oAixd npd6Ar|pa apxixcbv xai ouvopioKcov ouv6r|K(i)v
tunou DirichletOTOpovaSiaio xu6o D = {(x",y,z) e I3; 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1, 0 < z < 1}

u x x + u uu + u zz = u tt + ku t) (x,y,z) 6 D, t>0,
u ( 0 , y , z , t ) = 0 , u ( 1 , y , z , t ) = 0 , u(x,0,z,t) =0, (x.y.z) e D, t >0,
u(x,1,z,t) =0, u(x,y,0,t) =0, u(x,y,1,t) =0, (x,y,z) D, t >0,
u ( x , y , z , 0 ) =7rxy, u t ( x , y , z , 0 ) = z, (x,y,z)D,

onou k Eivai pia npaypatiKii otaGepd.


8. Na ppsGet r| Katavopii trig crtdoipr|g QEppOKpaoiag oto tpqpa piag otpaipag aictivag p = 7t,
nou EXEI anOKonei ano eva KOVO ycoviag 60 = 45. H ni(j>avemKii SEppoKpaoki Eivai pr|6EV,
EVQ r) apxiKii SEppoKpaoia SiSEtai and tr| ouvdptqor) f (r, 0,4)) = 2 sin 9 cos (J>.
9. Na PPEGEI r| Katavopr) tr|g otdoipng QEppOKpaoiag Evog auvGetou KuAiv6pou anotEAoupEVOu
and eva eocotEpuco KuAiv6po pdopg 0 < r < TO xai EVO E^wtEpiKd KuAiv6piKd ocoAqva pdar|g TO <
r < a. H Eni<pavEiaKr| 9Eppoxpaoia SiatnpEitai otoug pn6Ev paGpoug KOI n apxiKii Katavopi)
9EppOKpaaiag 6i6Etai and tr| ouvdptrjor) f(r, 0,z) = 2zcos0.
10. Eto npiocpaipio axtivag p = 1, z > 0, undpxEi apxiKii 9ppoKpaoia priSev. Fia xpovo
t > 0. rj Poor) tng oepaipag OTO z 0 Siatnpeitai ortr| pr|6EviKri GEppOKpaoia, EVW q Eniepdveia
tou ripiocpaipiou EXCI pia xpovoaptwpvr| SEppoxpaoia u(r, 0,4), t) sin2 t. Na ppEGei q
Katavopii GeppoKpaoiag utr.G.^.t) oto qpio(paipio.
11. 'Evag KuAivSpog aiaivag pdong r = a KOI uipoug b exEl QPXlKIi ^atavopri Seppoxpaoia
f(r,9,z) = 2(z + r). Fia xpovo t > 0, r| pdor) tou KuAivSpou z = 0 Eivai GEppixd povupevii,
r| pdor| z b 6iatnpEitai OE xpovOE|aptci)pvr| 9ppOKpaoia u ( r , 0 , b , t ) = 2sint, voi|l
napdnAEupri Enicpdveia EXEI tr| 9ppOKpaoia u ( a , 0 , b , t ) = 3 cost. Na PpEGEi n Katavonij
QEppOKpaoiag u(r, 0, 4>, t) orov x\jAiv6po, yia xdGE t > 0.
12. 'Eotco dti 01 ouvaptiioEig f(x,t), g(x,t) KOI H(x,t) anotEAouv AuoEig TUV QKoAou0av
EIOCOOEUV 9ppdtntag f t = k 2 f x x , 9t = k 2 , h t = k 2 h zz . Na 6u
u(x,y,z,t) = f(x,t)g(x,t)h.(x,t) EniAuEi tnv u t = k 2 (u x x +u u u + u Na
av loxuEl to i6io npdypa yia tnv Kupatixri
13. 'Eorco to opoyEVEg napa6oAiKO npd6Anpa apxixcbv xai ouvopiaxuv cnjv6r|K6v lunou Dirichlet

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u(a,t) = e- t , t > 0,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a ,
201

k Eivai pia 9etiKii npaypatiKrj ota9epd. Na npoo6iopio9ouv cnjv0rJKEg yia ta a, k QOTE


i Auor| tng popcpiig u(x, t) = v(x)e~ l yia tr)v opoyvr| Eiocoon, r| onoia va ixavonoiEi
ouvopiaKEg ouv0r|KEg. ME xpriorl autr|g tr|g ouvdptr|or|g va Au9t to ouvoAiKO npd6Ar|pa
ay Kai caivopiaKwv cruvOqKcov.
rjarj: Ha a ^ turk2, n > 1, v(x) = [sin(x/k2)]/[sin(a/k2)]. Tia to dAov np66Anpa
= w(x,t) + v(x)e~t. Fia trjv eiSiKrj nEpintoor) XP1!01! Tou nEnEpaoiaEvou ripitovmou
ooxripatiopou Fourier.
>o,
"Eotco to opoyevEg napa6oAixd npd6Anpa apxiKuv KOI cruvopiaKov cnjv6qKcbv tunou Dirichlet
>0,

u t (x,t) k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = 0, u ( a , t ) = t , t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = f(x), 0 < x < a ,

k Eivai pia 9EtiKii npaypatiKrj ota0Epd. Na npoo6iopio6ei Auor| w(x,t) OE noAucovupiKii


Bjnpog x, t pop<pii, nou va ixavonoiEi tnv opoyEvr) E^iooorj KOI tig ouvopiaKEg auv0r|Kg. Me
fcor] autrig tng ouvdptr|ong va Au0Ei to ouvoAiKO np66Anpa apxiKuv KQI ouvopiaKov ouv0r)K<av.
Hforfg va pEAetr|0ei r| aupnepicpopd tng Auor|g, Ka0cog to t > +00.
w(x,t) = + **t.
f. Na Au0Ei to OK6Aou0o opoyEVEg unep6oAiKO npo6Ar|pa apxiKWv KOI pr| opoyevov ouvopiaKov
tunou Dirichlet

u t t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), 0 < x < a , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) t, u(a,t) = 1, t > 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0) = 0, 0 < x < a ,

tr|v eioaywyrj KaTdAAr|Aou pEtaoxnpaiioiaou Trig Eaptr|pevr|g pEta6Ar|tiig, o onoiog KaOiotd


g auvopioKeg ouv6r|KEg opoyevEig.
1 16. ME tr| xPHor) KatdAAqAuv nenEpaopevcov pEtaoxnpa^ioiJWv Fourier va ppE0Ei o tunog Tr)g
||EviKiig Auong tou aKoAou0ou 6i6idotatou pr| opoyEvoug npo6Ar|patog 6id6oor)g 9Eppotntag p
fi] opoyEVEig apxiKEg KOI ouvopiaKEg cruv0rJKEg tunou Robin
loKpaoia
JvupEvr).
evci) rj 9
itavoiif)
ut(x,y,t) ' y | t , 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b , t > 0,

i + |3iu = f i ( y . t ) , x = 0, 2^-+ 32U = f 2 (y,t), x = a, 0 < y < b, t > 0,


AouGcov
du 9u
dptnor) <*3^- + P3U = f3(x,t), y = 0 , a4^- + 34U = f 4 (x,t), y = b, 0 < x < a, t > 0,
EiaoGei oy oy
u(x,y,0) = f(x,y), 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b,
Irichlet
I onou k, c, Ki, Pt, i = 1,2,3,4, eivai SoopevEg npaypatlKEg ora0epeg pe k > 0, c > 0 KOI
9, f, fi. i = 1,2,3,4, eivai 6oopEveg npaypatiKeg ouvapTr|oeig.
117. Me tq XPrlorl KatdAAnAov nenEpaopEvuv pETaoxnpatiopciv Fourier va Pp9ei o tunog tng
yeviKiig Auong tou OKoAou0ou SiSidoratou pr| opoyevoug npo6Ar|paTOg 6ovr)oecov pE pr| opoyEVEig
202 5. 2 KOI 3 XapiKcg Aiaoiaai$

KQI ouvopiaKes auv6rJKE$ tunou Robin

G(x,y,t)
utt(x,y,t) = <r(u x x (x,y,t) + u u g ( x , y , t ) ) , 0<x<a, 0<y<b,

= f i ( y , t ) , x = 0, 2 - + (32u = f 2 ( y , t ) , x = a, 0 < y < b, t>0,

= f 3 ( x , t,) , y = 0 ,, a4^ + p4U = f 4 ( x , t ) , y = b, 0 < x < a, t>0,


oy oy
u(x,y,0) = g(x,y), u t (x,y,0) = h(x,y), 0 < x < a , 0 < y < b ,

onou c, p, i, 3t, 1=1,2,3,4, Eivai SoausvEg npayviatiKes oncaOEpES HE c > 0, p > 0 KQI
G , g , h , f i , 1 = 1,2,3,4, EWCU 6oouVE5 npaypatiKEg
18. ME tr| XPH01! KatdAAr|Acov nEnepaauevov uetaoxr|uaiiou6v Fourier va ppeSei to 6uva|auc6
OTO eocotepiKO tou ne6iou, nou opietai ano ta EnineSa x = 0, x = a, y = 0, y = b, z = 0, z^^
otav 6Aa autd ta enineSa Siainpouvtai oe ur)6eviKO Suvapixo KOI to ne6io EXEI uia
xatavouri 6uva)jiKou ae 6Aa ta ormeia U.E nuKvotr|ta CT Coulombs avd Ku6iKO uetpo.
< y < K t > o,
< b, t > 0,

< a, t > 0,
KecfxiAaio 6

> 0, p > 0 KOI 4>payjiva ncSia


0i to SuvajatKO
b, z = 0, z = c.
ua opoidpopcpr) 6. 1 Eiaaycoyr)
iipo.
i Eia nporiYOUpeva KecpdAaia 2 - 5 avamux9r|Kav TexviKEg Yia Trl peAETr) TCOV tpiuv PO-
ouccov Kuiiiyopicov pEptKcbv 6iacpopiKv eJjiocooecov 8euTepr|g (KOI avcoTeprig dpTiag) Tdr|g,
6iavauid Eivai opiop.eva OE cppaypvo ne6io. 'Opog OE noAAd 9001x0, pioAoYiKd, KOIVO-
VIKQ, K\n, cpaivopeva napouoid^Etai q avdyKr) TO avuoroixo pa0r)paTiKd npd6Ar|pa va
5iao9i OE eva p.r|-cppavp;vo ne6io.
Ha napdSEiypa, av EvSiacpEpopaore va peAeTiiooupe eva np66Ar|pa OTO peoo piag
paKpidg pd66ou, onou ot ouv9iiKEg ora dnpa pnopouv va 9ecapr|9ouv apeAr]Taieg, TOTC
(inopei va opioOei TO npd6Ar|pa OTO 6idOTr)pa ( oo,+oo). Eniorig, av pag ev6iacppei
i] neAeTr) evdg cpatvopEvou OTO EVO dxpo piag pd66ou (x = 0), TOTE unopsi va opto9i
tonp66Aripa OTO (0, +00) r| ( oo,0). Kdnoiog pnopei va ioxupio0i du, 6ev undpxouv
dnEipEg pd68oi r| xop6eg. 'Opog dv pnopei va Pp9ei pta anAri Auor] TOU npoGAiipaTog OTO
pri (ppavp.evo n6io, TOTE auTii r| Auor) KOTO and optapEVEg npouno9eots 9a pnopouos
va 9eupr|9i og pia KaAii npooEvYior) Trjg Auorjg TOU avrioroixou npoBAripaTog, nou eivai
opiapevo OE Kdnoio (ppavpEvo unoauvoAo.
H peAeTrj TETOIQV npo6AnpdTcov 9a Paoio9i OE 6uo KOTriYOpies TEXVIKOV. H npcoTr)
paoi^ETat OTO x^piopd peTa6Ar|T&)v oe dneipo ne6io, TO onoio o6r]Yei OTnv oAo-
avanapdOTaor) ir\g Auong ovopa^dpevr) oAoicAiipopa Fourier. H SE 6euTepr|
Kairiyopia TCXVIKGJV eivai auTii TCOV oAoKAripcoTiKcov pCTaoxripaTiopcov. EuYKEKpipeva, e-
6u 9a aoxoAn0oupe pe TOUCJ peTaoxnpaTiopoug Laplace, Fourier, Hankel Ka9cog KOI pe
xdnoieg napaAAayEg aurav.

6.2 OAoKAi)pU)ia Fourier


6.2.1 Eiaayoyrj OTO OAoKAiipopa Fourier

Earco f (x) pia andAuTa oAoKAnpaoipri ouvdpTnor) opiopevr)OTOR. Eniong uno9eTOupe


on, r| f (x) eivai TeToia COOTC va avanTuooeTai oe oeipd Fourier oe Kd9e 8idorr|pa Tr|g
poppiig (L, L), vla Kd9e L G R + . Pia napd6eivp,a, OUTO eivai SUVOTOV av r) f(x)
eivai TpripOTixd Aeia OTO 6idoTr)pa (L, L). TOTC opi^eTai cog oAoxAxipujia Fourier Trig
204 6. Mr] <J>pay/jeva Ucdia

ouvdptnong f (x) oro R r| oAoKAnpcotiKii napdoiaor)


1 r+OO T r+oo
f(x)~- f(z)cosa(z-x)dz| da. (2.1)
"Jo U-oo

AvaAuovtag to cosa(z x) KCU avTiKa6ioTcovTas atov tuno (2.1) EupioKouue


ri napdaiaari
I r+OO r r+ i r+oo T r+oo
f(x) f (z) cos azdz cos axda + f (z) sin azdz I sin axda^2
7t Jo U- "Jo U-oo
Me pdorj tnv napdcrtaor) (2.2), yia KaidAAr|Ar| dpua ouvdptnor) f (x) op\a\iivr\ i
R. opi^ouvie 05 OUVIHHTOVIKO oAoKAqptopa Fourier auiiis oro ne6io R+ tnv oAc
napdataori
r+oo
f(x) A(a) cos axda, (2.;
Jo

onou A(a) = ^ J0 f(z) cos azdz. Entong, \\a KatdAAnAri nepitrri f(x
opiapevr] oro R, opi^ouiae cog rjuixoviKO oAoxAiipupa Fourier autps oro nefiio It
tr|v oAoKAnpcoTiKr) napdoraori
r+oo
f(x) B(a) sin axda, (2.4

onou B(a) = ^ J0 f(z) sin azdz. 'OAa auxd (ie6aia ]ae tr|v npoiinoGeori oti, i]
vdpinor) f ( x ) etvai teioia cbcrte, va opi^ovtai 6Aa ta yEviKEuvieva oAoKAnpcoviata,
napouoid^ovtai OTIS OXEOEIS (2.3) KCU (2.4). Fia nepioooTepa crcoixeia, iSidtntes
XapaKinpioriKd TCOV oAoKAnpcopdicov Fourier, napanepnouiae oto o\JYYPaPPa 1^
Aaio 9, Ev6ir)Ta 9.6, oeA. 593-600]
Etr) cruvexEia 6i6ouiae opiopeva xapaiccnpioTiKd napa6eiviJata ecpapuoyris irlS
Kiis iou oAoKAqpcbviazos Fourier oe PQOIKES KatnyopiES pspiKcbv SiacpopiKcov

6.2.2 Eiooor| Oepuotnxcis atrgv HuieuGeia


'Eorco TO QKoAouSo ouoyEVEg npoBAnua 9puoTr|Tac; arnv nuiu9ta UE apxiKeg K(
CEg O\)v6r|KES UEIKTOU TUnOU

:,t) = k~ 2 Ut(x,t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0, (2


u(0,t) = 0, u(x,t), ttx(x,t) cppavpEva, Ka6cos TO x > oo, t > 0, (2.6
u(x,0) = f(x), 0<x<oo, (2.7)

onou T\ auvdpTnori f(x) EIVQI TunuaTiKd OUVEXHS KQI anoAuTa oAoKAr|pcooipr|, 6qAa6ij
loxuEi r) oxEor) J^ |f(x)| dx < oo. ME $aar\ Tq 9copia TOU xcopiouou TCOV |jETa6Ariicbv,
QECOPOUU.E oti, r\ Auoq TOU npo6AripaTos (2.5) - (2.7) unopEi va 6o0Ei crcr| uopcpri

u(x,t)=X(x)W(t), 0<x<oo, t>0. (2.8


6.2 OXoKAtjpaua Fourier 201

Zim 10 napandvw np66Ar|pa avaAuETai ora OKoAouGa 6uo npoBAripoTa

k'(x) + A X ( x ) = 0 , 0 < x, X(0) = 0, X ( x ) , X ' ( x ) (ppaypEva, KaGug TO x - oo, (2.9


(2.1)
t) Ak 2 W(t) = 0, t>0. (2.10
UplOKOUUE TFJV
ME yvcooTEg 8ia6iKaoig eupioKETai on, 01 povEg AuaEig TOU npo6AripaTog auvopia.Kcb>
lsuv6nKG)v (2.9), nou napapsvouv cppaypevEg, KaGog TO x > oo KQI priSEvi^ovrai arc
'= 0 Eivai 01
sinaxda^2.2)
X(x) =sin(sx), 0 < x < oo, (2.11;
OTO
Tr|v lonou A = s2 KOI s e K + . napaTnpoupE Aoinov OTI, 66 EXOUPE ndpsi Eva
ifdona idioiiucov, TO onoio napdyETai ano TO A = s2. IV auTEg Tig Tipsg TOU A 01 AUOEK
^KSEUTEpng iocoor|g (2.10) EXOUV Tnv aKoAouGrj popcpn.
(2.3)
, t>0, (2.12)
apTnor) f(x)
(to n6io K+ onou B(s) Eivai auGaipETr) ouvdpTrior) TOU s. EnopEvwg r\ auvdpTr)or|

u(x, t|s) = B(s) sin(sx)e"k2s2t, 0 < x < oo, t > 0, s > 0, (2. 13)
(2.4)
anoieAd Auor] Tr|g pEpiKiig SiacpopiKiig E^iouorig (2.5) KQI TCDV auvopiaKcov ouvGrixcbv (2.6).
[Pia va npoo6iopiooup rr\ Auor) EKEivr), r\ onoia iKavonoiEi KQI Tig apxiKEg auv6r]Kg
OTI, r) au-
(2.7), KdvoupE XP1!01! TrIS YEVlKeuPvrlS apXHS TrIS unp6or|g KCII KQTaoKEud^oupE Tr|
pupcna, nou luuvdpTr|ori
|t$ KQI dAAa
i (74, K(pd- poo roc
u(x,t)= u(x,t|s)ds = B(s)sin(sx)e- k2s2t ds, 0 < x < oo, t > 0, (2.14)
Jo Jo
IJS Tllg TEXVl-
t IOCOOECOV. li) onoia ano6iKvuTai OTI, IKavonoiEi Tr| pEpiKii 6iacpopiKri E^iouor) (2.5) KOI HI ou-
vopiaKii ouvGriKr) (2.6) TOU apxiKOu npo6AripaTog. Ag napaTr)pr|ooup E&CO OTI, vd) mo
6iaKpno (fdoua TOU cppayutvou nediov, r\ apyj\ irjg unepdeorig oS^ycz air\ oetpd Fourier, orrju
nepimcjor] rov ouvexovs (fdouaiog, r] avir) apxn- o6r\yei OTO oAoKJiripaua Fourier. Tia va
(EJ KQl OTJVO-
' ucavonoii r) ouvdpTr|ori (2.14) KOI Tig apxiKEg ouv0r]Kg (2.7) TOU apxiKOu npo6AripaTOg,
19a npenEi va IOXUEI r| OKdAouGr) oxEor)
(2.5) poo
0, (2.6) u(x,0)=f(x)= B(s)sin(sx)ds, 0 < x < oo.
Jo
(2.7)
H TEAsuTaia oxEor) anoTEAsi Trjv avanapdoraor) Tng ouvdpTr|ong f(x) at
tii|, 6nAa6r|
\ oAoicAripapa Fourier. EnopEvcog, via TOV npoo6iopioraio ouvrEAEorri B(s), 9a
kra6Ar]TG)V,
pi
B(s) = - (x)sin(sx)dx, s > 0. (2.15)
(2.8)
206 6. Mq <f>pay/jcva

TeAucd, rj Tunucii Auor) TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOg (2.5) - (2.7) naipvei Trj p.op<J>r|
2 TOO POO
u(x,t) = f(,)sin(s,)sin(sx)e- k s
*dWs
TtJo Jo
2 TOO f TOO 1

f (t) ^ sin(s) sin(sx)e-k s


*ds ^ d,
T* Jo Uo J
k2s2t
(coss(x-,) -coss(x + ,)}e dsd.
Ix-t.) 2 (*+t.r
f ;, x > 0, t > 0. (2.16
tU)\ e
Jo
Fia Tqv cupeori TQV TeAeuTaicov 6uo popcpcov trig Auor|g EYIV Xpr)or1 TUV QKoAouOov I
Tuncov Tr|g TpiYuvou-ETpiag KCU TOU Aoyiopou, avtiotoixa

cos(A-B) -cos(A + B)
sin A sin B = -, b > 0 .

IIapaTiipr)ot) 6.2.1. (a) HxP'noiv.diriia rr?c re/teuraiac v.op<pr\g (2.16) irjg Avor}$ l>a<
01:771; e.Ti6vvr\ v6ir]ia, onov 9a avanii/xdovv 01 oAoKArjpcoiiKoi }iiaaxrilJ-aiiou.oi.
Kov.a va arji^Eicodei 6u, r\ leAeuiaia v.op(pjj irjg Auarjg (2.16) SEV anaiiti 77 ovvdpirjor] f (x)
ivai andAuia oAoKArjpcjomri. Mia avvdr\Kr\, 77 onoia eivai 6v.ag anapaiir\iri yia irj auyKj(iai\
lou yviKui*vou oAoKAr]pti>iJ.aio<; iris XOT1S (2.15)!!
((3) Oi Avoig (2.14) rj (2.16) vjiop^i va xpno^onoirl^ovv Yia lriv npooeyyiar] rr/c Karat
depujOKpaoiag Kovid aio dnpo x = 0 ^tac pdS6ov nempaauxvov v.r\KOu<; p, av det
aovvx ro 0 < x -C p. ^77^0677 yia /ZIKJOOUC xpovovg 77 Kaiavo^i) QtpvjQKpaaia^ Kovm (
dKpo x = 0 9a E^apidiai Kupiag and nc ovvopiaKlg avvdr\K(; oro dKpo avid. KOI i
aviig lov dAAou dKpov, 01 orroicc $i8aia 9a apxioovv va anoKioi/v pdAo apydiepa
roi

. 6.2.2. Na Avdei ro napandvco npd6Ar]v.a (2.5) - (2.7) arr\v EidiKt] nepin


nov 77 avvdpiT}or\ f (x) exl T71V ciKdAovdr] pjop<pf\

0, 1 < x.
Avar] Ano TOV Tuno (2.14) pAenouiae OTI r\ u-opcpii Tr|g Auong TOU npo6Ariu.aTOg 9a i

u ( x , t ) = [ B(s)sin(sx)e~ k2s2t ds, x > 0, t > 0,


Jo
onou U.E Pcioq TOV Tuno (2.15) o ouvreAeoTrig B(s) 9a dvai
7v* r 9v*
B(s) = - sin(sx)dx = (1 coss), s > 0.
7T Jo 7TS

r\ Auor| TOU npo6Ar)u.aTOg 9a exei Irlv aK

2b f / I -coss\ .
u(x,t) = -71 s
ds, x > 0, t > 0.
Jo V /
Fourier 207

{.2,3 Oeppotnxag arnv Eu0cia


Ito TO OKoAouGo opoyeveg npo6Ar|pa 9eppdTr)Tag a' oAdi<Ar)pr) rr\v euGeia pe
:eg ouvGriKeg

c,t) = k~ 2 u t (x, t), oo < x < oo, t > 0, (2.17)


u(x, t), Ux(x,t) tppaypeva, KaGcbg TO |x| > oo, t > 0, (2.18)
u(x,0) = f(x), oo < x < oo, (2.19)

nou r\ auvdptnor] f(x) eivai tpripatiKa ouvexiig KQI andAuTa oAoKAripcooipri. AKO-
Ooviag Tr) 6ia6iKaoia Tr|g nporiyoupevrig EvoTqTag 6.2.2 ppioKOUpe OTI, r\ Auor) TOU
6AiipaTog (2.17) - (2.19) exei tr) popcpri

'u(x,t) =
r (A(s)cossx + B(s)sinsx)e~ k 2s2Ms, -oo < x < oo, t > 0, (2.20)
Jo
DU 01 ouvreAeo-ceg A(s), B(s) 6i6ovrai and Toug Tunoug
If00 If00
A(s) = - f(x)cos(sx)dx, B(s) = - f(x) sin(sx)dx, s > 0. (2.21)
^J-oo ^J-oo

.Setyiia 6.2.3. Na jLvdei 10 napandva npoSArma (2.17) - (2.19) <nr\v eidiKrj nepi-
7, nou r] ouvdpir]or] f (x) xl lrlv o.KOji.oudr] u.op(pr\

b, |x| < a,
f(x) =
0, |x| > a.
for? H Auor| 6t6eTai and \r\ auvdpTrior] (2.20), dnou 01 ouvreAeoreg A(s), B(s), pe
pdor) Toug Tunoug (2.21), 6i6ovrai and Toug Tunoug

A(s) = f(x)cos(sx)dx = - cos(sx)dx = - , s > 0,


TTj-oo rcJ-a ^S
b fa
B(s) = sin(sx)dx = 0, s > 0.
7T I

ra eivai |Enopevcog, r\ i Auor| TOU npo6Ar|paTog 9a exei Trjv OKdAouGri

2b f 00 /sin(sa)\ k2^tj
ux,t =- cos sx e~k s Ms, - o o < x < o o , t > 0.
n Jo V s )

1 6.2.4 KupactKi] E^iouoi] ati)V HpieuGcia


TO aKdAouGo opoyeveg KupaTiKd npoBAqpa mnv r|pieu6eia pe apxixeg KOI auvo-
piaKeg

,t) = c - titt(x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 , (2.22)


u(0, t) = 0, u(x, t),u x (x,t) cppaypeva, KaGcbg TO x > oo, t > 0, (2.23)
u(x,0) = f(x), ut(x,0) = g(x), 0 < x < o o , (2.24)
208 KccpdAaio 6. Mr] <t>payiiva

onou 01 OTjvaptr|Oig f(x), g(x) Eivai tp.npatiKd Aeieg KOI andAuta oAoKAnpcooiiieg.
pdor| tr) 9copia tou xcopicrpou TCOV u.Ta6Ar|icov, 9copouu. OTI, r| Auor| TOU npo6\r\\ic
(2.22) - (2.24) u.nopi va 6o6Ei orr)

u(x, t) = X(x)W(t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0. (2.:


Etoi to napandvco npd6Anu.a avaAuEtai ota OKdAouGa 6uo npo6Aiiu.ata

X"(x) AX(x) = 0 , 0 < x , X(0) = 0 , X ( x ) , X ' ( x ) , , (2.!


