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TABLE OF CONTENTS – JOINTS

CHAPTER 14
FILE NO. TITLE DATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS, INTRODUCTION

14.TOC-1 Table of Contents – Chapter 14 ......................................................... 03May2018


14.00-1 Introduction – Chapter 14 ................................................................... 03May2018

GENERAL INFORMATION

14.01-1 Design Requirements ......................................................................... 03May2018


14.01-2 Design Requirements and Longitudinal Deck Expansion Joints........ 03May2018
14.01-3 Joint Selection Criteria ....................................................................... 03May2018

ADHESIVE BASED JOINT SEALERS

14.02-1 General Information ............................................................................ 03May2018


14.02-2 Class I Adhesive Based Joint Sealers ............................................... 03May2018
14.02-3 Class II Adhesive Based Joint Sealers .............................................. 03May2018
14.02-4 Class III Adhesive Based Joint Sealers ............................................. 03May2018

ELASTOMERIC EXPANSION DAMS

14.03-1 General Information ............................................................................ 03May2018


14.03-2 General Information ............................................................................ 03May2018
14.03-3 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018

TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS

14.04-1 General Information ............................................................................ 03May2018


14.04-2 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018
14.04-3 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018
14.04-4 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018
14.04-5 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018
14.04-6 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018
14.04-7 Design Example ................................................................................. 03May2018

ASPHALT PLUG JOINTS

14.05-1 General Information ............................................................................ 03May2018

FLEXIBLE CONCRETE PLUG JOINTS

14.06-1 General Information ............................................................................ 03May2018

PART 2
JOINTS DATE: 03May2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS – CHAPTER 14 SHEET 1 of 1
FILE NO. 14.TOC-1
INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to establish the practices and specific requirements of the
Structure and Bridge Division for the design and detailing of bridge deck expansion joints,
hereafter referred to as “expansion joints”. It also provides design aids and references to other
parts of this manual to assist in the design and preparation of plans.

References to the “AASHTO LRFD Specifications” in this chapter refer to the AASHTO LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications, 7th Edition, 2014, including the current VDOT Modifications (IIM-
S&B-80).

The practices and specific requirements contained in this chapter have been established based
on the Structure and Bridge Division’s experience, industry standards and recommendations, and
technological advancements made over the years.

The practices and requirements set forth herein are intended to supplement or clarify the
requirements of the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, and to provide additional information to assist
the designer. In the event of conflict(s) between the practices and requirements set forth herein
and those contained in the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, the more stringent requirements shall
govern.

Standards for joints, BDEJ series, are located in Part 3 of this manual.

It is expected that the users of this chapter will adhere to the practices and requirements stated
herein.

The current chapter will be void and replaced as written herein.

NOTE:

Due to various restrictions on placing files in this manual onto the internet, portions of the
drawings shown do not necessarily reflect the correct line weights, line types, fonts, arrowheads,
etc. Wherever discrepancies occur, the written text shall take precedence over any of the drawn
view.

PART 2
JOINTS DATE: 03May2018
INTRODUCTION - CHAPTER 14 SHEET 1 of 1
FILE NO. 14.00-1
GENERAL INFORMATION

Expansion joints shall not be placed on new bridge decks without a design waiver approved by
the State Structure and Bridge Engineer (see Chapters 15 and 17).

In the event that expansion joint(s) are approved for use on a new bridge structure, they must
meet the following requirements:

 Size joints to meet the thermal, live load movement and shrinkage requirements (translation
and rotation) in accordance with the current AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.
 Joints shall be either the Tooth Expansion Joint (“finger joint”) or Elastomeric Expansion
Dam. Class I Adhesive Based Joint Sealer can be used for approach slab to sleeper pad
applications. Class II and III Adhesive Based Joint Sealers can be used under non-
vehicular traffic applications.

Design Requirements:

The design thermal movement range associated with a uniform temperature change shall be
calculated using Procedure A Temperature Ranges, AASHTO LRFD Table 3.12.2.1-1. The
moderate climate range shall be used for steel or aluminum superstructures and cold climate
range shall be used for concrete superstructures.

