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# LABORATORY EXERCISE NO.

1

I. INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION:
Ideas in electronics and electricity are conveyed in diagrams called schematic
diagrams. It shows the components and their interconnections. Each graphical symbol is
accompanied with a reference designation to distinguish it from other similar symbols.

In electronics, the reference designation is the letter and the number nearest the
graphic symbol. For example, a section of a circuit is as follows:
C1
Q1
SPKR
R1

## Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of a Simple Circuit

The reference designations are R1, Q1, C1 and SPKR. Their values or actual
descriptions are given in the parts lists:
R1 - 10K Ω +/- 5% resistor
C1 - 470 uF/16V electrolytic capacitor
Q1 - 9013 NPN audio output transistor
SPKR - 8 Ω 0.5 W 2 inches Ø

The other commonly used way of expressing ideas is with the use of block
diagrams. This form uses blocks, triangles or rectangles to represent group of
components doing a certain function.

The other form of diagram that is very useful is the wiring diagram. It shows the
actual wiring or placement of the actual components.

## There are rules or conventions commonly applied in using schematic diagrams;

the most common are:
1. Signal flow is from left to right.
2. Voltage potentials are indicated of the highest potential placed at the upper portion of
the diagram and the ground at the bottom.
3. The meaning of a symbol does not change with its position, size, or line width.
4. Dashed lines may be used to represent an optional component.
5. Dashed lines may be used to indicate components enclosed in a single unit.
6. Arrows and brackets are used where connecting lines or group of lines could not be
continued (or interrupted).

II. OBJECTIVES
To develop skills in identifying the commonly used components or parts in
electronics and electricity and be able to interpret correctly the standard symbols for
each of these components.

IV. MATERIALS:
Books/ magazines or other references on electronics and electricity

V. PROCEDURE:

A. Using all available references, draw the schematic diagrams of the following
components/items:
1. resistors 17. receptacle outlets
a. fixed a. single
b. variable b. duplex
2. capacitor c. triplex
a. fixed d. range
b. variable e. clock hanger
3. inductor f. single, floor
a. fixed 18. lighting outlet
b. variable a. surface, fixture ceiling
4. battery b. surface, fixture wall
5. ground c. exit light, ceiling
6. wires connected d. exit light, wall
7. wires not connected e. junction box, ceiling
8. transformers f. junction box, wall
a. iron core 19. push button
b. air core 20. buzzer
c. power transformer 21. bell
9. antenna, general 22. chime
10. chassis 23. electric door opener
11. fuse 24. outside telephone
13. transistor 26. wiring exposed, wall
a. NPN 27. wiring exposed, floor
b. PNP 28. smoke detector
14. switch outlets 29. motor connection
a. SPST 30. telephone outlet
b. DPST a. floor
c. three-way b. wall
d. four-way 31. electric meter
15. Light Emitting Diode (LED) 32. voltmeter
16. fluorescent fixture 33. ammeter
B. Schematic diagrams must be drawn in the cells provided in the activity part of the
exercise..

VI. QUESTIONS:

## 1. Give your observations on the difference of the schematic diagrams between

fixed and variable components.

2. In your searching for the not commonly used schematic symbols, which
components have variability in symbols?

3. Can you give the reasons why electronic/electric components use upper case

4. Give at least three (3) advantages of knowing the various schematic symbols
when dealing with electricity. What are the other applications other than being
able to know these symbols?

5. Did you find the symbols the same when you refer to various references ? If not,
why do you think there’s the difference?

6. Give at least five references/ resource materials that you used for this activity.
Name:_______________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

VI. RESULTS

## Iron core Air Core

Wires Connected Wires not Connected Transformers Transformers

Power Transformer
General Antenna Chassis Fuse

Thermocouple
NPN transistor PNP transistor SPST switch outlets

DPST switch
Three-way Four-way Light Emitting Diode
outlets
switch outlets switch outlets (LED)

## Single Duplex Triplex

Fluorescent fixture
receptacle outlets receptacle outlets receptacle outlets

Range
Clock hanger Single, floor lighting outlet surface,
receptacle outlets fixture ceiling
receptacle outlets receptacle outlets
lighting outlet
surface, fixture
lighting outlet lighting outlet lighting outlet
wall
exit light, ceiling exit light, wall junction box, ceiling

lighting outlet
junction box, wall
Push button buzzer Bell

Chime
Electric door opener Outside telephone radio/TV outlet

wiring exposed,
wall
wiring exposed, floor smoke detector motor connection

Floor
telephone outlet
Wall telephone outlet electric meter Push button
swith(NO)

VI. CONCLUSION
LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 2
Multitesters

I. INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION
Parts of a Multitester

A. Preliminary Procedures.

Whatever type of multitester you have to use, before making any measurement
you have to perform basic procedures.

1. Connect the test probes to the appropriate jacks. The red test probe to + jack
and the black to the - com jack.
2. See if the pointer rest exactly at the (0) zero position situated at the left side of
the scale. If the pointer at off position does not rest at the zero scale on the
left, carefully adjust the zero corrector with light weight screw driver.

## 3. Check the probes if they are OK by performing the next procedure.

4. Rotate the multitester selector towards the x1 ohm range (resistance range) .
Short the probes together. The pointer must deflect towards 0 ohm position.
This indicates that the probes are good.

5. Short the probes together. The pointer must rest exactly at the 0 position. This
may be adjusted through the 0 ohm adjustment knob. If did not deflect at all,
check the probes, there's possibility that one is broken or open at some point.
If the pointer could not rest exactly at right hand end of the scale no matter
how the circuit 0 ohm adj. is adjusted, replace the batteries of the multitester
(two size AA and one 9-V batteries).

## 6. Now, you may proceed to the appropriate measurement desired.

B. Voltage Measurements

When measuring voltages, AC, or DC, the meter is placed parallel with the
component or circuit being measured.

Set the function selector knob or the range selector to proper scale range. The
chosen scale range must be higher than that of the anticipated voltage to be measured. If
in doubt or you don' t have any idea, choose the higher voltage range of the multitester
and gradually move down to the lower scale range that will give a good mid AC reading.

## The proper scale range should be:

AC if it's an AC Voltage
DC if it's a DC Voltage
Output if it's a purely AC Voltage

C. DC Voltages.

## 1. Always observe the correct probe polarity.

2. If the meter needle deflects to the left of the 0 position, the polarity is opposite to
that of the probes to the circuit

3. If the pointer swings beyond the scale limit on the right, immediately disconnect
the probe. The setting of the range selector switch is insufficient. Move the switch
to a higher range scale.

4. Even if a tester is set at the DC voltage function, an analog meter would also
respond to an AC voltage. The reading, however, would be erroneous.

## DC voltage scale plate

(with ranges 10, 50, 250V

## Fig. 2.1 AC voltage scale plate

with ranges 10, 50,
250V
Note : The scaleplate with label (DCV) is used to read DC voltage.