2
W"(t ; Ac W(t) = 0, t>0. (2.:

ME YvcooTEg 6ia6iKaoig EupioKETai OTI, 01 pdvEg AuoEig TOU npo6Aiiu.aTOg ouvopiaKQV


ouvGnKcov (2.26), nou napau.vouv cppaypEVEg, KaGcbg TO x > oo KOI pn8vi5ovrai oto
x 0 Eivai 01 ouvapTr]OEig Tng popcprjg

X(x)=sin(sx), 0<x<oo, (2.28)

onou A = s2 KOI s G IR + . Fi' auTEg Tig tipEg tou A 01 AuoEig tng 6EutEpng iocoor|5
(2.27) EXOUV tn.v aKoAouGr] u.opcpr|

W(t) = A(s)cos(sct)+B(s)sin(sct), t > 0, s > 0, (2.29)

onou A(s), B(s) auGaipEtEg auvapTiioEig. EuKoAd PPIOKOUU.E OTI, n ouvdpTnor]

u(x,t;s) = [A(s)cos(sct) + B(s)sin(sct)]sin(sx), 0 < x < oo, t > 0, s > 0, (2

anoTeAci Auor| Tng u.piKiig 6iacpopiKiig E^iocoong (2.22) KOI TCOV onvopiaKov ouv6i]K6vtou
(2.23). Fia va npoo6iopiooup. Tr) Auoq EKEivr), r| onoia mavonoiEi KOI Tig apxiKEgi
KEg (2.24), Kavouu. XPH01! irlS YEVlKEUVievrlS apX^IS Trl? unEpGEong KOI :
IT] ouvdpTnori
roo
u(x,t) = [A(s)cos(sct) + B(s)sin(sct)]sin(sx)ds, 0 < x < oo, t > 0, (2.31]
Jo
Fia tov npoo6iopioTad TCOV OUVTEAEOTCOV A(s), B(s)
ouvGnKcov, ondTE npOKunTf>ov 011
roo
u(x,0) = f(x) = A(s)sin(sx)ds, 0 < x < oo,
Jo
poo
u(x,0) = g(x) = scB(s)sin(sx)ds, 0 < x < oo.
Jo
Ano Tig TsAsuTaiEg axEOEig npoKuntEl oti

A(s) = - f(x)sin(sx)dx, B(s) = - g(x) sin(sx)dx, s > 0. (2.3


SCTtJo

Apa tEAiKd n u.opcpii tng Auong TOU npo6Ar|u.aTOg (2.22) - (2.24) 6i6tai ano tovi
(2.31), onou 01 auvTEAEOTcbv A(s), B(s) npooSiopi^ovrai and Tig OXEOEUJ (2.32).
IlcSia S.2 Fourier 209

\r|pwoi|jeg. Me 6.2.5 Laplace oro 'Avo H}iienine6o


toto TO axoAouGo opoyEVEg EAAEimiKd np66Anpa OTO dvco r)pinine6o p ouvopiaKEg
ouvOrJKEg Tunou Dirichlet
(2.25) -f Uyy = 0, oo < x < o o , 0 < y < oo, (2.33)
u(x,0) = f(x), -oo < x < oo, (2.34)
2 2
u(x,y) > 0. KoGcogTO x + y oo. (2.35)
30, (2.26)
ME pdoq Tq 9copia TOU xwpiapou TCOV pTa6AriTCov, QEcopoupE OTI, rj Auar) TOU npo6Ari-
(2.27) nmo$ (2.33) - (2.35) pnopEi va 6oGE< cnr) popcpii
,'OTJVOpiaKOV u(x,y) =X(x)Y(y), -oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo. (2.36)
OTO
Eioi to napandvco npd6Anpa avaAuETai ora OKoAouGa 6uo npoBAripaTO
X"(x)+AX(x) =0, -oo<x<oo, (2.37)
(2.28)
Y"(y)-AY(y) = 0, 0 < y < oo. (2.38)
I Aa va iKavonoiouvrai 01 ouvopiaKEg ouvGiiKEg (2.35) npEnEi va ndpoupE A = s2, s >
ETOI 01 SiacpopiKEg Egiocbosig (2.37), (2.38) ano6xovrai Tig yEviKEg AuaEig
(2.29) X(x) = A(s)cos(sx) + B(s)sin(sx), -oo < x < oo,
Y(y) = D(s)e-sy + E(s)esy, 0 < y < oo,
6nou 01 oTJvapTr]OEig A(s), B(s), E(s), D(s) anoTEAouv npoo6iopioraioug
> 0 , (2.30) lotg. Xpnoiponoicovrag Tig cruvopiaKEg ouvGiiKEg (2.35) ppioxoupE OTI, 01
K(s), D(s) naipvouv Tig Tipsg
TOU
E(s)=0, D(s) = 1.
Tia va npoo6iopiaoup Tr| Auoq EKEivr), q onoia mavonoiEi KOI Tnv npcoTr) ouvopiaKr)
ouv8riKr| (2.34), KavoupE XPnorl tn yviKupvr|g apxng Tpg unp6eong KOI KQTaoKEud-

(2.31) roo
sy
u(x,y) = [A(s)cos(sx) + B(s) stn(sx)]e ds, oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo. (2. 39)
Jo
! Toie and Tnv npcoTr) cruvopiaKri ouvGriKr) (2.34) npoKunTEl dti
TOO

f (x) = (A(s)cos(sx) + B(s) sin(sx)]ds, oo < x < oo.


Jo
and Trj QECopia TCOV oAoKAqpcopaTcov Fourier npoKunTEl OTI, 01 npoo6iopioraioi
eg A(s), B(s) exouv Tn popcpri
1 f
A(s) = f(x)cos(sx)dx, s > 0, (2.40)
7T
n t
Joo

(2.32) B(s) =
i r f(x) sin(sx)dx, s > 0. (2.41)
7T J-oo

ITOV Tuno Apa TEAiKd r| TuniKii Auor| TOU npo6ArjpaTog (2.33) - (2.35) 6i8Tai and Tr| ouvdpTnori
(2.39), dnou 01 auvTEAEOTEg A(s), B(s) npoo8iopi5ovrai and ugoxEOEig (2.40) KOI (2.41).
210 6. Mr] <f>pay/jrva

napcnri pr|or| 6.2.5. (OAoKAripojia Poisson oro HuicnineSo) EiadyovTag ug


(2.40), (2.41) mr] o\jvdpir\ar\ (2.39)flpioKoui* on, r\ Avar] TOU 7ipo@Ariu.aTog (2.33) - (2.35)
TT]V

r r i r if ~l
u(x,y) = <- f(t)cos(st)cos(sx)dt+- f(t) sin(st)sin(sx)dt V e syds
Jo l^J-oo ^J-oo J

f(t) cos[s(t-x)]e~ sy dsdt, -oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,
7tJ-oo Jo

OTIOU 77 TAVTaia axor\ ixl npoKuifji KdvovTag XP1!01! T77? TptyoavonetptKi)<; raur
cos A cos B+ sin A sin B = cos(A B)]. y/toJloyj^ouTac ro ooTpiKQ oAoKAripo^a fipio
\tz 6u, 77 jivar] TOU o^oyEvovg EAAEIUTIKOV npo6Arnj.a.Tog (2.33) - (2.35) mo dvco r\\u.T\

f(t)dt -, y (2.4

O iJiuiaiog Tunog anoTeAEi TO oAoKAqpcoyia Poisson yxa TO dvco nutenincSo y :


77 rou oAoxAnpcoTtKo Tuno TOU Schwarz. 'Onag KOI orrjv nEpimcooii TOU avnmotx
Tunouyia TOV 6ioKO (BAenE, K<pdAaio2, UapaTriprjari 2.4.!(&)), o TUKog(2.42) 6i6iapK
TOV ofittoviKcbv ouvapTtioEcov, TCOV onoicov nEdio opianov Eivai TO dvo

u =0

6.2.1: Ioodp}j.iKg

IIapd6cty|ia 6.2.6. Na AvdEi TO np66Arj)j.a (2.33) - (2.35) mr\v i5iKr\ nov

f(x) =./ b- N < Q-


' I 0, |x| > a.
Fourier 211

m AvTiKdOioTOVTac, orov tuno (2.42) ppioxoupe

yb f a dt '1, x - a
ux,y = - IT -tan
7t J_ a (t-x) 2
b ,/ lay \
- - tan ' I -= Q ^ ,
x -- S--
n V +y - /
ytvei TpiyovopetptKiis tan(A - B) = Ol

tou avo r|pienine6ou (y > 0), yia tig onoieg r) Katavopii tng otdai]jri 9ep-
jia ctvai ataGepii ovopd^ovtai tooGeppiKCS ypappeg. E' auto TO np66Anpa 01
ppixeg ypappeg opi^ovtai and tnv oiKoyeveia tov KUKAIKWV TO^WV

x2 + y 2 - c y = b2, y >0

roia exuv IO Kevipo TOU OTOV d^ova TCJV y KQI nepaTOuvtai ora or)u.ia x = a
Mint, xiiP-a 6.2.1).

2.6
[ No Au0i to QKoAouOo opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Ar|pa oro rjpiEntnESo pE cajvopiaKEg orjv6r|Kg
nou Dirichlet

Uxx + Uyy = 0, oo < x < o o , 0 < y < o o ,


M, 0 < x < 1,
\ 0, -oo < x < 0, 1 < x < oo.
u(x,y) (ppaypEvo, Ka0cagto x + y 2 oo.

: u ( x , y ) = 1 [tan"1 (^) + tan"1 (J)}.


B. Na Au0Ei to QKoAou0o opoyEVEg EAAEtntiKO npo6Ar|pa oio r|pininE6o p ouvopiaKEg ouv0r|Keg
ftijnou Dirichlet

uxx + u.yy = 0. ~ < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,


u(x,0) =
-1, x<0.
u(x,y) (ppaypEvo, KaOcog to x 2 + y 2 ) oo.

u(x,y) = |
|3. Na Au0Ei to ax6Aou0o opoyEVEg eAAEintuco np66Ar|pa oto r)pininSo p ouvopiaKEg auv0r|Kg
(ninou Dirichlet

uxx + Uy U = 0, oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,


u(x,0) -
0, x>0.
u(x,y) cppaypEvo, Ka06g to x + y 2 >oo,

Jonou do EMU pia npaypatiKri ota0Epd.


}-. u(x,y) = ^ - tan"1 { & ) .
212 KecpdAaio 6. Mrj 0paypeva nfii|

4. Na Au0Ei to OKoAouSo opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Ar|pa crto r|piErun6o p ouvopiaKEg ouvOifa


njnou Dirichlet

Uxx+uUy = 0, oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,


a0, -l<x<0,
(ai -a 0 )x + a 0 , 0 < x < 1,
0, oAAou.
<ppayuvo. to x 2 + y 2 oo,
onou Eivai npayviatiKEg ora0Epg.

5. No Au0i to OKoAou0o opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO np66Ar|pa OTO dvu qpiEninESo p ouvopicnj


ouv6r|KEg tunou Dirichlet

u x x -f u uu = 0, oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,

u(x,0) = <; - ' '.'" ? .' ^"


0, |x > 1.
0, Ka06g to x 2 + y 2 - * o o .

6. Na Au0Ei to OKoAouOo opoyEVEg EAAEintiKO npoBAnpa OTO dvco r)pininE6o p ouvopiaias


caivGriKEg tunou Neumann

^xx+Uyy 0, oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,


u yf lxx >OU l
U
'
u(x,y) 0, U y ( x , y ) - ^ 0,Ka0og to x 2 + y 2 > oo.

7. Na Au0Ei to aKoAou6o opoyEVEg np66Ar|pa 9Eppotr|tas o' oA6KAr|pr| tr|v U0ia


KOI ouvopiaKEg ouv0rJKg tunou Dirichlet

uxx(x,t) = k- 2 u t (x,t), -oo<x<oo, t>0,


u(x,t), ttx(x,t) (ppayviEva, Ka06g to |x| > oo, t > 0,
2
u(x,0) = -bx
e oo < x < oo,

onou k, b Eivai 9EtiKEg npaypatiKEg ota0EpEg.


8. Na Au0Ei to aK6Aou0o opoyEVEg np66Ar|pa 9Eppotr|tag o' oAoKAripr) tr|v Eu0Eia VIE
cruvopiaKEg ouv0r|KEg tunou Dirichlet
onou c EIVC
u x x (x,t) = k- 2 u t (x,t), -oo<x<oo, t>0,
u(x,t), u x (x,t) cppaypEva, Ka06g TO |x| > oo, t > 0,
u(x,0) = e~ | x l , -oo < x < oo,

onou k Eivai pia 9Etu<ii npayyatiKii ora0Epd.

^(x.t) = ^r^f e ~ k2s2tds -


Fourier 213

I Au8ei TO aKoAouGo opoyEveg np66Anpa SsppoTnTag ornv npiEU0Eia pE apxiKEg KOI auvo-
Tunou Neumann
u*x(x,t) = k~ 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0,
u x (0,t) = 0, u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, KaGcog TO x > oo, t > 0,

u(x,0) = ([" (0,


b X)l
- <X<b'
aAAou,
Be, b Eivai QETiKEg npaypauKEg araGepEg.
^Hn Au0i TO aKoAouGo opoyEVEg np66Anpa SEppOTnTag ornv npiEuGda p apxiKEg KOI
Pbxeg oTjv0iiKEg Tiinou Dirichlet
Uxx(x.t) k~ 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, KaGog TO x > oo, t > 0,
UE OUVOpldKES x
u(x,0) = e~ cosx, 0 < x < oo,
k Eivai pia SETIKII npaypaTiKi] oraGEpd.
111. \a AuOEi TO aKdAouGo opoyEVEg np66Anpa QEppoTqTag orqv npiEuGEia pE apxiKEg KOI
/opiaKEg ouvGriKEg Tunou Dirichlet
Uxx(x.t) = k~ 2 u t (x,t), 0<x<oo, t>0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, xaGugTO x - oo, t > 0,
u(x, 0) = bxe~ x /4
, 0 < x < oo,
HE ouvopicmeg |> k, b Eivai npaypaTiKEg oraGEpEg pE k > 0.
Vtriarj: u(x, t) = bx(l
Na Au0Ei TO axoAouGo opoyEVEg KupaTiKo np66Anpa SEppoTnTag arnv npiEuGda pE apxiKeg
uuvopiaKEg auv6r|Kg Tiinou Neumann
Lixx(x.t) = c 2 u t t(x,t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0,
u x (0,t) = 0, u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, KaGcog TO x oo, t > 0 ,

u(x,0) -
x - < e, u t (x,0) = x>0,
0, |x-b|>e,
ou c, b, Eivai SETiKEg npaypOTiKEg ora0Epg pe b > 2t.
Na Au0Ei TO aKoAouGo opoyEVEg KupaTiKo np66Anpa ornv npiEuGfiia pe apxiKEg KQI ouvo-
; ouvGriKEg Tiinou Neumann
u x x (x,t) = c~ 2 u t t(x,t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0,
u x (0,t) = 0, u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, xaGcog TO x > oo, t > 0,
u(x,0) = sinx, u t (x,0) cosx, 0 < x < oo,
nou c Eivai pia npaypauKii oraGEpd.
114. Na AuGsi TO aKoAouGo opoyEVEg KupaTiKo np66Anpa OTnv EuGsia p apxiKEg KOI orjvopiaKEg
(ouvOiiKEg Tunou Neumann
,-2
ixx(x.t) = c u t(x,t), -oo < x < oo, t > 0,
t

u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, KaGcog TO |x| -* oo, t > 0,


u(x,0) = e~|x|, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , -oo < x < oo,
nou c Eivai pia npaypaTixii oraGEpd.
214 KecpdAaio 6. Mr] <J>paypeva Hrfia 6.3 Meraox

6.3 g Laplace
6.3.1 Eioaycoyii oroug OAoKAnpOTiKOug METaaxnpaxiapoug

i Tnv EvdTnTa 9a xPnlVlonoirioouPE IOUS oAoKAnpcoTucoug pETaoxnpaiiauougtffl


Laplace, Fourier, Hankel yia ir\v eniAuar) pspiKcov SiacpopiKcbv $"iocbocov 6utpi)s
Tdng. 'Oncog KOI acr|v nepirrtcoor) TCOV auvr|6cov 6iacj>opiKcbv e^ioooecov 01
pETaoxnP-0-110!-10! Ecpappo^opEvoi oe pia uepucrj 6iacpopiKr] e?jiacoor| iqv peTatpenouvo
pia artAouarepri auviiGri ii |iEpiKr) 6iac|)opiKr| e^iocoar), ipg onoiag r\ Auoq
vtiaipocpou jaEtaoxruaatiaviou uag o6r(YEi arr)v eniAuor) trig apxiKr|g pepwrig Siatpopuajj
E^iouorig. Ei6iKOtepa r) |ie6o6og auirj pETaaxnuati^i uia uepiKii 6ia(popiKii E^IOUOI] n
peTa6Ar)t6v oe pia dAAr) (n 1 ) p^a^An^v- H Siacpopd peia^u autiig xqs pe666o
KQI xr|g ue666ou icov oAoKAr|pco]adtcov Fourier eivai oil, e6a> anocpeuyoupe 10 np66Xr|pa
t6iOTiuov KQI avanapaordoeov Fourier. 'Ouog enet6r| yivEtai xpriorl avriorp6(pov pna-
oxriucmaucov 9a npenei va exouPe dueor] npdo6aor) oe avixotoixoug enapKeig nivaKEj
oAoKAripcotiKcbv

6.3.2 Eioaytoyri crco MeTaaxriuartouo Laplace

H nepioooTepov KOivii ue0o6og en(Auor|g ypappiKcbv iaepiKov 6iacpopiK6v


tr)v TEXViKii TOU xwpiopou TCOV vieia6Ar|Tcov, eivai autq TOU Meiaoxriuatiopou Laplace. I
Laplace xpr)luonoliTai ae npoBAripata, caa onoia eivai napouoa i\
ueta6Ar|Tii t, ueTaBaAAdvaevri oro 6idorr|pa t > 0, evo r\ xwp>Kr) p.ia6Ai]Tij
x uETaSdAAeiai OE 9payuvo 6idotr)pa 0 < x < a r\ oro dnEipo 6idorr|ua oo <
+00. Eni6r| o utao~xr|ucn:iau6g Laplace ouv6eEtai p ir] xpoviKq peta6Ar)ir], 6r)Aa8ij
or)uaivi oAoKAripaor) cog npog tr| uia6Ar|Tr| t uovo, eivai cpavepo OTI o uTaoxr|iianop6s
Etpapuo^Etai uovo OE eJJEAiKUKEg E^iowoEig (n.X- napaBoAtKii ii urtp6oAiKii E^iocoor)).
O ptaoxr|uauoudg Laplace SEV eivai KaidAAr|Aog yia EniAuor) npoBAripdiov Laplace!
OE prj-cppayueva ne6ia!! AUTO ouuBaivei yiati, av {u(x, t)|t > p} = Y ( p , t ) , xote, fl
x > 0, 9a

EnouEvcog yia va yivei xpnorl autou TOU Tunou 9a npdnEi va yvcopi^ouue EK icov npo-
TEpcov ta u(x,t), Ux(x,t) OTO ouvopo x = 0. AUTO TO yEyovog opcog, oSriyd YEVIKCI at
KCZKGJC; - ionodiri}jvo np66jir]^.a. Av Tcbpa acpiooupE TO u(x, t), Ux(x, t) anpoo6iopioiQ
OTO x 0, TOTE oSriyouuaoTE OE avE^EAEyKTEg KOTaordoEig. 'ETOI yia Trjv sniAuor) npo6Aii-
POTCOV Laplace oe ur| cppayuEvo nE6io KdvoupE XPn or l TOU oAoKAr|p6paTOg Fourier r| toy
METaoxnuo.Tiau.6v Fourier ii Hankel avdAoya av Epya^dpaoTe oe KapTcoiaveg i] noAuq;
ouvTeTaypEveg, avrioroixa. npdypa, nou 9a 6i^oupe orr| OUVEXEW auTiig Trjg Evoniiag
KOI orig Enopeveg OUTOU tou KecpaAaiou.
'Eorco Tcopa u(x,t) au6aipTr| ouvdpTr|or|, r| onoia 6XTai petaoxi]paiiopo Laplace.1
cog npog t, 6nAa6ri
roo
{u(x,t)|t -> s = e- st u(x, t)dt = Y(x,s).
Jo
215

Av r\ u(x, t) eivai cog npog t, toie ia)(uouv 01 aKoAoueeg yia

{ut(x,t)|t-s} = sY(x,s)-u(x,0), (3.2)


cmojjoug TCOV
:cov 6eutepr)g {u x (x,t)|t-*s} = [0Vstux(x,t)dt = !J e-8tu(x, (3.3)

-> s} = Y x x (x,s). (3.4)


mpenouv oe
PEOCO TOU a- tr| Tr
lS

n 6.3.1. (i) EneiGr) 6co ixpvytz ouvopnjoeig noJIJIcov iiia6fa]icbv eivat ava-
[ yicai'o va q>aiveiai cue npoc; noid ^ida6jirjiTJ yiveiai o }jiaoxnncina)Mg Laplace. Pia napd-
o np66Ar]iia
>6(pcov JJCTCI- x
u(x,t)dx =
= e
etg ntvaKeg
I (11) Lug oxOig (3.3), (3.4) vnodiiovu 6n, laxvouv 01 anapaiirjiEg ouvdrjKeg aore va unopei
a yivei evaJLHaYn napaydryiorig Kai oAoKAripoorig.
(Ill) Tin fj.ia avaJiuiiKr] napovaiaar] rr/c deopiag Kai iav rejffuccjf lou
EapJace napaneunouu aro oiryypanua [74, K(f)dji.aio 7}. Eniorjg EKEI undpxouv ,
ooccov ]niripo(popig nivaKeg usiaox'nuaiiancbv Laplace lavftaoiKcbv ouvapirioeav. Fia nepioodiz-
Laplace. O ov Kiveig nAripopopteg Kai nivaKeg TCOV ^laox^auoiiov Laplace napaneunovu uidg~u
Tapouaa r) fdUwti oia fiiSMa raw M. Abramowitz and I Stegun 11], A. Erdelyi, W. Magnus, F. Obe-
pEia6Ar)trj \rhettinger, and F. G. Tricomi [24], R. B. Guest [34], F. Oberhettinger and L. Badii [57], E.
00 < X < D. Rainville [62], I. N. Sneddon 170].
1, 6r)Aa6rj
6i6oupe opiaiaeva xapaKiripioriKd napaSeiyviata ecpappoyrig TOU
oor|). Laplace OE (JaoiKEg KQTriYOpieg iispiKcov 6ia(popiKcbv E^IOCOOEOV T^g MaGr)-
Laplace
tote, yia
6.3.3 E^iatoor) OcppOTritag crcr|v Hiiicu6cia
Qeupoujje TO aKoAouSo napa6oAiKO np66Ar|]ja apxtKov ouvopiaKCov ouv9r|Ka)v Tunou
Dirichlet opiopEvo orr|v
cuv npo-
Kci ac ) = k 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x x > , t > 0 , (3.5)
ipiora u(0,t) = f(t), u(x,t)->0, KaGcogTO x-> oo, t > 0, (3.6)
|npo6Arj- u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < o o . (3.7)
sr r\ TGJV
|noAiKeg
'Eorco {u(x,t)|t > s} = Y(x, s), {f(t)} = F(s). Ecpappo^oupe TO
Laplace oto np66Aqpa apxiKciv auvopiaKcov auv6iiKov (3.5) - (3.7) KCU naipvouiiE TO
iplace, ouvopiaKcav cruv9r|Kov

Y X x(x,s)-pY(x,s) = 0, 0 < x < o o , (3.8)


(3.1) Y(0,s) = F(s), Y ( x , s ) - * 0 , KaGcbgTO x > oo. (3.9)
216 KecpdAaio 6. Mr\ <t>payniva /Mia

H yeviKii Auor) Tng ouviiGoug Siacpopixiig e^iocoong (3.8) Eivai Tng popcprjg

U(x,s) = (3.10)

onou A ( s ) , B ( s ) eivai auGaipsTEg auvapTrioeig TOU s. Enei6ii Y ( x , s J > 0, Ka9o$


x > oo Oa npenei va EXOULIE B(s) = 0. H dAAr) ouvopiaKi] ouv6r|Kr| 6i6ei A(s) = F(s).
Auor) TOU npo6Ar|paTOg ouvopiaKcov ouv6r|Kcov (3.8) - (3.9) eivai

(3.11)
i
H E(pappOYii TOU avciorpocpou viEtaoxqiaa^iOT'ou Laplace orr) ouvdpTnor) (3.11) 8a pagj
66oi Tr| Auori TOU napaGoAiKOu npo6AiipaTog (3.5) - (3.7). Eni6ii r\ (3.11) exsi popfpi)
YivopEvou 9a KdvouiaE xpr)arl TrlS *eXvlKIiS TrlS ouvcAigrjs wu Meia.oximcmou.ov Laplace
(BAEne, [N] EvoTnTa 7.8). 'ETOI EXOUIIE

u(x,t) =

f(r)g(x,t-r)dr, (3.12)
Jo
onou
(3.13)
" 2ax/^t3/2"
Apa TEAiKd rj Auor) TOU napaSoAiKou npo6Ar|jaaTOg apxiKav ouvopioKcbv ouv6r|Kci)v I
(3.5) - (3.7) EXEI ir| poppri

[l f(T
u(x,t) = 1 (3.14)
5rJo (t-TW '
napaSetypa 6.3.2. Na fipedzi r] (luniKr)) Auar] lou napa6oJiiKou npoGjlrmaiog
auvopiaKcJv ouvdrjKCJv zunou Dirichlet mr\v rju-ieudeia

Uxx(x,t) = k 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 ,


u(0,t) = CQ, u(x,t) > 0, Kadagio x > oo, t > 0,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < o o .
E<papu.6ouLiE Tr|v aKoAouGr) TOV u.Ta6Ar|T&>v orr| Auor) (3.14)
x
z=

u(x>t)= f t
'ETOI (JpioKoupe OTI r| Auor) ypdi
e z d2
Enou.vag, ym f (t) = CQ EXOULIE 6u
^r i -^^) " " -
:,t) = ^| e-2'dz.
I x
2k~7t
217

|i<a$ yvpi<Joupe 6u, rj ounKjir]pcofj.auKTi avvdpir]arj ovpd/fy^aroc (BAene, [74, EvoTpTa


;np66Ar||.ia 45 - EvoTnTa 7.3, np66Anpa 40]) 6t6eTai ano TOV Tuno
2 f z z
erfc(x) = = e dz.
V71 Jx
reAiKd r| Auor) TOU napa6oAiKOu npo6Ar|paTOg apxtxcov auvoptaKcov ouvGrixcov
ypdtpetai air]

(P)

6.3.3. H jiuarj (P) lou napaSojliKOu TipoSArniaiog apxiKtiv ouvopiaKov


<r\Kov (a) aio napandvco napadeiyna 6.3.2 exl lrlv aKoAoudri (f,vaiKr\ or\\iaaia
x, r\ dep^oKpaoia u(x, t) ir]^ gd66ov a' avir] ir\ Qiar\ x Qa npooeyyi&i
CQ, Kadtigio t ) oo, fioxiici erfc(O) = 1),
yia oradepd t , 77 OepnoKpaoia u(x, t) 5a npoaeyy/j'Jsz 177 3epiJ.oKpa.aia }j.r]6ev, Kadd>$
erfc(oo) = 0 ) ,
Kdde napafioJlrig aio \t-enine6o, nov opieiai and irjv

x = 2ck\/t,
Df c = oiadepd, r\ OepnoKpaaia u(x,t)
\ 'OAa la napandvcj ov^avoiiv i* 11$ diamoiaocic;, nov ]aiopovv va yivouv, diav Kd-
noiog napairjpEi avid TO <f>atvd^i>o.