The full design thermal movement range associated with a uniform temperature change shall be
used for joint design. Shrinkage shall also be considered for joint design of concrete
superstructures using a shrinkage coefficient of 0.0003 except for segmentally constructed
bridges which shall be estimated in accordance with Article 5.4.2.3.

For typical multi-beam/girder prestressed concrete superstructures not integral with the
substructure, the shrinkage coefficient can be considered to include superstructure creep effects.

All joints shall be sized and designed for the corresponding movement [deformation] with
shrinkage and girder end rotation where applicable in the service limit state:

LFTU x (∆T) + LFSH x (shrinkage) + LFLL x (rotation) = 1.2 x (α x TR x Lexp) + 1.0 x (Lexp x 0.0003)
+ 1.0 x (DR x sin Θ)

where:

LFTU = Load Factor from Table 3.4.1-1 for TU deformation = 1.2


LFSH = Load Factor from Table 3.4.1-1 for shrinkage = 1.0
LFLL = Load Factor from Table 3.4.1-1 for LL+IM = 1.0
∆T = α x TR x Lexp = the design thermal movement range, in.
α = coefficient of thermal expansion, in./in./°F
TR = temperature range, °F
Lexp = expansion length, in.
DR = rotation depth measured from top of deck slab to center of rotation at bearing
Θ = design girder rotation at bearing due to live load plus impact

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET 1 of 3
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FILE NO. 14.01-1
Structure Type Coefficient of thermal
expansion
Steel 0.0000065
Concrete 0.0000060
(Reinforced & Prestressed)

Joint openings shall be adjusted by “t” for each 10º F variation from 60º F:

Total expansion Temperature


length at joint variation per 10º F
(feet) (t)
40 – 60 3/64”
60 – 100 1/16”
100 – 125 3/32”
125 – 150 7/64”
150 – 200 5/32”

The maximum roadway surface gap in a transverse deck joint, measured in the direction of travel,
shall be limited to 4 inches. The opening of tooth expansion joints may be larger than 4”.

Longitudinal Deck Expansion Joints:

Longitudinal deck expansion joints should be avoided for bridge widths under 100’. To
accommodate differential lateral movement, elastomeric bearings or combination bearings with
the capacity for lateral movement should be used instead of longitudinal joints where practical.
For widths in excess of 100’, a longitudinal deck expansion joint is recommended. Where
required, place longitudinal deck expansion joints at crowns or behind barriers or curbs where
possible. Elastomeric expansion dams should be used for the longitudinal deck expansion joint
under vehicular applications. Use of longitudinal deck expansion joint shall be approved by the
District Structure and Bridge Engineer.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET 2 of 3
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND LONG. EXP. JOINTS FILE NO. 14.01-2
JOINT SELECTION CRITERIA

Movement Rating (MR): Total movement due to thermal expansion and contraction, and live
load.

Design Applications
Movement New Existing
Joint Type Limitations / Recommendations
Range Bridge Bridge
(inches)
Class I ≤ 2.0* Approach See Skews < 65°
Adhesive slab to Chapter 32 MR < 1½”
Based Joint sleeper pad Minimum install surface
Sealers temperature = 40°F
Class II ≤ 4.0 Not under See Skews < 45°
Adhesive vehicular Chapter 32 MR < 1½”
Based Joint traffic Minimum install surface
Sealers temperature = 40°F
Class III ≤ 2.0 Not under See Skews < 45°
Adhesive vehicular Chapter 32 MR < 1½”
Based Joint traffic Minimum install surface
Sealers temperature = 40°F
Elastomeric ≤ 4.0 Virginia See Skews < 55°
Expansion Abutment Chapter 32 Skews > 55°; consult
Dams and VA Pier manufacturer
Cap
Tooth 5.0 - 10.0 Virginia See Tooth plate thickness shall not
Expansion Abutment Chapter 32 exceed 3”
Joints and VA Pier
Cap
Asphalt Plug ≤ 1.0 N/A See Skews < 30°
Joints Chapter 32 Span lengths < 100’
Flexible ≤ 1.5 N/A See MR < 1½”
Concrete Chapter 32
Plug Joints
Silicone ≤ 1.0 N/A See MR < 1”
Joint Seals Chapter 32

* Larger value can be used between approach slab and sleeper pad.

Compression seals and modular joints are not permitted for use in expansion joint systems
except for partial in-kind replacement in the existing bridges.