D. AC Voltages (The scaleplate with label ACV) with red scale corresponds to measuring
AC voltages.

1. The analog voltmeter responds to both AC and DC voltages even if the function
switch is set at the AC voltage range of function. The voltmeter cannot distinguish
the AC from the DC voltage, hence, an erroneous reading be registered when both
types of voltages are present.
2. To measure AC voltage only, a 0.1 to 0.5 pF may be inserted to one of the probes.
Some multitesters have built in internal capacitors eliminating the need of a series
capacitor. It is labeled Output jack.

3. AC voltage readings on the multitester is the voltage or simply the average value.

E. DC Current Measurements

When current is to be measured, the meter must be connected in series with the
circuit or load and the power source.

The + or red probe must be connected to the positive side. Initially set the selector
switch to the highest DCmA range and progressively to the next lower range until the
reading deflect between half to 2/3 of the, scale. If the needle deflects to the 0 position,
interchange the probes.

F. Resistance Measurements

## To measure resistance, the multitester is connected across the particular component.

1. Select the desired resistance range by moving the selector switch to the ohm
range: x1, x10, x1K x10K. Again select the scale that would cause the pointer to
deflect to no more than 2/3 of the full scale.

2. Clip the probes together and set the pointer to zero by adjusting the 0 ohm adj.

3. Place the probes across the component whose resistance will be measured.

4. Multiply the reading obtained with the multiplier of the selector switch:

Ex.

30 on the Xl 30 * 1 = 30 ohms
45 on the X10 45 * 10 = 450 ohms
12 on the X1K 12 * 1K = 12 kilohms

5. Always set the 0 ohm adj whenever switching to the ohm range or from one range
to the other.
6. When measuring connected components, one of its terminals must be
disconnected in the circuit. It might be connected in parallel with another
component.

7. Switch off power source when making measurement to avoid damage to the
equipment.

## G. The Digital; Multimeter.

The Digital Multitester is operated just like the analog multimeter. The main
difference is their display of information. The analog displays the parameters are direct
values or numbers.

The Digital multitester will display a (minus) sign if the polarity is reversed. It
will display 1 (located at left end of the display) if the selected range is insufficient or the
resistance is infinite or an open circuit.

II. Objectives

III. Materials

## Analog multitester, digital meter and accessories

IV. PROCEDURE

A. Analog Multimeter

1. Examine the meter assigned to you. Draw a panel view of the meter showing
operating controls and the function /range switches. draw also the voltage scale
and ohms scale.

2. Set the function switch to DCV vary the zero adjustment control and observe its
effect on the pointer. Now, turn the range switch through every setting and check
if the meter pointer remains on zero.

Note: A well designed properly adjusted meter should remain its zero setting on every
voltage function and range.
3. Set the function switch to Ohm (0) Rx1. Short the test probes. The pointer should
swing to zero. If it does not come to rest to zero with 'the leads shorted”, set it on
zero with the zero ohm adjustment knob. Now, open the leads and check the
position of the pointer. If it no longer on the maximum resistance marker (infinity)
set it there with the zero adjuster.

Note: Do not leave the meter leads shorted together on ohms for any length of time.
In the ohms position , an internal battery is connected in the circuit. The battery
voltage will be greatly reduced in a short period of time if the leads remain shorted
together.

## 4. Summarize your observations in Table 2.1

Table 2.1 Function switch settings and initial readings of the analog meter

## Function Switch Initial Readings / Remarks

ACV (any setting)
DCV (any setting)
OHM (any setting)
DCmA (any setting)
OHM x1 (shorted) Can still be adjusted to 0 Ω: yes [ ] no [ ]
OHM x10K (shorted) Can still be adjusted to 0 Ω: yes [ ] no [ ]

B. Digital Multimeter

## 1. Examine the digital multimeter and draw its panel view.

2. Set the function/ range switch to different settings and list its initial reading.

Table 2.2 Function switch settings and initial readings of the digital meter

ACV (any setting)
DCV (any setting)
OHM 200
OHM 20M
DCA 200m

## Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________

Lab Time & Date: ________________

Multitesters

## V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 2.1 Function switch settings and initial readings of the analog meter

## Function Switch Initial Readings / Remarks

ACV (any setting)
DCV (any setting)
OHM (any setting)
DCmA (any setting)
OHM x1 (shorted) Can still be adjusted to 0 Ω: yes [ ] no [ ]
OHM x10K (shorted) Can still be adjusted to 0 Ω: yes [ ] no [ ]

Table 2.2 Function switch settings and initial readings of the digital meter

ACV (any setting)
DCV (any setting)
OHM 200
OHM 20M
DCA 200m

VI. QUESTIONS:

1. List the controls on the panel of an analog multimeter and state the purpose of

2. Is it possible to use the same scale on the 3 volt range as on the 300 volt range of your
meter? Explain.

3. Draw a nonlinear scale with number calibrations 0, 1, 2, up to 10. Set off each major
subdivisions into ten minor subdivisions. Show where 8.7 would be on the scale.
specifically to resistance calibrations.

5. Explain in detail how would you zero the meter for DCV 50 voltage readings. Identify
the control or controls you would use.

6. Explain in detail how you would check to determine if an analog meter improperly
zeroed on the R*1k range. Identify the controls you would use.
Name : _____________________________ Year & Section : ______ Sked : _______

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 3

Measuring Resistance

I. INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

## The service technician must be able to measure resistance accurately. This

measurement is probably the most often used check in electronic servicing to find bad
components and circuits.

The ohm is the unit of the resistance. The measuring of resistance is one of the
functions of a multimeter. Each manufacturer provides operating instructions for the use
of each particular instrument. It will therefore be necessary to refer to the instruction
manual before using any multimeter.

One fact common to all VOM's is that they contain a basic resistance scale from
which readings are made in ohms directly on the Rx1 range of the meter. Notice that the
ohm scale is not linear, that is the arc distance between numbers is not equal. Also, note
that the scale calibrations are numbered and so the user has to supply numbers for the
unnumbered marks.

To read resistance values greater that the maximum value shown on the basic
scale, a higher range must be selected. So in addition on the Rx1 scale there will usually
be found Rx10, Rx1K and others. In the Rx1K range any reading made on the basic must
be multiplied by 1000. In the Rx10K, any reading must be multiplied by 10,000.

## ZEROING THE METER

All nondigital ohmmeters and some digital ohmmeters have a zero ohm control.
This control is used to calibrate or adjust the meter to zero; this is similar to setting a
clock to the correct time. It is necessary to make sure that the meter is zeroed before each
measurement and each time ranges are changed.
Resistor Color Coding..

The colors brown, red, green, blue, and violet are used as
tolerance codes on 5-band resistors only. All 5-band resistors
use a colored tolerance band. The blank (20%) “band” is only
used with the “4-band” code (3 colored bands + a blank “band”).
Example #1

## A resistor colored Yellow-Violet-Orange-Gold would be 47 kΩ

with a tolerance of +/- 5%.

