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Uploaded by Mark M. Wilde

We show that the max-Rains information of a quantum channel is an efficiently computable, single-letter strong converse upper bound for transmitting quantum information over quantum channels when assisted by positive-partial-transpose (PPT) preserving channels between every use of the channel. This includes in particular the quantum capacity with local operations and classical communication (LOCC) assistance. For our proof we make use of the amortized entanglement of quantum channels, which is defined as the largest net amount of entanglement that can be generated if the sender and receiver are allowed to share an arbitrary state before using the channel. Our main technical result is that amortization does not enhance the entanglement of quantum channels when entanglement is quantified by the max-Rains relative entropy. We prove this statement by employing semi-definite programming (SDP) duality and SDP formulations for the max-Rains relative entropy and the channel’s max-Rains information, found recently in [Wang et al., arXiv:1709.00200].

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Quantum Capacity

Mark M. Wilde

Department of Physics and Astronomy,

Center for Computation and Technology,

Louisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

mwilde@lsu.edu

joint work with Mario Berta, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London, UK

Vail, Colorado, USA

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Main message

communication rates over quantum channels

the quantum capacity assisted by local operations and classical

communication (LOCC-assisted quantum capacity) [BDSW96].

quantum channel is an efficiently computable, single-letter,

strong-converse upper bound on the LOCC-assisted quantum capacity

of an arbitrary quantum channel.

capacity, which applies to an arbitrary quantum channel.

LOCC channel

assumes that Alice and Bob can communicate classical data for free.

performing a quantum instrument, sending classical outcome to Bob,

who performs a quantum channel conditioned on the classical data.

1-way LOCC channels from Alice to Bob and then from Bob to Alice.

LOCC channel (ctd.)

X

z z

LAB→A0 B 0 (ρAB ) = EA→A 0 ⊗ FB→B 0 (ρAB ),

z

where {EA→A z

0 }z and {FB→B 0 }z are sets of completely positive, trace

trace-preserving map (quantum channel).

LOCC-assisted quantum communication

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn

LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

over the quantum channel N calls the channel n times.

In between every channel use, Alice and Bob are allowed to perform

an LOCC channel for free.

The final state ωMA MB should have fidelity larger than 1 − ε with a

maximally entangled state ΦMA MB of Schmidt rank M:

LOCC-assisted quantum capacity

for all ε ∈ (0, 1] and δ > 0, there exists an (n, 2n(R−δ) , ε)

LOCC-assisted quantum communication protocol.

Q ↔ (N ), is equal to the supremum of all achievable rates.

communication if for all ε ∈ [0, 1) and δ > 0, there does not exist an

(n, 2n(R+δ) , ε) LOCC-assisted quantum communication protocol.

channel N , denoted by Q ↔† (N ), is equal to the infimum of all strong

converse rates.

From definitions, Q ↔ (N ) ≤ Q ↔† (N ).

PPT-P channels

(PPT-P) channels [Rai99, Rai01]. Every LOCC channel is a PPT-P

channel.

TB 0 ◦ PAB→A0 B 0 ◦ TB is a quantum channel, where T denotes the

transpose map.

PPT-P-assisted quantum capacity

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn

PPT-P N PPT-P N PPT-P PPT-P N PPT-P

what we defined previously for LOCC, except we allow Alice and Bob

to employ PPT-P channels interleaved between every channel use.

capacity are defined similarly. Denote capacity by Q PPT-P,↔ (N ) and

strong converse capacity by Q PPT-P,↔† (N ). From definitions,

Q ↔ (N ) ≤ Q PPT-P,↔ (N ) and Q ↔† (N ) ≤ Q PPT-P,↔† (N ).

Entanglement of a quantum channel

defining the entanglement of the channel.

bipartite state ρAB (E should be monotone under LOCC and equal to

zero for separable states). If analyzing PPT-P-assisted protocols, it

should be monotone under PPT-P and equal to zero for PPT states.

separable or PPT states [VP98, Rai99, Rai01].