6.3.4 Mr| ] Eftoooi] aii]v H)iteu6cia


pia rmi-cineipr] xop6ri, r) onoia ucptaratai tr)v eniSpaor) piag e5UTEPlK1i 60-
iapr|g f ( t ) . Kpaieitai crta0epr| ato eva dxpo, evo TO dAAo dxpo aqjiivetai eAeuGEpo Kaid
|v KaSerri 6ieu6uvar). Av Qeopiiooupe on, r) xop^1! apxtKd ppioKEtai at aKivrjoia, tote i]
auir|g oe XPOV0US t > 0 nepiYpdcpetai ano ir\ Auor| zou QKoAouGou pr| ovioyevoug
u npo6Aii)aato$ apxiKov auvopiaxcov auvSriKcov tunou Robin opio^aevou crcnv
uieuGeta

UttfXjtJ = Ciuxx(x,t) + f(t)l 0 < x < o o , t > 0, (3.15)


u(0,t) = 0, u ^ x . t j - ^ O , KaGusTO x-4 oo, t > 0, (3.16)
u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0)=0, 0 < x < o o . (3.17)

AiaKpivoupe 6uo nepimcooeig yia Tnv e^oTepiKii eni6paor) (a) f(t) = fo, fo ora0epd,
|(P) f ( t ) = cos tut. 'Earo {u(x,t)|t -* s) = Y(x,s), {f(t)} = F(s). Ecpappo^oupe
[to peTaoxnuaTiopd Laplace crro np66Ar|pa apxiKtov ouvopiaKCov cruv9r|Kov (3.15) - (3.17)
IKQI naipvoupe TO np66An)aa auvopiaKcbv

YI xx (l ) x
^ *s
y )-^
~) Y
\ ( xs
1 ^) ""*~ ) - - t^ } 0<
^^ x <
^-o^"^
ot (3.18)
Y(0,s) = 0, Y x (x,s)->0, KaGosto x-> oo. (3.19)
218 KeipdAaio 6. Mrj <paypeva

H i Auor) tng auvrjGoug 6iacpopiKiig e^iocoaqg (3.18) Eivai ing u.opcpr|g

Y ( x , s ) = A(s)e

onou A(s), B(s) Eivai npoa8iopioiaig auvapirioEig tou s. Eni6ii ano xr| 6EuiEpr) tov
ouvopiaKcbv auvGnKcov (3.19) Y x (x,s) > 0, KaGcbg to x ) oo, 9a npdnEi va QE
A(s) = 0. H npcbtri TOV ouvopiaKov ouvGnKcov (3.19) 6i6Ei

'Etoi npOKuntei on

OUVEXEIQ 6iaKpivouu.Eg ng 6uo


(a) f(t) = fo, r) Auoq tou npo6Aiiviatog ouvopiaKcov ouvGiiKov (3.18) - (3.19) Eivai

I 1
Y(x,s) = f0 - - - (3.22)

cto

y=-g(x-2cto)

6.3.1: Xop5r\.

H avtiotpocpr) tng ouvdptnong (3.22) 9a u.ag SCOOEI tq Auor) tou u.r| o]aoYvoug w
np6oAiKOu npo6Aiiiaatog apxiKcov auvoptaKcbv auvGnKcbv tunou Robin opicrpEvou on]v
ia (3.15) - (3.17). BpioKEtai oti, atnv nEpintcoor] (a), r\ Auori autii Eivai

u(x,t) =

!t2- ^ -- H x/c (t) (3.23)


2 2
Ano tnv napandvco jaopcpq tng Auong u(x,t) cpaivEtai on, Ka0e oqpeio x uw
XOp6r|g KivEitai npog ta Katco EAEuGEpa uno tpv Eni8paori tng Paputntag, y\a toug xpovOB
0 < t < |. Evco Y\Q xpovoug t > |, r\ ntcoor] ouvExi^Etai VIE otaGEpii taxutnta -^. I
ace

ma Kd0 xpovo to r) xp5r| anoTeAei pia KapnuAr), r| onoia Eivai napa6oAr| yic
< cto KOI opi6vria euGeia yia x > cto. 'ETOT KaGcog TO to * oo, TO napa6oAu<c
jau^dvei KOI TO euGuypappo opucpuveTai. (BAene Exripa 6.3.1).
iji^i va OT)peia>6ei OTI, r\ nepima>or| auTrj 8ev pnopei va AuGei pe TOV H^inoviKd Me-
> Fourier (BAene, cmnv endpevr) EVOTHTO 6.4), aepou pia oraGepr) ouvdpTrior],
f(t) = fo 6ev eivai oAoKAr|pcooipr| crrriv ripieuGeia (0, oo).
! f(t) = cos cut. H Auor) TOU npoBArjpaTOg cruvopiaKcov ouv6r)K<av (3.18) - (3.19) eivai
1
Y(x,s) = (3.24)

Auovrac, Tr]v napandva noooTnTa oe pepiKd KAdapaTa Ppioxoupe OTI


1
2
s(cu + s ) 2
V
c u |s2
(3.25)

Tng' (3.25) 9a pag Scoaei


1
= TTjH -cos cut) = -7 sin7 [ ^ (3.26)

I Apa, ornv nepinTcoor) (P), r| Auor] TOU pr| opoyevoug unepBoAiKOu npo6Ar|paTOg ap-
JIKUV ouvopiaKciv ouvGqKcov Tunou Robin optopevou ornv ripieuGeia (3.15) - (3.17), 3pi-
ffitat OTI eivai Trig POP^priS

.-1 cut
u(x, t) = C~ '{Y(x, s)} = -j sin' T sin^ (3.27)

6.3.5 Opoyevrjg 0eppiKr|g & <rct)v Hiueu-


Oeia
JEotu pia npi-dneipr) pd68og, rj onoia napouoid^ei ancoAeieg OeppoTrjTa KOTO pr|KOg Tr|g
InAcupiKiig enicpdveiag. ETO dxpo x = 0 6mTr]peiTai crraGepr), evco oro dAAo dKpo rj
I StpjjoKpaoia eivai pr)8ev. Av rj apxiKr) KOTavopri QeppOKpaoiag eivai pr)6ev, TOTE to
lovnoTOtxo paGripaTiKO npdTuno KaTavopiig Tng QeppOKpaoiag, yia oAoug Toug xpdvoug
It > 0, SiSeTai and TO aKdAouGo opoyeveg napa6oAiKO npd6Ar|pa apxiKcov ouvopiaKciv
|ouv0r|Kcov Tunou Dirichlet opiapEvo orr)v npieuGeia

u t (x,t) = k^xKtj-hufx.t), 0<x<oo, t>0, (3.28)


u(0,t) = Co, u ( x , t ) > 0 , KaGcogTO x > oo, t > 0, (3.29)
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < o o , (3.30)
onou Co, H, k, npaypaTucegoraGepegpe k > 0. 'Eoro {u(x, t)|t > s} = Y(x, s), C{f(t)}
I F(s). E(pappd^oupe TO peTaoxnpaTiapd Laplace oro npd6Anpa apxixcov ouvopiaKcov auv-
9r|Kcov (3.28) - (3.30) KOI naipvoupe TO npdBAnpa ouvopiaKcov ouv6r|Kcov
s + h.
VXx(x, s) - s) = . 0 < x < oo, (3.31)

Y(0,s) = , Y(x,s)->0, Ka0cog TO x -> oo. (3.32)


6.3 Meraa
220 KcfpdXaio 6. Mr] <J>pay/uEva I7e6ia

H i Auar| Tr|g ouvr|9oug 6iacj>opiKiig e^i (3.31) eivai xr|g

Y(x, s) = (3.33)

onou A ( s ) KQI B ( s ) sivai au9aipTg ouvapTiiasig TOU s. Enet6ii Y ( x , s ) > +00,


Ka66g TO x > oo, 9a npenei va EXOUU.E A(s) = 0. H dAAr) ouvopiaKii ouv8r|Kr) 6i6i
Y(0, s) = B(s) = ^. 'Etoi r| Auor| TOU npo6Arip.aTOg ouvopiaiccov ouv9r|Kcov (3.31) - (3.32)
Eivai
(3.34)

Ano toug nivaKCg tou Laplace ppioKOU]je on

,-ht-(x 2 /4k 2 t)

H avtiotpocpri xr|g Y ( x , s ) ano tr) a^ior] (3.34) 9a 6cooei tri Auoi)


TOU napa6oAiKOu (3.28) - (3.30). Enei6r| r| (3.34) EXEI
Kavoupe XPn or l trIS IXVIKI1S TrlS mv ) Laplace (BAene, [74, i
7.8]). 'ETOI e

u(x,t) = (3.35)

Ano Tr|v i6iOTr)Ta , [74,


7.3, 0ecbpr|pa 9]) e
2
/4k 2 t)
c 0 xe-hT-(x
u(x,t)= [ -dr. (3.36)
Jo 2k\/7tT3

H ecpapiaoYil TOU aKoAouGou TieTaoxripaTioriou Trig aveapTr|Tr| iaeTa6AriTiig r) =


x/2\/icT orr) ouvdpTrior) (3.36) pag 6i6ei TeAiKa Tr| Auor] TOU napa6oAiKOu npo6Ariiiaio$
tov auvopiaKcbv auv9r)K6v (3.28) - (3.30) orr] iiopcpri

(3.37)

Ag napo.Tr|piioouu. on, crcriv nepinTcoor) nou exoupe h = 0, TOTE EnavEpxopaate oioj


npoSArivia Tr| EvoTriTag 6.3.3. EiSiKcotEpa pdAiara, oncog EUKoAa pnopEi va
naipvouiiE TO napaSEiyiia 6.3.2.

6.3.6 KupaTiKii E|tocoor| art] Ecpaipa - Kuiia^a ae IIaAA6pevr|


c(>aipa

@Ecopouu.E on r\ viETQToniori Tr)g enKpavEiag pio-g naAA6u.vr|g o(paipag aKtivag a 6i6Etai


ano Tr| ouvdpTr)or| f(t) = C sin cut, onou C Soopevr] ora9epd. 'Earco oti r\ ocpaipuaj
eni(j)dvia, EupioKOTiEvr) oe aKivnoia, apxi5El va ndAAsTat oro xpdvo t = 0. TOTE anoSti-
KVUETOI OTI TO qxi11^ KUu.aTa nou napdyovTai, nspiYpCKpovrai yia oAoug To
221
laypcva TTcSicr

povoug t > 0 and TO OKoAouSo OU.OYEVES unspBoAucd npdBAnua apxtKcbv ouvopiaicciv


louv6r|Kcov Tunou Neumann opiouEvo arr| acpaipa

(3.33) 13 2 (ru(r,t)) _ 2 3 2 u(r,t)


0 < r < a, t > 0, (3.38)
r 3r2 3t2
3u(a,t) df(t)
(3.39)
3r dt
u(x,0) = 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < r < a , (3.40)

fcnou 10 c Eivai T\ TaxuTnTa TOU nxou KOI u(r, t) napiordvEi TO 6uvauiKd Tng
(3.34)
[(velocity potential), 6nAa6ii TO u^' 6i6Ei Tnv TaxuTnTa TOU oroiXEiou TOU PEUOTOU
(olpa). Eniong r\ ouvopiaKr) ouvGrjKr) (3.39) EKCppd^Ei TO \t\ov6$ OTI, r| aKTiviKr)
8a npenci va laouTat UE Tnv TaxuTnTa Tn$ naAAduEvns ocpaipas OTO r = a (snicpdvEia
|(X|iaipa$).
'Earw {u(r,t)|t -> s} = Y(r,s). on {f (t)} = {C sin cut} = s 2Ccus
+a> 2
Efpapuo^ouiiE TO METaaxnuaTioiid Laplace ornv (3.38), ondTE npOKumEi
iaei IT] Auar)
avopevou 8a d 2 rY(r,s)
3r2
^ry(r;i (3.41)
(BAens, [74,
3Y(a.t) Ccus
= S >U (3.42)
5
3r s + cu72>
2
~J~, '

(3.35) i Auori Trig ouvr|0ous 6ia(J)opiKiis E^iocoons (3.41) Eivai Tng pop(piis

74, EvdTnTa
onou A ( s ) , B ( s ) Eivai npoo6iopioraiS ouvapTiioEis TOU s. AnoppinrouuE TO Turiua
nig Auong e~ (6nAa5ri QETOUUE B(s) = 0), 5idu napiordvEi TO nxnuKd KuuaTa, nou
(3.36) Kivouvrai npog TO EOOTEpiKd Tng ocpaipas. Eni8ri SEV undpxi OTO nsipo,
jmopouuE va EXOUUE udvo KUUOTO, TO onoia KIVOUVTOI npog TO (anoicAivouoa). And
q ouvopiaKr) ouv6r|Kr| (3.42), npOKunTEi OTI

3Y(a,t) A(s)e-r tuCs


(3.44)
3r ac cu^
r=a
(3.37) Ano Tr)v TeAsuTaia npOKunTEi OTI EXOUUE

cuCa2cs ,SQ/C
A(s) =
+ tu 2 )(as
EnoiiEvcog r| Auorj TOU npo6AiipaTOs (3.41) - (3.42) 9a Eivai

a>Ca 2 cs ,-s(r-a)/c
rY(r.s) =

cuCa2c ,-s(r-a)/c (3.45)


a cu2
2
s + c/a
Ecpapud^ovrag TO 2o Oed)pr]fj.a Mziaidmoris zou AferaqjT^anojzot) Laplace (BAsnE, [74,
EvdTnTa 7.6 ecbpnua 1]) Eupioxoups OTI, r| avriorpocpri Tng ouvdpTrjons Y(r, s), n onoia
222 KeepdAaio 6. Mr] <payjjvaj

6i6et Tr) Auor) TOU opOYEvoug unp6oAiKou npo6AripaTog apxiKov ouvopiaKcbv i


Tunou Neumann (3.38) - (3.40) opiopEvou orr] o<J>aipag, Eivat

r-a urn / r a
ru(r,t ) = sin u> t -
c V c

(3.46)

Fia IT] paGnpaTiKr] npOTunonoinor) TOU napandva cpaivopEvou napanepnoupE paa^u


TOV dAAcov OTO cnJYYPaPV10: Lamb H. (1925), The Dynamic Theory of Sound, New York,
Dover Publications, Inc. (Section 71).

6.3.7 Opoiopop<j>eg Fpappcg Mcracpopdg ornv HpieuOcia


ewpoups pia qpi-dnEipr) opoidpopcpr) ypappii pETacpopag OTOV x-d^ova. 'Eorco oti q
Ypapprj EXEI avrioraori R, EnaycoYri L, x^P"11^11!10 C KQI 6iappori G ova povcifia
pr|KOug. Eniong QscopoupE OTI I(x, t) EIVQI TO pEupa air\ 6icu6uvoi] iou x-d^ova oio
onpeio x KOTQ IT] xpovuai crtiviir| t KQI V(x,t) eivai n nrcoon 5uvapiKOu KQTQ
X^poxpoviKO or]pio (x, t).

H
L6x R6x
nTTVVWV
3V.6
V+
^~
3x
91
T~
ox
x - - x+6x

6.3.2: O\iOi6\iop<f)f] Fpa]mr\ Mciacpopdc;

H 6ia6iKaoia paGnpaTiKiig npOTunonoinong TOU cpaivopEvou Trig opoiopopcpng YPaP"


prig pETacpopdg o5r)Yi oro OKdAouGo ypappiKO ouarripa pEpiKcbv 6iacpopiKcov E^IOCOOEOV
; Yia TO pEupa I(x, t) KOI TO 6uvapiKO V(x, t) (BAsnE, [21, OAi6Eg 277-278]

LI t (x,t) + RI(x,t) = -V x (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 , (3.47)


CV t (x,t) + GV(x,t) = -I x (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 . (3.48)

EcopoupE OTI TO npo6Anpa (3.47) - (3.48) cmvo6UTai and Tig aKoAouGEg apxiKEg KQI
ES ouvGriKEg Tunou Dirichlet

V(0,t) = E, V(x,t) nEnEpaopEvo, KaGcosto x > oo, t > 0, (3.49)


I(x,0) = I 0 (x), V(x,0) = V 0 (x), 0<x<oo, (3.50)
UeSia BAferaox/7;jariO7Jdc; Laplace 223

cuv ouv9r|KCdv pou E Eivai pia npoYpaTiKri crcaGEpd. 'Earco {I(x,t)|t > s} = Y(x, s), {V(x,t)|t
= W(x, s). Fia tr|v EniAuoq TOU npo6Aiip.o.TOg (3.47) - (3.50) Ecpappd^oupE KQT'
r- a MEiaoxripaTiapd Laplace oug E^iocoosig (3.47) - (3.48) KO.I Tig apxiKEg ouvGiixeg (3.50),
f onoic npoKunTEl TO QKoAouSo auarripa ouvriGcov 6ia(popiKcov
dW(x,i
(3.46) (Ls + R)Y(x,s) = - ), 0 < x < oo, s > 0, (3.51)
dx
toups (Cs + G)W(x,s) = - ), 0 < x < oo, s > 0. (3.52)
d. New York, (3.53)

[ AnaAAoicpoupE TO Y(x,s) peTag^j tov E^IOCOOEWV (3.51) - (3.52), OHOTE npoKunTEl


' oxoAouGr) pr| opOYevr|g YpappiKi] ouvriGrig 6ia(popiKr| i
'Eorco OTI r| d 2 W(x,s) 2 dlp(x)
avd |aova6a 2 -q W(x,s) = -C(Ls + R)V 0 (x), 0 < x < o o , (3.54)
dx ' dx
x-d^ova crco onou
Kaid
(3.55)
ETOI 3pioKOupE TO W(x, s) Auvovrag TO npo6Anpa (3.54), r| 6t ouvdpTnor) Y(x,s)
npocpavcog Auvovrag Tnv E^iocoor] (3.51), and Tnv onoia npoKurrtEi OTI

y,,..,.- B.56,
Ls + R dx Ls + R '
LIT] ouvExeia 6iaKpivoupe 6id(popEg xapaictripiaTiKEg nEpimooEig TOV napapETpcov
Itou npo6Ar]paTOg:
(A) YnoGsTOupE OTI, TO apxiKd geupa KQI TO cpopiio EIVO.I pr|6Ev KQI oio dxpo x = 0 TO
BuvapiKO 6iaTr|pEuai crraGEpd KQI ioo pE E, \ia KdGs xpdvo t > 0. 'TOI r| prj
(3.54) anAonoiEuai cn:riv opOYEvri YpappiKri sJjiooor)

d 2 W(x,s)
-q 2 W(x,s) = 0, 0 < x < o o , s > 0 . (3.57)
dx2
Oi cojvopiaKeg ouvGriKEg (3.49) uno Tnv n<6paor) TOU METaoxnpcmapou Laplace yivoviai

prig W(0,s) = , W(x,s) nnpaopvo, KaGcog TO x oo, s > 0. (3.58)


B
e^iocooecov
277-278] H yeviKii Auor| Tng ouvriGoug 6ia(popiKr|g E^iocoong (3.57) Eivai Tng

(3.47) ,s) = A(s)e- qx + B(s)e q x , 0 < x < oo, s > 0. (3.59)


(3.48)
onou A ( s ) , B ( s ) Eivai npoo6iopioraig ouvapTiioEig TOU s. Eni6ri and Tn 6UTpn TCOV
KQl ouvopiaKovauvGnKcov (3.58) EXOUPE OTITO W(x, s) Eivai nsnEpaopEvo KaGcog TO x > oo,
9a npsnEi va exoupE OTI B(s) = 0. H npcoTr] TCOV auvopioKcbv ouvGrjKcov (3.58) aro dxpo
x = 0 6i6ei A(s) = f . 'ETOI npoicunTEi OTI
(3.49)
(3.50) W(x, s) = -exp [-xv/(Ls , 0 < x < oo, s > 0. (3.60)
224 KecpdAcrio 6. Mr/ <f>pay/jeva

FEVIKQ, o avriorpocj>og METaoxnpa^opQS Laplace Tng ouvdpTnong (3.60) npOKurtra


Q ano i6iaiTpa noAunAoKq SiaSucaaia, r) onoia anaiTEi ir\ y.pr]or\ TCOV auvaptiio
Bessel. EVTOUTOIS oe opiapEVEg nEpimcboeig r| 6ia6iKaaia anAonoieuai anpavru
ouvEXEia 8a 6oup 6idcpopg n
(A-l) ecopoupE OTI r) Ypappii peTacpopdg Eivai X^P'S ancoAEiEg, 6riAa8ri OTI R = G
TOTE ri cjuvdpTnori (3.60)

W(x, s) = -exp(sx/c), 0 < x < oo, s > 0,


s

onou c"1 = v/LC. 'Opcog o avriorpocpog MeTaoxnpaTiopog Laplace Tng ouvdp


(3.61) eivai
V(x,t) = EH x/c (t), 0 < x < o o , t>0.
H cpuoiKii EppnvEia Tng napandvco Auong Eivai OTI, TO Suvapixo V(x, t) Eivai ]
pexpi Tr| xpoviKr) ariYpr) to = x/c, oriYpr) KOTO ir\v onoia cpGdvei eva Kupa o6eu(
TaxuTnTa c oro onpeio x. LTI-| ouvexeia TO Suvapuco V(x,t) exei Irl araGepii niiq
Yia oAoug Toug enopevoug xpdvoug.
(A -2) EcopoupE OTI r) Ypappn peTacpopdg Eivai x^P^S 6iaorpe6Acboeig (distor
line), 6nAa6ri OTI IOXUEI R/L = G/C = p. TOTE ano6iKvuTai OTI TeAiKd r| Auor] 6i6
ano Tr| ouvdpTnor)

V(x,t) = Ee"px/cHx/c(t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0.

H cpuoiKri eppnveia Trig napandvco Auong Eivai OTI, r) 6iaTapaxii o6Ui pe


c orooripeio x, aAAd undpxei e^aoGevion (attenuation),
peTacpopdg.
(B) ecopoupE OTI OTO dKpo x = 0 TO 8uvapiKO 8v SiaTnpEiTai araGEpo, aAAd 10
E = f ( t ) , yia Kd9e xpdvo t > 0. TOTC, uno9eTOvrag OTI {f(t)} = F(s), npOKunrei onr\
Auor) Tng e^iocoong (3.57) 9a eivai

0 < x < o o , t > 0. (3.64)

Eniong ornv nEpinrcoori Tng YpapPHS pTacpopdg iS 6iaorp6A6oEig, 6nAa6ii oiav


OTI q = (s + p)/c, anoSEiKvuETai OTI

s) = F(s)e- (s+p)x/c . (3.65)

0 avriorpocpog MeTacrxripaTiapog Laplace Trjg ouvdpTnong (3.65) eivai

V(x,t) = e- px/c f (t- -)H x/c (t), 0<x<oo, t>0. (3.66)

H cpuoiKii eppr|veia Tr)g napandvco Auong eivai OTI, TO SuvapiKO V ( x , t ) OTO i


x eivai pnSev pexpi Tr) xpoviKii orivpri to = x/c KOI orr| ouvexeia auio AapBdvei n|
Tipii TOU SuvapiKOU, nou exei TO or)peio x = 0 pe pia xpoviKq KaGuaTEpnor) 6pco^
TciJjng x/c KOI peicoar) peYe9oug KOTO TOV napdYOvra e~ px//c .
/7e6ia \Meiaaxriyiaiioii6g Laplace 225

(3.60) npOKU 1.8


IQV auvaptrjoi
No Pp6ei n, Auor) tou aKoAouGou unp6oAiKOu npoBAripatog apxiKcbv ouvoptaKov auvGqKwv
n onjaavuKa.
fcinou Dirichlet otqv qpteuGeia

if] ott R = G = Uxx(x,t) = u t t (x,t)-te- x (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0,


u(0,t) = 1 e~i, u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypEva, KaGcbg to x +00, t > 0,
u(x,0) 0, u t ( x , 0 ) = x , 0 < x < o o .
(3.61) : u(x,t) = xt + [sinht-t]e~ x + [t-x- 1 - e~ x sinht-e - t coshx]Hxt.
1 Pp0i r| Auor) tou aKoAouGou unEp6oAiKOu npo6Ar|patos apxiKUV auvopiaKOv ouv6n,Kci>v
ouvdptr|ar|g Dirichlet otpv ripiEuGda

(3.62) Uxx(x.t) = uttfx.tl-xe'^x.t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0,


c,t) eivai pr|6ev u(0,t) = cost, u(x,t), u x (x,t) cppaypEva , KaGcbgto x +00, t > 0,
Kupa o6euov pe u(x,0) = 1, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , 0 < x < o o .
ii E, miwrjary: u(x,t) = 1 + x ( t - 1 + e~l) + [cos(t - x) - 1]Hxt.
Na ppEGei r\ Auoq tou OKoAou9ou unEpBoAtxou npo6Ar|pato$ apxixcov auvopiaKOv ouv9n,Kci)v
S (distortionless liunou Robin oiqv qpiruGEta
Auar| 6i6eTat
Uxx(x.t) = c- 2 u t t (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) = 0, u x (x,t)-0, Ka9g to x->+00, t > 0,
(3.63) u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0)=co, 0 < x < oo,
i pe nou c, CQ Eivai npaypatiKEg otaGepEg pe c > 0.
upc ir) ypappr) C 0 t, t < x/c,
j: u(x,t) = <
CQX/C, t > x/c.
)6, aAAd I 4. \a Pp0ei q Auaq tou OKoAou9ou unp6oAiKou npoBAqpatog apxiKov auvopiQKuv ouv9qKcbv
Itunou Robin otqv qpiu9ia

u x x (x,t) = c~ 2 u t t(x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0,


(3.64) u(0,t) = 0, u x ( x , t ) > 0, KaGogto x >+00, t > 0,
u(x,0) f(x), u t (x,0)=0, 0 < x < o o ,
otav
lonou c Eivai pia QEUKTI npaypatiKr) ota9Epd.
t < x/C,
(3.65) t > x/c.
15. Na ppEGei r) Auor) tou aKoAouGou unp6oAiKOu npo6Aiipatos apxiKov oxivopiaKcov ouvGqKWv
' ninou Dirichlet otnv qpieuGfiia

(3.66) u x x (x,t) = -2u t t (x,t) -3u x t (x,t), 0 < x < oo, t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u x ( 0 , t ) = 0 , u(x,t), u x (x,t) <ppaypEva, KaGcbg to x->+00, t > 0,
oro u(x,0) = 0, u t (x,0)=0, 0 < x < o o .
Aap6dvi trjv
|0n ]: u(x, t) = (t - x)H x t - (t - 2x)H 2x t.
[ 6. Na Ppe9< r| Auor] tou OKoAou9ou napa6oAmou npo6Ar|patos ouvopiaKcov ouv9r|K6v
226 KccpdAaio 6. Mr/ cppayprva 6.4 METQCTX

Tiinou Dirichlet ornv npiu6Eia


u x x (x,t) = k- 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < c o , t > 0 ,
u(0, t) = C ) , u(x,t) ) Co, opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, Ka0cbg TO x >+00,
u(x,0) = CQ, 0 < x < oo,
onou CQ, ci, k Eivai 9ETiKg npaypaTiKEg ora0Epg pE k > 0.
7: u ( x , t ) = c 0 + (ci-c 0 )erfc(x/2kVt).
7. Na ppE0i r| Auori TOU OKoAouOou napa6oAiKOu npo6Aiipatog apxiKcov ouvopiaKcov auv9r|KG>v
tunou Dirichlet arnv npiu0Eia
Uxx(x.t) = k~ 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u(x,t) x, opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, Ka0cbg TO x >+00,
u(x,0) = x, 0 < x < o o ,
onou k Eivai uia SEtuai npaypaTiKri ora0Epd.
j: u(x, t) = x xerfc(x/2k\/t).
8. Na pp0Ei r| Auor| TOU OKoAouOou napa6oAiKOu npo6AripaTOg apxiKcbv ouvopiaKOV auv
Tunou Dirichlet ornv npiEU0Eia
u x x (x,t) = k~ 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 ,
u(0,t) t 2 , u(x,t) > 0, opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, Ka06g TO x > + 0 0 ,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < o o ,
onou k Eivai pia QETIKI] npaviiaTiKii ora0Epd.
AKdvirjari: u(x, t) = 2 J0 J^ erfc(x/2k\/C)dT|dC.
9. Na pp0Ei i\ Auor| TOU OKoAou0ou napaBoAiKOu npo6AripaTOg apxixcbv ouvopiaKcbv auvSriKav |
runou Robin ornv npiu0Eia
u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t)-Hu(x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0,
u(0,t) = 0, u x ( x , t ) > 0, opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, Ka0cbg TO x +00,
u(x,0) = c 0 , 0 < x < oo,

onou CQ, H, k Eivai npaviiaTiKEg ora0EpEg p k > 0.