Example #2
II. OBJECTIVES
1. To get familiar with zeroing the analog meter.
2. To gain experience in measuring the resistance of different resistors using a
digital meter.

III. MATERIALS
Equipment: Digital and analog multimeters
Resistors: at least twenty different values

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Secure the resistor to be used for this experiment.
2. Refer to the instruction manual of the multimeter for procedure in zeroing the
meter or refer to previous lessons.
3. Zero the meter,
4. Measure each resistor with the ohmmeter.

NOTE: Do not touch leads of the resistor or the metal parts of the probes while
measuring resistance as this will result in a reading error, especially on the high
resistance ranges.

## 5. Fill in the information required in Table 1.

6. Use a digital multitester to measure same samples and fill in data in Table 1.

## SAMPLES Color codes Resistance range remarks

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 3

Measuring Resistance

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

## VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

VII. PROBLEMS

1. What resistance is in the center of your ohmmeter scale, Rx1 range? What do you
notice on the resistance scale? In terms of divisions when using different range?
2. At which end of the scale are resistance readings more accurate, the crowded or
uncrowded end?

3. What happens to the ohmmeter when both leads of the resistor being measured

4. Draw the position of the pointer with the following readings. Paste a scaleplate of
an ohmmeter to indicate the readings below.

## 1. 3200 KΩ 2. 142Ω 3. 12.5 MΩ

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4
Variable Resistor

I. INTRODUCTION INFORMATION

## In addition to fixed value resistor, variable resistors are used extensively in

electronic and electrical applications. There are two types of variable resistors, the
rheostat and the potentiometer. Volume controls used in radio and the contrast and
brightness control of television receivers are familiar examples of potentiometers.

## A rheostat is a two terminal device shown in figure below. Points A and B

connect into the circuit. A rheostat has a maximum value specified by the manufacturer
and a minimum value, usually zero. The arrowhead in the figure indicates a mechanical
means of adjusting the resistance between the minimum and the maximum.

A B

## Figure 1a. Schematic Diagram of Rheostat Figure 1b. A potentiometer

The circuit symbol for a potentiometer shows that this is a three terminal device.
The resistance between points A and B is fixed. Point C is the variable arm of the
potentiometer.

The total resistance of the potentiometer shows can be measured between the two
terminals (A and B). The resistance from the variable arm (terminal C) to one of the
outside terminals plus the resistance from the variable arm to the other outside terminal
equals the total resistance. The action of the arm, then, is increasing the resistance
between the variable arm C and one of the end terminals. And at the same time to
decrease the resistance between the variable arm C and the other terminal while the sum
of the two resistances remain the same.
A B

C
Figure2. Schematic diagram of a potentiometer

## CONVERTING A POTENTIOMETER TO A RHEOSTAT

A potentiometer may be used as a rheostat if the center arm and one of the end
terminals are connected into the circuit and the other end terminal is left disconnected.
Another way to convert a potentiometer to a rheostat is to connect a piece of hook up
wire between the arm and one of the terminals/

A B

## Figure3. A potentiometer with terminal A and C connected

II. OBJECTIVE
To analyze the terminals of the potentiometer and determine the resistance
between the variable (center) terminal and the terminals on either side of it’s as the shaft
of a potentiometer is turned from its minimum to maximum position.

III. MATERIALS
Instruments: analog or digital multitester
Resistor: potentiometer (5K, 10K, 50K)

IV. PROCEDURE

## 1. Examine the potentiometer assigned to you. Place it so that the shaft

points toward you. Call the terminals of the potentiometer A, B and C as in the
figure before. Measure and record in table 1. The value of the potentiometer
between the two side terminals (A and B).
2. Turn the shaft to the shaft center position and measure the resistance
between the left terminal (terminal A) and the terminal C. Record this reading
RAC in the table.
3. Without moving the shaft, measure the resistance between the right
terminal and the center terminal C and also take this reading in table. Label this
Rbc.
4. Add the reading in steps 2 and 3 and record the sum in the table. The
sum should equal the reading of the total resistance in step 1.
5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 for another setting (2) of the potentiometer
shaft. Record the result in the table.
STEP POTENTIOMETER Rab Rac Rbc Rac + Rbc
1 Position 1
2,3,4 Center of rotation
5 position 2
6 CW
7 CCW

6. Turn the shaft completely clockwise Cw. Measure and record Rac and
Rbc then and record the sum of Rac and Rbc.
7. Turn the shaft completely Counterclockwise CCW and record the
reading of Rac and Rbc then the sum of the two readings.
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 4

Variable Resistor

## STEP POTENTIOMETER Rab Rac Rbc Rac + %Error

1 Position 1
2,3,4 Center of rotation
5 position 2
6 CW
7 CCW

VII. QUESTIONS:

## 1. In a potentiometer what is (a) fixed in value? (b) Variable?

2. What is the relationship between Rac, Rbc and Rab? (b) Do your measurements
confirm this relationship?

## 5. Name two applications of potentiometers.

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 5
Voltage Measurement

I. INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

Measuring DC Voltage

## Electronic technology is inconceivable without measurement of electrical

quantities. Circuit analysis and understanding of circuit functions are simplified by the
basic measurements of voltage, current, and resistance. Repair of electronic devices,
such as TV receivers, usually requires electrical measurements.

The technicians are the "know-how" person. In the laboratory, the technicians will
test the operations and characteristics of an experiment circuit and in the repair shop will
make measurements while fixing a device which is not working. The technicians must
then know the instrument of this technology and must know how to use them. He must
be aware of the effect of an instrument on the circuit and the measurement.

## Measurement of DC voltage is very basic to all electrical work. In this experiment,

we shall be concerned with learning how to measure voltage using the DC voltage
function of a VOM.

## Voltage is defined as electrical pressure. It is the difference in electrical pressure

between two points. The voltage across two points is measured with a voltmeter. A
VOM combines the job of a voltmeter, ohmmeter, and ammeter. In this experiment we
shall use the VOM to measure voltage.

## Generally the following facts apply regardless of the make of multitesters:

1. The meter test leads should be plugged into the proper meter jacks. The black lead is

2. The range selector switch should be connected to the highest dc voltage range in
measuring an unknown dc voltage. This is to avoid damaging the meter. If
measurement later shows that the voltage falls in a lower range, the instrument
should be switched to a lower range.

3. The voltage value is read from the proper voltage scale. The maximum voltage for a
specific voltage range is at the right end of the scale.

4. The dc voltage scale is linear, with equal spacing for equal voltage changes. There
may be two or three scale calibrations along the dc arc to make it possible to read
voltage on all the dc ranges of the instrument. The greater the deflections toward the
right, the higher the voltage that is being measured.

