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drain and their eld measurements

M.W. Bo*

Bullen Consultants Ltd., 11/12 Eldon Place, Bradford BD1 3AZ, UK

Received 20 February 2002; received in revised form 11 April 2003

Abstract

vertical drains. However, the required discharge capacity for best performance of vertical

drain is still uncertain. This paper described the single basic equation to obtain the required

average discharge capacity. The estimated values were supported by the eld measurement of

discharge capacity with different drain spacings, different penetration length and different

thickness of compressible layers. It was found that required discharge capacity is in an order of

106 m/s for 100 mm width drain.

r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Discharge capacity; Hydraulic gradient; Prefabricated vertical drain; Conning pressure;

Deformation

1. Introduction

of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD). Only PVDs having sufcient discharge

capacity can function well. There are two major uncertainties related to the

discharge capacity of vertical drain. The rst one is the determination of the required

discharge capacity qw to be used in design (Holtz et al., 1991). Estimation of

required discharge capacity was proposed by various researchers (Mesri and Lo,

1991; Kamon et al., 1994; Den Hoedt, 1981; Kremer et al., 1982; Holtz et al., 1991;

Bo et al., 2000). Another is the measurement of the discharge capacity of the drain in

laboratory and the eld. The rst problem is the variation of discharge capacity with

E-mail address: mwb1@bullen.co.uk (M.W. Bo).

0266-1144/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0266-1144(03)00050-5

ARTICLE IN PRESS

38 M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748

lateral stress, buckling of drain and siltation, etc. and later is due to lack of sufcient

eld data.

Different apparatus and methods of testing often give different values of discharge

capacity which was extensively described by Bo et al. (2000) and may not be

discussed again here. Field measurement of discharge capacity can be carried out

using settlement and piezometer monitoring data. However, such analyses were

rarely carried out in practice. This paper briey discussed the determination of

average required discharge capacity, and eld measurement carried out at Changi

East reclamation project.

Discharge capacity is dened as the rate of water ow per unit hydraulic gradient.

Q dl

qw Q ; 1

i dh

where qw is rate of water ow per unit hydraulic gradient in m3/s, Q is average

quantity of water discharge per unit time (m3/s), i is hydraulic gradient and is

dimensionless, l is ow length and h is head of water (m). Since the discharge

capacity is dependent upon water ow rate, it is usually measured under a

temperature of 20 C (68 F).

Required discharge capacity was proposed by Mesri and Lo (1991) as 5 times the

discharge factor D based on back analysis data on three major embankment

projects. The discharge factor is dened as

qw

D 2

: 2

Kh lm

2

The required discharge capacity is qw 5 Kh lm where Kh is horizontal perme-

2

ability of soil and lm is maximum drainage length. For most clay, the required

discharge capacity varies from 2 to 80 m3/yr. Kamon et al. (1994) dened the

required discharged capacity as follows:

0:25 0:1 Fs H p Ch

qwreq ; 3

4Th

where qwreq is required discharge capacity in cm3/day, Th is dimensionless time

factor for radial drainage, Ch is horizontal coefcient of consolidation in cm2/day

and H is length of PVD in cm.

Since consolidation involves dissipation of water, total amount of water dissipated

is dependent on the compressibility of soil and the thickness of soil. Den Hoedt

(1981) stated that the required discharge capacity for a 100 mm width drain should

be at least 3 106 m3/s based on allowable settlement of 40 mm/day for a 30 m long

ARTICLE IN PRESS

M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748 39

gradient i of 0.6 and conning pressure of 100 kN/m2. Kremer et al. (1982)

proposed qw of 25 106 at 10 C under hydraulic gradient of unity and conning

pressure of 15 kN/m2. Holtz et al. (1991) recommended that the qw to be between

3 1069 106 m3/s under 300500 kN/m2 pressure.

A summary of the discharge capacity specied in a number of soil improvement

projects is presented in Table 1. It can be seen that the specied discharge capacity

ranges from 5 to 100 106 m3/s under straight condition and from 6.3 to

32.5 106 m3/s under buckling condition.

As a rule of thumb, the total volume of water to be discharged can be estimated

using the following equation:

Qv H ev De =22 p; 4

where Qv is volume of water drained out from soil in m3, H is thickness of soil in

meters, ev is volumetric strain and De is equivalent diameter of drain in meters. If the

time to complete the primary consolidation is known the average ow rate can be

calculated as

Qv

Q : 5

t

The initial hydraulic gradient can be estimated using the initial excess pore

pressure and the vertical drain length. Then the required average discharge capacity

becomes

Q Lgw H ev De =22 p L gw

qw ; 6

Dd0 t

0

Dd

where L is prefabricated vertical drain length in meters, Dd0 is additional effective

load (kN/m2) and gw is density of water (kN/m3).