7: u(x,t) = coe~ ht [l - erfc(x/2k%/t)].

6.4 s Fourier
6.4.1 ! axo MeTacrxnuaTiouo Fourier
O UETaoxr|uaTiou6g Fourier OE avu6eor| ue TO oAoKAripcoua Fourier xpr|oluonoiEiT'
yia Tr|v EntAuor) urj ouoyevov npo6Ar)udTov. EninAeov opcog OE opiausvEg npinr6(
ouoyEvav npo6Ar|udTov, r| EniAoYn TOU uETaoxnpaTiopou Fourier o6r(YEi OE UKoA6t
6ia6iKaoia eniAuor)g avri TOU UETacrxnuaTicruou Laplace ri TOU oAoKAripcoucuog Fourie
LuvriGcog o UETao^rjuaTicfuog Fourier Ecpapuo^cTai orrj x<^piKr| pETa6Ar|Tr| x, oe avu0
UE TO ueTaaxnuaTiouo Laplace, o onoiog ouv6ETai UE Trj xpoviKri UETa6Ar|Tr| t.
Slioiug '[619-909 53QIY3O '8 DilnpAg '6 oiDyp<t)3}j >/,] DrlrtodAAaD 010 srtnourl
-3UDdDlI 'SlSOplODig S3d31C9AD 5ll> ACTIOAA3 AO1 AWlflD UODOX3U3 Alii IDM 5CT0DX J3UnOJ
ACTI pxiiDidliiMDdDX oyyp ID* Ssiliipigi '013X1010 odsipooidsu DIJ
(9-*) p(x)soo()Dj
OO +
ouni AOI 9110 iDisgig +jj OID (TO Slii
[()-[] - =: (x)j jajjnoj SoitmiDttuXoDisrt SoxtAOiirluAOo So<J>odioiiAD o
01 OLID SUiao [(x)j.]3^.=: ()3i jstmoj SorloiioitUXooistl SoxiAoiiriuAno I
o iDis^ido 3191 '^j OID LioLiidpAcxo UrliowdLiYMOYO DinypUD IDM opy pMiaorlljtii 'LiX3AnflJ '004
'Dlldp Dirt 3D ID13A131M3U3 IDM +5J OK) ItASttOldO 1DA13 (x)j. UoLlldpAnO ll AD1O 'SOY3X
oo+
ouni AOI OUD iDisgig +^j OID ()Sj|
Sin =: (x)j. SoitmimtbXoDi3it SoxiAOiitlb So<t>odi>iiAD o
\
0 |.'Cf
zp(2)uis
'00+ <
oo+j r
01 9110 Sliiao [(x)^jS^- =: ()S.j
3101 '^i 010 lioljidDAno LirtioradLiYMOYO DinyouD IDM oisy pxiiDtiLirli 'L ATO
Dirt 3D ID13A131M31I3 IDM +J[ OID LlA3rtOldO IDA13 (XJJ. LlOUldDAflD U AD1Q,
oo+
'00+ f.
ouni AOI puo iDisgig ^j OID
SUi .__^ =: (x).j ($0x1139x3) So<t>odxoiiAD
r K7A
-K- =: AWXI
oo+J I
ouni AOI 9110 j; o
(x)j. SUi [( =: ()-{ jajjnoji SortmiDiiuXooisri ($9x1139x3) o iDi3^ido 3ipx
010 UoUidpAao Diny9uo IDM Disy DMiiortLirli 'SUXsAno Dirt (x)^ coiog,
[ajjnog nortoiiDrtUXoDisrl noMiAOiirtU U
liAorldD(J)3 IDM SoiorlLiygodu noi UODIMSIIS Liuidsu U oiidp ioi3AiA AOMu0AnD ,
AC9i Li(J)dort ui 3rl oAoypAD 3101 '5DAopirlLi SOMUSQ o IDAIS nortoido oigsu 01 AD i
nortDiiDrtljXDDisrt noMU30x3 noi LioLidX ioi3AiA 3191 'D)30n3 li Liyo IDAU 015
LZZ }93LI
undpxouv EKTEVEig nivaKEg pETaoxripoTiopcbv Fourier TCOV {SaoiKcbv
ouvEXEia 6t6oup opiopEva xapaK^nP10"111^0- napa6iypaTa ECpappoyrig TCOV
Tiapcbv Fourier, nou opiarr]Kav napandvco, OE (JaoiKEg KOTriyopiEg pEpiKcov 6iacpopiKcov
E^IOCOOECOV.

Ecpapiioycs attg MeptKeg Ata^optKeg E

6.4.2 Opoycviig KupaxiKr) E^iacjar] crcnv EuGeia


Ecopoupe pta dnEipr) xop6r|, Au0pr| E^coTEpiKcbv Eni6pdocov, arnv onoia 6i6tat pia
rj uETOTomor) f(x), KOI pia apxiKr) TaxuTiyia g(x). TOTE 01 EyKdpoiEs pEtcuonioeig
iis, OE Kd0 orjpEio x KOI Yia XPOVOUS t > 0, nEpiypdcpovrat ano \r\ Auor| TOU
OKoAou0ou ouoyEvoug unp6oAiKOu npo6Ar|uaTOg apxiKcov ouvopiaKcov ouv0r|Kcbv lunou
Robin opiouEvou orr|v u0eia

U-u = C2U X X ) -00 < X < 00, t > 0, (4.7)


u(0,t) 0, u x (x,t)->0, Ka0cbTo|x| -> oo, t > 0, (4.8)
u(x,0) f(x), u t (x,0) = g(x), -oo<x<oo. (4.9)

Eni6ri x E R 8a yivEi XP1!01! IOU K0ETiKou UETaaxr|uaTiopou Fourier.


Aoinov. ^{u(x,t);x -> a} = U(a,t), J"{f(x);x - a} := F(a), ^{g(x);x - a} =
G(a), a G K KOI ECpappo^ovras TOV EKOETIKO u.ETaoxr(uaiiauo Fourier oto np66Aipa
(4.7) - (4.9), npOKunTEi TO aK6Aou0o np66Ar|pa apxiKcov ouv0r|Kcov 6UTpr|c; Td^rig

U t t (a,t) + c 2 k 2 U(a,t) =0, t > 0, a e (4.10)


U(a,0) = F(a), U t (a,0) = G(a), a (4.11)

AKoAouOovrag yvcoorEg 6ia6iKaoig (JpiaKOupE OTI, n uovafiiKii Auor| TOU npo6Ar|iiaTog|

U(a,t) =F(a ), a e K , t > 0 . (4.12)


ca
O avrioTpocpogpETaoxriuaTiouoc; Fourier Trjg ouvdpTr)or|s (4.12) 6i6iTr| (TuniKii) Auoi]
TOU npo6AiipaTOg (4.7) - (4.9) OE oAoxAripcoTiKii uopcpr), r\ onoia eivai

1 r+oo
f
u(x, t) = -= e-iax I F(a)cos(cat) + ca
da, (4.13)
V27tJ-oo

onou oo < x < oo, t > 0. ETOVTOC; Tig TpiycovopETpiKec; ouvapTrjOEic; OE


if) pe Tq xpr|OT| TCOV Tuncov TOU Euler, (ipioKOupe OTI r| (TuniKii) Auor| (4.13) xou
ivi Tr| popcpr)
1 r+OO r ,
ufx t) = +
T /T
e~ia(x"ct) + e~ia(x+ct) F(a)da (4.14)

J v
(4.15)
6.4 Fourier 229

HDU oo < x < oo, t > 0. Xpn.oiuonoiG>vrag rapa Toug avriorpocpoug UETaoxn.ua-
SiacpopiKcov >ug Fourier TCOV ouvapTiioEcov F(s), G(s) KaTaAriyouuE duEoa orr|v avayvcopioiuri
>ri Tr)g Auon.g (4.13) TOU npo6An.uaTOg (4.7) - (4.9)

1 f x+ct
u(x,t) = - [ f ( x - c t ) g( z)dz, -oo < x < oo, t > 0. (4.16)
2 2c J x _ ct

OpdyuaTi, rj auvdpTr|or| (4. 16) anoTEAEi Tr| Auor) D' Alembert Tqg opoyevoug KUUO.TI-
6i6icu vua o' 6Ao TO R, oncog QUTO Eivai T]5r\ YVCOOTO ano Tr)v EvoTr|Ta 1.5.2.
aaatoniaeig
Tr| Auar) TOU 6.4.1. And ir]v lEjizuiaia diamoiaiori cno napandvo np66ji.rma yivEiai <pa-
Tunou ) on, r\ udo5o(; lou uiaoxT]j^ciuoy.ou Fourier anoij(i ivav EvaJifLaKiiKd ipdno Enuluarig
rjf KuuaziKrig E^iaciorig air/v Evdeia. 'Oj^cog oiig npioodipg 6iaordotg
i OE npo6j\r]uaia liiapirig r\ avc3ipr\g idfyig, dnov SEV undpxi to avdAoyo lov lii-
(4.7) iD'Alembert, 016id(popg uop(f>g iav ojloKjlripaiiKcov HEiaoxniJ-CLiioiLo^v anodiKvuoviai
(4.8)
(4.9)
6.4.3 Ouoyevris E^tocoori GcppOTi]Tas <rci]V EuGcia

BecopouiiE TO aKoAouGo napa6oAixd np66Ar)ua apxixcbv ouvopiaKciv auv0r|Kcov Tunou


x > a} :
Robin opiauEvo o' 6Ar| Tnv EU0ia
o np66Ar|pa
ns = k2ut) oo < x < oo, t > 0, (4.17)

(4.10) u(x,t) -^ 0, Ux(x, t) > 0, KaGwg TO |x| ) oo, t > 0, (4.18)

(4.11) u(x,0) = f(x), oo < x < oo. (4.19)

po6An.uctTOg EnEi6r) x K 9a yivEi XP1!01! TOU EKGETIKOU pETaoxnuaTlTaO1-' Fourier. ETOvrag


Aoinov, J"{u(x,t);x a} = U(a,t), ^{f(x);x > a} = F(a), EXOUUE Eniong OTI
f{u xx (x,t);x -> a} = -k 2 U(a,t), ^{xtt(x,t);x -> a} = U t ( a , t ) , onou EXEI yivei
Xpiiorl TC;)V ouvopiaKcbv auv6r|Kcbv (4.18). Ecpapuo^covrag tcopa TOV EKGETIKO uTaoxnu.a-
(4.12)
itaiio Fourier oto npd6Anpa (4.17) - (4.19), npOKurrtEi TO aKdAouGo np66Anua apxiKcov
auvGnKov npcbTng Td
i) Auar)
U t (a,t) + k 2 a 2 U(a,t) = 0, a R, t > 0, (4.20)
U(a,0) = F(a), a e R (4.21)
(4.13)
ME Yvuorri 6ia6iKaoia ppioxETai OTI, r\ uova6iKii Auor) TOU npo6Ar|uaTOg apxiKcov
ov npcbTng Tdng (4.20)- (4.21) Eivai Tng
(4.13) TOU
U(a,t)=F(a)e- k 2 a 2 1 , a 6 R, t > 0. (4.22)

(4.14) O avriorpocpog pETao^rjuaTiouog Fourier Tn.g ouvdpTn,on.g (4.22) 6i6Ei Tn.v


Auor) TOU npo6AriuaTog (4.17) - (4.19) OE oAoKArpcoTiKii

(4.15)
u(x,t) = -= f(z)g(x-z,t)dz, - o o < x < oo, t >0, (4.23)
V27T J-oo
230 Kc<paAaio 6. Mr] <Ppayuva

onou ano TOV nivaKa ueTaoxnuanavicov Fourier (BAene, [74, KeqxiAaio 9, oeAi6a 622|)
PptOKOupe on
a2t
g(x,t) = ;<x-+ x} = _L=
kV2n
Apa TeAiKa r\ (Tunucii) Auor| TOU napaBoAiKOu npo6AriuaK>s apxiKov auvopiaKcbv au
8nic6v (4.17) - (4.19) exei tr)

u(x,t) = f(z)e- (t - z)2/4k2t dz.


2k\/7rt J-

E(papu6<|covtag TO ueTaoxnpaTtouo T = (x z)/2k\/t, ornv napdcrraori (4.24) npo-


Kunrei r| uop(pii
i "^-i

u (x,t) = F= f(x-2kTv / t)e~ T dr. (4.25)

6.4.2. (i) H ovvKEKptuEvr] nEpiopioriKr) v.op(pr\, nov ixovv 01 avvopiaidg]


(4.18), anaiiEiiai CJOTE va npoKvifJEi o viaaxr]uaiiovjdg jT{u xx (x, l ) ; x > a}s
k 2 U(a, t) Kar' EniKiaar\ SE Kai r\ Avar] lov 6Hav npo6jir}uaiog. And rr? ouyv-Ti nov ra
npdSArjua EXI JivdEi, Eivai dvvaidv, UE ^aSapwrepef ovvopiaKeg avvdr)Kg (anaaovTag yia
napddEiyua, dncog la u(x,t), vix(x,t) Eivai (ppayuEva, Kadtig 10 |x| > oo, yia Kd8e
t > 0), va EXOVUE Kai ndili Avar] lov npo6jiriuaiog.
(ii) H vjoptpr\ (4.25) irjg Ai/arig Eivai idiaiiEpa xpr)oifj.ri at opiouivEg nEpiniaoEig. Pia net-
gd6iyu.a, diav r\ apxiKr) Kaiavour} QtpvjOKpaaiac; Eivai aiaBtpr\, EOIGJ f(x) = TO, roa
: dii

u(x,t) = -^

A(fK>v TO napandva) \r\ yvaoir) avvdpir\ar\ ocpdJiuaiog, r\ onoia


yyiZduEvri 6i5Ei :, [74, Ev6ir]Ta 2.4, Uapair\pr]csr] oa/L. 68 - Evdir\ia 5.2, Flapd-
6iyv.a 7, Evdir]ia 7.2, 401)

poo
u(x,t) = (4.27)
J c

To anoijiov.a avid ovv-cpavEi HE ir\v napair\pr\or\ lov (pvaiKov <f>aivofivov.


npinEi va napair\pr\aov\i. Edcb 6u, r\ j(.v.ar\ u(x,t) = TQ, r? onoia npoKvmEi, 6ia\>n
K.aiavou.r) dEpiiOKpaoiag Eivai oiadEpi] f (x) = TQ, 6ev iKavonoiEi ir\ v.ia auvopiaxTf
], 677^067) 6viaxvi u(x,t) > 0, Kadcbg TO |x| oo, KaiyiaKdde t > 0. EnmMov
77 avvdpiriOT] f (x) = TO &EV EXEI vxiaaxrnj.aiiov.6 Fourier. To i6io SE IOXVEI yia ITJV rt/mwj
jLvarj u(x,t) = TQ. Eviovioig, 01 napandva ivnoi AVOECJV (4.24), (4.25) laxvovv OKO]ui
Kai atTju nepimuori, nov EXOVUE f (x) = TQ. PEviKdiepa, 9a npinEi va yvapffpv\jiE. on, r\
XPiiarl ojloKJlripcoiiKcbv UEiaaxnuauouov via irjv EniJivoTj npoSHriuaicjv oSr/yEi cnr\v vpoi\
ivniKav JlvoEav, 01 onoteg Oa npinEi cnr\ ovvixEia va EJifyxdovv Kara ndaov nAripouv 6/ij
itg ifVoiKlg ananr)oig wv vnd UEMirj npo6j\.riuaiog.
77e6i'a s1 Fourier 231

9, aeAi6a 622]) 6.4.3. Na fipedei r\ (ivniKr\) Avar] lov napa6oAiKoi> Tipo6Armaio<;


cJy auvdrjKcbv (4. 17) - (4. 1 9), diav r\ apxiKr] caraw)^r/ dsp^oKpaoiag ndva 01771;
fipr] gd66o naipvei irj oiryKeKpi^Lcvr] uoptpr} f ( x ) = ToHo(x), dnov HQ(X) eivai r\
m>vapir]ori Heaviside.
VOplQKQV CTUV-
or? AvtiKa9ioi6viag Tr]v f(x)=ToHo(x) ndvo
pd66o atriv napdataon (4.25)
-oo
(4.24)
2k\/7rt J x /(2Wt)
:>n (4.24) npo- To rx/(2WI) -r / rO f x/(2Wt

~~7= e = -4
71
( e- T dT + dT
V71 J-oo V \J-oo Jo

(4.25) _ 1. I" v^ + ^

01 ouvopiaK^g |6rtou erf(x) := -^J^e T dT eivai r) ovvdpir]or) opafytaiog. H Auor] autii 6eixvei,
t);x > a} = [nug Siaxeeiai <Kr)v dneipr) 90660 r\ 9epvioir|Ta, r| onoia KOTO, ir) xpoviKii OTiyiaii t = 0
yurj nov 10 rival auyKEvrpuiaevri ato QETIKO tpiipa autiis. H Auor) u(x,t) eivai QETIKFI navrou, \\a
inanavrag yia KaGe t > 0. To YEyovog auT;o' Sri^0^1! OTl autojaata 6Ao TO apvrjtiKo tpripa ir|$ pd66ou
, yza Kd<9 ii 9ep]jOKpaoia, anoteAei pta aKopa ni6e6aicoori xr|g apxiis oti, 77
dneipr]
. Aa TTCZ-
= T0, rdre
6.4.4 Mri-Ouoycvr|g E^iocoori 0cpuoxr|Tag crcr|v EuGeta

Qeupoupe TO axoAouGo pr| opoyeveg napaBoAiKo npoBAnpa apxiKov ouvopiaKov


(4.26) KCOV Tunou Robin opiapevo ornv euGeia

77 onoia Uxx = a 2 u t -b(x,t), oo < x < oo, t > 0, (4.28)


a 5.2, u(x,t) -> 0, UTc(x,t)^0, KaGogTO |x| > oo, t > 0, (4.29)
u(x,0) = f(x), -oo < x < oo. (4.30)

(4.27) To napandvo npoSArivm anoteAei ir\ via0rinaTiKii aneixoviori evo$ ^awopevou 6id-
6oor|g QepviOTritas at dneipr] pd66o, mr\v onoia eivai napouoa nnyii napayoYns 9epvio-
toy. Tr|Tag, Tng onoiag TO iieyeSos 6i6eTai ano \r\ ouvdpTnor) b(x,t). Enei5ri x 6 R 9a
, diav 77 yivei XP1!01! TOU eK6eTiKOU v>etaoxriPailoPO1-' Fourier. 0eTa)vras Aomov, J"{u(x,t);x )
a} = U(a,t), ^"{f(x);x ) a} = F(a), ^{blx.tjjx > a} = B(a,t), exoupe eniong on
0. Enmjlzov ^{iJaxfXit)^ > } = k 2 U(a,t), ^"{utfx.tjjx * a} = U t (a,t), onou exei yivei xpr)-
i irjv ivniKi) or) TCOV ouvopiaKov auvGnKov (4.29). Ecpapvio^ovrag Tcbpa TOV eK0eTiKO vieTaoxnpaTioiio
IOVV Fourier aro npoBAnua (4.28) - (4.30), npOKunrei TO aKoAouGo pr) opoyeveg np66Anua
6u, r\ ouvGnxov npcoTng

TJPOUV U t (a,t) + a 2 k 2 U(a,t) =k 2 B(a,t), t>0, (4.31)


U(a,0) = F(a), a 6 R (4.32)
232 6. Mr/ <t>pa.Ypcva

ME i 6ia6iKaoia ppioKEtai OTI, r\ uovaSiKr) Auor] TOU npo6Aiipatog (4.31)- (4.32)


eivai

U(a,t)=F(a)e- a 2 k 2 t + k 2 [ e- a2k2(t - T) B(a,T)dT, a e K, t > 0. (4.33)'


Jo

O avtiorpotpos uETaoxnuauauog Fourier trig auvdpuions (4.33) ue ir| xpr)orl TOO|


EopiiuaTOg EuvEAi^ng (BAEnE, [74, Ev6ir|ia 9.8, Eopnua 19]) 8<6i ir|v (luniKri) Auoii
TOU npo6AripaTOg (4.28) - (4.30) OE oAoKAr)pcoTiKr| uop(pri

I r+cxD 1.2 r+oo rt


u(x,t) = ^== f(z)b(x-z,t)dz+-== g(x-z,t-T)b(2,T)dTdz, (4.34M
V27tJ-oo V27lJ-ooJo

onou oo < x < oo, t > 0 KCU ano TOV nivaKa u.EtaoxnV10-110!-1'' Fourier (BAene, [74,
KeipdAaio 9, oAi6a 622]) PPIOKOUU.E on

2 2
g(x, t}=r-} |e-a2k2t; a -> x} = = ,-x /(4k t)
otVln

6.4.4. a npenei va iiapair\pr\ao\j\i 611, r\ napdaiaor] -^=g(x z, t -T),


nou napouaidZfiai oir\ fjoppr) irj<; Jluorig (4.34), anoTetei ir\ ovvdpirjori Green rr/f E^ioaar]^
OEpfJOirjiag oio dneipo nedio oo < x < oo, t > 0. At/rrj r\ ouvdpirioi] Green napimdva
irjv K.aiavo}j.r) irjg OEp^OKpaoiag oinv dneipri pd66o, r\ onoia drmiovpyeiiai and ir\ cniy^iaia
napovoia i*ova5iaia<; nriyng Qepi^oiriiag oio arj/^to x = z Kaid 10 xpdvo t = T. Tia nepai-
lipa avdmuttf lov Qe^aiog iav ovvapirjoEav Green napane^nou^ ora endfj^va K(pdHaia
7-8.

6.4.5. Na fipedzi r\ (luniKr)) Auorj rot/ napaSojiiKOu npo'Ar]^iaio^


auvopiaKtiv ovvdr]Kav (4.28) - (4.30), oiav rj nriyr] dpfj.6iriiag ndva oir]v dnctprj pdS6o
naipvEi xr\ ovyKKpmvr\ ]iop(pr\

k2
b(x,t) = [H_ w (x)-H w (x)],

onov H w (x) etfai rj avvapir\ar\ Heaviside KOI (3 ]i\.d QEUKT) npayiJ.aiiK.ri oiadpd.

Avar] AvuKaGiOTcbvras Tr|v nriyii 9puoTr|Tag b(x,t) ntivco orr|v dnipr| pd66o, airiv
napdoraor) (4.34) ppioKOuue \r\v aKoAouGr) oAoicAripcoTiKri uopcpr) Tqg Auoqg tou npo6Aii-

- = - - l - f 1 - e- k2r2t ) sin(wz)e irx dz,


2kV7rt J_ T i J z H )

onou oo < x < oo, t > 0.


HcSia ourier 23;

tog (4.31)- (4.32) 6.4.5 Ojioyevijs E^iotoori Laplace oe-AuptSa

i QKoAou0o opoyeveg eAAeimiKO npoBAnpa opiopevo oe pia ripidneipr] AwpiSa p{


^opiaKeg ouv0r)Keg Tunou Robin
0. (4.33)
= 0, 0<x<oo, 0 < y < a , (4.35]
u(x,0) = f(x), iiy(x, a)=0, 0 < x < oo, (4.36)
IT] tou
= 0, 0 < y < a . (4.37)
Auarj
Aoyco TOU ne6iou KQI TOV ouvopiaxov ouvGnKov 9a yivt\ xpnoq TOU
}}jL(ma}*Qv Fourier og npog x. 0eTOvrag Aoinov, .?rc{u(xiy);x ~* a) = U(a,y),
(x);x * a} = F(a), exoupe eniang on
dTdz, (4.34)

c{uxx(x,y);x a} = - k 2 U ( a , y ) - W - u x ( 0 ) y ) = -k 2 U(a 1 y), a R, 0 < y < a,


er (BAcne, [74, V 7T

1 6nou exei \ivti xpr)orl twv ouvopiaKov ouv0r)Kov (4.37) (BAene, [74, EVOTHTQ 9.8, Ilopiapa
]). E(pappo^ovrag Topa TO orjvnpuoviKO peTaoxnpaTiapo Fourier aro npoBAripa (4.35)
i(4.37), npOKunrei TO QKoAouGo np66Ar)pa ouvopiaKov ouv0r)Kcbv 6euTEpr|g

Uyy(a,t)-a 2 U(a,t) = 0, a K, 0 < y < a, (4.38)


U ( a , 0 ) = F ( a ) , U(a,a) = 0, a 6 K. (4.39)
(x-Z,t-T|
i iriS E&ocjaris Me yvoorri 6ia6iKaaia ppiaxeTai on, r\ povaSixri Auar) TOU npo6AiipaTog ouvopiaKcov
en Jiapiordvei [ ouv9riK6v SeuTepng Td^rjg (4.38)- (4.39) eivai Trjg pop(pr|g

T. Fia nepai- U(,y) = F(a)cosh^-^, a e K> 0 < y < a. (4.40)


va Kccpculaia cosn(aot)
O avriarpotpog ouvripuoviKOg peTaoxnpaTiopog Fourier Tng ouvdpTriong (4.40) pe Tp
bpiior) TOU eopripaTOg EuveAi^ng (BAene, [74, EvoTnTd 9.8, eopnpa 19]) 6i6ei
Kca TOU npo6Ar|po.TOg (4.35) - (4.37) oe oAoKAr|po)TiKr|
pd66o +00
1
u(x,y) = f(z)[g(x g(|x-z|,y)]dz, 0 < x < <x>, 0 < y < a, (4.41)

onou ano TOV nivaxa peTaoxriV10110^1^ Fourier (BAene, [74, Ke(pdAaio 9, oeAiSa 622])
IKQI trj XPH01! TrlS 9eopiag TOV piYa6iKOv auvapTrjoeov PpioKoupe OTI

_._! r , , cosh(a y )a a \ sin(7ry/2a) cosh(7rx/2a)


]
lepd. g x,y =J^ C ' { rF (a ) -; a - > x ^ =
cosh (act) cosh(7rx/a) cos(7ry/a)

)d66o, orr|v
6.4.6 Opoycviig E^iotjar) Laplace crco ITpcoro TeTapTnpopio
u npo6Ar|-
I Eoro TO aK6Aou0o opOYeveg eAAemTiKO npoBAppa opiopevo oro npoTO TCTapTripdpio pe
[ pi] opOYeveig ouvopiaKeg auv0r|Keg Tunou Robin

B)euxdz, - u^y = 0, 0 < x < oo, 0 < y < oo, (4.42)


Uy(x,0) = f(x), 0 < x < o o , (4.43)
u(0,y) = g(y), 0 < y < oo. (4.44)
234 KecpdAaio 6. Mr/ <f>paypva

Aoyco TCOV ur| ouoyevcov ouvopidKcbv ouv0r|Kcov, r\ Auor) u(x,y) TOU npo6Aiipc
(4.42) - (4.44), ue pdorj Tr|v apxii Tr|g unep0eong, unopei va eiccppao0ei cog TO d0poto
TCdvAuoecov v(x,y) KQI w(x,y) TCOV OKoAou0cov 6uo npoBAnudTOv, avriaroixcog

vxx + Vyy = 0, 0 < x < oo, 0 < y < oo, (4.4


vy(x,0)=0, 0 < x < o o , v ( 0 , y ) = g ( y ) , 0 < y < oo, (4.4
KOI wxx + Wyy = 0, 0 < x < o o , 0 < y < o o , (4.41]
wy(x,0)=f(x), 0 < x < o o , w ( 0 , y ) = 0 , 0 < y < oo. (4.4

npopXrftia (4.45) - (4.46): Adyco TOU neSiou KOI TCOV ouvopiaKcbv ouv0r)Kcbv 9a yivei xp
TOU auvriniioviKOU}jia.oxri}J-ciiionou Fourier cog npog y. 9eTOvrag Aomdv,
a} = V(x, a), ^c{g(y);y -> .} = G(a), EXOUUE enioqg on

^c{vyy(x,y);y - a} =-k 2 V(x,a) - W-v y (x,0) =-k 2 V(x,a), a 6 R, 0 < x <

dnou CXEI yivei xpiior) TCOV ouvopiaKcbv auv0nKov (4.46) (BAene, [74, EvoTnia 9.8, Ilopio
17J). Ecpapud^ovrag Tcbpa TO ouvr|uiTOviKO uETaoxnpa^oV10 Fourier OTO npoBAqpa
- (4.46), npOKunTEi TO QKoAou0o npd6Anpa ouvopiaKcbv ouv0nKcbv SeuTcprig Td
Dirichlet

V X x(x,a)-k 2 V(x,a) = 0, a 6 R, 0 < x < oo, (4.4


V(0,a) = G(a), a e R (4.5

Me yvcoorri 6ia6iKaoia ppioKETai dTi, r| povaSiKii Auor| TOU npo6Aiiu.aTog ouvopia


OTjv0r)K6v 6euTepr|g Td^qg (4.49)- (4.50) eivai Tr|g uop(pr)g

V(x,a) = G(<x)e~ ax , a R, 0 < x < oo.