DC Voltage Sources
Batteries

In this experiment, the student will use two types of voltage sources, the dry cell
battery and the DC regulated power supply.

Dry batteries consist of arrangements of primary cells, called dry cells. The
familiar "flashlight battery' is really a dry cell. Individual dry cells produce low voltage.
A battery is usually a combination of cells connected and offered in a one package.

## Electronic Power Supplies

Electronic regulated variable power supplies are used extensively in both school
and industrial laboratories.

## A variable voltage-regulated supply is one which can be adjusted to deliver any

required voltage within its range of operation. The voltage output of this supply remains
constant despite changes in load current, within specified limits. For example a
manufacturer states that the unit delivers 0 - 400 volts at 150mA. This means that the
power supply must not be operated more than 150 mA.

The polarity of the dc terminals on the supply is usually marked -, + and GND for
ground. A red jack is conventionally used for the positive and a black for the negative
terminal.

CAUTION: The output terminals of most supplies should never be shorted because the
supply may be damaged.

The AC Source

## AC or alternating current has a changing polarity usually 50 or 60 times per

second or 50/60 Hz. The line voltage is to be the primary source of AC power. The line
may be 220 or 110 V. A transformer may be used to increase of decrease the line voltage
to suit our appliances.

II. OBJECTIVE

## III. MATERIALS REQUIRED

Power supply: AC – DC power supply and VARIAC
Equipment: Analog VOM
IV. PROCEDURE

DC Power Supply
Measure and record in Table l the voltage of the voltage supplied by the DC
power source. Use the range of the voltmeter where you get the maximum pointer
deflection without going off the scale. Connect the negative lead of the meter to the
negative terminal of the source, positive lead to the positive.

Measure the output of the power supply (set at 10 Volts) using the VOM and
compare it with the values indicated on its front panel. Does the same voltage (front

Gradually increase the voltage of the power supply by 10 volts. Record all your
results in Table 1.

AC Voltage Measurement

## 1. Connect the VARIAC to the ac line.

2. Set the VARIAC output to 20 volts (use the digital volt meter to check the actual
voltage). Measure the voltage and reflect the reading in Table 2.
3. Increase the output of the variac at an interval of 20 volts until 220 V is reached.
Measure the voltage and fill in data in Table 2.

## Panel Reading, Volts VOM Setting VOM Voltage Percentage Difference

10 50 DCV
20 50 DCV
30 50 DCV
40 50 DCV
50 250 DCV
60 250 DCV
70 250 DCV
80 250 DCV
100 250 DCV
110 250 DCV
120 250 DCV
130 250 DCV
140 250 DCV
Table 2. AC Voltage Measurement

## Output Voltage (V) ACV Setting Voltage Reading Percentage

Difference
20 50 ACV
40 50 ACV
60 250 ACV
80 250 ACV
100 250 ACV
120 250 ACV
140 250 ACV
160 250 ACV
180 250 ACV
200 250 ACV
220 250 ACV
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 5

Voltage Measurement

10 50 DCV
20 50 DCV
30 50 DCV
40 50 DCV
50 250 DCV
60 250 DCV
70 250 DCV
80 250 DCV
100 250 DCV
110 250 DCV
120 250 DCV
130 250 DCV
140 250 DCV

## Output Voltage (V) ACV Setting Voltage Reading Percentage

Difference
20 50 ACV
40 50 ACV
60 250 ACV
80 250 ACV
100 250 ACV
120 250 ACV
140 250 ACV
160 250 ACV
180 250 ACV
200 250 ACV
220 250 ACV
VI. CONCLUSION

VII. QUESTIONS:
1. List four precautions which must be observed in measuring voltage.

## 2. List the voltage ranges of your VOM.

3. How much voltage is required to give full-scale deflection of the pointer on a 300-v
range?

4. What would happen to a dry cell or battery if the positive and negative terminals were
shorted?

5. Why must be careful to keep from short-circuit the output terminals of a power supply?
LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 6
Resistance of Series Connected Resistors

I. INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

## Series Circuit Connection

An electric circuit is a closed path for current flow. Resistance in a circuit
opposes current flow.

## In electronic circuits there may be one or more resistors in series connection. In a

series circuit with a voltage source and series connected resistors (Figure 6.1), there is
only one path for the current which must pass through each of the resistors in the circuit.

R1 R2 R3 R4

V V1 V2 V3 V4

## Since current and is the same in every branch ,

I1 = I 2 = I 3 = I n

From Kirchoff’s voltage law, which says that in any complete circuit, the sum of
rises in, potential must be equal to the sum of voltage drops across that circuit, then, if we
let V the supply voltage.

V= V1 + V2 + V3 + Vn

## IRt = I1R1 + I2R2 + I3R3 + InRn

Where I = I1 = I2 = I3 = In

Canceling I, I1 , I2 , I3 …. In

Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 +. . .
Rn ........
Since the electric current flowing in a series circuit must pass through each resistance in
its path, it would appear that two series resistors would offer more opposition to current
than anyone of the resistors individually, This fact is true because the total resistance of a
series circuit is equal to the sum of the resistors in the circuit.

R1 R2 R3 R4

## Figure 6.2 Four resistors in series.

For example, for three 500 ohm resistors connected in series, the total resistance
Rt is 1500,ohms. Another example: if R1=220, R2330, then Rt = 550 ohms.

II. OBJECTIVE:

## III. MATERIALS REQUIRED

Equipment : Digital or analog meter
Resistors : six different resistors, 1/4 watt

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Measure the resistance of each resistor supplied and record its value in Table 6.1
beneath its color coded value.
2. Connect series arrangement 1 shown in Fig. 6.1 by connecting resistors R1 and
R4 in series. From Table 6.l record the measured values of R1 and R4 in the
spaces provided in Table 6.2
3. Using the measured values of the individual resistors, compute the total
resistance of this series combination and write the value in the column labeled
“computed value Rt”.
4. Measure the total resistance of the is combination of series connected resistance
from points A to B and record that value in the column labeled : measured value
Rt.”
5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 for resistor combination 2 and 3 in the figure 6.2

## Table 6.1 Color coded and measured resistor values

Resistors R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
Measured, Ω
Coded Value, Ω

## Figure 6.1 Combination 1

R1 R2
Combination 2
R1 R3 R4 R6

Combination 3

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

## Resistor Measured Resistance Computed Measured %E

Combinatio R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Ω Ω
n
Ω
1 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
2 xxxx xxxx
3

## This time repeat Steps 2 (COMBINATIONS 1 TO 3) above (connecting the three

combination and connect the voltage source adjusted to 12V, Fill up the table below by
measuring the branch voltages.