Table 1

Summary of discharge capacity specied in different projects

Netherlands o10 m thick >10 350 kPa, 30 days >7.5 350 kPa

>10 m >50 350 kPa, 30 days, i 1 >32.5 350 kPa, 30 days

Singapore >25 350 kPa, 28 days >10

Thailand >16 200 kPa, 7 days, i 1

HongKong >5 200 kPa

Malaysia >6.3 400 kPa, i1 >6.3 400 kPa, 40 m

Australia >100 300 kPa

Finland >10

Greece >10 100 kPa

ARTICLE IN PRESS

40 M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748

Eq. (6) gives the requirement of average discharge capacity. Since rate of

settlement is varying during the consolidation process, the rate of ow will be faster

in the earlier and slower in the later stage. In that case discharge capacity required in

the earlier stage may be greater than average discharge capacity estimated from

Eq. (6).

Several pilot tests with PVD were carried out in Changi East Reclamation

Projects. Two different types of PVD such as Colbond CX1000 and Mebra MD7007

were used in these pilot test areas. Several different spacings were installed to the

various thickness of layers and various magnitude of load. Details of pilot test areas,

type of material used, spacing, length of PVD and magnitude of addition loads are

shown in Table 2 and layout of pilot tests areas from three different projects such as

Changi East Phase 1B, Phase 1C and Area A (North) are shown in Fig. 1.

Required average discharge capacity for each plot of PVD with various spacings

were estimated applying Eq. (6) and were shown together with manufacture

specication of discharge capacity and project specied discharge capacity

(Table 2). It can be seen that project specied discharge capacity is usually lower

than manufactures discharge capacity and generally much higher than estimated

required average discharge capacity. However, it should be noted that average

discharge capacity obtained from Eq. (6) is based on average rate of ow throughout

preloading period. In reality the rate of ow or rate of settlement is much faster in

early stage of settlement and much slower in later stage of settlement. Therefore,

actual required discharge capacity may be one or two order higher than that

suggested from Eq. (6). Therefore, the specied discharge capacity in an order of

25 106 m/s for straight condition and 10 106 m/s for buckled condition may be

the suitable values. It could be checked against eld measurement. It can be seen in

column 9 of Table 2 that estimated average discharge capacity is increasing with

drain spacing due to constant time duration required for consolidation was assumed

in the calculation. However, it is obvious that the closer the spacing the faster will be

the completion of consolidation period. Therefore time requirement were adjusted

for various drain spacing. It was found that the required average discharge capacities

are becoming much closer. However, it was still found that the wider the spacing the

greater was the average discharge capacity. It was also found that for the same drain

spacing the required average discharge capacity is increasing with thickness of clay to

be treated in other words increasing with magnitude of settlement.

Geotechnical instrumentation such as surface and deep settlement gauges and

piezometers were installed in each plot of test area. Settlement and pore pressure

were measured in weekly basis. Typical installation arrangement of settlement

gauges and piezometers is shown in Fig. 2. Comparative plot of settlement

measurements from each plot of test areas for three different projects are shown in

Fig. 3. Discharge rate of water was calculated from the settlement rate data and

hydraulic gradient was obtained from the piezometers monitoring data. Average

Table 2

Details of pilot areas, type of material used, spacing, length of PVD, magnitude of additional load and estimated discharge capacities

No. Project Type of Panel No. PVD PVD Thickness Additional Estimated ave. Estimated Manufacturer

drain spacing length of clay load discharge discharge specied

(m) (m) treated (kPa) capacity capacity discharge

(m) (m3/s 106) normalized capacity

by duration (m3/s 106)

of pre-loading

ARTICLE IN PRESS

(m3/s 106)