Asphalt Plug Joints and Flexible Concrete Plug Joints shall only be used for bridge maintenance.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET 3 of 3
JOINT SELECTION CRITERIA FILE NO. 14.01-3
GENERAL INFORMATION FOR ADHESIVE BASED JOINT SEALERS:
This section discusses the use of three different adhesive-based joint sealers: Class I, Class II, and
Class III. The designer shall refer to Part 3 of this manual for Standards and Notes to Designer
pertaining to each class of adhesive based joint sealers.

Adhesive based joint sealers are used in bridge applications for new construction, rehabilitation,
maintenance and joint reconstruction. Adhesive based joint sealers are generally used to
accommodate smaller joint movements, typically less than 2”; however, Class II joint seals can
accommodate larger movements if needed. Adhesive based joint sealers shall not be used if the
joint’s anticipated movement will exceed the system’s allowable movement range. It is very important
that the designer selects the proper seal size, since the waterproofing capabilities are dependent on
the internal forces generated while the sealer is in compression. When skews exceed 30 degrees,
reducing the allowable movement range shall be considered to reduce the stresses caused by
racking.

In addition to racking stresses, joint skews between 25 degrees and 35 degrees are more susceptible
to snowplow damage due to the angle of the blade. As a result, it is recommended that all adhesive-
based joint sealers be recessed a minimum of 3/8” below the roadway surface when installed to
minimize snowplow or other vehicular impact to the sealer material.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ADHESIVE BASED JOINT SEALERS SHEET 1 of 4
GENERAL INFORMATION FILE NO. 14.02-1
CLASS I JOINT SEALERS:
Class I joint sealers consist of an extruded polychloroprene (neoprene) material, which is air
pressurized and bonded in place with a structural epoxy adhesive. A typical sealer cross section is
shown below.

Class I joint sealers are recommended for bridge applications requiring straight, skewed, or curved
joint systems. Class I joint sealers can accommodate new joint construction for approach slab to
sleeper pad configurations.

Class I joint sealers can provide up to +/- 50% movement, allow for multi-directional movement, and
shall be installed at the nominal seal widths provided below. The following table reflects the typical
seal widths to be used for the associated joint openings:

Nominal Seal Installation Joint Opening Movement


Dimensions (in) (w) Range
(in) (in)
Joint Width Depth Below Min. Max. Total
(b) Deck / Slab Movement
(h + 3/8”)
1.0 1.625 0.5 1.5 1.0
1.5 2.625 0.75 2.25 1.5
2.0 3.125 1.0 3 2.0
2.5 3.75 1.25 3.75 2.5
3.0 4.25 1.5 4.5 3.0
4.0 5.5 2.0 6.0 4.0

Note: Shaded rows reflect seal sizes that should only be used between approach slab and
sleeper pad for new bridge construction.

Class I joint sealers allow up to 50% of the total movement range normal to the joint for racking.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ADHESIVE BASED JOINT SEALERS SHEET 2 of 4
CLASS I JOINT SEALERS FILE NO. 14.02-2
CLASS II JOINT SEALERS:
Class II joint sealers consist of an inverted V shaped, preformed, extruded silicone rubber or EPDM
seal, with a structural adhesive. A typical sealer cross section is shown below.

Class II joint sealers are utilized for new joint construction under non-vehicular traffic or existing
bridge maintenance applications. For more information, refer to Chapter 32.

Class II joint sealers shall be installed at the minimum seal widths provided below. The following
table reflects the typical seal widths to be used for the associated joint openings:

Nominal Seal Installation Joint Opening Movement


Dimensions (in) (w) Range
(in) (in)
Width Depth Below Min. Max. Total
(b) Deck Movement
(h + 3/8”)
1.25 2.625 0.75 3 2.25
1.75 2.5 0.625 3.625 3
2 3.75 1 5 4

Class II joint sealers allow up to 20% of the total movement range normal to the joint for racking.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ADHESIVE BASED JOINT SEALERS SHEET 3 of 4
CLASS II JOINT SEALERS FILE NO. 14.02-3
CLASS III JOINT SEALERS:
Class III joint sealers consist of a preformed, pre-compressed, self-expanding joint seal with silicone
pre-coated surface bonded in place with a structural epoxy adhesive. A typical sealer cross section is
shown below.