## Resistor Measured Voltage (volts) Computed Measured %E

Combinatio V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Voltage voltage
n
Ω
1 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
2 xxxx xxxx
3
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 6

Resistance of Series Connected Resistors

## Table 6.1 Color coded and measured resistor values

Resistors R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
Measured, Ω
Coded Value, Ω

## Resistor Measured Resistance Computed Measured %E

Combinatio R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Ω Ω
n
Ω
1 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
2 xxxx xxxx
3

VI. CONCLUSION
(cOMPARE THE RESULTS OF THIS ACTIVITY WITH WHAT YOU HAVE
OBTAINED FRO ACTUAL MEASUREMENT.)

VII. QUESTIONS

1. Were the computed values and the measured values of each combination of resistors
equal? If not, why not?

2. Explain in your own words two methods of finding the total resistance of series
connected resistors.
3. For combination 3 how does the sum of the color-coded values of the table (b) the
computed value obtained by adding the measured values of each resistor?

4. Would there be any effect of the total resistance of combination 2 if the positions of
any of the resistors were changed?

5. Do the results of your measurements in the Table 6.2 prove that the total resistance of a
series circuit is equal to the sum of the values of each resistors in the circuit?
LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 7
Resistance of Parallel Connected Resistor

I. INTRODUCTION INFORMATION
Parallel connected resistors
A parallel circuit is one in which there are two or more paths for electric current
flow. Figure 7.1 show that a circuit, paths for current flow still exist through the
remaining resistor. Therefore, in a parallel circuit there must be a complete circuit or path
for current flow through each individual resistor. Each of this individual circuit is called
a branch circuit. Total resistance of these parallel-connected resistors would be measured
between points X and Y.

Note: Remember that all power must be removed from the circuit before resistance

## Total Resistance RT of Parallel Resistors

It is reasonable to assume that more current can flow from the battery when there
are several paths than when there is only one path. Now if more current is allowed to
flow from the battery with each additional branch circuit added, it is clear that the total
opposition RT to current flow is becoming smaller than if there were just on path. The
total resistance t current flow from the power source does indeed decrease as more branch
circuits are added. In fact, Rt is less than the resistance of the ohmmeter later in this
experiment.

Consider the parallel combination shown below: Let E be the supply voltage

R1 R2 R3 R 4 I1
I2 I3 I4
E

## By inspection, each terminal of the resistors is connected to the + side of the

supply voltage, and the other terminals are connected at the (-) side of the supply.
Therefore, the voltage E is impressed on each parallel branch.

E = V1 + V2 + V3 +. . . Vn
By Kirchoff’s current law, the sum of current entering a junction must be equal to
sum of current leaving that junction, therefore at junction a

I = I1 + I2 + I3 +. . . In
Substituting the equation I = V/R from equation

## _E_ _V1 _V2 _V3 _Vn

= + + +
Rt R1 R2 R3
Rn
Canceling E1 V1 V2 ….. VN
The arithmetic involved is made quite simple by the use of the 1/x (reciprocal)
button on many
_1_ modern_1_electronic
_1_ calculators.
_1_ _1_
= + + + +
Rn
R1 circuits
R2 areRnormally
3
connected in parallel with the power
The technician therefore needs to understand and should be able to analyze parallel
circuits in order to locate the bad circuit or defective part in an electronic device, such as

II. OBJECTIVE:
To determine the total resistance of combinations parallel connected resistors.

## III. MATERIALS REQUIRED

Equipment : digital or analog meters
Resistors : Four 1/4-watt resistors

IV. PROCEDURE
1. Refer to Figure 1.7 and choose the resistors shown as that of combination A.
2. Measure the resistance of each of the resistors supplied for combination A. Record
the measured value in Table 7.1
3. Measure the Rt of the parallel combination and record your reading in the column
labeled "Measured Rt" in Table 7.1
4. Repeat steps 1, 2, 3 and 4 for parallel combinations B and C.

R1

X R3 Y

R1

R2
X Y
R4

R1

R2

R3

R4

## Parallel Measured R1 R2 R3 R4 Measured Calculated %

combination Ω Rt Rt Error
A Measured xxxxxx xxxxx
B Measured xxxxx
C Measured
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 7

Resistance of Parallel Connected Resistor

## Parallel Measured R1 R2 R3 R4 Measured Calculated %

combination Ω Rt Rt Error
A Measured xxxxxx xxxxx
B Measured xxxxx
C Measured

VI. CONCLUSION
VII. QUESTIONS

1. Was the value Rt greater or smaller than the value of the smallest branch resistor in the
combination?

2. Combination C in Figure 7.4-3 placed two resistors of equal value in parallel. From
the results obtained in Rt of this combination, suggest a general formula for Rt of any
two resistors of equal value connected in parallel.

## 3. What is the Rt of three 330-ohm resistors in parallel?

4. How can you measure the resistance of an individual resistor within a parallel circuit?
LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 8
Current Measurement

I. INTRODUCTION INFORMATION
The basic unit of measure for electric current is the ampere and it is represented
by the capital letter A. The ampere is a large quantity of current not often found in low
power electric circuits.

## Current Exits Only In A Complete Circuit

In earlier experiment the uses of the ohmmeter and voltmeter for measuring
resistance were studied. From the nature of the experiment it was apparent those resistors
have "resistance" that can be measured directly with an ohmmeter. The quantity of the
resistance is not dependent on the connection that resistor in a circuit. The characteristic
of the resistance is associated with the component itself.

## Connecting the Ammeter

Current is an electric circuit can be compared with water flow in a pipe. If you
wish to measure the amount of water flowing per second, water flowing in the pipe must
pass through the flow meters, which can the measure the rate of water flow. So it is with
the measurement of electric current. Since current is the movement if electric charges,
the circuit must be broken and an ammeter must the inserted in series with the circuit.

When placing the ammeter in series with the circuit, polarity must be observed.
That is, the common (negative) meter lead must be connected to the more negative point
in the circuit.

The "hot" lead (positive) is connected to the more positive point in the circuit.
When the meter is connected properly the meter will move from left to right. If the meter
moves in the opposite direction, the meter leads must be reversed.

Refer to Figure 8.1 Notice that the circuit has been broken (opened) at point X
and Y. To measure the current in this circuit, the ammeter will be inserted between these
two points. Point A is closer to the negative source so that negative lead will be attached
here.

Caution: The current meter must be connected across (that is, in parallel) any
component. Its must always be connected in series with the component to measure the
current flowing through the components. Failure to observe this rule result in serious
damage to the meter. Never connect an ammeter directly to a voltage source.
When the ammeter is placed in the circuit, it should always be set to its highest
range and then switched to lower ranges, as necessary for accurate readings. This will
protect the meter against damage due to overload.

Ammeter scales vary from meter to meter. Direct current sometime read on the
same scale for dc voltage. If so, the only difference in reading will be that you are
measuring amperes, milliamperes, or microamperes instead of volts. In some cases the
scales may be a separate scale used only for current. Whatever the scale is, you will have
no trouble reading it if you have learned how to read the voltage scales in previous
experiments.
R
X Y
PS

PS A

Figure 8.1 Circuit with an open line Figure 2. Set-up to measure current

II. OBJECTIVE
To determine the current in a circuit and be able to establish the current and
voltage relationship at constant resistance.