O avriarpocpog ouvnuuoviKog ueTaoxquaTioudg Fourier Tng ouvdpTnarjg (4.51)]


TOU nivaxa ueTaoxnuaTiouov Fourier (BAene, [74, KecpdAaio 9, oeAiSa 622]) i
TOU ecopriuaTOg EuveAi^ng (BAene, [74, EVOTHTO 9.8, ecbpnua 19]) 6i6ei Tqv (TUH
Auor) TOU npo6Aiiuatog (4.45) - (4.46) oe oAoKAripcoTiKii uopcpq, r| onoia eivai

x r+0 1
',y) = -n Jo Q(Z x + (y-z)2
2
x2 + (y + z) 2 .
dz, 0 < x < oo, 0 < y < oo.(4.!

(4.47) - (4.48): Adyco TOU ne6iou KOI TQV ouvopiaKwv auv0nKcbv 9a yivtixp
TOU r\\jLiioviKov niaoxr\iJLaiionQu Fourier cog npog x. eTOvrag Aomdv,
a} = W(a,y), 7"s{f(x);x > a} = F(a), exouue eniang 6u

)-W-aw(0 = -k 2 W(a,y), a e R, 0 < y <


V 7T

onou exei yivei xpriori t"v ouvopiaKcbv auv0r)Kcbv (4.48) (BAene, [74, Evoiqia 9.8, floe
171). Ecpapud^ovrag Tcbpa TOV r)UUOviKO ueTaoxrmaTioud Fourier OTO npd6Ar)via (4.4i
c; Fourier 235

1.48), npOKurrrei TO aKdAouGo npd6Anpa ouvopiaKcov auvGnKcov 5euTepng Td$"ng tunou


(Neumann

Wyy(a,y)-k 2 W(a,y) = 0, ex K, 0 < x < oo, (4.53)


W y (a,0) = F(a), a 6 R. (4.54)

| Me Yvcoarii 6ta6iKaoia ppiOKEiai on, r| uova6iKf| Auon. TOU npoBAppaTOg ouvopiaKcov


w6r)Kcov 6euTepng Td^ng (4.53)- (4.54) eivai Tng popcprjg

W(a,y) = - , a M, 0 < y < oo. (4.55)


^
0 avricTipocpog npiTOvixdg peTaoxnpaTiopdg Fourier Tng ouvdpTnong (4.55) ue Tn.
IJOT) TOU mvaKa peTaoxr|uc";ioT-i<''v Fourier (BAene, [74, KecpdAaio 9, oeAi6a 622J) KQI
) ecopriuaTog EuveAtr|g (BAene, [74, EvoTr|Ta 9.8, 0ecopnpa 19J) 6t6ei Tn.v
3T) TOU npo6AiipaTog (4.47) - (4.48) oe oAoKAripcouKri, uopcpii, n, onoia eivai

ay
w(x,y) = - -5U sin axda, 0 < x < o o , 0 < y < o o . (4.56)

Apa TeAiKd, n. Auan, u(x,y) TOU npo6An,uaTog (4.42) - (4.44) cog TO dGpoiaua TCOV
v(x,y) KQI w(x,y), exei Tr|v aKoAouOn popcpri

u(x,y) = v(x,y)+w(x,y)
x +0
1 2 f +0 F(a)
* ~

yia Kd0e 0 < x < c , 0 < y < c .

I 6.4.7 Tpio8idcrcaoq Ouoycvr|g E^iocooif OcpuoxnTag a1 6Ao TO Xcipo


0copouue TO QKoAouGo napaBoAiKd np66An,pa apxiKcov ouvopiaKcov auvGnKcov Tunou
Dirichlet opiapevo o' dAo TO x^

(x,y,z) G R , t > 0 , (4.57)


u, ux, Uy , iij -> 0, KaGog TO |x| + |y| + |z| -* co, t > 0, (4.58)
u(x,y,z,0) = f(x,y,z), (x.y.zjel3. (4.59)

To npo6An,ua auto nepiypdcpei Trjv KaTavoun, Tn.g QepuoTnTag o' 6Ao TOV TpioSidaraTO
Xpo, OTQV r| apxiKn. QeppOKpaoia 6i6eTai and Tn, auvdpTr)on. f(x,y,z) KQI Oecopouvrat
apeAn.Taieg n. napaycoYii (nriYtg) rj ancoAeta 9eu.OTn.Tag. Fia va exouv ewoia 01 6ia6ucaoieg
nou OKoAouGouv, unoGeTOuue OTI, TO np66Anpa (4.57) - (4.59) exei Auon. u(x,y,z, t),
r) onoia eivai TCTOIO coerce 01 ouvapTr|oeig u, itt, lixx, Uy y , UzZ eivat cruvexeig KOI and-
AUTQ oAoKAnpcooipeg cog npog x, opoiouopcpa cog npog y,z, t. Enei6r| (x,y,z) G R3
9a yivei XPnorl tou CKGeTiKOu peTaoxnpaTiapou Fourier cog npog x. eTcovrag Aoindv,
f[u(\,ytztt);-x. -> a} = Ufa.y.z.t), ^"{ffx.y.zjjx -> a} = F(a,y,z), ecpappd^oupe
6.4 Meraa>
236 KccpdAaio 6. Mrj <t>paypeva FleSia

3.4.8 Ilf
TOV EK0ETIKO UETaoxnuanouo Fourier crco np66Ar|ua (4.57) - (4.59) 05 npos x. 'Etoi
npOKumEi TO QKoAouGo npd6Aqua apxiKcbv ouv0r)Kcbv npcoTns Td$>is 1. Me tr) >

U t (a,y,z,t) + a 2 U(a,y,z,t) = 0, a R, ( y , z ) e R 2 , t > 0, (4.601


U(a,y,z,0) = F(a,y,z), a e R, ( y . z ) e R 2 . (4.611

AiamoTcovouuE 6r)Aa6ri dti, r\ npor|YOuu.vr| 6ia6iKaoia UEICOVEI KOTO. Eva TOV api6po
6nou c eiv
TCOV avE^apTiiTcov uTa6AnTcov, EXOVTQC; oucos QKOUQ napouoa uia uEpuai 6iacpopiKii e^ioo-
or) cog npos Tig dAAss Tpsis UETaBAnTes (y, z, t). AKoAou0dvrag avdAoYn 6ia6iKaoia yia 2. Me in )
unep6oAiKO'
Tig uETa6Ar|Tg y KOI z KaTaAriYOUUE OE uia cruvr)0r| 6iacpopiKii e^iocoor) cog npog t, ir|vo-
noia EniAuouuE KOI EnicrrpEcpovrag nioco UEOCO TCOV avriarpdcpcov uETaoxripauoiacov Fourier
unoAoYi^ouuE Tr| Auor). Exnuaii:onoidvTas dAa TQ napandvco OE uia cuxpr)011! 6ia6iKaoia
EXOUUE TQ eiis: 'Eorco 01 aKdAou0oi opiouoi noAAanAcbv uETaoxripaTiapcbv Fourier
r+oo
f+oo r+oo rr+oo onou c eiv
W(a,,a2,a 3 ) t) := e i o " x + a 2 y + 0 " 2 ) u(x,y,z,t)dxdydz, (4.62) AndvirjoT]:
J oo J oo Joo
r+oo r+oo r+oo
3. Me rri
F(ai,a 2 ,a 3 ) := e i ( o " x + a 2 y + a ^ ) f(x,y,z, jdxdydz. (4.63) unep6oAiKo
J oo Joo Joo

noAAanAaoid^ouuE Trjv e^iocoar) (4.57) ue e i ' <X|X+a2y+aj2:1 KQI oAoKAripcbvouue 05


npos x .y. z - Yno0TOvas OTI 01 croYKAioEis TCOV u, Ux, u y , uz eivai apKETd
aro dnEipo, unopEi va anooix0i OTI KaTaAriYOUUE OTO aKdAouGo npd6Anpa
auv0nKcov onou c EU
4. Me ir\
Wt+(a? = 0, 0, (4.64) unep6oAiKi
W(ai,a 2 ) cx3,0) = (4.65)

ME vvcoorr) 8ia6iKaoia (ipioKETai OTI, r| uova6iKr| Auor) TOU npo6Ar|uaTOs apxiKtov


ouv0nKcbv npcbTris td^r|g (4.64)- (4.65) Eivai

W(a 1 ,a2 ) a3,t)=F(a 1 ) a 2 ( a 3 )e- ( a '' < X 2 ' a 3 ) t 1 (aT.a2.cx3) 6 K 3 , t > 0. (4.66) 5. Me in
unep6oAiK
O avriorpocpos (noAAanAos) pETaoxr)uaTiauds Fourier Tns ouvdpTrjons (4.66) 6i6iTr|v
ii) Auori TOU npo6AriuaTOs (4.57) - (4.59) OE oAoKAnpcoTiKr) uopcpri

u(x,y,z,t) =
onou c

Yia Kd0e (x,y,z) e K 3 , t > 0.


6. Me xr
6.4.6. H evpEorj tou aviiaipopov uiaax.r]uaiiauov Fourier irjg OL/udpirjor/f napaBoAu
(4.66) SEV ivai duor] ovi i6iaiipa anJirj. OvoiaaiiKd xpr\oiuonoii apKciri and ir\ &opia
Fourier, dnag avir\ yViKUiai ortc; npioodipg 6iaoidoi^. Aa
npooEyyior] tou Qiuaio^ Kai napanipa (f>apuoyig napaniunov\jit \izidtji
lov dJUtou ata ovyvpauaia 174, Ev6ir\ia 9.8 r, OjLi6g 614-6191 Kai 184, pages 329-337J.
'00 > X > 0 V_Xy\ = (( 'U-6ZZ*
n^-Di3ri 3rtn
'0 < } '00+ x 01SCT0DX 'oAsrlAod* (I'xjn 'o = (l'O)Ti
wij -5i3opu
'0 < \ 'oo > x > o '(Vxj'n,_1 = (;'x) xx n
Vld(93ff Ul p.
Di30n3irlLi Abio j3[qouiQ nouni AOxLi0Ano AWXDidoAno IDX AmxiXdo SoiDrtliYgodu n SUoliictoano
no0noYOMD noi liony Li }303d{j DA jaynoj norLoiiDrlLiXoDisn1 noyLiYYpiDx noi UolidX Lii sy\[ -g
pd30oi) lixuDrlAodu Lixusg oirl IDAJS D nouo j
(Z9't-) '^pUp
' O O > X > Q ' x _ax = (o'x)n ' x _3 = (o'x)n
'0 < } '00+ <- x 01 Sm0Dx ' o < - ( ; ' x ) n 'Q = (;'o) x n
' 0 < l ' o o > x > o '(i'x)n ? _o (;'x) x x n
Alii 13919 (99
D)30a3itili Aliin utqoy nouni AraxU0Ano AnxoidoAno IDX AOxiXdo SoiorlLiYgodu noxiyogdsun I
ao0noYoxo noi LioriY Li J303dfj DA jajjnoj noriDiiDriUXoDisrl noYLiYYP1DM no1 LioLidX Lii 3j\[ *j I
(99 o|
O O > X > Q ' 0 = ( 0 ' x ) ' n '0 = (O' x ) n
AWMlXdD Soit
'00+ <- x 01 5cp0ox 'o-(i'x)n 'i- (;'O) XTI
' 0 < ; ' o o > x > o '(
(99'f)
Di30a3irlLi Abio uiqoy nouni AWxLi0AnD ACDMDidoAno IDX AnxiXdo SoioriLiYgodu n
fr9'P)
no0noYoxo noi lionY Li )303d{) DA jaianoj norlDiiorlLiXDDisrl noyuYYpiDX noi LioLidX Lii 3j/\i -
pd30oi) lixiiDrlAodu LIMIISQ Dirt IDAIS o
' o o > x > Q ' _ x _ a = (o'x)'n 'o = (0'*)
'0 < i '00+ <- x 01 Sw0DM ' 0 < _(;'x)n 'o = (}'O)TX
' 0 < i ' o o > x > o '(;'x)n ? _o (}'x) x *n
Di30n3iriLi ALiio pjtpuiQ nouni Awxli0Ano AmxoidoAno IDX AOxiXdo SoiDrtLiygodu r
no0noYoxo noi Liony Li }303dj) DA jaunoj norLoiiDrtLiXoDisrt noyLiYYPiD: ^o1 LioLidX Lii
<\-300I^T = (^' x ) n
pd30Dio LixiiorLADdu Uxiisg Dirl IDAIS D
'oo > x > oo- '| X |_a = (O'x)'n 'o = (O'x)n
'0 < ; '00+ f- |x| oiSra0Dx 'o*-(;'x) x n 'Q 4- (;'x)n
'0 < 1 'oo > x > oo- '(i'x)"n r _D = (i'x) x x n
Di30ri3 Auifl jaiqoma nouni AC)xLi0Ano AnxoidoAfio IDX AnxiXdo SoiorlLiYgodu noxi\
\o0noyOMD noi Uony U )303dj) DA japnoj norLoiiDtiLiXDDisrl noyLiyYpiDx noi LioLidX Lii
pd30Dio IrxiiDtiADdu Lixiisg Dirl IDAIS
'oo > x > oo- 'o=(o'x)'n ' x _ax = (O'x)n
'0 < ^ '00+<|x| 01 Sm0ox 'DA3tiADd6 (^'x) x n '(l'x)n (I9'fr)
'0 < i 'oo > x > oo- '(j'x)n o = (i'x) xn (09 *) '0<
Di30ns AUID jajqoyiQ nouni AnxLi0Ano AraxoidoAno IDX AOXiXdo SoiotiliYgodu n
io0noYOXD noi LionY Li i303d{j DA jaunoj norLoiiDrlLiXoDisti noyLiYYP1D:>l nO1 LioLidX In 3^
5orionDr/(zXoDi3^v
238 KecpdAato 6. Mr] <f>pay/jrva 6.4

onou k eivai pia SETIKFI npaypatucri ara9Epd. ouvopidKtov onvG


or IOU
7. Me Tr| xpr) l KataAAnAou petaaxr|patiapou Fourier va ppeGei r| Auor) tou OKoAou
ut(x.t)
napaBoAtKOu npoBAppatog apxiKcov KOI ouvopiaKcbv auvGnKov tunou Neumann crcr|v npie
Ux(0,t)
UxxU.t) k- 2 u t (x,t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0 , u(x,0)
u x (0,t) 0, u ( x , t ) - > 0 , u x ( x , t ) - 0 , KoGog to x->+00, t > 0,
0, 0 < x < TI,
6nou h(t) eivai
u(x,0) =
CQ, X > 7t, 13. Me Tr)
Sou
onou k,Co eivai npaypatiKEg cruaGEpeg pe k > 0. enineSou
: u(x,t) = ^ [erfc + erfc u x x (x
8. Na (Jpe9ei r| Auor| tou OKoAou9ou opoyevoug napa6oAiKOu npo6Ar|patog apxiKcov KOI auvo- u(x
ptaKov auv9r|Kov tunou Dirichlet otnv euGeia u(x
u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t), - o o < x < o o , t > 0 , 14.. Me tr|
u(x,t) > 0, u x ( x , t ) 0 opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, |x| > +00, sAAeintiKOu npol
eAAe
eninE6ou
enin
u(x,0) =
u x x (x
onou k, CQ eivai npaypatiKEg oraGspeg pe k > 0. u(x
?: u(x,t) = u(x
9. Na ppe9si r\ Auor) tou OKoAou9ou opoyevoug napa6oAiKOU npo6Aiipatog KOI Andvmor! u(x,
PIQKUV ouv9r|Kuv tunou Robin ornv eu9eia
i15.
a *,. tr|
Me
2 8ou
u t (x,t) = k u x x (x,t), -oo < x < oo, t > 0,
emne6ou
u(x, t) > 0, ux (x, t) > 0 opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, KaGug to |x| > +00,
x<0, u x x (x
u(x,0) = 1
\
C'0 > x>0,
u(x
onou k, CQ Eivai npaypatiKEg ota9Epeg k > 0. u x (C
10. Na Ppe9ei r| Auor| tou OKoAou9ou napaBoAiKOu npo6Ar)patog apxiKcov KOI auvopioKuv ow-
SHKUV tunou Dirichlet ornv euGeia
Andvir]or]: u f x ,
u t (x,t) = uxx(x,t)+tu(x,t), -oo<x<oo, t > 0 , 16. Me tq
u(x,t), u x (x,t) (ppaypevo, KaGog to |x| >+00, t > 0, EAAeimiKou npo
u(x,0) = x 2 , oo < x < oo.

11. Na PpeGei r| Auoq tou OKoAouGou pr| opoyevoug napa6oAiKou npoBAiiviaiog apxiKcov KM
auvopioKcbv ouvGnKOV tunou Dirichlet otnv euGEia

u t (x,t) u x x (x,t) + Hu(x,t) = 6(x)6(t), - o o < x < o o , t > 0,


17. Me tr) XP1
u(x,t) > 0, u x ( x , t ) 0 , opoiopopcpa cog npog t > 0, KaGcbg to |x| >+00, eAAeintiKOu npo
u(x,0) = 0, -oo < x < oo,
u x x (x,
onou h eivai pia npaypatiKii otaGEpd. u(x,
12. Na PpeGei q Auor) tou OKoAouGou pr| opoyevoug napa6oAiKOu npo6Aiipatog apxiKcov KQI u(0,
Fourier 239

DPIQKWV ouvGnKcov Tunou Robin orr|v nuiEu0Eia


ou aKoAouSou
cr)v r)Miu9eia u t (x,t) u X x(x,t) + h.(t)ux(x,t) = S(x)6(t), 0 < x < o o , t > 0,
u x (0,t) = 0, u(x, t) > 0 opoiouopcpa cog npog t > 0, KaGcog TO x > +00,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < o o ,

pou h j t ) Eivai uia npayuaTiKii auvdpTr|on.


|S. ME Trj xpr\or\ TOU KaTdAAr)Aou ueTaoxnuaTloP-olJ Fourier va ppeGei r\ Auor| TOU OKoAou-
u npo6Ar|u.aTog cruvopiaKciv cnjv6r|Kcov TUHOU Robin oro npa>TO TETapTrjuopio TOU

u x x(x,y) + u u u (x,y) = 0, 0 < x < o o , 0 < y < o o ,


v KQI auvo- u(x,0) = x~ 2 , 0 < x < o o , u x ( 0 , y ) = 0 , 0 < y < oo,
u(x,y) > 0 ouoiouopcpa cog npog x, y, KaGcog TO x 2 + y 2 +00.

114. ME Trj XP1!01! TOU KaT<iAAr|Aou pETaaxnuaTiopou Fourier va ppeGfii r| Auor) TOU OKoAouGou
+00, u npo6AiiuaTOg ouvopmKOV ouv6r|KCov TUHOU Dirichlet oro npcoTO TETapTrjpopto TOU

u-xx(x.y) + U y y ( x , y ) = 0 , 0 < x < o o , 0 < y < o o ,


u(x,0) = 1, 0 < x < o o , u ( 0 , y ) = 0 , 0 < y < oo,
u(x,y) > 0 ouoiopopcpa cog npog x, y, KaGcog TO x 2 + y 2 > +00.
IV KQ1 OUVO-
^Andvitjarj: u(x, t) = ^ arctan *.
115. Mr tr| xPn or l tou KOTdAAnAou ueTaoxnuauauou Fourier va ppE0Et r| Auar) TOU OKoAou-
Mou cAAemtiKou npo6Aripatog cmvopiaKcov ouvGnKcov Tunou Robin ato npcoTO TEtapTnuopio TOU
oo, IhneSou

Uxx(x,y) = 0, 0 < x < o o , 0 < y < o o ,


u(x,y) 0 ouoiouopcpa cog npog x, y, KaGcog
ig TOTO; x + y +00,

0 < X < 71,


Ux(0,y) = 0, 0 < y < oo, u(x,0) =
IQKCOV auv-
u(x,t) = 1 arctan arctan
1 16. ME Til xpri<"l TOU KOTciAAnAou pEtaoxnpaTiouou Fourier va pp0Ei r| Auor) TOU QKoAouGou
npo6AiiuaTOg auvopiaKcbv oDv6r|Kcov Tunou Dirichlet orpv dnsipr] AcopiSa

Uv x,y) + u u y (x,y) = 0, -oo < x < oo, 0 < y < a,


XIKCOV xai u(x,0) = coshx, u ( x , a ) = 0 , oo < x < oo,
u(x,y) > 0 opoiopopcpa cog npog y, KaGcog TO |x| + 00.

17. ME Trj y(pr\ar) TOU KaTaAArjAou uETaoxnpaTiauou Fourier va ppE0Ei rj Auori TOU aKoAouGou
30,
u npo6Ar|uaTog auvopiaKUV ouvGrjKcov Tunou Dirichlet orr|v dnEipr) AcopiSa

u x x(x,y) + u u u (x,y)=0, 0 < x < o o , 0 < y < 1 ,


u(x,0) = sinhx, u(x, 1 ) = 0 , 0 < x < oo,
KIKCOV ) = 0, u(x,y) 0 ouoiopopcpa cog npog y, KaGcbg TO |x| >+00.
240 KetpdAaio 6. Mq <>payueva 6.5 Meraqxr

18. Me ir\ xpiiorl IOU KQTdAArjAou uxtacrxriU-aTioviou Fourier va r\ Auon TOU aKoAou9ai
eAAeirniKOU npo6AiipaTO$ ouvopiaKcbv auv6r)Kov Tunou Dirichlet dneipr) Awpi6a

u x x (x,y) + u y u ( x , y ) = 0 , -oo < x <oo, 0 < y,


u(x,y) cppaypevo, KaGcog TO x + y + 00,

I, |x| < 4,
u(x,0) =
)', |x| > 4.