Class III joint sealers are utilized for new joint construction under non-vehicular traffic or existing
bridge maintenance applications. For more information, refer to Chapter 32.

Class III joint sealers can provide up to +/- 50% movement and accommodate variations in joint size,
and shall be installed at the nominal seal widths noted below. The following table reflects the typical
seal widths to be used for the associated joint openings:

Nominal Seal Installation Joint Opening Movement


Dimensions (w) Range
(in) (in) (in)
Width Depth Min. Max. Total
(b) Below Deck Movement
(h + 3/8”)
0.5 2 0.25 0.75 0.5
1 2.5 0.5 1.5 1.0
1.5 2.5 0.75 2.25 1.5
2 3.5 1.0 3.0 2.0

Class III joint sealers allow up to 40% of the total movement range normal to the joint for racking.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ADHESIVE BASED JOINT SEALERS SHEET 4 of 4
CLASS III JOINT SEALERS FILE NO. 14.02-4
GENERAL INFORMATION FOR ELASTOMERIC EXPANSION DAMS:
Elastomeric expansion dam joint systems consist of an elastomeric gland mechanically locked
between two steel edge members (typically rolled shapes) providing a watertight seal. A typical
elastomeric expansion dam cross section is shown below.

Elastomeric expansion dams can accommodate new joint construction for Virginia Abutments and
Virginia Pier Caps or repair and maintenance of existing expansion joint systems. Elastomeric
expansion dams are used to accommodate intermediate joint movement ranges, typically 2” to 4”.

Consideration shall be given to the “racking” movement on the neoprene gland as the skew of the
structure increases.
 For skew angles > 30 degrees, but ≤ 45 degrees; racking displacement shall be ≤ 60 percent
of the seal’s rated capacity, or select the next larger size neoprene gland to reduce the
stresses caused by racking.
 For skew angles > 45 degrees; racking displacement shall be ≤ 50 percent of the seal’s rated
capacity.
 When skews exceed 55 degrees, the designer shall consult the manufacturer for
recommended installation requirements. Horizontal angle changes in the expansion joint
greater than 35 degrees should be avoided when possible, otherwise shop vulcanization is
required.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ELASTOMERIC EXPANSION DAMS SHEET 1 of 3
GENERAL INFORMATION FILE NO. 14.03-1
Seals should not be used if the joint’s anticipated movement will exceed the system’s movement
range. The seals shall be placed in one continuous piece. Since the seal must be installed after the
armor or steel rail is set in concrete, a minimum installation opening must be provided. The following
table reflects the typical seal widths on market to be used for the associated joint openings:

Nominal Recommended Joint Opening Movement


Seal Width Minimum Seal (A) Range
Seal Type (in) Installation Width (in) (in)
(A) Min. Max. Total
(in)
Type 1 3 1.5 0 3 3
Type 2 4 1.5 0 4 4
Type 3 4 2 0.5 4 4
Type 4 5 2 0 4 4

The designer shall refer to Part 3 of this manual for Standards and Notes to Designer pertaining to
Elastomeric Expansion Dams.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ELASTOMERIC EXPANSION DAMS SHEET 2 of 3
GENERAL INFORMATION FILE NO. 14.03-2
DESIGN EXAMPLE:
A prestressed concrete girder structure has an expansion length of 300 feet with a 33-degree skew
angle (measured from the centerline of the structure).

Criteria:

LFTU = Load Factor from Table 3.4.1-1 for TU deformation = 1.2


LFSH = Load Factor from Table 3.4.1-1 for shrinkage = 1.0
LFLL = Load Factor from Table 3.4.1-1 for LL+IM = 1.0
TR = 80° (Cold climate range per AASHTO Table 3.12.2.1-1)
α = 0.000006 (in./in./°F)
Shrinkage coefficient = 0.0003
DR = 88 inches (based on PCBT-77)
Θ = 0.23 degrees (computed)
A = total joint movement along CL bridge/structure
Anormal = movement normal to joint
Aparallel = movement parallel to joint

Compute total movement, Amax:

Amax = LFTU x (∆T) + LFSH x (shrinkage) + LFLL x (rotation)


= 1.2 x (α x TR x Lexp) + 1.0 x (Lexp x 0.0003) + 1.0 x (DR x sin Θ)
= 1.2 x (0.000006 x 80° x 300’ x 12”/’) + 1.0 x (300’ x 12”/’ x 0.0003 + 1.0 x (88”) x sin(0.23°)
= 2.07” + 1.08” + 0.35” = 3.5”

Therefore, a 3½” joint seal is needed. Select Type 2 in the Table in File No. 14.03-2.