## III. MATERIALS REQUIRED

Power supply: batteries, regulated power supply
Equipment: digital or analog multimeter
Resistors: 1/2-watt resistors 1 KΩ or any available similar values.

IV. PROCEDURE:
1. Secure the components from your instructor and measure the resistance of the resistor
to make sure that its value is within tolerance.
2. Draw a wiring diagram of the regulated power supply (PS), one 1 KΩ resistor, and
the ammeter (set to DC 250 mA) connected in series. Mark all polarities.
3. Power is off. Now, connect the circuit drawn in step 2. Power on. With a
multimeter set to 50VDC or (200 VDC for the digital meter), measure the
output of the power supply. Make note of the units of measure printed on the
range switch and remember that this is what you are measuring.
4. Now adjust the voltage to 22.5 volts. Measure the current and record its value in
Table 8.1
5. Adjust the voltage output of the PS to 20 volts. Measure the current and record its
value in Table 8.1
6. Reduce the output voltage of the PS by an increment of 5 V until 5V. Measure the
current and record its value it Table 8.1. Adjust the PS output voltage to 3 V
and make the last current reading.
7. Using the unscaled projection, plot an I-V curve of the result. The graph formed is
the I-V characteristic of the 1 KΩ resistor.

8. Compute the percentage error obtained for the experiment and list possible sources
of errors.
9. Superimpose also the I-V curve of the computed values on the previous graph.

## Table 8.1 Current measured in the set-up.

Output DC 22.5 V 20 V 15 V 10 V 5V 3V
Measured
Voltage, V
Measured
current, mA
Computed
current, mA
% Error
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 8

Current Measurement

## V. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Table 8.1 Results of the experiment.

Output DC 22.5 V 20 V 15 V 10 V 5V 3V
Measured
Voltage, V
Measured
current, mA
Computed
current, mA
% Error

## Figure 1. The I-V curve of the 1 K-ohm resistor

VI. QUESTIONS:
1. What is the maximum amount of current your current meter can measure?

## 3. The measurements in this experiment were made in what units?

4. Do the ranges on your current meter "overlap"? If they do, indicate those that
overlap?

5. Why must the current meter be placed in series with the circuit?

6. What danger, if any, is there in placing a current meter across a voltage supply?

## LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 9

Kirchhoff’s Laws

I. INTRODUCTION INFORMATION
The solution of complex electric circuits is simplified by the application of
Kirchhoff’s laws. These laws were formulated and published by the physicist Gustav
Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887), and they established the basis for modern network
analysis.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law. Kirchhoff’s voltage law states that around any closed
circuit, the sum of the applied voltage(s) must equal the sum of the voltage drops within
the circuit. None is ever lost or gained. If a voltage is applied in a circuit, it is used by
the components. If the voltage drops across the resistors of a series circuit are added,
this sum will be the same as the applied voltage. This is Kirchhoff’s voltage law.

Consider the circuit in Figure 9.1. The three series resistors can be replaced by a
single resistor Rt whose resistance is equal to the sum of the three resistors. The current
It is the circuit’s current such that the product of Rt and It equals the applied voltage Va.
That is,

Va = It x Rt

R1 R2 R3

V1 V2 V3

It
Va
+

## Figure 9.1 Circuit of three resistors

Current is the same everywhere in a series series circuit. The voltage drop across
R1 therefore is
V1 = It x R1
similarly, V2 = It x R2
and V3= It x R3 (equation a)

## Adding these equations we get,

V1 + V2 + V3 = It x R1 + It x R2 + It x R3
Factoring It,

V1 + V2 + V3 = It (R1 + R2 + R3 )

Since Rt = R1 + R2 + R3

V1 + V2 + V3 = It x Rt
but It x Rt = Va, so

Va = V1 + V2 + V3

## Kirchhoff’s Current Law. It has been verified in previous experiments that in a

parallel circuit, the sum of the currents in each of the parallel resistors equals the total
current. This one demonstration of Kirchhoff’s Current Law is limited to parallel
network. The law states that the current entering any junction of an electric circuit is
equal to the current leaving that junction.

R1 I1

It I2
R5 R2 R4

R3 I3
I
t

Va
+

## Figure 9.2 Currents in a series-parallel circuit.

Consider the circuit in Figure 9.2. The total current It enters the network of R1,
R2 and R3 from R4. The currents leaving the junctions are I 1, I2, and I3. Again these
three currents enters the next junction and becomes It . This relationship of the currents is
expressed mathematically by Kirchhoff’s current law as:

It = I1 + I2 + I3 + . . . . .

## Again this is a very important principle in electronic trouble shooting.

II. OBJECTIVE
1. To verify by experiment Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws.

III. MATERIALS:
Power supply: regulated power supply
Equipment: Digital multimeter
Resistors: ½ w, carbon composition

IV. PROCEDURE
A. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law.

1. Choose four resistors having different ohmic values. Measure their resistance.
2. Connect the components following the circuit in Figure 9.3.
3. Adjust the voltage so that Va = 20 volts.
4. Measure the voltage drops across each resistor. Record in the Table 9.1.
5. Compute for the percentage error of the experiment.

## B. Kirchhoff’s Current Law.

1. Choose four resistors having different ohmic values. Measure their resistance.
2. Connect the circuit following the circuit in Figure 9.4.
3. Adjust the voltage so that Va = 20 volts.
4. Measure the total current by inserting the ammeter in series with the circuit
voltage. Record this in the Table 9.2.
5. Measure the current in R1 by inserting the ammeter in series with R1. Do the
same in measuring the currents of R2, R3, and R4. Record these values in
Table 9.2.
5. Compute for the percentage error of the experiment.

V1 V2 V3 V4 Va
Measured V
Computed V
% Error

## Table 9.2 Current of each resistors in parallel.

I1 I2 I3 I4 It
Measured I
Computed I
% Error
R1 R2 R3 R4

V1 V2 V3 V4

Va

+
Figure 9.3 Set up for voltage law experiment.

R1

It R2 I1
It

R3 I2

R4 I3

I4

Va
+

## Figure 9.4 Set up for current law experiment.

Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

Kirchhoff’s Laws

V1 V2 V3 V4 Va
Measured V
Computed V
% Error

## Table 9.2 Current of each resistors in parallel.

I1 I2 I3 I4 It
Measured I
Computed I
% Error

VI. CONCLUSION:

VII. QUESTIONS:

1. Discuss briefly how the voltage and current law principles could be used to locate
trouble in defective Christmas lights.