1 Phase 1B Colbond A2S-71 2.0 2.0 36.78 29 163 0.210 0.118 90.0

2 Colbond A2S-72 2.5 2.5 43.95 35 152 0.540 0.194

3 Colbond A2S-73 3.0 3.0 43.81 35 150 0.780 0.194

4 Phase 1C Mebra LOT 1.5M 1.5 1.5 43.01 33 181 0.144 0.144 90.0

5 Colbond LOT 1.5C 1.5 1.5 42.67 33 181 0.144 0.144

6 Mebra Holland LOT 1.5MH 1.5 1.5 42.91 33 181 0.144 0.144

7 Colbond LOT 1.8C 1.8 1.8 42.77 33 173 0.210 0.146

8 Mebra LOT 1.8M 1.8 1.8 42.94 33 178 0.210 0.146

9 Mebra LOT 1.8M (S) 1.8 1.8 34.39 25 182 0.117 0.081

10 Mebra LOT 1.8M (D) 1.8 1.8 46.05 37 173 0.270 0.188

11 Colbond LOT 2.0C 2.0 2.0 42.66 33 171 0.270 0.188

12 Mebra LOT 2.0M 2.0 2.0 43.14 33 171 0.270 0.188

13 Area A North Mebra Holland LOT 1.5M (H) 1.5 1.5 49.95 40 171 0.210 0.210 90.0

14 Mebra Malaysia LOT 1.5M (M) 1.5 1.5 49.89 40 181 0.210 0.210

15 Mebra Holland LOT 1.8M (H) 1.8 1.8 50.47 40 172 0.315 0.219

16 Mebra Malaysia LOT 1.8M (M) 1.8 1.8 50.52 40 178 0.315 0.219

41

ARTICLE IN PRESS

42 M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 1. Layout of Pilot test areas: (a) Phase 1B, (b) Phase 1C and (c) Area A (North).

ARTICLE IN PRESS

M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748 43

X 5727.19

X 5743.39

CLUSTER-01

Y-451.60 Y-451.60

LEGEND :

WS-Water Standpipe

SP-Settlement Plate

DS-Deep Settlement

PP-Pneumatic Piezometer

OP-Open type Piezometer

Y-464.20

( CLUSTER-01 )

discharge capacity could be calculated from the surface settlement data and average

hydraulic gradient obtained from the piezometers monitoring data. Discharge

capacity of each sector of PVD in various soil layers can be calculated using

differential settlement from two deep settlement gauges installed at top and bottom

ARTICLE IN PRESS

44 M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748

0

2.0m x 2.0m (Colbond)

2.5m x 2.5m (Colbond)

Settlement (m)

0.5

3.0m x 3.0m (Colbond)

1.5

2

0 500 1000 1500 2000

(a) Time (day)

1

Settlement (m)

2

2m x 2m (Mebra)

2m x 2m (Colband)

3 1.5m x 1.5m (Colbond)

1.5m x 1.5m (Mebra-Malaysia)

1.5m x 1.5m (Mebra-Holland)

4

0 500 1000 1500 2000

(b) Time (day)

0

1.5m x 1.5m Mebra (Holland)

1.5m x 1.5m Mebra (Malaysia)

1

Settlement (m)

1.8m x 1.8m Mebra (Malaysia)

2

4

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

(c) Time (day)

Fig. 3. Comparison of settlement measurement from each plots: (a) Phase 1B, (b) Phase 1C and (c) Area A

(North).

of the sub layers. Hydraulic gradient can be obtained from the excess pore pressure

measured at the center of sub-layers. For this exercise only the average discharge

capacities calculated with former method is described and explained.

The eld measured discharge capacity from various test areas are shown in

Table 3. It can be seen that highest discharge capacity was again measured at greater

spacing area with thicker clay and lowest discharge capacity was measured at smaller

spacing with thinner clay layer up to the spacing of 2.0 m 2.0 m. However

3.0 m 3.0 m spacing is found to be too wide and discharge capacity reduced

Table 3

Measured discharge capacity from various test areas in the eld

Project Square spacing (m)

1.5 1.5 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Colbond Mebra Colbond Mebra Colbond Mebra Colbond Colbond

Discharge capacity (m3/s) Discharge capacity (m3/s) Discharge capacity (m3/s) Discharge capacity (m3/s)

At 3 month 1.2E06 1.5E06 5.6E07

At 6 month 8.0E07 8.9E07 3.1E07

Minimum 2.5E08 6.2E08 2.6E08

At 3 month 5.3E07 4.2E07 5.0E07 5.7E07 6.7E07 6.3E07

At 6 month 2.6E07 2.2E07 6.2E07 2.6E07 8.7E07 6.6E07

Minimum 1.9E08 1.8E08 2.0E08 2.0E08 3.3E08 2.3E08

At 3 month 2.5E07 7.2E07

At 6 month 2.2E07 6.7E07

Minimum 2.1E08 4.0E08

45

ARTICLE IN PRESS

46 M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748

2.0E-06

1.8E-06 2.0 x 2.0 (Colbond)

1.6E-06

1.4E-06 2.5 x 2.5 (Colbond)

Q/l (m/s)

1.2E-06 3.0 x 3.0 (Colbond)

1.0E-06

8.0E-07

6.0E-07

4.0E-07

2.0E-07

0.0E+00

1 10 100 1000 10000

(a) Duration (day)

2.5E-06

1.8 x 1.8 Colbond

2.0E-06 1.8 x 1.8 Mebra (Malaysia)

1.8 x 1.8 Mebra (Malaysia)

2.0 x 2.0 Colbond

Q/l (m/s)

1.5 x 1.5 (Colbond)

1.5 x 1.5 Mebra (Malaysia)