Entanglement of a quantum channel (ctd.)

entanglement the channel can generate, if there is none available to

begin with:

E (N ) = sup E (S; B)ω

ψSA

|ψ〉SA

A B

N

Amortized entanglement of a quantum channel [KW18]

Need a general approach to analyze LOCC-assisted quantum capacity

For an entanglement measure E , amortized entanglement EA (N )

of a quantum channel N is helpful [KW18]:

EA (N ) = sup E (A; BB 0 )τ − E (A0 A; B 0 )ρ

ρA0 AB 0

A’

Alice

A B

NA→B

Bob

B’

entanglement of the channel.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 11 / 24

Amortized entanglement of a quantum channel (ctd.)

than its entanglement:

E (N ) ≤ EA (N )

E (N ) = EA (N ). If it does, then this collapse leads to good bounds

on LOCC-assisted capacity.

when E is the max-Rains relative entropy entanglement measure.

Amortized entanglement as a general bound [KW18]

How to use amortized entanglement to bound capacity?

E (MA ; MB )ω ≤ E (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n) = E (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n) − E (A01 A1 ; B10 )ρ(1)

n

X

= E (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n) − E (A01 A1 ; B10 )ρ(1) + E (A0i Ai ; Bi0 )ρ(i) − E (A0i Ai ; Bi0 )ρ(i)

i=2

n

X

≤ E (A0i ; Bi Bi0 )σ(i) − E (A0i Ai ; Bi0 )ρ(i)

i=1

≤ n · EA (N )

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 13 / 24

Amortized entanglement as a general bound (ctd.)

The entanglement of the final state ωMA MB is bounded from above by n

times the amortized entanglement of the channel:

E (MA ; MB )ω ≤ n · EA (N )

parameters of (n, M, ε) protocol and to determine whether

EA (N ) = E (N ) for a given entanglement measure E .

Summary of main result

results is that

1 − ε ≤ 2−n[Q−Rmax (N )]

1

where Q = n log2 M is the quantum communication rate.

communication:

Q PPT-P,↔† (N ) ≤ Rmax (N ).

Max-Rains relative entropy of a bipartite state

relative entropy Rmax (A; B)ρ of a bipartite state ρAB :

σAB ∈PPT0 (A:B)

where

0

PPT (A : B) = {σAB | σAB ≥ 0 ∧ kTB (σAB )k1 ≤ 1} [ADMVW02]

Max-Rains relative entropy of a bipartite state (ctd.)

[WD16]

Rmax (A; B)ρ = log2 W (A; B)ρ ,

where W (A; B)ρ is the solution to the following semi-definite program:

subject to CAB , DAB ≥ 0,

TB (CAB − DAB ) ≥ ρAB .

Max-Rains information of a quantum channel

ψSA

the solution to the following semi-definite program [WFD17]:

subject to YSB , VSB ≥ 0,

N

TB (VSB − YSB ) ≥ JSB ,

N is the Choi operator for the channel N .

and JSB

Amortization does not increase the max-Rains information

Our main technical result is that amortization does not increase the

max-Rains information of a quantum channel, in the sense that

Amortization collapse

Let ρA0 AB 0 be a state and let NA→B be a quantum channel. Then

Final proof steps

Summary and conclusion

communication (LOCC-assisted quantum capacity) is relevant

quantity for characterizing the performance of distributed quantum

computation.

channel is an efficiently computable, single-letter, strong-converse

upper bound on the LOCC-assisted quantum capacity of an arbitrary

quantum channel.

capacity, which applies to an arbitrary quantum channel.

References I

Reinhard F. Werner. Asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement for

orthogonally invariant states. Physical Review A, 66(3):032310,

September 2002. arXiv:quant-ph/0204143.

William K. Wootters. Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error

correction. Physical Review A, 54(5):3824–3851, November 1996.

arXiv:quant-ph/9604024.

entanglement monotone. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,

55(6):2816–2826, June 2009. arXiv:0803.2770.

Horodecki. Quantum entanglement. Reviews of Modern Physics,

81(2):865–942, June 2009. arXiv:quant-ph/0702225.

References II

channel and approximately teleportation-simulable channels. Journal of

Physics A, 51(3):035303, January 2018. arXiv:1707.07721.

60(1):179–184, July 1999. arXiv:quant-ph/9809082.

Transactions on Information Theory, 47(7):2921–2933, November 2001.

arXiv:quant-ph/0008047.

purification procedures. Physical Review A, 57(3):1619–1633, March

1998. arXiv:quant-ph/9707035.

upper bound on distillable entanglement. Physical Review A,

94(5):050301, November 2016. arXiv:1601.07940.

References III

[WFD17] Xin Wang, Kun Fang, and Runyao Duan. Semidefinite programming

converse bounds for quantum communication. September 2017.

arXiv:1709.00200.

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