## 2. What were the contributors to the errors in the experiment?

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 10
Network Problems

I. INTRODUCTION INFORMATION

Kirchhoff’s current and voltage laws are valuable tools for analyzing circuits – especially
circuits with two or more sources. Statements of each laws are given as: Current law –
The algebraic sum of the currents at any node (junction) is zero. Or the sum of the
currents entering a node equals the sum of the currents leaving that node. Say in a
circuit: Ia + Ib – Ic + Id = 0
Ia + Ib + Id = Ic

Voltage law. The algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed circuit path (loop or
mesh) is zero. Or the sum of the voltage rises in any closed circuit loop equals the sum of
the voltage drops in that loop.

For sources, a voltage drop occurs when you go from positive to negative, and a voltage
rise when you go from negative to positive. For circuit elements such as resistors, a
voltage drop occurs when you travel the loop in the direction of the assumed current. A
voltage rise occurs when you travel the loop in a direction opposite to the assumed
current.

The first sep in solving a network is to assume the direction of current in each branch and
label the assumed currents. It is not necessary to attempt to find the actual current
directions. If the assumed direction is wrong, the solved value is negative. If the
assumed direction is correct, the solved value is positive. Write as many equations as
needed to include all unknown currents in the circuit.

The next step is to write voltage equations for each loop. It is necessary to write as many
voltage equations to include all unknown currents.
R2 Junction A R3

I3 I2
I1
R1 R4 R5

V1 V2

## Figure 10.1 Resistance Network Module schematic diagram

II. OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the circuit parameters of a network using Kirchhoff’s law
computation and by using a digital meter.

III. MATERIALS:
Power supply: regulated power supply
Equipment: Digital multimeter
Resistance Network module
Connecting wires

IV. PROCEDURE
C. Setting of voltage and resistor values.
numbers and measure each resistance.
7. Assign current directions and indicate in the schematic diagram (Figure 10.1)
8. Connect the regulated power supply to the resistance network. Set V1 to 12
volts and V2 to 15 volts (or voltage values assigned to your group). Adjust
the voltage by measuring the power output with a digital meter.
9. Measure the voltage drops across each resistor. Record in the Table 10.1.
10. Measure currents I1, I2, and I3 using a digital meter and note the indicated
polarity of the measured current.
11. Compute for the percentage error of the experiment and assumed current if
correct or not.

## 1. Redraw the resistance network and write the voltage equations.

2. Using simultaneous equations, matrix solutions or Excel, compute for the I1,
I2, and I3 of the network module. Supply computed currents in Table 10.1
3. With the computed currents, solve for the voltage drops on each resistor. Put
values in Table 10.2
4. Compute the percentage error with the computed as the true value.

I1 I2 I3
Measured I
Computed I
Direction
% Error

## VR1 VR2 VR3 VR4 VR5

Measured V
Computed V
% Error
Name:__________________________________Course:_____________ Date: ________
Lab Time & Date: ________________

Network Problems

R2 Junction A R3

I3 I2
I1
Loop A Loop B
R1 R4 R5

Junction B

V1 V2

## Working loop equations:

Summary of Results:

I1 I2 I3
Measured I
Computed I
Direction
% Error

## VR1 VR2 VR3 VR4 VR5

Measured V
Computed V
% Error

V. CONCLUSION
LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 11
The Oscilloscope

I. OBJECTIVE:

## 1. To be familiar with the different controls, connectors and indicators of an

oscilloscope.
2. To be able to setup the oscilloscope for measurement by performing
preliminary control settings.

IV. PROCEDURE

indicators

## 1. Familiarize yourself on the following controls, connectors and indicators of a typical

oscilloscope by referring to the instruction manual of the oscilloscope that you are
using.

PRELIMINARY OPERATION

## 1. Set the following switches and controls to the indicated settings:

Power switch to OFF.
INTENSITY control to midrange.
FOCUS control to midrange.
VERT MODE switch to CHA.
All three POSITION controls to midrange.
Both AC-GND-DC switches to GND.
VOLT/DIV switch to 50 mV/DlV.
TIME/DIV switch to 0.5ms/DrV.
MAIN VAR to CAL.
COUPLING switch to AUTO.
S0URCE switch to CHA.
TRIG LEVEL control pushed in (for + slope) and set fully counterclockwise.
MAIN/MIX/DELAY (X-Y) switch set to MAIN.
Other controls may be in any position.
2. Check the LINE VOLTAGE SELECTOR setting on the rear panel to make sure it
agrees with your AC line voltage.

3. Connect the AC line cord between the AC input socket and an AC outlet.

4. Set the POWER switch to ON. After about 20 seconds, a trace will appear on the CRT
screen. Adjust the INTENSITY control to increase the brightness to suit your
lighting conditions.

5. Adjust the FOCUS and INTENSITY controls for a well-defined, sharp trace line.

6. Readjust the vertical and horizontal POSITION controls to center the trace on the CRT
screen.

NOTE: Perform the following probe compensation steps for CHA and then, as directed,
for HE.

7. Set the VOLTS/DIV switch of CHA to 50 mV and the VAR control fully clockwise to
CAL'D.

## 8. Set the AC-GND-DC switch for CHA to DC.

9. Connect a 10:1- probe to the input of CHA and hook the probe tip to the CAL 2 V p-p
terminal. A square wave as shown in Fig 3 will appear.

10. If the square wave has excessive rounding or overshoot at the top corner, adjust the
trimmer in the probe to produce the best flat top.
11. Remove the probe from the CAL terminal.

12. Set the VERT MODE and SOURCE switches to CHB. Then repeat steps 6 through 11
using a second probe for CHB.

## NOTE: The preceding procedure "matches" each probe to a particular channel.

Interchanging probes requires the compensation procedure to be repeated.
TRIGGERING THE SWEEP

The horizontal (time base) circuitry can operate in two modes: AUTO and NORM. In the
AUTO mode, triggering of the sweep occurs even in the absence of an input signal. In the
NORM mode, a sweep occurs only when the input signal meets the conditions
established by the triggering controls. The controls used for triggering are described in
more detail below.

## Oscilloscopes include circuits to display stable, triggered waveforms. Synchronization for

the triggering is derived from the vertical input signal (or a time-related signal). It is
important that triggering be synchronized to provide a waveform that is easy to view.

Part 2: Reading the measured signal using the grid-line scale using the viewing area
of the oscilloscope

2. Determine the number of vertical and horizontal divisions, from the grid-line scale
(called as graticule) that appears on the viewing area of the oscilloscope, that are used
for measuring displayed signal. Record the result on the space provided below.

## number of vertical divisions = _______ number of horizontal divisions =

_______

3. Write down the minimum and maximum setting of the volts/division and time/division
control knobs on the respective space provided below.

______

______

## 4. In direct measurement (no attenuation) of signal by the oscilloscope, determine the

maximum peak-to-peak voltage and maximum period of measured signal that can be
displayed effectively on the scope by using the results in step #2 and #3. Write down
your results on the space provided below.

