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- 6 Review of Fundamentals Fluid Flow
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OBJECTIVE

To measure the water flow rate and head loss from Venturi meter.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this experiment, students should be able to:

a. Understand the concept and theory of flow rate and head loss in Venturi meter.

b. Fabricate the Venturi meter design and conduct the experiment.

c. Calculate the water flow and head loss by using the Bernoullis equation and Continuity

equation.

3. INTRODUCTION

When a pipe is constricted at a point because of a change in pipe diameter, it creates a drop in

pressure due to the increase of velocity. This pressure change, measured by a manometer, can

be used to estimate the flow rate in a pipe (Cengel & Cimbala, 2013). Venturi meter is one

type of obstruction flowmeter. Venturi flowmeter is created from converging and diverging

cones or in other word from large diameter to small diameter of the pipe. In daily engineering

application, this flowmeter can be used to determine flow rate for many fluid transport systems

such as irrigation and plumbing. This is very important in order to regulate or adjust an accurate

flow rate so the pump size can be determining to deliver the fluid.

4. THEORY

Consider the flow is incompressible, inviscid flow through venture meter. The cross section

area at the upstream section 1 is A1, the throat section 2 is A2. Piezometer tubes at these sections

state as h1, h2 above the datum line. If the tube is in inclination position, the datum is necessity

to be horizontal. Assuming the flow to be one-dimensional, so that the velocity and the piezo

metric head vary only in the direction of the tube length. There are some losses due to pipe

frictional loss and loss through pipe fittings such as elbows, tees, reducers and valves [1]. These

losses known as head loss, . The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between

pressure, velocity, and elevation, and is valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow [2].

Bernoulli's principle indicates that the pressure in the constriction should be lower and higher

velocity [3]. We may then treat the convergent-divergent pipe as a stream tube, along which

Bernoullis theorem states,

1 1 2 2 2 2

+ + 1 = + + 2 +

2 2

= 1 1 = 2 2 (2)

which Q denotes the rate of volume flow. Head loss equation form by substitute equation

(2) into (1),

1 1 2 2 2 2

+ + 1 = + + 2 +

2 2

12 22

1 2 + =

2

1 1

2 ( 2 )

1 2 2

= (1 2 ) +

2

where 1 and 2 are in horizontal (same datum).

To find out the flow rate in term of Bernoulli equation,

2 2

1 ( )

2 ( )

+ 1 = + 2 +

2 2

1 1

2 ( 2 2)

2 1 (1 2 )

=

2

2[(1 2 ) ]

=

1 2 1 2

( ) ( )

2 1

2[(1 2 ) (1 2 )]

=

1 2 1 2

( ) ( )

2 1

No. Material Dimension

1. PVC pipe 18mm in diameter,

20cm in length

2. PVC pipe 30mm in diameter,

30cm in length

3. PVC pipe adapter connector 18mm to 30mm in

diameter

4. PVC pipe end cap 30mm in diameter

5. Transparent tube 4mm in diameter

No. Equipment

1. Stopwatch

2. Ruler

3. Measuring jug

4. Marker

6. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE

6.2 The control valve of inlet pipe, Venturi meter pipe (convergent zone) and

Manometer U-tube are closed.

6.3 Water as working fluid is allowed to flow in and the water flow is regulated to

achieve steady flow through Venturi meter.

6.4 Certain volume of water discharged from outlet valve is collected in tank and the

time taken is noted.

6.5 The reading (height of water) in the left limb and right limb of Manometer U-tube

is jotted down.

6.6 The steps above are repeated for three times by controlling the inlet valve.

7. RESULT

No. Volume, Time, Flow Height, Height, Height Head Flow Rate,

V (m3) t (s) Rate, Q h1 (m) h2 (m) Difference Loss, hL Q (m3/s)

(m3/s) of (m) x10-4

x10-4 Manometer, x10-3 (Formula)

h1- h2 (m)

1 0.01 26.30 3.8023 0.28 0.018 0.262 6.1624 4.2437

2 0.01 25.14 3.9777 0.33 0.028 0.302 7.1090 4.5561

3 0.01 24.01 4.1649 0.38 0.059 0.321 7.5609 4.6972

4 0.01 22.30 4.4843 0.43 0.080 0.350 8.2428 4.9048

5 0.01 21.23 4.7010 0.48 0.089 0.391 9.1977 5.1842

10

y = 3.2298x - 7.5811

9 R = 0.9992

8

Head Loss, hL (m)

6

x10-3

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

8. CALCULATION

3.8023104

1000 0.015

0.00752

Reynold number, = =

1.12103

= 28816

1 6.9 0/ 1.11

= 1.8 [ +( ) ]

