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1. The vast majority of errors in research arise from a poor planning (e.g., data
collection)
a. True
b. False
c. May true may be false
d. Irrelevant
2. The type of statistics which apply the result of the sample statistics to the
population is called
a. Analytical statistics
b. Inferential statistics
c. Descriptive statistics
d. Population statistics
3. Probability is the science of:
a. Certainty
b. Uncertainty
c. Significance
d. Statistics
4. The sample space is
a. Number of observations
b. The mathematical difference between the first and last events
c. The sample size
d. The set of all possible outcomes
5. When tossing two coins, the sample space will be:
a. (h,t)
b. (0.5 h, 0.5 t)
c. (hh,ht,th,tt)
d. (h,t,h,t)
6. Chances of having a total of 7 when rolling 2 dice are
a. 1/36
b. 7/36
c. 6/36
d. 1/16
7. Chances of having 5,5 when rolling 2 dice are
a. 1/36
b. 5/36
c. 6/36
d. 10/16
8. By increasing the number of times you toss a coin, the probability of having
equal number of head and tail will:
a. Decrease
b. Not changed
c. Increase
d. 0.5
9. If there is a statistical difference, there must be:
a. a mathematical difference
b. no mathematical difference
c. significant difference
d. (a) and (c)
10. Null hypothesis states:
a. The status quo is proven to be false.
b. The status quo is proven to be true.
c. The studied signal must lead to the desired error or noise.
d. None of the above.
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## 11. Type I error (alpha error) is:

a. Rejection of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true.
b. Rejection of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is false.
c. Acceptance of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true.
d. Acceptance of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is false.
12. Type II error (beta error) is:
a. Rejection of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true.
b. Rejection of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is false.
c. Acceptance of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true.
d. Acceptance of the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is false.
13. Choose the correct sentence:
a. The larger the p-value, the smaller the probability that the observed result
occurred by chance.
b. The smaller the p-value, the smaller the probability that the observed result
occurred by chance.
c. The smaller the p-value, the larger the probability that the observed result
occurred by chance.

## 14. Probability sampling technique

e. In which each member of a population has an equal (known) chance or
probability of being selected
f. It protects a sample from sampling bias
g. It helps researchers achieve a representative sample
h. All the above
15. Non-Probability sampling technique
e. The samples are not representative of the population from which they are
drawn
f. Prone to selection bias
g. In which each member of a population does not have an equal (known) chance
or probability of being selected
h. All the above
16. Lottery is:
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Stratified sampling
d. Cluster sampling
e. Non-probability sampling
17. Telephone survey is
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Stratified sampling
d. Cluster sampling
e. Non-probability sampling
18. Chunk sampling is
a. Simple random sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Stratified sampling
d. Cluster sampling
e. Non-probability sampling
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## 19. Sampling may result in the following types of errors:

a. Alpha error
b. Beta error
c. Coverage (frame) error
d. Sampling error
e. Non-response and measurement error
f. (a) and (b)
g. (c), (d) and (e)
20. Number of finger in one hand of a person is
a. Constant type of data
b. Discrete quantitative data
c. Ordinal qualitative data
d. None of the above
21. Number of children a person have is
a. Binary qualitative data
b. Qualitative nominal data
c. Qualitative ordinal data
d. Quantitative continuous data
e. Quantitative discrete data
22. Age of a person is:
a. Binary qualitative data
b. Qualitative nominal data
c. Qualitative ordinal data
d. Quantitative continuous data
e. Quantitative discrete data
23. Color of a car is:
a. Binary qualitative data
b. Qualitative nominal data
c. Qualitative ordinal data
d. Quantitative continuous data
e. Quantitative discrete data
24. Level of education is:
a. Binary qualitative data
b. Qualitative nominal data
c. Qualitative ordinal data
d. Quantitative continuous data
e. Quantitative discrete data
25. Sex of a person is:
a. Binary qualitative data
b. Qualitative nominal data
c. Qualitative ordinal data
d. Quantitative continuous data
e. Quantitative discrete data
26. All the following is mutually exclusive except:
a. Sex
b. Religion
c. Member in different clubs (Sporting, Smouha, Acacia, etc)
d. (a) and (b)
e. All of the above
f. None of the above
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## 27. In time series data:

a. Ordered data values observed over time
b. Data values observed at a fixed point in time
c. Data measurement must be in hours or months or years
d. The type of data used in races or swimming
28. In cross section data:
a. Ordered data values observed over time
b. Data values observed at a fixed point in time
c. Data measurement should be divided in two halves.
d. The type of data used in buildings and constructions
29. An example for delivered data is:
a. Number of babies delivered
b. Number of married ladies.
c. Percentage difference
d. Age of the delivered newborns
30. Types of descriptive statistics include all except
i. Measures of Central Tendency
j. Measures of Dispersion of Variability
k. Percentiles and Quartiles
l. Correlation Analysis
m. Measures of distribution Shape
31. Measures of Central Tendency include all except
i. Mean
j. Median
k. Percentage
l. Mode
32. Disadvantages of the mean include:
a. It is affected by the outliers and extremes
b. It is difficult to be calculated
c. It is not significant
d. All of the above
33. The median is most applicable in
a. Continuous quantitative data
b. Discrete quantitative data
c. Categorical data
d. All of the above
34. A group of data may have
a. No mode
b. One mode
c. Two modes
d. More than two modes
e. All of the above
35. Measures of Variability include all of the following except:
a. Minimum to maximum
b. Range
c. Variance
d. Standard deviation
36. A group of observation with a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 100 has a range
of:
a. 10-100
b. 100-10
c. 90
d. 110
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## 37. The variance of a group of measurement equal

a. Standard deviation x 2
b. Standard deviation to the power of 2
c. Mean x standard deviation
d. Mean S.D.
38. Any group of data have:
a. Three quartiles
b. Three quartiles and a median
c. Four quartiles
d. Four quartiles and a median
e. None of the above

## 39. Any group of data have:

a. 100 percentiles
b. 99 percentiles
c. 10 percentiles
d. 50 percentiles
e. None of the above
40. Applying the empirical rule, Mean 3 S.D. will include:
a. 95% of the data
b. 68% of the data
c. 99% of the data
d. None of the above
41. The "six sigma" means :
a. The three S.D. below the mean
b. The three S.D. above the mean
c. The three S.D. below and the Three S.D. above the mean
d. Mean 2 S.D.
42. Normal distribution has a skewness of:
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
43. Normal distribution has a kurtosis of:
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
44. In SPSS output the kurtosis (K) is reported as:
a. K-1
b. K-0
c. K-n
d. K-3
45. If the data is categorical and only one group is studied the most appropriate
statistical test is:
n. Chi square
o. t-test
p. Paired t-test
q. F-test
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46. If the data is categorical and an expected cell has a value <5 the most
appropriate statistical test is:
a. Chi square
b. Fisher Exact test
c. t-test
d. Paired t-test
e. F-test
47. Fisher exact test is only applicable if:
a. 2 x 2 distribution table
b. 2 x n distribution table
c. n x m distribution table
d. all of the above
48. A very important disadvantage of Chi square test is:
a. It is difficult to compute
b. It is difficult to be understood
c. It could not detect inter-group significance
d. All of the above
49. If the data is continuous quantitative data and only one group is studied before
and after treatment; the most appropriate statistical tests is:
a. Chi square
b. Fisher Exact test
c. t-test
d. Paired t-test
e. F-test
f.
50. If the data is continuous quantitative data and two groups are studied; the most
appropriate statistical tests is:
a. Chi square
b. Fisher Exact test
c. t-test
d. Paired t-test
e. F-test
51. If the data is continuous quantitative data and more than two groups are
studied; the most appropriate statistical tests is:
a. Chi square
b. Fisher Exact test
c. t-test
d. Paired t-test
e. F-test
52. Further studying of inter-group significant in Analysis of Variance (F-test) is
called:
a. Correlation analysis
b. Regression analysis
c. Inferential statistics
d. Post-hoc analysis
53. If the data is not normal; and two independent groups are studied; the most
appropriate statistical tests is:
a. Mann-Whiteny test
b. Kruskal-Wallis test
c. Wilcoxon test
d. Friedman test
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54. If the data is not normal; and k-independent groups are studied; the most
appropriate statistical tests is:
a. Mann-Whiteny test
b. Kruskal-Wallis test
c. Wilcoxon test
d. Friedman test
55. If the data is not normal; and two related groups are studied; the most
appropriate statistical tests is:
a. Mann-Whiteny test
b. Kruskal-Wallis test
c. Wilcoxon test
d. Friedman test
56. If the data is not normal; and k-related groups are studied; the most appropriate
statistical tests is:
a. Mann-Whiteny test
b. Kruskal-Wallis test
c. Wilcoxon test
d. Friedman test