Check racking due to skew angle:

Anormal = A x (cosθ) = 3.73” x cos(33°) = 3.12”

Aparallel = A x (sinθ) = 3.73” x sin(33°) = 2.03”

Parallel racking / total joint movement range = 2.03” / 4.0” = 51% < 60% (for 30o < skew ≤ 45o).
So 4-inch seal, Type2, is OK.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ELASTOMERIC EXPANSION DAMS SHEET 3 of 3
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.03-3
GENERAL INFORMATION FOR TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS:
Tooth expansion joint systems consist of a pair of loosely interlocking steel plates that cantilever
the joint opening. The cantilevered portion of each plate is made up of rows of tooth-shaped
protrusions that fit into the rows of grooves in the opposing plate. The tooth plates are anchored
into the deck slab or backwall of the abutment. Generally, the water and debris pass through the
tooth joint opening and are taken away by a trough system.

Tooth expansion joints are normally used for new joint construction with Virginia Abutments or
Virginia Pier Caps. Tooth expansion joints are used to accommodate medium and larger
movement ranges, typically greater than 4”. Bridge decks that require greater than 10 inches of
movement require design approval from the District Structure and Bridge Engineer.

The steel teeth are designed to support live loads in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 3.6. At the
Strength I Limit State, a load factor of 1.75, as well as an impact factor of 1.75, shall be applied to
the tooth load. The capacity of the cantilever steel tooth shall be checked against the ultimate
load. Tooth thickness shall not exceed 3 inches.

When pedestrian or bicycle facilities are used on a bridge, the portion of the tooth expansion
joints in the bike path or shoulder area should be covered with special floor plates. Additionally,
tooth joint surface openings should be limited to permit safe operation of motorcycles. When the
maximum longitudinal openings in the direction of traffic exceed 8 inches, the transverse opening
shall not exceed 2 inches. For the maximum longitudinal openings are 8 inches or less, the
transverse opening may be increased to 3 inches.

The designer shall refer to Part 3 of this manual for Standards and Notes to Designer pertaining
to Tooth Expansion Joints.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 1 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-1
DESIGN EXAMPLE:
The Tooth Expansion Joint may be designed using the following values and formulas:

Criteria and Assumptions:

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 2 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-2
DESIGN EXAMPLE (CONT’D)

α = 0.0000065 in/in/ F Coefficient of thermal expansion for steel beams/girders

α = 0.000006 in/in/ F Coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete beams

∆T = 120 ° F Temperature range for steel beams/girders

∆T = 80 ° F Temperature range for concrete beams

Amin = 1” Minimum tooth opening

Bmin = 1.5” Minimum tooth lap

TLmin = 5” Minimum tooth length

1.20 LRFD Uniform Temperature Load Factor

Total thermal movement distance

TL Tooth length

∙ ∙∆ ∙

CLR Clear distance between end plates

CLRmin Minimum clear distance between end plates


9” abutment; 7” for pier
ϕ = skew angle

3 1 ∙ cos

∙ ∙ 60 , Tooth opening at 60 F for steel beams/girders

∙ ∙ 40 , Tooth opening at 60 F for concrete beams

, Tooth lap

C Thickness of tooth

Cmin = 1½” Minimum thickness of tooth

0.2 , Bevel length of tooth

1/8" 2"
3/16" for 2 3"
Bevel depth of tooth
1/4" 3"

F Length of 3/8” fillet weld (Category E)

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 3 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-3
DESIGN EXAMPLE (CONT’D)

A two span steel plate girder bridge as shown below.