Anavir]ar\: u(x,t) = ^ jarctan (^p) + arctan f^)}-

6.5 Hankel
6.5.1 Eioaycjyri - Opiouoc, -

Evco OTIS KapTEOiavEg ouvTETaYU-EVEs YiVETai XPHor] TOU uETaoxnuaTiouou Fourier


TIKOU, riiaiTOviKOu r\ o~uvr|uiTOviKOu) avdAoYQ av TO np66Ar|ua opi^ETai o' dAi] tqv
T\ at r)uiEU0Eia, orig noAiKEg KOI KuAiv6piKc, OUVTETOYVIEVES XP1!01!-10110^^01
uaTioiios Hankel, o onoios (iaai^ETai orig auvapTiioEig Bessel, 8riAa6ii arig AUOEIS
6iacpopiKr)g E^iocooris Bessel

__ .du(r]
+ (A r - ] u(r) =0, r > 0, -v > 0. (5.1)
df dr
Oi AuoEig Trig 5ia(popiKiis E^iocooriS (5.1), 01 onoiEg napaLiEvouv cppaYUEVEg, Ka0a>sro
r > 0 + , eivai yvcoord OTI Eivai noAAanAdoia Tqg auvdpTrjoris Bessel npcbTOu Ei6ou$ KQI

) = J v (Ar), r > 0 , -v > 0, A R. (5.2)


1
Fia v' EVQ ii XLCJXr|uaTiaii6 orr) ouvdpTr|or| J ^ ( A r ) , 9a npsnei v(
avj]anpi(popd is, Ka06g TO r > oo. Eivai vvoord OTI
ouunEpicpopd

/ 2 / 7t "V7t\
W cos r- , r > 0, -v > 0, A e R,
V TTT \ 4 L I
dAa r. H napandvco oxEari (5.3) or)Liaivi OTI, r| auvdpTrior) J v (Ar),
Eivai TaAavrouuEvr) VIE nAdTog , TO onoio cpGivEi UE gu9ud I/V/T- 2ho snouEvo
6i6ouu xupiS and6i|r| Tig avayKaiEg ouvGriKEg nou npsnEi va nAnpsi Liia ouvdpuioi)
f(r), COOTE va opi^ETai o uETaoxnuaTiavidg Hankel
6.5.1. (OAoKAripcoTiKog Tiinog Hankel) 'Eoia on 77 ouvapv)oi] \f
dvai anoAuia ojioKAripdjoinri aio didmrj^a (0, oo) Katrj f(r) eivai inrmaiiKa Jieia at
nenepaonevo 6idair]iia. Tore tq^uei 77
( r -) f
AA(A)J v (Ar)dA, r > 0, -v > 0, (
Jo
O7IOU

A(A) = [ rf(r)J v (Ar)dr, -v > 0,


Jo
241

1 iou ciKoAou6ou log 6.5.2. Opigoufj ag ueTaoxnucmapo Hankel xdfng ~v KUI i


ipi6a K(A) irjg auvdpiTjoTjg f(r), ITJV napdoiaorj
TOO

f(r)] = F V (A) = rf(r)J v (Ar)dr, v > 0, A6 R (5.6)


Jo
w o avriorpocpos ueTaoxnuaTtcnios Hankel Td|n$ "v f(r) iqg avvdpirjorjg F-,
7
r/ napdmaor]

'rFv(A)] = f(r) = f 3 AF v (A)J v (Ar)dA, r > 0, v > 0. (5.7)


Jo
6.5.3. 'Ooou atpopa. ug napandva vvoig exov^l va napair\pr\oo\j]juE. la
r (i) H andAuir] oJioKJirjpaaifjjdiriia irjg napdoiaorjg \/rf(r) E^aocpaAtfei irj
lov ojioKjiTjpanaiog (5.5), (il) anrj oxiar] (5.7) r\ noodirjia f ( r ) Qzcopeiiai on
burier (eKGe- \aviKadioiaiai ano rr/ ^or/ n/zrj iov ntevpiKav opiav aia ar\\i.ia aovvXtag, dnag avid
Ar) inv euGeta muiai air] oxorj (5.4), (ill) o8irarig-v iovi&i rrj oxor\ lov fjiaaxrinanofj:Ov Hankel \j
ai o jaeiaaxri- I oji; idgr] it]g SiapopiKiig ^iocoar}g Bessel (5.1), \* ir\v onoia avvdieiai- aJUid^oviag 6r/yta6r)
tig Auaeig ing lij idgri irjg E^ioejarjg Bessel aJijld&i Kai o )jiaaxntJ.aiiond(; Hankel.
napaSeiyiia 6.5.4. Na fipedei o }jiaoxr]v.auajj.dg Hankel rafr/f "V icov aKOJloiidav
(5.1)
,-ar
VEg, KdGog TO (i)f(r) = = 0, (U) f(r) = e-Qr,
)U t6oug Kdl
0 < r < b,
(iii)f(r) =
(5.2)
a npEnei va ^E TOV Tuno (5.6) ExoupE KQTQ nEpintcoor) ta aKoAouGa
irj QKoAouGr)

lij rtolHTjj - TOIAJ - jOlAr ur- /n2 2T '


Jo r v 'A + a
(5.3) TOO
ar A
(U) Hi[f(r)] Fi(A)
' 1 1 A J 1 Tf>~
re jT,(ArMr
] ^A^jQ^ 2 2 3 2
Jo l^i + a ) / '
a jJEyctAa r,
vo Oecopripa
cruvdptnar)
(ill) Hy[f(r)] = MA) = r Jo ~Jo
,b
r n+1 Jv(Ar)dr
Ab n 1
C i/ff\i + i da 1 f Ab
(a rj v+2
Jo UJ A A 1n
/or/ \/rf(r) rAb
Ma o Kdde

LTD enojaevo 9ecopr)pa SiBoupe tig PQOIKES i6ioir|Teg, nou nAnpoi o


(5.4) Hankel KO.I 01 onoiEg anoSeiKvuovrai i6iaitepa xpiioivieg KQTQ tnv EniAuor)
npo6AniadTcov ]aepiKQv 6ia(popiKQv e^iocooeuv oe noAmes KOI KuAw6piKes

(5.5) Gcupnua 6.5.5. (I6i6xi|Tes TOU ucxaoxi)fiaTtollou Hankel) Oi aKoAoudeg i6t6irjig


iKavonotovviai and 10 ^jiaoxri{J.aiio}j.ou Hankel onoiaa5r]noi idfyg v, v > 0
242 6. Mr; <t>pay}iiva 6.5 Meiaox

(i) O Viaaxr]\jiaiian6<; Hankel eivai evag -ypam^iKO^ ojloKJlr)pauKd<;

HylaKr) + bg(r)] =
yza Kdde madepd a, b Kai Kdde v > 0.
(il) O neiaoYjmaiiaujbc; Hankel iKavonoiei ir]v t6ioTr|Ta Parseval, 6rjJla6ri

Tf(r)g(T)dT=
Jo o
onouoi F V (A), G-v(A) eivat 01 }SiaaxrifJ.auoiJ.oi Hankel idfrg -v, v > 0
f( r ), g( r ). avrfotoijfa,
(iii) IZE rr/f npounodeor] on WXVEI rf(r) > 0, Kadag 10 r > 0 KOI r -4 oo.
Q(; Hankel iKavonoiei ITJV i6idir]ia ir]g napaytiyov

nlf (r)] = [(n - 1 )Fn+1 (A) - (n + 1 )F n _, (A)] , n N

(iv) ^ rrjy npovnodeor) on 0, rf (r) > 0, Kadcbg 10 r > 0 KOI r -


o iiciaoxrmaiiopog Hankel iKavonoiei irjv i6ioirjia

Fta Tf|v anoSsi^ri TCOV napandvco i6ioTr|TCOv EXOUU.E TO OKoAouBa:


(i) H an66ir| Eivat npotpaviig.
(ii) loxuouv TO axoAouSa

r AF v (A)G v (A)dA =
poo

Jo
poo
AF v (A)dA

rg(r)dr
poo
poo

Jo
rJ v (Ar)g v (r)dr

AJ v (Ar)F v (A)dA =
poo
rg(r)f(r)dr.
Jo Jo Jo
(iii) H an66ig"r| yivETai diiEoa IIE Ecpapjaoyii TOU opiapou KOI TCOV unoGsoECOv.
(iv) Kdvovrag XPH01! IO1J opiopou TOU laETaoxriviaTtapou Hankel Trig oAoKAiipcoorig KQIQ
napdyovTEg KOI Tng E^tocoong Bessel (5.1), EXOUU.E TO aKoAouSa

l
r d r v dr
2
d , _ d f ( r ) v

df(r).
= r
dr
= -A2 f [rf(r)]J v (Ar)dr = -A 2 F n (A). 0
Jo
'Oncog 9a cpavsi orr) OUVEXEIO 01 napandvco i6ioir)tEg xpr)lVlonoiolJvtai Euputata yia
sniAuari (aspiKcbv 6ia(popiKcov E^IOCOOECOV opioiiEvcov OE noAiKEg ii KuAiv6piKg OUVTE-
taviiEVEg. Ei6iKd SE, yia Tr]v TEAsuTaia nEpimcoon, otav E
jvcr 77e6id g Hankel 243

16.5.2 Ecfmpiioyeg crxig MepiKeg Ata<poptKg E|iouoeis


[ UapaSciyiia 6.5.6. (E^iacjor) Laplace crtig 3 Siaordoeig )ic AOVIKI] up|iCTpia)
ir\v e^iooorj Laplace ou$ ipeig diamdoeig \t \iia Trrjyrj ouyKevtpanevr] crtov d-
z. Aa^Sdvoviag un' dif/w ir]v a^oviKii av]jL]iipia ro \iadr\\JiaziK6 avdAoyo wv
rvi OE KVJlw6piK(; ouviiaynVg dvai ro aKQjloudo

-Ur(r, z) + u zz (r,z) = 0, 0 < r < oo, -oo < z < oo, (5.8)

vapirjoeav = 0, lim 27rr 00 < Z < 00. (5.9)


r>0 r->0
> oo, o iov fjiaoxr]}J.auoiiou Hankel id v va Avdi ro napandva

mtar] EuiKpuva JJE Tr| 6ia6iKaoia iiaSniiaTiKrig npoTunonoinong r| ouvdpTnor) f (z) ano-
TO pripo eviaor)g Tng nrjYiig. Ag orjuEioGEi Enion,g OTI TO npd6An,Lia Eivai avs^dpTriTO
6 AOYCO Tn,g aJjoviKiig oupjaETpiag. Fia va ECpappoooupE TO pETaaxripaTioiao Hankel
r oo. v noAAanAaoid^oupE Tpv E^iocoor) (5.8) p rJo(Ar) KOI oAoKAr|povoup and 0
9$ oo. Xpr|oiponoioup TOV pr)6viKO pTaaxr|jaaTiopd Hankel, \imi SEV
(5.8). 'Eara on ExoupE WQ[u(r,z)] = U(A,z), TOTE and TO
6.5.5 (iv) npOKurrcEi OTI

f 1
0 = rJo(Ar)[u rr (r > z) + T-u r (r,z) + u22(r,
Jo
- + [rurJ0(Ar) - (5.10)

OTI Jo(0) = 1, Jo(A) = -Ji(A) Ji(Ar) ~ Ar/2, Kd6cog TO r - 0. EmnAsov


[uno0TOvrag OTI TO dpio aro dnsipo arov TEAEUTOIO opo Tng (5.10) Eivai pr|8v, 6nAa6ii TO
Br,z) Eivai auTiig Trjg popcpiig KOI napaTripovrag on ru(r,A)J0(Ar) ~ (Ar 2 /2)u(r, A),
Kd6cog TO r > 0, ppioxoupE and Tig ouvopiaKEg auv0f|Kg (5.9) OTI

g KQTQ =-=-f(z). - o o < z < o o . (5.11)


Zn
Anaucovrag dncog r| Auon. TOU npo6AiipaTog (5.11) mavonoiEi Trjv opiaKq oxEon, U(A, z)
|0, KdGcog TO |z| > oo, (JpioKOUpE OTI n, Auor| Eivai Tr|g

U(A,z) = -1- r e-A|z-s|f(s)ds, -oo < z < oo. (5.12)


J_ 00
O avTioTpotpog pr|6EviKog pETaoxrjpanopdg Hankel Ecpappo^dpEvog ndva orr) ouvdp-
U(A,z) pag 6i6i
roo oo r(X
-if ,-Mz-sl
u(r,z)= AJ 0 (Ar)U(A,z)dA J 0 (Ar)f(s)dAds
yia JO .QO J0

JVTE- f(s)ds
(5.13)
244 6. Mq <Ppaypva

TQ onoia npoKumouv EvaAAdooovras Tr| oEipd oAoKAiipcoonc; KOI Kdvovrag XPH01!


Tunou
1
Jo
A2
,-Az
e- r
J 0 (Ar)dA = r > 0, z > 0. (5.14)

6.5.7. O opog 1 /4n\/T2 + (z r)2 napimdvEi rrj aiyudpnyor;


rrj avvdpirfor] Green eteudepou x<^pou yia inv E^iocooi] Laplace, HE irjv nr]yr) mo
(x,y,z) = (0,0, s). 'Eioi nnopovv va KOIIVJE. on 77 jlvor] (5.13) napiaidvci v.ia une
or)}jiaKcJv ouvapir)oav nrfyris Kara v-r]K.og lov d^ova iav z \i nvKVOirjia f(s).

IIapd6ctyiia 6.5.8. (KupcrtiKri E|iouai) }ic AKTIVIKQ Ac5opcva) Qeo-


govue ir\v Kvn.aiiK.ri e^iaaar] a' ojlo ro en.ms6o VJE amwiKd g auvdrfK
Le noAiKeg ovviEiayiieves (r, 0) ro np66Ar]ij.a EXZI irfv aKdJlovdrj

u t t (r,t)-c 2 Ui rr (r,t) + -u r (r,t)J = 0, 0 < r < oo, 0 < t, (5.15)

u(r,0) = f(r), ut(r,0) g(r), 0 < r < oo. (5.16)

ME IT] XPr\ar\ lov Vio.oxrmaiiov.ov Hankel idfrig v.T]6v va jludEi 10 napandva


Eniarjg va UTroJioyiorei r/ Mar/ oir] nEpimaor] nov ixpuv

B
f(r) = - 9(r)=0, (5.17

onov 01 b, B Eivai doojiEVEc, npayy.aiiKg

Avar] Fia va EcpappoooupE TO pETaoxnpaTiopo Hankel TdJjns pnSsv noAAanAaoid^ou


Tnv Eiooon (5. 15) pE rJo(Ar) xai oAoKAnpovoupE ano 0 ECO$ oo. 'Oncog KOI oro npoi]-
youpevo napdSEiypa 6.5.6, yivETai y,f>r\ar\ TOU pn6viKOu pETaaxnpaTiopou Hankel, yu
SEV Epcpavi^ETai o opos yj-u ornv E^iocoon (5.15). 'Ecn;o OTI Exoups TOU$
apous ftoMr.t)] = U(A,t), Ho[f(r)] = F(A), n0lg(r)} = G(A), TOTE ano TO
6.5.5 (iv) npoKunrEi TO pETaoxril-10-110^1^0 np66Aqpa

Utt(A,t)+c2A2U(A,t) = 0, 0 < A < o o , 0 < t < o o , (5.16


U ( A , 0 ) = F ( A ) , U t (A,0) = G ( A ) , 0 < A < oo, (5.1

onou EXOUPE uno6or) OTI, r\ Auor) u(r, t) Etvai TETOIO COOTE, 01 ouvopiaKoi opoi
i8iOTnTa (iv) TOU ECOpripaTOg 6.5.5 va pnSEvi^ovrai. H EntAuori TOU npo6AiipaTO$ (5.1
- (5.19) 6(6i Tr| Auor)

G(A)
U(A,t) =F(A)cos(Act) sin(Act), 0 < A < o o , 0 < t < o o . (5.2
cA
O avricrupo(pog pn8viK6g s Hankel Ecpappo6pvo ndvco orr) auvdp-
U ( A , t ) 6i6Ei
roc 1 rO
u(r ,t) = AF(A)cos(Act)J 0 (Ar)dA+-- G(A)sin(Act)J 0 (Ar)dA, (5.21)
Jo c J0
FIe8ia dc; Hankel 245

ac; \pr\or\ TOU PDU 0 < r, 0 < t. LTnv Ei6iKii nEpinTcoor) (5.17) Kdvovrag y,pr\ar\ TOU axdAouGou Tunou

(5.14)

irjor] nrjyrig 77 ' HOOKUnTEl OTl


r
r

Jo
rJo(Ar) 1 :
, A > 0, z > 0, (5.22)

f] oio or\]j.io
= e- Ab , G ( A ) = 0 , 0 < A. (5.23)
i unepdeoTj
f(s). r) Auoq (5.21) TOU npoSAiipaTOg (5.15) - (5.16) ornv EiSucri nEpinTcooq
KCOV (5.17) Eivai
opcva) &ea-
roo
u(r,t)=bB e- A b cos(Act)J 0 (Ar)dA, 0 < r < oo, 0 < t. (5.24)
Jo
Jlapatripriori 6.5.9. To leAeuiaio oAoKAijpcjf^a unoAoyieiai Kai AavJSdvei ir] \iop(pr\
(5.15)

(5.16) e^ Ab cos(Act)Jo(Ar)dA = R e | , 0 < r < oo, 0 < t, (5.25)


Uo
I onou 10 Re [...] eKcppd&i 10 npaynaiiKO \dpog irjg noooirjiag \iiaa OTIC; ayKvAsg. Kdvoviag
lov lunou (5.14)fipiaKouux 6u. r\ Auorj wu npo6Ar)u.aiog (5.15) - (5.16) eival

(5.17) bB
u(r,t) = Re , 0<r < oo, 0 < t. (5.26)
\/(b + ict)2 + r2

AnancJviag r\ v.iya6iKr\ lEipayoviKr] pita va eival deiiKt) OTTJ oxear] (5.26), oiav 10 t = 0,
ocavonoiouviai 01 apxiKeg ouvdriKeg (5. 1 7)
i OTO npon-
ankel, 6.5.10. (E^iocoar) Aidxuoqs vie A^OVIKQ EuppeTpiKa Ac6opeva) Hi
raaxnpcm- ir\v e&oaar] 6idxuor]g mig 3 Siamdoeig oe KuAwdpiKeg ovvieiayvxveg (r,6,z),
o 6ecopr|Lia \6nov r\ ovyKevipaar] u(x,y,z, t) i%t\. apxiKrj Kaiavof^r), r] onoia e^apidiai v.6vo and 10
|r = \nt2 + y 2 + z2. Eiadyov^e KuAwdpiKeg ovvieiayvveg (r, 9, z) Kai yaxvovvx yia ug
wu npo@Arjfj.aiog
(5.18)
(5.19) u t (r , t ) = k 2 ( u r r (r,t) + - u r ( r , t ) + u z z j , 0 < r , 0 < t , (5.27)

opoi orr|v u(r,0)=f(r), 0<r, (5.28)


dTOS(5.18)
onou k2 eivai o auvieAeaiiig didxuarjg v k > 0. Me rrj lov

Hankel Tdfrg nr]6ev va Audsi 10 napandva np66Ar]v.a.

(5.20) Avar] Fia va cpapu.6aoupe TO u,ETaoxr|paTioii6 Hankel TdJjris pr|6v noAAanAaoid^ouu-E


Tr|v E^iocoor) (5.15) U.E rJo(Ar) KQI oAoKAripcovouu. and 0 ECO$ oo. 'Ecrrco OTI EXOUUE TOUS
\ ouvdp- iiEtaoxnuaTiouous %oWr>t)] = U(A,t), ?^o[^(r)] = F(A), TOTE and TO Ecopnua 6.5.5
(iv) npOKumEi TO pETaaxnuaTiauEvo npo6Anu.a

U t (A,t) + k 2 A 2 U(A,t) = 0, 0 < A , 0 < t, (5.29)


(5.21)
U(A,0)=F(A), 0<A<oo, (5.30)
246 6. Mr\ Opaypeva IMic

onou EXOUUE unoGEar) on, r\ Auon, u(r,t) sivai IETOIQ COOTE, 01 ouvopiaKoi opoi otiiv
iSioTnta (iv) TOU EcopiiuaTog 6.5.5 va ian6viovrai. H EniAuon, TOU npo6Ariu.aTog (5.2JJ
- (5.30) 6i6i Tr) Auori

U(A,t) = , 0 < A , 0 < t. (5.31)

O avriarpocpog u.n6viKog UETaoxrivianouos Hankel (papuo6uvog ndvo arn auvap


Tnan U ( A , t )

u(r,t) =
J0
oo roo
roo po
AsF(A)e- k 2 A 2 t J 0 (Ar)Jo(As)dAds, 0 < r, 0 < t, (5.32)
Jo Jo
onou EXEI viVEl EvaAAayii air] oEipd oAoKAqpcoorig arnv TEAEUTQIQ oxEon. (unoTiGETai on,
Eivai 6uvaTii). LTII OUVEXEIQ 9a KQVOUVIE xpr|orl TOU riinou

]o Xc- t Jo(Ar)Jo(MdA = __ exp |..__ ,( 2ksr 2 t)' (5.33)

onou to IQ(Z) ivai r\ ipononotrinvri avvapir\ar\ Bessel


on, IOXUEI r) oxor| Io(0) = 1. EiodycovTas Tn, oxon, (5.33) orr) Auor| (5.32)
on, rj Auon TOU npo6AripaTog (5.27) - (5.28) unopEi TEAIKQ va 8o0i orr| uop(pri

Io f(s)sds
'
6.5.3 Ilpo6Ar|u.aTa
1. 'Eorco TO aKooAouGo EAAEinriKO np66Anjia ouvopiaKOv ouvGnKcbv Tunou Neumann, to onoio
napouoici^Ei a|oviKii ouiili^pia OTO SETIKO

u r r (r,z) + -ur(r,z) + \ ,z) = 0, 0 < r < o o , 0 < z < o o ,

u z (r,0) = , 0 < r < e , u 2 ( r , 0 ) = 0 , e < r < oo,


u(r,z) > 0 ou.oi6u.op(|>a 05 npog r, xaGug TO z +00.

(i) ME xpiion TOU U-no^viKTiS TanS P^aoxnuaTiapou Hankel va ppsGEi q Auor) u(r,z) TOU n|
pAripatog. (ii) Na ano6Eix6Ei OTI o pETaoxnuaTiopog Hankel Tn$ Auong u(r,z) 8i6ETai ano
tuno U(A,z) = n^c Ii (Ae)e~ A z . (iii) Na anoSEixGEi OTI, yia Tr] Auor) TOU npo6Ariu.aTO$
u(r,z) > ^(r 2 +z 2 )~ 1 / 2 , KaGci^TO e > 0.
2. ME xpr)orl tou viETaoxripaTioiaou Hankel va PpEGsi r| Auor) TOU OKoAouGou
(JArjuaTog ouvopiaKuv ouvGnKcbv, TO onoio napouoid^Ei aJjovuai auppETpia o' 6Ao TO X^

u r r (r,z) + -u r (r,z) +u.zz(r,z) - a 2 u(r,z) = 0, 0 < r < oo, -oo < z < oo,

r 2 u(r > : 0, 27rr > f (z) opoi6u,op(j>a ug npog z, KaGog TO r > 0, z R,


or
onou a sivai u.ia 8EtiKr| npavpaTiKri oraGEpd.
DiA ^tu/Mb pr!0nd pd30Dio 3rl mliiprldsg iDisApdoii D > a > Q odgAiynx DAS ,o DOSJAJ -g
u SUpi PJITTEH nortoiiorlLiXoDisti noi UoljdX lii srl (v 'J)A
Sodu So orlLiygpdu 01 }30ny DA (gu)soo(j'a)rt. = (;'0'i)n IIODIDDIDMIIAD Alii srl AwiUygoisit
SprtoidmX o i3AiA no(bv "SoiodsMD SpMiisg u IDM pd30Dio LiMiioriADdii UMIISQ oirl IDAIS D noup
' ^ > e > o '-i>o 'o= j(;'e'^) ee n + (;'e'-t)a"-
Liocooijs LraiiDrlnM A!JI DiA XqonBQ Dtiliygodii o0noYpMD 01 raiog. -^
-
53d30Dl> SSMUDrlADdll S3MU36 IDA13 D 'D QOlIp
'oo>a>o '(1)6 = (o'^)'n '(a)^= (o'a)n
oo>;>o'oo>i>o'o =
1103909110 sri 11000153 LiMiiorlnM Alii DiA A"ip
SoiortLiYgodu no0r\oyoxo noi Liony li }303dj) DA [3>[UBH nortouDrlUXoDisri noi LiolidX sj^j -g
(J
nouo -Hn+xpspfj-'sjjf "Jj? Y J/- = (l'a)n r
pd30Dio LmiiDrlADdu Ionise Dirt IDAJS 5( no
AsrUod* (|'a)n '(a); = (0<J-)n
'oo>;>o ' 'a) J n- + (;'a) JJ n L>( (j'a)'n
oyp ,o Didisrlrino IT>IIAO|D is^pionodoii 010110 01 'AWMLi0Ano AWMDidoAfio - AWMiXdo Soiorlliygoduj
noMiyogodoii no0fiOYOMD aoi Uoay U J303dj) DA \a^u^n norloiiDrlLiXoDisrt noi UolidX spv
'YP(Dv) if (jy)/zY- 3TO/Oitl = ( z ' a ' n
DioodMoridse LrMiAsglirl 30 iDiisdliioig 093111113 omoypiin 01 IDM Q < <M
DioodMoridsg Ud30Di> so iDijsdljioig fix 093111113 OLD D > a > Q SoMojg o nou 'Ljocoiuidsii Al
SoiorlUygodii noAsrlnoALjodii noi liony U }303d{) DA jajfUBH nortoiiDrlUXoDisrl noi LioLidX 3^
Vp(D V )i/(aY)o/ Z Y _ 3 X ^/^L = (z'a)n :
SoiorlLiYgodu noi
i303d( DA [35IUBH nortoiiDrtliXoDisrl noi LioLidX 3i/\j -53d30Di> SsMUDrlADdii SSMUSQ IDAJS b '
'<a '0 1 =
'o > a > o 'VD- /
'oo > z > o 'oo > a > o '0= (z'j)"n + (z'j)-'n- + (z'a) 4a n
AC3MU0AnD AWMDidoAno DrtLiygodii pMUinsyys o0noypMD 01 JSIOUOADMI DQ Q < 2 U
DioodMorldse lirliopio U 3101 'OAsrlOAOti DMirtdse IDAJS 093111113 oinoypun 01 AV ?iu//v\ b orlggl
pd30Di> 3rl o < 2 UXoidsij Aliio Diliiprldse i3iirt3UM3 fix 093111113 010 D > a > o SoMOig SDAJ,
248 KecpdAaio 6. Mr/ <J>payyeva

Xpovo t > 0. Av r\ 8epviOKpaoia navrou OTO xwp Eivai ur|6ev ir| xpoviKii auyuri t = 0,
xpiior) TOU UETaoxnuaTiouou Hankel, va ppe0ei r| SeppoKpaoia Kd9e ar|Uiou u>u xwpou Kaiyia
Kd6e xpovo t > 0, 6tav r| ara9epd 6idxuong TOU uAiKOu eivai k 2 .
Andvtnarr. u(r, t) = Sfl J~ ^ (l - ^***) J 0 (Ar)J, (Aa)dA.
9. Mia dneipr) otpiiva (wedge) cppdoosTai ano Tig eu6eieg aiqjEg 0 = 0 KQI 9 = a,
0 < a < 2n. Tr] xpoviKii cruyuri t = 0, EXEI un6viKr| SEpiioKpaoia KQI \ia xpovoug t > 0, (
aKiieg 9 = 0 KQI 9 = a SiaTrpouvrai orr) ora9Epri QEppOKpaoia TQ. Na pp9ei r| 8ep)JOKp
orr| oepiiva (wedge???), yia Kd9 xpovo t > 0, OTQV ri ora0Epd 6idxuor|g TOU uAiKou eivai k2.
: Na (papuoo0Ei o nEnEpaouEvog Fourier og npog 9 KOI o pew
pauoudg Hankel cog npog r. Eniong pon9d r| yvcbori Tqg oxor|g Jc
(2it-l)7re

6.6

Fia nepauepco laeAetri napaneiinouvae TOV ev8ia(pep6vaEvo avaYvcoarri peia^u dAAcov cna
(Ji6Aia TCOV L. C. Andrews (3), D. Bleecker and G. Csordas [8],R.Courant [18], L. Debr
[20], D. G. Duffy [22], A. Erdelyl, W. Magnus, F. Oberhettinger, and F. G. Tricomi [23],
P. Garabedian [29], R. B. Guest [34], R. B. Guenther and J. W. Lee [35], K. B. He
[41], J. Kevorkian [46], F. Oberhettinger and L. Badii [57], M. A. Pinsky [59], E.
Rainville [62], M. Renardy and R. C. Rogers [65], I. N. Sneddon [70], W. A. Strauss [76],
R. N. Tikhonov and A. A. Samarskii [78], D. W. Trim [81], Tyn Myint-U and L. Debnatl
[83], H. F. Weinberger [84], E. C. Zachmanoglou and D. W. Thoe [86] KO.I E. Zaude
[87].