1.0E-06 1.5 x 1.5 Mebra (Holland)

5.0E-07

0.0E+00

1 10 100 1000 10000

(b) Duration (day)

5.0E-06

1.5 x 1.5 Mebra (Malaysia)

4.0E-06

1.5 x 1.5 Mebra (Holland)

1.8 x 1.8 Mebra (Malaysia)

Q/l (m/s)

3.0E-06

1.8 x 1.8 Mebra (Holland)

2.0E-06

1.0E-06

0.0E+00

1 10 100 1000 10000

(c) Duration (day)

Fig. 4. Comparison of discharge capacity from various drain spacing: (a) Phase 1B, (b) Phase 1C and

(c) Area A (North).

areas from each pilot tests are shown in Fig. 4. It was found that maximum discharge

capacity measured at initial stage was 13 106 m/s and minimum discharge

capacity measured at initial stage was 8.5 107 m/s. Therefore, it can be concluded

that the specied discharge capacity of 25 106 m/s for straight condition and

10 106 m/s for buckled conditions are not far from eld measured discharge

capacity ranging between 0.85 106 and 13 106 m/s and is much greater than

minimum discharge capacity measured at later stage ranging between 1.8 108 and

6.2 108 m/s. It can be seen in the table that the discharge capacities measured are

reduced to one order of magnitude usually at 3 months after consolidation especially

ARTICLE IN PRESS

M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748 47

spacing. The slight variation of discharge capacities for the same drain spacing with

the same type of drain in Phase 1C project for similar thickness of clay layers is due

to boundary effect explained by Bo et al. (1999). It was also reected in the

settlement measurement shown in Fig. 3.

It was also found that highest discharge capacity was occurred during rst

months. For most spacings minimum discharge capacities are two order lower than

maximum discharge capacity measured at initial stage.

5. Conclusion

* For implementation of PVD project, discharge capacity is the most important

parameter from the performance point of view among the material quality of

PVD.

* Required discharge capacity is generally specied between 6.3 106 and

32.5 106 m/s. However actual mobilized eld discharge capacity was rarely

documented.

* Average required discharge capacity can be calculated mathematically. However,

actual eld mobilized discharge capacity can be one or two orders higher than

average required discharge capacity values since settlement rate was much faster

in early stage of consolidation.

* Field mobilized discharge capacities were measured with the help of settlement

and piezometer monitoring data. It was found that eld mobilized discharge

capacity is increasing with decreasing spacing for the drain spacing of between

1.5 m 1.5 m and 2.0 m 2.0 m. For the same spacing eld discharge capacity is

increasing with increasing thickness of compressible layer.

* Maximum eld mobilized discharge capacities are ranging between 8.5 107 and

13.0 106 m/s and are quite closed to the specied discharge capacity of

25 106 m/s.

* However, minimum discharge capacities measured are much lower than specied

buckled discharge capacity of 10 106 m/s.

Acknowledgements

The author like to express his thanks to Mr. Kyaw Win Oo, Mr. Joel Z. Indedanio

and Mr. Hla Shwe of Hyundai Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd. for their

graphical works and assistance in preparation of this paper.

References

Bo, M.W., Bawajee, R., Choa, V., 1999. Comparative study on performance of vertical drain. In: Hong,

et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical

Engineering, August 1999. Balkema, Rotterdam, Seoul, Korea.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

48 M.W. Bo / Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22 (2004) 3748

Bo, M.W., Chu, J., Choa, V., 2000. Discharge capacity of prefabricated vertical drain. In: Proceedings of

the Second Asian Geosynthetics Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, May 2000, pp. 2931.

Den Hoeot, G., 1981. Laboratory testing of vertical drains. In: Proceedings of the 10th International

Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 1, Stockholm, pp. 627630.

Holtz, R.D., Jamiolkoweki, M.B., Lancellotto, R., Pedroni, R., 1991. Prefabricated Vertical Drains:

Design and Performance. Butterworth Heinnemann, Stoneham, MA.

Kamon, M., Pradahon, T.B.S., Suwa, S., Hanyo, T., Akai, T., Imanishi, H., 1994. The evaluation of

discharge capacity of prefabricated bond shaped drains. In: Proceedings Symposium on Geotexile Test

Methods, JSSMFE, Tokyo, pp. 7782.

Kremer, R., De Japer, W., Maagdenberg, A., Megrogel, I., Oostveen, J., 1982. Quality standards for

vertical drains. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Vol. 2.

Las Vegas, Nevada, NV, pp. 319324.

Mesri, G., Lo, D.O.K., 1991. Field Performance of prefabricated vertical drains. In: Proceedings

International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering for Coastal Development, Vol. 1,

Yokohama, pp. 231236.

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