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Could You Pass the Sodium Bicarbonate and Hydrochloric Acid, Please?
NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O()

sodium bicarbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + carbon dioxide + water

The formula equation above shows what products are formed when sodium bicarbonate is dissolved in a
concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid. As sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid react, bubbles of carbon
dioxide gas cause the mixture to fizz. After equal amounts of sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid are mixed, all of
the carbon dioxide gas will bubble out, and only sodium chloride and water will remain. The flame of an alcohol lamp
will cause the water to evaporate, and sodium chloride crystals will be seen in the bottom of the dish.

Because sodium bicarbonate is basic (pH > 7) and hydrochloric acid is acidic (pH < 7), a pH indicator will help you
see when the reaction is finished. Initially, the pH indicator will be mixed with the sodium bicarbonate, and the indicator
will have a greenish color. After the right amount of hydrochloric acid is added, the indicator will turn a slight pinkish

Experimental Setup

CO2 gas
glass stir rod steam
plastic pipet
with HCl

ring stand
evaporating dish alcohol lamp

During chemical reaction After chemical reaction

Materials: Methods:
Evaporating dish 1. Record the mass of the empty evaporating dish.
Baking soda (NaHCO3) 2. Add approximately 1 g of NaHCO3 to the evaporating dish and record
2M HCl the mass.
Scale 3. Add 2-3 drops of pH indicator to the powder. It will be greenish in
Scoop color.
Plastic pipets 4. Slowly add HCl dropwise to the powder. It will fizz as acid and base
Ring stand with ring react. Use a glass stir rod to stir the mixture. Do not go beyond a
Alcohol lamp neutral pHthe indicator will turn slightly pinkish and there will be no
pH indicator (universal) fizz at neutrality.
5. Evaporate the water by heating the dish with an alcohol lamp.
Glass stir rod
6. When the dish is dry, extinguish the flame and allow the dish to cool
for a few minutes.
7. Record the mass of the cooled dish, which contains salt.

Safety Precautions: This lab uses chemicals that require respect and care. The acid used here is very corrosive to skin
and dangerous to eyes. The alcohol lamps can cause burns. Be careful! Safety eyewear and aprons must be worn.
What was measured Mass
Evaporating dish alone
Evaporating dish with NaHCO3

NaHCO3 reacted

Evaporating dish with salt (NaCl)

Salt formed

Calculating Theoretical Yield

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O()

When one formula unit of sodium bicarbonate comes into contact with one molecule of hydrochloric acid, the two react
to form one formula unit of sodium chloride (table salt), one molecule of carbon dioxide, and one molecule of water.

Furthermore, one mole (6.022 x 1023) of sodium bicarbonate will react with one mole of hydrochloric acid to form one
mole of sodium chloride, one mole of carbon dioxide, and one mole of water.

How many moles of NaHCO3 are in the mass you weighed on

Mass of Amount of
the digital scale? NaHCO3 NaHCO3
(grams) (moles)

For every mole of NaHCO3 reacted, one mole of NaCl is Amount of Amount of
formed. Therefore, for however many moles of NaHCO3 that NaHCO3 NaCl formed
you calculated above, the reaction should yield the same reacted (moles)
number of moles for NaCl. How many moles of NaCl should (moles)
the reaction yield?

What is the mass in grams of NaCl that the reaction should Mass of Amount of
theoretically yield?
(grams) (moles)
Is the mass of NaCl that you measured on the scale greater than, less than, or equal to the theoretical yield that you

Why might your reaction have yielded a different amount of salt than expected?