6.7 Q IIpo6Arj)iaTa
1. Oi Au0pg SovrjoEig uiag dnsipng pd66ou EupioKopEvng apxiKd oe loopponia KCU
onoiag r| apxiKii napauopcpcoor) 8i6Tai ano Tr| auvdpTnor] f(x) = e~ x / 4 , nEpiypdcpovrai anoi
OK6Aou9o unEp6oAiKO np66Ar|ua apxiKcbv KQI ouvopiaKcbv ouv6r|K6v arnv Eu0ia
UxXXX(x,t) + u t t(x,t) = 0, -oo < x < oo, t > 0 ,
ufx,t) > 0, 3, Ka9cog TO |x| t +00, t > 0,
u(x,0) = e~ x /4
, u t ( x , 0 ) = 0 , -oo < x .
ME Tr| xpr|or| TOU KaTdAAnAou iu Fourier va ppE0Ei r| Auor) TOU napandvco untp-
u npo6Ar|uaTog.
: Na yivsi xpriorl ^ou tunou u(x,t) = -4= J^ e~ l s x F(s)cos(s 2 t)ds, onou F(s) 4

. . 1 , 2/4(H-ll 2
/4(1 - I I )
. u(x,t) = ^[ e
2. ME Tf| XP1!01! TOU KaToAAr|Aou UETaoxnuaTiauou Fourier va pp9i r) Auor) TOU OKoAouGou
u npo6AiiuaTOg ouvopiaKcbv auv6r|Kcov Tunou Dirichlet OTO npcoTO TTapTr|uopio TOU t-
249

t = 0, J4E Tr) fcntfiou


kcopou KQI yia
u x x (x,y) + u u y(x,y) = -xe~x , -oo < x < oo, 0 < y < oo,
u(x,0) = 0, 0 < x < oo, u(x,y) (ppayiJEvo, Ka06g TO y > +00.
T. Na yivEi xpiior) TOU ninou F(s) = f [xe " /2] = ise s /2
.
= a. onou
Dug t > 0, 01
(EppoKpaoia ME ir| XP1!01! IOU KaToAAr|Aou pEtaoxripaTiapou Fourier va Pp0i r| Auor| Tr|g aK6Aou0r]g
Etvai k 2 . wo6idoraTr|g eJ;iocoor)g Schrodinger
i o peiaaxr|-
ihu t (x,t) = -u x x (x,t), oo < x < oo, 0 < t,
u(x,t) > 0, u x ( x , t ) > 0 opoidpopcpa cog npog t > 0, Ka0ci>g to |x| >+00,
u(x,0) = f(x), -oo < x < oo,
Bonoia anoTeAei TO pa0r|paTiKO npoTuno yia tr|v Kivnor] evog EAU0pou oupaTiou pd?ag m,
Bnou h = 2nh Eivai r\ ara0pd TOU Planck.
: u(x, t) = . onou Y =
iAAcov crta
Debnath |4. (Apxi Duhamel) No ano6eix0i OTI, av r| cnjvdpTr|ar| u(x,t;f) i Tr| Auor) TOU
Comi [2.3], mcoAou0ou Ofj.oyvoiig napa6oJliKQV
J. Howell
u t (x,t;T) = k 2 u xx (x,t;T), -oo < x < oo, t > 0,
J9J, E. D.
U(X,O;T) = f(x,T), oo < x < oo,
kuss [76J,
|Debnath tots r| cruvdpTr|op v(x,t) = J Q u(x,t TjT)dT anoTEAEi Tr| Auor| TOU OKoAou0ou
luderer
v t (x,t) = k 2 v xx (x,t) + f(x,t), -oo < x < oo, t > 0,
v(x,0) = 0, -oo < x < oo,
lonou k Eivai pia QETIKII npaypaTiKri ora0pd.

KQI tr)g 15. ME Tr| XPH01! TOU pTaoxr|paTiopou Fourier va pp0i r| Auor) TOU OKoAou0ou napa6oAiKou
I npo6AiipaTog apxiKcbv KOI auvopiaKcov ouv0r|KCov PE opo pETacpopdg cnr|v u0eia
li ano TO
u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t)+vu x (x,t), -oo < x < oo, t > 0,
I, t > 0, u(x,t), u x (x,t) cppaypEva, Ka0cbg TO x > +00, t > 0,
u(x,0) = f(x), -oo < x < oo,
onou k Eivai pia SETIKJI npaypaTiKii ora0epd KOI rj pr| pr|8EViKii ara0pd v napiordvEi ir\ pe
x < oo. . xqg 6iaxuopvr|g ouoiag.
unep- f00 -**p\-l
. ,u(x,t)
, f v t\
=J__ tL

6. Me Tr| XPH01! IOU pTaoxi~|panapou Fourier va Ppe0ei r| Auor) TOU QKoAou0ou napa6oAiKOU
=
npo6Ar|paTOg apxiKUv KQI auvopiaKcov o\)v0r)Kcov pe dpoug pETacpopdg KOI ypappixrig nriyiis orr|v
EU0EIO

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x fx,t)+vu ) ( (x 1 t)-l-Qu(x,t), - o o < x < o o , t>0,


Iou0ou u(x,t), u x (x,t) cppaypEva, Ka0cog TO x >+00, t > 0,
I TOU - u(x,0) = f(x), -oo < x < oo,
250 KecpdAaio 6. Mrj <t>pay}ieva /Mia

onou k Eivai uia SetiKr) npayuaTiKii oraOepd, r| ataOepd v ^ 0 napiordvei ir| ueoq
ir|g 6iaxuouevng ouoiag KOI to a ^ 0 anoteAei uia npavyaTiKii oraSepd.
7. Me tr| xpr|orl TOU peiaoxr|uaiiauou Fourier va Ppe0i r| Auor) tou OKoAou0ou napa6oAiKO\J
npo6Ar|uaTOg apxiKWV KOI ouvopiaKcov ouv0n.Kcbv UE opo xpovoapTWUvr|g YpaV'V'iKtig nriyiis |
orr|v eu9eia

u t (x,t) = k 2 u x x (x,t) + at p u(x,t), -oo < x < oo, t > 0,


u(x,t), u x ( x , t ) (f>pa\\iiva, KaSogTO x > +00, t > 0,
u(x,0) = f ( x ) , -oo < x < oo,

onou a, k, p eivai SetiKeg npav>iaTiKEg ora0EpEg.


8. Eio xpovo t = 0, cpepovrai oe ena(pii 6uo uAiKd (6iag aYCOYluotr|TaS ^2 KOI SepviOKpaoieiv
TI, "\2- Na ppe0ei o xpovog T*, nou anaueitai wore r| Auor) u ( x , t ) auiou tou npoBAripatogva
iKavonoiei tr| auv0r|Kr|
, .

]: T* = 1.81x2/k2.
9. To SuvapiKO Taxutr|Tag 0"(r,z,t) Kair) avunjuor) tr|g EAEU0Epr|g eni(pdveiag r|(r, t)
ouupEtpiKd EnitpavEiaKd KUUQTO oe vepo aneipou (id0oug iKavonoiouv TO npd6Ar|ua
uv ouv0r|K6v

ffrr(r,z,t) + -CT r (r,z,t) + o- rz (r,z,t) = 0, 0 < r < oo, -oo < z < 0, t > 0,
oz(r,0,t) ritfr.t), o- t (r,0,t)+ gTi(r,t) =0, 0 < r < oo, t > 0,
CTZ(T,Z, t) > 0, Ka06gTO z > oo, t > 0,
cjfr.O.O) 0, r , ( r , 0 ) = f ( r ) , 0 < r < oo,

onou g eivai n enuaxuvari ing papUTniag KOI f ( r ) n apxiKii avuipuon Tng enicpdvEiag. ME q
Xpr|or| TOU UETaoxriuaTiouou Hankel, va Pp0d r| Auor) TOU npo6Ar]uaTOg.
Andvir/OTj: cr(r,z,t) = -4= J^ \/AF(A)Jo(A.r)e Ar sln(t-v/gA)dA,

10. H KOTavour) Tr|g ordoiprig SEpuoKpaoiag U(r,z) o' eva nuidneipo orepeo (z > 0) 6i6tTai
ano TO OKoAouOo np66Ar|ua ouvopiaKuv ouv0r|Kcov Tunou Dirichlet

U r r (r,z) + - U r ( r , z ) + U z z ( r , z ) = -Bq(r), 0 < r < oo, 0 < z,


U(r,0) = 0, 0 < r < o o ,

onou B eivai uia npOYpaTiKri ora0epd KOI r| ouvdpTr|or| q ( r ) napiard Tr| oraoiuri nr\\r\ Oepvio-
Tr|Tag. ME ir\ xpnorl TOU peiaoxr|u.aTiauou Hankel, va Ppe0i r| Auor| TOU npo6AriuaTOg.
AndviT}arr. U(r,z) = B J^ Q(A)Jo(Ar)A~' (1 e~ X z )dA, onou %o[q(r)] = Q(A).
11. Na Ppe0ei r| Auar| U ( r ) Yla UIKPS napauopcpcooeig utag EAaoriKr|g Uu6pdvr|g, r| onoia
unoKEuai uia KOTavouii auYKEvrpcopevou cpopTiou (concentrated loading distribution) KOI nepi-
Ypdq)Tai ano TO np66An.ua

U r r (r) + V ( r ) - a 2 U ( r ) = -L^, 0 < r oo,


r 271 r
U(r) - 0, U r ( r ) - > 0 , Ka0ug TO r->+00.
-ld3U IDXI
DIOIIO Li
-orldsg Li/1
1013919 (0
In '5D13
IDX AWXlXdD I
DXIAO5D DlA (
DA
00+ <-z oi5ra0Dx'o<- (z'-i)n ' o > i > 0 'A (O'-ijn
' z > 0 ' o o > a > 0 'o=(z'a)"n + (2'J) J ny + (2'J) ja n
jajqoijTQ noiini AWxLigAno AnxDidoAtto DtiLiygodij o0noyoxo 01 DlA (z'j)n Uony Li }303df| DJ\; -
"n + (2'-i)Jn- + (2'-i) 4J n
SLiALiu Sbxirirlc
jjiQ nouni AcoxLiQAno AroxoidoAno orlLiygodLi oQno (loxiyogodoij
01 131O11OADX1 (z'a)n LioLiidpAnD H 'AWA95D AWI UXdo Aliio noi odiASx 01 srl SDAJIXD SoiDig
oxoig odp(bodix3yLi ogsujus DA3,o iDi3y)3(J)o aou 'oxirlDAng 01 DiA (z'a)n Liony li pgsdfj D\ DiliinXoi
IQZ
jKecpdAaio 7

Euvaptijoeis Green yta


EJjiacoocig

v.l Etoaycoyrj
n$ pepeg pag EIVOI EupuTOTa \v<dair] r) anou6aioTnTa npo6Ar|pdTcov apxiKCov KOI /
puvoptaKcov ouv9r|Kcbv auvri9cov ri pEpiKCov 6iacpopiKcov E^IOXOOECOV TOOO crng cpuoiKEg di
i arig Aoineg EcpappoopEVEg Eniorripeg.
ETO KECpaAaio amd 9a 8co9ouv 01 yEviKEg apxeg KOI pEpixd napa6iYpaTa piag av
ButiKr|g p0d6ou EniAuong TETOICOV npoBAnparav, r| onota (iaai^ETai orov Ka9opiopd pu
|ti6tKiig ouvdpTnorig. H ouvdpTrjar) auTr| cpEpEi TO dvopa TOU George Green, TOU av9pci>nc
|nou npcoiog Tqv EioriyaYE and Tig apxg TOU nponEpaopEvou aicova (1828).
napoAr| Tr|v naAaidTnTa Tr|g q p9o6og Green pdAig Tig TEAEUTaiEg 6eKaTig KaTOp6c
K\ va ^EcpuYEi and TO xwpo TCOV 9copnTiKcbv pa9npaTiKcbv KOI va xpr)oiponoin9Ei EUpuTai
[otic; ecpappoyEg. BOOIKO napdYovra auTrjg Tqg arpocprig anoTEAEi r| avdmru^ri Trig Api9pi
AvdAuong.
H onou6aidTr)Ta Tng p9d6ou, EKrdg TCOV aAAcov, EYKEITOI npcorov aro YEyovdg on,
|6iacpopiKr| (ouvr|9r|g r| ppiKr|) E^iocoorj pETaoxripaTi^ETai OE oAoKAr|pcoTiKr|, r| miAuo
onoiag Eivai EUKoAoTEpr) KOI SEUTEPOV r| napdoraori Tng Auong ^avspwvEi TOV Tpdn
pTriarig Tr]g, TOOO and Tig nEpiopioriKEg auv9r|Kg (apxiKEg KOI / ri ouvopiaKEg), no
ouvo6Euouv TO npd6Ar|pa, doov KOI and Tnv E^coTEpiKii eni6paor| (pr|-opOYviig dpog).
auTi] Tr|v EvdTnTa 9a avanTux6i r) oxEor) Trig ouvdpTr|or|g Green p npo6Ar|paT
ouv0r|Kcov auvr|0cov 6iacpopiKcov

George Green (1793-1841): Exeoov auTo6(6aKrog AvvAog pa9npaTiKdg. Sidvr|a


' tr) ^coii TOU cog cpoupvdpqg KOI n9av OE nAixia 48 ETCOV Ka9r)Yi1ir|g iou Cajus College
oto navEniorripio TOU Cambridge. Oi Epyaoisg TOU acpopouaav Tr| Sscopia Auvapmou o
oxEor| pE TOV HAEKTpiapd, TO Mayvr|Tiopd, Tig TaAavrcooEig, Tnv KupaTixri KOI Tr) Etopii
EAaoriKOTriTag. FlapEpEivE avvoorog aicdpa KOI orr|v AyyAia, pxpi KOI pTd TOV 9dvaTi
iou. H paoiKr) TOU Epyaoia napouoidornKE TO 1828 KOI avvori9r|KE pXpi TO 1850, OTO
LIE Trj cppovr(6a TOU W. Thomson (Lord Kelvin) 6npooiEUTnK KOI ndAiv.
xp xp
(9-2) --

[((x),n(x)a - (x),A(x)n)(x)d] = [(x)n]!(x)A -

DllllOlQDl U
(x)<\'(x)n 5i3oliidDAnQ -[d, 'X)]?3 oag DiA '119 OKJOAA IDAIS Sliomg '())d = ()d
llD399Lin Li ISnXoi DA 13U3dlI '119 AnO130OlinodlI 53Mll0AnO SSMDldOAOO S3MigOld3U IQ

(l),ft=(*>),fi '())ft=()ft
S3xUQA.no SsxDidoAcio
S3Xig<nd31I 1O AflOV31OllD 'S3AorldD(J)3 SllD DAXOO IDlplADAOD DIOUO Li 'ACTMll0Aar> AWM
-DldOAfUD ACplMUli AC01 llQCOllIldSLI LjMllDldUrHDdoX Dl^ S3XligAn> SsXDldOACU) $31X1311
nou '53LiioYoun Su IDM S3d30Dio S3A3rLoog IDAIS ?]/y ' ly^ '7?t) '" ' I ID noiio

IfZ)
te-z)
licbdort LiMiAsA 3rl SsxligAno SsxmdoAno SsAstlmdCTXmg 5u 'SsidoAliiDM
S3YpA3rl ong 30 iDiAOAidMDig SSIOLIO 10 '53Mli0Ano SsMDidoAno OLID iDisnsgoAao d'z) rt
-liygpdu 01 up 3rlnodco3@ -li(t)dorl laAn^nooino 30 i30Y? DA isdoiirl 'Q ^ ( x j j isnXoi DIOIIO
*'n niA 'liocooi3 Dirl0pgod3ia3g UMirlriodA 30DM 'up pd3AOd> IDAIS OApiiodDii 01 piiv
X
(x)b+l-^(x)d P . _

LiosXo Ui OIID 11 [(x)ft]i SLii)3Y3i 5oMido4)Dig o noii9

l ?
(Z'Z) ')>x> (x)- I = (x)fi(x)b +

(t'2) SliMidocboig Slai (ULIOJ ^uiofpB }\as) li(t>doil


nooiao UXioiDiiAD Alii srinoXs ilia = ( x )d ">* 7^15 := ( x ) b
:

) > X > TO
xp
(X)dj^

LiMidotbDig SUAn^riDoinD U ismriModii 3101

'
iixDUjouoln^nooiox) (xDiDX3d)oi: Alii 3ri (i~z) UOWDI^S Alii srlnoo
YYOII AD 'up piflOAA iDAig -DdsipAdo 3rlno0Y3ADU3 VQ '(x)j. Lioodgms liMKteiralp
L Atiodod)D noil'Si3O30oun 5u DIJ '[{)'x)]9X 30DM DiA '0 7^ (x)d 3r^ [)'^J DriLuDpig
OID SpXsAno IDM SsAsrloido IDAIS y ' > 'j SisoludDAOO 10 'up 3tinoi30oun noiip

SLig LtocoDi^s LiMidodJDig Li0LiAnD LiAsAorio Lirl UMirlriodA Lii srlnodcos

8311119191 'SoiimdQ :
-II0A.C13 AC DlA U33JO

DlA
7.2 Green 255

H napdoraor) J(u, v)(x) anoTeAei IT\ <ruva<pr\ napdotaoi) (conjuct) TOV ouvapni-
jotov u(x),v(x). H TauTOTnTa (2.6) IOXUEI navrou EKTOS TOV nnpaop.vov oniiiov
uvexEias TOV u"(x), v"(x). Enoiievog r| (2.6) imopEi va oAoKAr)po0Ei OE onoio8rinoT
noSidornpa [XT , X2] TOU [a, (3] xai

[u(x)L[v(x)] -v(x)L[u(x)]]dx = [J(u,v)(x)]*f. (2.7)

H TEAsuTaia oAoKAripOTiKii oxOT| anoTEAsi TOV TUIXO TOU Green ae Tuxaio Sicioxnpa
||xi,X2]. Fia XT = a, X2 = (3 EXOULIE TOV Tuno xou Green ato Siaort)u.a [a, (3]

[u(x)L[v(x)] - v(x)L[u(x)]]dx = [J(u,v)(x)]. (2.8)


Ja

AS ar|u.Eio0Ei OTI 01 Tunoi (2.6)-(2.8) anoTEAouv idioiriieg lov 6ia.(popiKou leAemrj L[y (x)]
\mi 6ev undpxl Ka.nfj.id axeorj auiov fj ug nepiopioiiKzg ouvdriKeg KO.I w ]ir\ o^oyevrj
\6po. LTr|v nEpinroor) nou 01 auvapTiioEig u(x),v(x) anoTEAouv Auoeig Tr)g iooor)S
L[y(x)] =0, a < x < (3, TOTE loxuet TO aKoAouGo anoTEAEoiia

Ocupqua 7.2.1. Av 01 C2- auvapTijoetg u(x),v(x) iKavonoiouv IT] diatpopiKi)


n(x) = 0, TOIE TI ovvcHpris J(u,v)(x) lav u(x),v(x) eival oiadepri (avegdpirjir] TOU x).

An66igr] Lupcpwva lie TOV Tuno TOU Green OE ruxaio Sid (2.7), enei6i^ 01 u(x),v(x)
eivai AuoEig Tng E^iooons Ly(x) = 0, 9a EXOUU.E

=0, [x,,x2] C fa, (3].

Enou-Evog 01 TipES Tns J(u, v)(x) OE onoiaSrinoTE oripEia xj , X2 9a npni va Eivai


JOES- Apa r) J(u, v)(x) 9a npsnEi va Eivai araGEpri KOI avE^dpTnTr] TOU x. <0

npoxaoi) 7.2.2. Av 01 ovvapii)oei^ u(x),v(x) eivat jli/oeig zrjs E&oaorjg Ly(x) = 0 jcat
| tax UEI J(u, v)(x) =0, yia Kdnoia niJT) lov x [a,b], rbrc 01 avvapiriosig u(x),v(x) eivai

logiponog: And TO Eopripa 7.2.1 EnETai OTI, 9a npEnEiva IOXUEI J(u,v)(x) =


0, yia Kd0 x (a, b). EnouEvog, and Tr| oxEor) (2.7) ouvEndyETai OTI

uv' vu' = 0, ri := =0 ri f-]=0, 6nAa6n u(x)=cv(x).


u-' dx \ v /
Apa 01 ouvapTiioEig u(x), v(x) Eivai ypaupixd E^apTnuEVEg.
20$- zponog: Eni6r) IOXUEI r) axEor) J(u, v)(x) = p(x)W(u,v)(x) KOI p(x) ^ 0, yia
KdGs x [a, b], EnETai OTI n Wronskian W(u,v)(x) TOV ouvapTrjoEov u(x),v(x) 9a
iKavonoiEi Tt| oxEor)
\V(u,v)(x) = 0, yia Kd0 x [ a , b ] .
01 ouvapTr|OEig u(x),v(x) Eivai ouu.(pova UE Tri
9opia TOV ouviiGov ypajajaiKov 6ia(popiKov E^IOOOEOV.
256 7. Zuvaprrjaei^ Green yaa Lvvt)6cig AmfyopiKif; Eiaaoaj

Meid and TQ napandvco eioaYYiKd eipaore oe 9eor| va opioouu.e Tri ouvdpir|or| Greei
TOU npo6AiiviaTOg

d / dy(x;
=:-; P x q(x)y(x) = F(x), a < x < (3,
dx V dx
= M! , (2.10)
= M 2) (2.11)

onou r| ouvdpTr|or| p(x) eivai ou vex cog 6iacpopioi|ir| KOI p.r) u.n6eviKr) 01:0 KAeioro 6t
orr|p.a [a, (3j, r| 6e auvdpTrjor) q(x) ouvexiig oro i6io 6idarrivio:. Yno9eTOU)j enio
OTI, r| eJjcoTepiKr) eni6paor| F(x) eivai Tu.r|]aaTiKd auvexr|g oro [a, (3]. Le a\Jir\ IT\V :
moor) 01 Auoeig TOU npo6Arip.aTog (2.9) - (2.11) eivai loxupeg. Opi^eTai cog xcrxuprj A\ior|
TOU npo6AiijaaTOg (2.9) - (2.11) Kd9e auvdpTrion, r| onoia eivai ouvexcog napaycoYi1
Tiir|u.aTiKd cjuvexr) THV napdYcoYo 2r|g Td^rig, iKavonoiei Tig ouvopiaKeg ouv9r)Kes (2.'
- (2.11) KOI r] e^iocoor) (2.9) eivai TauTOTr|Ta ara or)y.eia ouvexeiag Tqg ouvdpiriorig F(x}!
H 6ieuKpivr|or| auTii eivai anapaunTn, Yiati 01 ouvapir\oei(; Green G(x; z) 6ev anoi
iaxvp(; Auaeig, oncog 9a Souiie orr| ouvexeia. H ouvdpTt)Oi) Green \\a. TO np66Arnaa (2
- (2.11), av undpxei, opi^eTai cog r| Auor] TOU ouoxeTioy.evou npo6Aiip.aTOg

= 6(x-z),

I,G(a;z) = 0, (2.13
I 2 G((3;z) = 0. (2.14)

6-Dirac 6(x z ) 6ev eivai TU-nV10-1^0- ouvexng, r| G(x;z)


anoTeAei icrxupii Auar) TOU (2.12) - (2.14) U.E Tr]v ewoia, nou 6iaTuncb9r)Ke napandv
EvrouTOig ano ir\ Qeapia Kazavoncbv lou Schwartz ano6eiKVueTai OTI, r\ G (x; z) anoTi
ilia ouvdpTnor) u.e THV KAaoiKii ewoia (oe avri6iacn;oAii u.e Tig YviKeuu.eveg i
EninAeov 6e exei Tig OKdAou9eg i6ioTr)TEg

I. G(x;z) eivai ouvexiig aro KAeiord 8idcn:riu.a [a, (3], (2.15)


2. - G(x;z) eivai auvexiig navrou eiccdg TOU ornjeiou aouvexeiag x = z, onou
CAX.
undpxei eva ciX[aa 1/p(z), 6r)Aa6ii

(2.16)
dx dx
3. z, L[G(x;z)]=0. (2.17)

Oi iSioTriTeg (2.15) - (2.17) KOI 01 ouvopioKeg ouv9r|Keg (2.13) - (2.14),


nAripcog Tri auvdpTrior) Green xai, orccog 9a ano6eix9ei orr| ouvexeia, enapicouv
OKpiBii npoo6iopioii6 auTiig. Ano Tr| oxean (2.17) npoicunTei OTI, r| auvdpTrior| Gr
G(x;y) 9a npenei va eivai Trig

Au(x) Bv(x), a < x < z,


G(x;z) = (2.18)
Cu(x) Dv(x),
K Zuvdprr/ar; Green 257

tou u(x), v(x) Eivai 6uo auvExug 6iacpopioivig, Ypa>iPlKci avE^dpTrjTEg Auosig Trjg
OQorig L[y(x)] = 0 KO.ITCI A, B, C, D anoTEAouv Toug npoaSiopiaraioug cruvrEAEcrcEg.
ft a, (3 nspiKAEiovrai AOYCO Trjg ouv9r|Kr|g ouvEXEiag (2.15). H OTJVEXEICI OTO or)iiEio x = z
naud, onog IOXUEI r|

Au(z) + Bv(z) = Cu(z) + Dv(z). (2.19)

Eniorig r) i6ioTr|Ta Trig (2.16)Tr|g ^G(x;z) oro x = z m6dAAi, oncog


UEI r| oxeor)
1
Au'(z) + Bv'(z) - Cu'(z) - Du'(z) = (2.20)

Auvovrag Tig 6uo TEAEUTaiEg E^ioooEig (2.19) (2.20) ug npog Toug ouvTEAEOTEg B, C
KOI avTiKaGiorovrag cn:r|v napdoraor| (2.18), r| ouvdpTr|or| Green G(x;y) naipvEi tr|

a < x < z,
G(x;z) =
z < x < (3.

Kdvovrag XPH01! TrIS cruvdpTr|or|g Heaviside H 2 (x) r| TEAEUTOIQ napdoraor) Trig ou-
I vdpTr|or)g Green G (x; y) Aaia6dvEi Tqv EKCppaor)

1
G(x;z)= Au(x) + Dv(x)- [u(z)v(x)H x (z)+v(z)u(x)H 2 (x)]
J(u,v)
Au(x) + Dv(x) - [u(z)v(x)[1 - H z (x)] + v(z)u(x)[l - H x (z)]]

J(u,v] J(u,v]
[u(x)v(z)H x (z) + u(z)v(x)H z (x)]
J(u,v)
[u(x)v(z)H x (z) + u(z)v(x)H z (x)]. (2.21)
J(u,v)

7.2.3. Oi opoi nou nepiexouv ir\ auvdpirjor] Heaviside H z (x) Oa npi


va deaprjdouv \i irjv evvoia lou opiou (Kadag 10 x > z) oio x = z.

Pia TOV npoo6iopia|ao TOV avvcoorcov auvreAEorcov A I , D] 9a \\VEI xpnorl rav


ouvo-
PIQKCOV ouv9r|K6v (2.13) - (2.14). Euvacpcova ia n ouv9r|Kg auTEg, 9a npEnsi va
01 OXEOElg

0 = I,[G(x;z)]
0 = I 1 [G(x;z)]=A,I 2 [u] (2.22)

onou 9Oi

r =: r I (u,v)[u(x)v(z)H x (z) + u(z)v(x)H z (x)].


258 K(pdAato 7. Zuvaprrjoi Green yia Luviidcic; AiacpopiKcg Efyoaocig

To ouornpa (2.22) SEXETQI ]aova6iKr| Auar) av IOXUEI r| yvcoorii oxor|

(2.23)
I2M
ETOI orr|v nspinTcoori nou IOXUEI r\ axeari (2.23), r\ ouvdpTr|or| Green TOU npo6Af|vmTog
(2.9)-(2.1 1) 6t6Tai and Tn oxEor] (2.21), onou TO A I , D] opi^ovrai viovooiiiaavra ano TO
ouo-cr|p.a (2.22).

7.2.4. Av 6ev (2.23), idle 9a vnapxl ^ 7^ 0 roi aaie

I 2 [u]=AI 2 [v]
Ii(u-Av] = 0 I2[u-Av]=0. (2.24)

Eneidrj 6e 01 ouvapir]Oi<; u(x), v(x) eivai


(2.23) 6ev ic^vei av Kai uovo av undpxl u(x) Av(x) lov
vg npo6jlr)}i.aiog ouvopiaKcov

= 0, a < x < (3, (2.25)

Z,Mx)]=0, 0. (2.26)

&a enavsjLdouue apyoiepa oe auirj ITJV nepimcoar] eiodyoviac; irj yeviKev^ivr] r] ipono
avvdpir\ar] Green (BMne, Ev6iT\ia 7.4).

napandvco KaTaAiiYouiae oro aKoAou6o ouiinepaopa yia- iov


npoa6iopioud tng ouvdpTrjorig Green TOU npoBArivaaTog (2.9) - (2. 1 1).