## max. peak-to-peak voltage = ______volts maximum periods = _______

5. Determine the type of oscilloscope probe that you are using if it is direct probe
(provides direct reading) or an attenuator probe (with X1/X10 switch for attenuation
of measured signal) and write your findings on the space provided below. Most
oscilloscope probes are available with 1X attenuation (direct connection) and 10X are
used, the scale factor (VOLTS/DIV switch setting) must be multiplied by ten. Check
if your oscilloscope has this feature from the label on its body.
type of oscilloscope probe = _______

indicated.

## POWER switch OFF (released)

INTEN control Fully counterclockwise
FOCUS control Mid rotation
AC/GND/DC switches AC
VOLTS/DIV switches 10mV
Vertical POSITION controls Mid rotation
VARIBLE VOLTS/DIV Fully clockwise and pushed in controls
V MODE switch CH1
TIME/DIV switch 0.5 mS
TIME VARIBLE control Fully clockwise and pushed in
Horizontal POSITION control Mid rotation
Trigger MODE switch AUTO
Trigger SOURCE switch CH1
Trigger COUPLING switch AC
Trigger LEVEL control Mid rotation
HOLDOFF control NORM (Fully counterclockwise)

## 7. Plug the AC power cord into a convenience outlet

8. Press in the POWER switch. the POWER lamp should light immediately. About 30
seconds later, rotate the INTEN controls clockwise until the trace appears on the
screen. adjust the brightness to the lowest level of brightness that will permit the
display to be effectively viewed.

NOTE: Get in the habit of turning the brightness away if the oscilloscope is left
unattended for any period of time.

## 9. Turn the FOCUS control for a sharp trace.

10. Turn the CH1 Vertical position control to move the CH1 trace to the center of the
horizontal graticule line.

11. See if the trace is precisely in parallel with the horizontal graticule line. if it is not,
adjust the ROTATION control with a small screw driver.

12. Turn the Horizontal POSITION control to align the left edge of the trace with the
left-most graticule line.

13. Set one of the supplied oscilloscope probes for X10 attenuation. then, connect its
BNC end to the CH1 or X-IN connector and its tip to the CAL connector. A square-
wave display, five divisions in amplitude, should appear on the CRT screen.

14. If the tops and bottoms of the displayed square wave are tilted or peaked, as shown in
Figure 1.1, the probe must be compensated (matched to the oscilloscope input
capacitance). Adjust the capacitance-correction trimmer of the probe with a small
screw driver.

## correctly under over

compensated compensated compensated

15. Set the V MODE switch to CHB, and perform steps #13 and #14 with the other
probe on channel A.

VI. CONCLUSION

VII. QUESTIONS:

## 1. What switch of an oscilloscope is used to prepare the instrument for two-

channeled display?
2. Write down the computation showing that the measured amplitude in step #13 is
equal to 0.5V.
3. What is the most important reason for using an attenuator probe at higher
frequency signals, as recommended in the manual of the oscilloscope?
4. What is the purpose of adjusting the brightness of the trace on the screen of the
oscilloscope to the lowest level of brightness enough to permit the display to be
effectively viewed?

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO. 12
The AC Signal Components and its Measurement

I. OBJECTIVES

## 1. To be able to measure ac voltage by using an ac voltmeter.

2. To be able measure ac voltage by using an oscilloscope.
3. To be able measure the frequency of an ac signal by using an oscilloscope.

Oscilloscope instruction manual or any discussion about the cathode-ray
oscilloscope

## III. REQUIRED SKILLS:

Familiar with the use of multitesters, oscilloscope, and analog trainer (module)

## IV. MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Multitester 1
Multitap transformer . 1
Dual-trace oscilloscope 1

V. PROCEDURE

## Part 1: AC voltage measurement using an ac voltmeter

1. Look for the terminals of the multitap transformer’s secondary output winding labeled
as 0v, 3V, 4.5V, 6V, 9V, and 12V.

2. Verify the transformer’s output voltages by measuring each terminal with respect to the
0V terminal using an ac voltmeter and record the results in Table 2.1 under the column
or rms value.

## Terminals, rms Measured rms voltage Measured peak-to-peak Computed peak-

voltage label using ac voltmeter voltage using to-peak voltage
oscilloscope
3V
4.5 V
6V
9V
12 V

## Part 2: AC voltage measurement using an oscilloscope

1. Before placing the oscilloscope in use, setup and calibrate the instrument by following
the same steps used in part 3 of the last experiment.

2. Adjust the Vertical POSITION control to set the trace near mid screen.

3. Set the oscilloscope probe for direct connection (x10 attenuation). Then, connect its
BNC end to the CHA connector and GND connector to 0V terminal of the multitap
transformer.

4. Connect the probe tip to the 3 V terminal of the multitap transformer, then adjust the
TIME/DIV switch for two or three cycle of the waveform, and set the VOLTS.DIV
switch for the largest possible on-screen-display, as illustrated in Figure 2.1

Vp

Vpp

1 cycle

## Figure 2.1. The screen of the oscilloscope.

5. Use the Vertical POSITION control in channel A to position the negative peaks on the
nearest horizontal graticule line below the signal peaks as illustrated in Figure 2.1.

6. Use the Horizontal POSITION control to position one of the positive peaks on the
central vertical graticule line

7. Count the number of divisions from the graticule line touching the negative signal
peaks to the intersection of the positive signal peak with the central vertical graticule
line. Note that each minor division on the central vertical line is 0.2 of a major
division. Multiply this number by the VOLTS/DIV switch setting to get the peak-to-
peak voltage of the 3 V output of the transformer.

## 8. Perform step #4 and #5 to determine the measured peak-to-peak voltage at the

remaining output terminals of the multitap transformer and record the results in Table 2.1.

9. Determine the theoretical peak-to-peak voltage for each specified rms voltage in Table
2.1 by the formula given below. Record the results in Table 2.1 under the column
“computed peak-to-peak voltage”.

## VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

VII. CONCLUSION

VIII. QUESTIONS:

1. What is the rms voltage of a sinusoidal ac signal that has a peak-to-peak voltage of
42.42 volts?

## 2. What is the peak voltage of the 220 V power line?

3. What is the rms voltage of a signal if its peak-to-peak level when measured occupies
3.5 divisions at a VOLTS/DIV switch setting of 0.2v and with the attenuation probe
set to x10?

REFERENCES
Alexan Oscilloscope Manual. Dual Scope

Cuaresma, F.D. and R.G. Peneyra. 1999. Manual in the Use of a Multitester. CLSU.

Kaufman, Milton and J.A. Wilson 1982. Schaum’s Outline Series: Theory and Problems
of Electronics Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book, Inc.

Projects and Circuits. Quezon City, Philippines: Electronic Hobbyist Publishing House.
Volumes 1, 2, 3, and 4.

## Zbar, P. G. and J. G. Sloop. 1978. Electricity-Electronics Fundamentals: A Text-lab

Manual. New York: McGraw-Hill Book, Inc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor

http://www.twisted-pair.com/