28816 3.7

f= 0.02354

2[(1 2 ) (1 2 )]

=

1 2 1 2

( ) ( )

2 1

2 9.81[(0.262) 0.02354(0.262)]

= 2 2

1 1

[( ) ( ) ]

0.00752 0.01252

= 4.2437x10-4 m3/s

1 1

2 ( 2 )

1 2 2

= (1 2 ) +

2

1 1

(4.2437 104 )2 ( )

( 0.01252 )2 ( 0.00752 )2

= (0.262) +

2 9.81

= 6.1624 x10-3 m

Repeat the calculation for experiment 2 to 5 by applying the formula.

9. OBSERVATION

This experiment has been conducted in Fluid Mechanics Laboratory as the requirement for this

experiment is the flow in pipe must be fully developed, so the usage of water pump and

collecting tank during this experiment is very crucial. This experiment was conducted as our

group member were divided to each task such as take reading from the collecting tank, measure

the time taken for water to fill the collecting tank, measure the height difference for the

manometer, record the video, set up the discharge valve to adjust the flow rate of the water

pump and record the data on the result and data form. During this experiment, our group have

encountered several problems such as connecting the Venturi meter to the inlet pipe of the

pump. This problem occurred because the hose of the inlet pump is not matching with the

Venturi meter pipe. So, in order to deal with this problem is using another pipe adapter and

cable tie to connect the hose to the pipe. Besides that, leakage was occurred during the

experiment that can affect the result of the experiment as the fluid flow is not stable if there is

leakage. So, this problem was solved by sealing the leakage between the connector by using

the white tape. Next, the presence of air bubble in manometer also affect the result for this

experiment especially when the reading of manometer is taken. This problem maybe occurred

because the inlet pipe is not full with water as the region is not fully develop yet and to solve

this problem is squeezing the manometer to remove the air bubble and maximize the fluid flow

and then regulate it at some point that known as starting point to conduct the experiment.

Based on the result, hypothesis can be concluded which is the relationship between the flow

rate and head loss is directly proportional. This is because the higher the flow rate, the higher

the head loss take place. From the graph of flow rate against head loss and graph of height

difference against flow rate, it shows that flow rate was rise steadily with respect to the

differential head. As the Bernoullis equation state that when a fluid in flow undergoes a rise

in pressure then its velocity must be decrease. This is because when the pressure in pipe is high

but the velocity is not decreasing, it will take damage as it cannot withstand as a high pressure

in that high velocity of fluid. The relation between Bernoullis equation, Continuity equation

and energy balance have been showed through the entire experiment especially at calculation

part. As there are several error and problem that occurs during this experiment, so some

recommendation was suggested to improve the experiment efficiency. The recommendations

are: -

To avoid parallax error during the measurement of data, use the white paper behind the

manometer when the data is taken to make eyes easier to see the measurement as scale

is sometimes is not clear because of the color of the plywood or board.

To avoid instrument error during the experiment, always make sure the equipment that

wanted to use is in good condition such as the stop watch that take the time reading can

be functioning properly.

To avoid environment error, the suitable place to conduct the experiment is very

important to choose as the experiment need to be conducting in controlled space where

there is no environment factor such as weather that can affect the stability of the

experiment.

11. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this experiment has been successfully achieved its objective and learning

outcomes at the end of this experiment. This experiment of flow through Venturi meter shows

that as the flow rate increases, the head loss taken also increases. It is because the energy losses

for the Venturi flowmeter was found to stay relative constant as velocity increased. It also can

have concluded that the large change in pressure or pressure drop will damage the pipe as it

cannot withstand the pressure inside the pipe. Errors have been discussed which are several

errors can take place such as parallax error, human error that caused from repetitive error,

environment error and instrument error. So in order to fix it, the several recommendation has

been listed out to improve the effectiveness for this experiment. Lastly, this open ended

laboratory experiment has help student to manage and handle the group project together as a

team to solve the task that have been given.

12. REFERENCES

a. Sodiki J. I., Statistical Modeling of Head Loss Components in Water Distribution

within Buildings, Journal of Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Feb 2014), p. 101.

b. Yunus A. C. and John M. C. (2013). Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and

Applications., 3th Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill

c. Replogle, J.A., Wahlin B (1994). Venturi Meter Construction for Plastic Irrigation

Pipelines. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 10(1), 21-26.

d. Sciphile. Bernoulli's Principle and the Venturi Tube,

http://sciphile.org/lessons/bernoullis-principle-and-venturi-tube (Oct. 2013)

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