0cupi)pa 7.2.5. Av 10 aiimrnia (2.25) - (2.26) i uovadiKr) jtvor] ir]v ieipinuvr\, wui\
auvapir\or\ Green yia to np66jlriua (2.9) - (2.1 1) opi&iai iMvoorjuavia and iov wno

1
G(x;z) = [u(x)v(z)H x (z) + u(z)v(x)H 2 (x)], (2.27)
J(u,v)

dnou za u(x), v(x) anoieAovv ypau.u.iKa ave^dpirjicg Jiuoeig ir/g t^iouor^c; (2.25) KCUOI
eg A I , DI anoiaHouv nc uovadiKeg jluoeig iov oumriuaiog (2.22).

'Ocav loxuouv 6iaxcopio]aveg ouvopiaKEg ouvGriKeg, TOTE Exoups TO OKoAouGo anAou-


OTEpo anoTeAEopa

7.2.6. Olav 10 ouoiriua (2.25)-(2.26) 6^iai /zofafiucr) 7ivar\ irjv


ot ovvopiaKeg ouvdr)Kg eivai 6taxcopio^iVg, r\ avvap\r\or\ Green yta to npoSArma (2.9)-
(2.11) 6i6eiai and 177
1
G(x;z) = [u(x)v(z)H x (z) + u(z)v(x)H r (x)]. (2.28)
J(u,v

dnou la u(x), v(x) anoijlouv ypauuiKO. av^dpirii^ jiuoeig 1770 (2.25), wu


iKavonoioiiv ng auvopiaKeg ouvdr]Kg LI [u] = 0, L2M = 0.
Juvdprr/arj Green 259

ir) npdvpaTi, r| ouvdpTnori G(x; z) Tng napdoraong (2.28) iKavonoiei Tnv e^i
[12), acpou Tnv iKavonotei r| ouvdpTnori orr|v napdoraor) (2.27). EninAeov, yia x < z r|
(2.23) rapTnon. Green G(x, z) exl Trl

>u ;z) = r'(u,v)(x)u(x)v(z),


ano TO
lonoia cog auvdpTnor] TOU x iKavonoiei xq ouvopiaiui ouv6r|Kr| 1][G] = 0. Opoicog
ii6ri LZ[V] = 0 exoupe OTI, I2[G]=0. 0

7.2.7. Fia \iia aKo^a (popd 9a npenei va loviodei on, 01 ouvapirjoeig Green
2.27). (2.28) 5ev optipviai cno x = z Aoycj irjg ouvapirjor^g Heaviside H 2 (x).
|B|f auvexiag irjg G(x;z) mo x = z Oa npenei va

- Av(x) G ( z ; z ) = lim G(x;z) = lim G(x;z).


xz+ xr_

JlapaSeiypa 7.2.8. No. KazaoKevaodei rj ouvapirjoj] Green, nou avucnoixi cno aKOjloudo
I npojiT]}j.a fj.rj oiioyevav ouvop>.aKav ovvdr\KO)v zunou Dirichlet

k2y(x)=f(x), x < 1 , y(0) = a, y ( 1 ) = |3, k ^ 0.

I Avar] Auo ypappiKd a trig avricnoixr)g opovevoug 6iacpopiKiig c^i


eivai
: TOV i (x) = cos(kx), y 2 (x) = sin(kx).

Earco ZT(X) = en coskx + c^sinkx Auorj tr|g oiaoyEvoug 6iacpopuaig e^(ocoor)g,


- idle rj ' nou iKavonoiei tr) cruvopiaKii cnjv6r|Kr| zi(0) = 0. Tote 9a toxuei Cn = 0 , C]2 = 1.
ivno Enovievcog q |iopcpr) ir)g Auor]g 9a eivai

(2.27) zi(x) = sinkx.

Ojaoicog av Z 2 (x) = C2i coskx + 022 sinkx eivai pia aAAr| Auoq tqg opoyevoug
125) KCLl 01
SiacpopiKiig eJjiocoorig, nou mavonoiei tr) ouvopiaKii oxeor) Z 2 (l ) = 0, toxe 9a e

160 anAou- 021 cos k + 022 sin k = 0.

EnopevQg, av 9Ecopiioou>i napd6etYPa OTl C2i =sink, 022 = cos k


vrj Kat rj OKoAouGr) u.opcpii \\a t TOU npo6Aiiu,a'cog
(2.9)-
Z2(x) = sinkcoskx cosksinkx = sink(1 x).

napaTnpcovrag OTI o 6iacpopiKog TeAeoriig TOU npo6AiijjaTog L = D2 + k2 eivai auto-


u?rIY1l I-16 P( X ) 1 npoKurrtei, aujacpcova pe TOV TUHO (2.23), OTI 9a

sinkx sink(1 x)
= W(z 1 ( z 2 )(x) = = ksink.
k coskx kcosk(1 x)
260 7. Zuvaprr/acif Green via Lvvr]6is s E^iaatm

ETOI pnopoupE va SiaxpivoupE Tig aKdAou6g


(i) Av k 7^ UTT, n = 1,2,3,..., TOTE npOKuntEi OTI, r\ auvdpinar) Green, nou avriatoixei
OTO napandvo np66Anpa, EXEI Tr]v QKoAouSr) popcpii
sln(kx)slnk(1-z)
0 < X < Z,
ksink
Z < X < 1.
ksink

(it) Av k = tin, n = 1,2,3..., TOTE npOKumxi OTI C = 0. 'ETOI 6sv pnopei va


i r\ auvdpTnori Green. E auTr| Tr|v nEpinTcoor) oiicog napaTnpoups on

Zi (x) = Z2(x) = sin(nTTx).

AUTO anpaivEi OTI, TO avrioroixo opoyEVES ouvopiaKo npoBAripa

y"(x) + n 2 7i 2 y(x)=0, y ( 0 ) = 0 , y ( 1 ) = 0 ,

prj TETptppEvr) Auon.

7.2.9. Na opimei r\ ovvapir\ar\ Green via ro aKoAovdo npoSArma o^oyevav


ouvopiaKojv auvdriKdv ivnov Dirichlet

-py"(x) = F(x), 0<x<a,


y(0) = 0, y ( a ) = 0 ,

d/rou p Eivai \iia 7 npavnaiiKii cfiadtpd.

Avar] AuoEig Tr|g ^(ooor|g y"(x) = 0, nou iKavonoiouv tig auvoptoKEg auv6r|Kg
y(0) = 0, y(a) = 0, sivai 01 ouvapTr|OEig u(x) = x KOI v(x) = a x, avrioroixa.
Eupcpcova p TOV Tuno (2.6) n. ouvacprig TCOV AUOECOV u(x), v(x) 9a sivai

J ( u , v ) ( x ) = -p[x(-1) - ( a - x ) ] = ap.

ETOI, Eni6r| 01 ouvopiaKEg ouvGiiKEg Eivai 6iaxopiapEVg, ano Trj oxor| (2.28) npo-
KurrcEi OTI, r| ouvdptqar) Green via TO napandvo npoBAnpa ouvopiaKcbv cruv9nK6v 9a
Eivai
G(x;z) = [x(a - z)H x (z) + z(a - x)H z (x)].
ap
IIapd6cty|ia 7.2.10. Naflpzdei r\ ouvdpirjarj Green via 10 \JLT] np66Ar]iia auvo-
piaKav ovvdr}Kov wnou Robin

y"(x)+4y(x) = F(x), a <x< p


y(a) = M,, y'((3)

Avar] Oi AuoEig Trig E^iooong y " + 4y = 0 sivai Tng pop(piig

Asin2(x + (})) ii Acos2(x + (j>)


ruvdprrjor; Green 261

, 01 Auoeig. nou iKavonoiouv 115 ouvopiaKES auv0n.Ks y(a) = 0 KQI


u avricnoixei = 0, 9a Eivai 01 ouvapirjoeis u(x) = sin2(x a) KQI v(x) = cos2(3 x),
. Eioi cajpcpcova U.E lov iuno (2.6) r) ouvacpris icov AUOEQV u(x), v(x) 9a EWQI
J(u,v)(x) = u(x)v'(x)-v(x)u'(x) = 2 s i n 2 ( x - a ) s i n 2 O - x )
2 cos 2(x a) cos 2( |3 x) 2 cos 2( |3 a).
Eni6ri 01 auvopiaKEg auvGriKEg EWQI 6iaxcopioiaVg, and tr) axsor) (2.28) npoKuniEi
v pnopsf va CI, ri auvdpir)or| Green yia 10 napandvco >ar) ojaoyEVEg npoBApiia ouvopiaKCOv
dti i eivai
1
G(x;z)= - {sin2(x - a) cos2((3 - z)H x (z)
2cos2(|3-a)
sin2(z - a) cos2((3 - x)H z (x)}.
7.2.11. (Mr] AUTOOU^UYI]<; Mopcprj) Na opiaiei r\ ouvdpirjorj Green yta ro
c np66Arjfj.a bv ouvdr]KC3v wnov Robin
2y'(x) + 10y(x) = F(x), 0 < x < ^,
M OfJ.OyVGJV y'(0)=5, y(j)=2.
\AuoT] Oi AUOEIS iris y"(x) + 2y(x) + 10y(x) = 0 Eivai ins jaopcprjs
y(x) = e~x{Asin3x + Bcos3x},
a(pou us A ^2 = 1 3i. Oi AUOEIS, nou iKavonoiouv 115 ouvopiaKEs
ow6r|Ks y'(0) =0, y ( f ) =0, Eivai 01

S ouv9r)Kg u(x) = e~x{sin 3x + 3 cos 3x}, v(x) = e~K cos 3x,


aviioioixa. Fia va (JpouviE ir) ouvacpri icov ouvapiiioEcov u(x), v ( x ) }iiaipEnouu.E ir|
I 6tacpopiKr| E^iocoorj OE auioou^uyii viopcpii noAAanAaoid^ovias p ir)v napdoiaor) auioou-
I Juyonoinaris p(x) = e2", ondiE npOKurrtEi r) E^iocoor)
e 2 x y"(x)+2e 2 x y'(x) + 10e 2x y(x) = e 2x F(x),
2.28) npo-
ii ioo6uvavaa -(e 2x y'(x)) + 10e2xy(x) = e 2x F(x).
v9r]Kcbv Oa
Eioi au|a(pa)va JJE lov luno (2.6) KOI Eni6ii EXOUJIE p(x) = e2x r| ouvacpiis TWV Auoecov
u(x), v(x) 9a eivai
J(u,v)(x) = e2x {e~x(sin3x + 3cos3x)(-e~ x cos3x-3e~ x sin3x)
ouvo-
e~xcos3x(-10e~xsin3x)} = -3
Enou.vcos, ni6ii 01 ouvopiaKEs ouvSiiKES Eivai SiaxwpiopEVEs, and ir| oxEor) (2.28)
npOKuniEi on, rj ouvdpinor] Green yia 10 napandvco \ir\ OU.OYEVES npd6Ar|ua ouvopiaKwv
ouv0r]Kcov 9a Eivai

G(x;z) = 1 [e-(x+z)cos3z(sin3x

e-(x+2)cos3x(sin3z + 3cos3z)H z (x)l .


262 KecpdAaio 7. Zuvaprr/aeic Green yaa uvr/8eic AiatyopiKic; EiacJaij

IlapdSciypa 7.2.12. (IleptoSixec; Euvopiaxet; Euvflyjxei;) Ata opioiei r\ auvdpirjori Green


yia 10 yza ro fir) ofMjyeveg npd@ji.rma HE nepio6iKg ouvopiaKeg ouvdrfKeg

y"(x)+y(x) F(x), 0<x<1,


y(0)=y(D, y'(0)=y'(l).
Avar] Auo ypavi^iKd avE^dpTnTEg AuoEig Trig EgXocoong y"(x) + y(x) = 0 anoieAouvoi
auvapTiioEig u(x) = sinx, v(x) = cosx. Enei6ii 01 auvopiaKEg cruvGiiKEg 6ev dvm
6iaxopioiviEg (cog nepioSiKeg) 9a Kdvoujae XPH01! TOU tunou (2.27). 'Etoi npoKumei OTI,
r] ouvdpir|ori Green \\.a TO napandvu ]ir\ oiaoyeveg np66Ar|pa cruvopiaKcov (juv0r|K(ov 8(
etvai trig YVIKI1S
1
G (x; z) = A sin x + B cos x + {sinx cos zH x (z) + sinzcosxH 2 (x)}.
J(sinx,cosx)
onou n auva(piis icov Auoecov u(x), v(x) (JpioKETai oti eivai J(sinx, cosx) =
Tig auvopidKEg ouv6r|KE5 npOKuniEi on, 01 ouvrsAEcrcEg A, B iKavonoiouv 10 auairipa

B Asin! Bcosl + sinzcosl = 0, li/nou IOL


A cosz A cos! + Bsinl sin z sin 1 0.

To ouorrivia QUTO Auveiai Katd Liovooiiiaavto Tpono KQI r\ Liova6iKri Auop QUTOU eivai
cosz cos(1 + z) sinz + sin(1 z)
A = B-
2(1-cosl) 2(1-cosl)

Aoinov, r\ Green \\a TO napandvco nepio6iKo npoBAqpa cruvopiaKwv


9a Eivai
1
G(x;z) = [sin x(cos z cos( 1 + z)) + cos x[sin z + sin( 1 - z)]]
2(1 -cosl)
sinxcoszH x (z) sinzcosxH z (x).

H pEydAr) anjiaaia Tng auvdpTnons Green cpaivETai ano TO EHOLIEVO KEVIPIKO ano-
, TO onoio oSnyEi ornv dviEori EniAuor) \ir\ OLIOYEVUV npoGAnLidTcov ouvopiaKUv
LIE Tr| poiiGsia Tng avrioroixriS caivdpTrions Green.
7.2.13. 'Emcj on rj napdaiaar] G (x; z) anoiejtei ir\ ovvap\r\ar\ Green yia ro

-) + q(x)y(x) = F(x), a<x<6, (2.29)


ax ax
lily] = 0, (2.30)
I2[y] = 0. (2.31)

TOIE rj Avar] lou npo6Jlrifj.aiog (2.29) - (2.31) 6i6ciai and ir/v aKOJioudr]
napdaiaor]
r(
y(x) = G(x; z)F(z)dz.
Ja
Green

avvdpirjorj Green AvriKa0iOTOupE Tnv napdaraor) (2.32) crcnv iacoar) (2.29), EvaAAdaoupE Tr
cog npog z KQI Tnv napaycoyioq cog npog x, onoTE npOKurrtEi

L[y(x)] = l. G(x;z)F(z)dz] = L[G(x;z)]F(z)dz


a J Ja

= [ 6(x-z)F(z)dz =
Ja

EmnAEOv, EnsiSr) r| ouvdpTnor) Green G(x;z) iKavonoiEi Tig ouvopiaKEg auv0r|K


2.13H2.14) r) auvdpTnor) y(x) Oa iKavonoisi Tig ouvopiaKEg ouv0r)Kg (2.30)-(2.31). <

Tia va ano6i5oup Tr) auppETpiKOTnTa Tqg auvdpTnong Green, 6nAa6r) OTI


:osxH 2 (x)}. G(x;z) = G(z;x), xP^a?oviacn:E tlS QKoAou0g EnEKTdoEig TOU Tunou TOU Green.

= -1. And 6cupi)}ia 7.2,14. Eoio L o SiatpopiKog rsJteanfc TOU npo@jtfmaio<; (2.29)-(2.31). Oia
TO ouornpa ?(x;z) ivaiAuari TTjg E^iaoarjg Lv(x;z) = 6(x z) Kai u(x) ivainiaouvX<J(;f>ia(popioiii.
}i iu.r]fu.auKd avvExn ir\v napdyayo 6uiprjg rcifrjc;, ioi ioxui r\ aKOJioudrj eniKiaar] 10
limou wu Green

\ (u(x)L[v(x)] - v(x)L[u(x)])dx = {p(x)(u(x)v'(x) - v(x)u'(x))}. (2.33


aurou sivai Jot

An66i>i 'Earco a EVQ onpEio acruvEXEiag Tng 6UTpr)g napayuyou Tng auvdpTnon;
u(x), yia TO onoio IOXUEI a < z. TOTE, yia e O.PKETCI piKpo, IOXUEI r) aK6Aou0r)

la ouvopiaKciv
I (u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx= + r(u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx
J Ja

!n(1-z)]) (u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx

(u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx
z-
ano- fP
v ouvopidKcov + (u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx. (2.34)
Jz+

| Green yia TO npoto, 8UTEpo KO.I TETQPTO oAoKAripcopa Trig TEAsuTaiag o)(or|g (2.34) Ecpappo-
^ETQI o Tunog TOU Green (2.7). Ag anpico0i E6co OTI, ora 6iaorripaTa oAoKAiipcoong TCOV
napandvco Tpicbv oAoKAnpcopdTCOv IOXUEI Lv(x;z) = 0 (BAEnE i6ioTnTa (2.17) ). 'TOI
(2.29) npoKurrtei OTI

(2.30)
f (u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx= + [p(x)(u(x)v'(x)-v(x)u'(x))]^
(2.31) Ja
+ [p(x)(u(x)v'(x)-v(x)u'(x))];p
AoK/lrjpcjUKTi rZ+
+ (u(x)6(x-z)-v(x)L[u(x)])dx
Jz-
(2.32)
+ [p(x)(u(x)v'(x)-v(x)u'(x))] z P + . (2.35)
264 KECpdAaio 7. Zuvaprr/ai Green yia Zuvr/0i AicupopiKSc; E^iam

'Ojacog 01 ouvapTiioEig p, u, v, u/ v' eivai oAsg auvEXEig o^0 or|iieio x = a.


6Aoi 01 opoi Trig TEAeuTaiag napdaraar|g (2.35) p.r|6evi5ovTai OTO ornaeio x = ff. 'E
oxor| (2.35) yi

(u(x)L[v(x)] - v(x)L[u(x)])dx = [p(x)(u(x)v'(x) - v(x)u'(x))]J


Ja
+ p(z-)[u(z-)v'(z-,z)-v(z-,z)u'(z-)]

p(z+)[u(z+)v'(z+E,z)-v(z+,z)u'(z+)]
fZ+

+ u(z)- v(x)L[u(x)]dx. (2.36)


Jz-E

Enei6ii 6Ag 01 auvapTiioEig u, v, u', u" EIVQI OTJVEXEIS OTO KAEIOTO 8ido
[z ,z + e], TO TEAEUTaio oAoKAripcoiia orr| oxEor) (2.36) pr|6Evi5Tai, KaGcog TO e -
TEAIKO, Aap.6dvovrag un' oipiv OTI, r| o~uvdpTr|or| v(x;z) iKavonoiEi Trjv unoGEor) (2.H

rP
(u(x)L[v(x)] - v(x)L[u(x)])dx = [p(x)(u(x)v'(x) - v(x)u'(x))j J
Ja
+ p(z)[u(z)v'(z_, z) - v(z, z)u'(z)] - p(z)[u(z)v'(z+, z) - v(z, z)u'(z)] + u(z)
= [p(x)(uv'-vu')] + p(z)u(z)[v'(z-,z)-v'(z + ,z)] + u(z)
= [p(x)(uv' - v u ' ) ] ^ . 0 (2.37)

ME napoiioio Tpono ano6eiicvuTai TO QKoAouGo anoTAop.a nEpauEpco yeuiKfi/orjf


tot/ limou zov Green.
8eupi)|ia 7.2.15. 'Ecno L o 6ia(popiK.6g isAemrig lou npo6Ari}j.aiog (2.29)-(2.31). Oiav
01 ovvapirioeig u(x;z), v(x;w) anoieAouv Ai/oeig zav efrotiozav Lu(x; z) = 6(x z ) rat
Lv(x;w) = 6(x w), atmatoi^a, idle laxuzi o aKdAoudog yeviKtv^ivog wnog wu Green

(u(x)L[v(x)]-v(x)L[u(x)])dx=[p(x)(u(x)v'(x)-v(x)u'(x))]^. (2.38)
Ja

, pe Tr) (ioiiGEia TCOV nporiyouvievcov anoTAo>adTcov anoSEiKvuEiai r|


irjia irjg ovvapir]or\g Green G (x; z) , OTO.V 01 ouvopiaKeg ouv6r|Kg Eivai Siaxcopiopeves rj
npio6iKEg.
Ocupi]pa 7.2.16. Oiav 01 ouvopiaKEg auvdrfKeg lov npo6AT)}J.aiog (2.29)-(2.31) eivai
rj nepio6iKg, r\ avvdpir\ar\ Green G(x;z) aviov eivai ouni^ipiKii, 6rjJia6?j
rj O O T J G(x;z) = G(z;x).
Eorco z, w [a, (3]. ETOvrag u = G(x;z) KOI v = G(x;w) orov
Tuno TOU Green (2.38) E

A = [G(x;z)L[G(x;w)]-G(x;w)L[G(x;z)]]dx
Ja
[ / ,dG(x;w) _. ,dG(x;z)\l 3
= p(x) G(x;z)- --G(x;w)
dx dx
Green 265

r. Apa AnoSEiKvuETai dpEaa LIE unoAoYioTJOUg on, otav r| ouvdpTnor) Green G(x;z) IKQ-
'ETOI rj IOIEI 6iaxd)pio]aVg r| npio6iKg auvopiaKEg ouv0r)Kg, TO 6Jji6 jaEAog Tn$ TAUTaiag
; Eivat jan6v. EnoLiEvag, TEAiKd IOXUEI r| OXEOT)
rP
0 = [G(x;z)6(x-w)-G(x;w)6(x-z)]dx =
Ja
= G(w;z)-G(z;w).
jdypa nou oAoKAnpcovEi Tqv anoSEi^n. 0
rjpiiori 7.2.17. (AjioiOaioxijTa Maxwell) H avy.^ipiag irjg ouvdptrjoris Green
Hc;z) anoreJtei \u.a idiaiiepa orjfjuviiKri i6i6irfia Kai ovo^d^eiai apot6atoxi]Ta Maxwell.
ft dMa Aoyia r\ ajMiSaidir^ia Maxwell irjg avvdpiriorig Green G(x;z) orj^aivei on, r\
cnpa OTO orjf^cio x irjg 6pdorigma mTY>!IS orjyKevipcoi^vrig mo arniEio z eivaiiorj
-* 0. n/f avianoKpior] mo armcio z irig dpdorjg mag nrfyrig ar\yK.vipan.vr](; mo orjfjsio x.
M6). man liioio 6ev avvdyziai Kaid npocpavf( ipono and irj (puaiKrj napair\pr\ar\.

7.2.1 npo6Ai]}icrta
P. Na i0ouv OE auioauUYJi popepri 01 QKoAouSEg 6ta(popiKes e^ioooEis
(a) xy" + y = x 2 , x > 0, Andvirjor]: y" + x -1 y = x,
(b) y " - y ' + y = 3 e x , x > 0,
(c) x 2 y" - xy'+ y = xe~ x , x > 0, Andmrjar]: (x^'y')' + x~ 3 y = x~ 2 e" x ,
(d) x 2 y"-4xy'-6y = x7, x > 0,
(e) xy" + y ' + xy =4x 2 e~ 2x , x > 0, Andvir\ar\: (xy')' + xy =4x 2 e~ 2 x ,
(f) xy"+ y ' + 3y = F(x), x > 0, Andvirjar]: (xy')' + 3y = F(x),
lav (9) y" + y ' - 2 y =F(x), x > 0, Andvir\ori: (e x y')' -2e x y = e"F(x),
(h) y " + 4 y = F(x), x > 0, Andvirjor]: (e 4 x y')' e 4x F(x),
?n 2. Na ouvdpinori Green G(x;z) TOV axoAouGuv npo6Ar)pdtuv ouvopiaKciv ouv9qKov
(a) y" = F(x), 0 < x < 2 , y ( 0 ) = 0 , y ' ( 2 ) = 0 ,
38) AndviTiori: G(x;z) = zH 2 (x) xH x (z),
(b) = F(x), 0 < x < l , y ( 0 ) = 0 , y'(1)=0,
2
(c) k y = F(x), 0 < x < TT, y(0) = 0, y(n) = 0, onou k > 0 aia0pa,
aAAd oxi QKepaiog
AndvirjaTj: G(x;z) = k"1 esck7i[sinkxsink(rr - z)H x (z)
+ sinkzslnkfrr x)H 2 (x)],
(d) y" = F(x), 0 < x < 1 , y ( 0 ) = y ' ( 0 ) , y ' ( 1 ) = 0 ,
(e) y" = F(x), 0 < x < a, y'(0) = ay(0), y'(a) = -ay(a), CT > 0 ora0pd,
: G(x;z) = -[1+(TX]H X (Z)
cr(2 + aa
1 + az
[1 + a(a-x)](H z (x)-H a (x)),
2 + aa
(f) y"-3y' + 4y=F(x), 0 < x < 2, y(0) =0, y'(2) =0,
3(x;z)= [5(1+4e 10 )]- 1 [(e- x -e 4x )(4e 1 - e4z)Hx(z)
266 7. Luvapir]oeig Green yia Zuvr)9cig AiacpopiKic; E^iouo 7.2 Luvdptrior

(g) y " + 2 y ' + 5 y = F ( x ) , 0 < x < 7 t / 2 , y'(0) = 0, y(n/2) = 0,


Andvir}an: G(x;z) = -e~ (x+z) [(2cos2x + sin2x)sin2zH x (z)
6nou ta c i,
+ (2cos2z + sin2z)stn2xH z (x)],
(h) y " - y = F ( x ) , 0 < x < 1 , y(0) = 0, y(1) = 0,
Andvirior]: G(x;z) = sinh"1 1[sinhzsinh(1 -x)H 2 (x)
+ sinhxsinh(1 - z ) ( H x ( z ) - H , ( z ) ) ] ,
(j) y " - y = F ( x ) , 0 ' < x < l , y(0) + y ' ( 0 ) = 0, y ( 1 ) - 0,
Andvirjari: G(x;z) = e1-*sinh(1 - x)H r (x) + e'~ x sinh(1 -z)(H x (z) - H,(
(k) (x- 4 y')'-6x- 6 y = F(x), 0 < x < 1 , y(0) = 0, y ( 1 ) = 0,
Andvrrjorj: G(x;z) = -[z 6 (x 6 - x"1 )H 2 (x) + x 6 (z 6 - z"1 ) ( H x ( z ) - H, (z))]

(I) x 2 y" + 2xy' + y = F(x), 1 < x < e71/^, y ( 1 ) = 0, y(n/\/3) = 0,

H, (z) - H z (x))
2
2JZX) - 1 / 2 . >/3logz,
am(

3. H i caipncpitpopd piag pd66ou priKOug a, r| onoia u(piataiai pia E|QIF pixq 6uvqir|
F(x), E tai and TO QKoAouGo TEtdptng Td|ng npd6Ar|pa ouvopidKuv ouv9r|Kc;)V

EIy ( 4 1 (x) = F(x), 0 < x < a ,


cruvopiaKEg ouv9r|KEg ora x = 0, x = a, 8i6Etai and

onou E, I ivai aia6EpEg. H ouvdpTr|or| Green G(x;z) TOU napandvco npoBAiipaTog anoidti
Auor| tou opoyEvoug onvopiaKOU npoBAiipaiog

EIy(4)(x) = 6(x-z), 0 < x < a ,


opoyeveig ouvopiaKEg OTjv9r|KEg ora x = 0, x = a,

6r|Aa6ri r| ouvapTnori G(x;z) EKtppd^Ei Tq aupnEpicpopd Trjg pd66ou, dxav PPIOKETQI uno qv
eniSpaop ptag povaSiaiag 6uvapr|g ouyKEvrpupEvrig OTO anpeio x = z. Oi Auof.ig G(x;z)
XapaKinpi^ovrai and Tig OKoAou9Eg iSioTnTEg
(i) 01 ouvapTrioei