250 Total thermal movement distance

0 Bridge skew

36 Yield strength of tooth plate

1.75 LRFD Live Load Factor

1.75 LRFD Impact Factor

0.9 LRFD Flexural Resistance Factor

4 Tooth spacing

2 Width of tooth

0 Joint location, 0 for abutment; 1 for pier

Fillet weld size

0.80 Resistance Factor of weld, AASHTO LRFD 6.5.4.2

70 Weld strength

Lw Length of weld

Lwmin = 6” Minimum length of weld

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 4 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-4
DESIGN EXAMPLE (CONT’D)

Determine Tooth Length (TL):

The tooth length needs to satisfy the minimums of tooth opening, tooth lap, clear distance
between end plates and thermal expansion movement. The clear distance between end plates
(CLR), determined using the solved value for TL. If the minimum criterion for CLR is not achieved,
then TL will be increased at increments of 1/8” until all minimums are satisfied.

Calculate Initial TL:


∙ ∙∆ ∙ 5.31

Check minimum CLR:

Since 0 (0 for abutment) 9

Check TL required to meet

1 7

TL required to satisfy all minimum requirements:

max 5 , , 7

Tooth Length will be rounded to up to the nearest 1/8”.

Clear distance between end plates:

3 1 ∙ cos 9.125

Calculate Tooth Thickness (C):

Tooth Thickness (C) is determined from the steel flexural capacity required to resist a 16 kip truck
wheel load distributed over 20” width (AASHTO 3.6.1.2.5) placed 3” from the free end of a tooth.
Loading scenario assumes there is differential settlement on either side of the joint resulting in
one side being higher than the other with the full wheel load to be evenly distributed over N
individual teeth. Due to the round area at the base of teeth, flexural capacity is checked at a
location 1” from the base of tooth.

Number of teeth carrying truck wheel load:


20"
≔ 5

Load per tooth:


∙ ∙ 9.8

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 5 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-5
DESIGN EXAMPLE (CONT’D):
Moment per tooth:

∙ 1" 3" 2.45 ∙

Nominal Moment Capacity:

Where,
∙ Section Modulus

Check Strength I:


∙ ∙

6∙ 6 ∙ 2.45 ∙ ∙ 12
1.65
∙ ∙ 0.9 ∙ 36 ∙2

Use 1¾” plate.

Calculate remaining tooth variables:

Tooth opening at 60 F:

∙ ∙ 60 ∙ 2.40

Tooth lap at 60 F:

7 2.4 4.6

0.2 0.2 7 1.4

1/8" 2"
3/16"for 2 3"
1/4" 3"

Since D = 1.4”, E = 1/8”

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 6 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-6
DESIGN EXAMPLE (CONT’D):
Calculate length of weld (F):

Use sufficient length of fillet weld (Category E) to resist vertical wheel load and horizontal traction
load with anchors at 12” spacing.

Resistance of weld:



∙ ∙ 0.6 ∙ Rr = 11.14 kip/in

Wheel load:

16 ∙ ∙ LL = 49kip

Since the wheel load is distributed over 20” width and the spacing of the anchors is 12”, the
wheel load is carried by each anchor or weld is

"
∙ Pl = 29.4kip
"
3" 1.5" ∙ ∙ ∙ Lw = 7.4in > Lwmin = 6”

So,

1.5" 9

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
TOOTH EXPANSION JOINTS SHEET 7 of 7
DESIGN EXAMPLE FILE NO. 14.04-7
GENERAL INFORMATION FOR ASPHALT PLUG JOINTS:
Asphalt plug joints are designed to accommodate minimal structure movements while providing a
smooth transition over a joint. The system combines the use of a traffic bearing plate with special
aggregate reinforced modified elastomeric material. Asphalt plug joints are only to be used for
existing bridge maintenance applications. A typical joint cross section is shown below.

Asphalt plug joints should not be used in applications where the adjacent pavement is subjected to
significant acceleration or deceleration, such as exit ramps, as this type of loading increases the
chances of the polymer modified asphalt binder to creep out of the blockout.

The designer shall refer to Part 3 of this manual for Standards and Notes to Designer pertaining to
Asphalt Plug Joints.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
ASPHALT PLUG JOINTS SHEET 1 of 1
GENERAL INFORMATION FILE NO. 14.05-1
GENERAL INFORMATION FOR FLEXIBLE CONCRETE PLUG JOINTS:
Flexible concrete plug joints are designed to accommodate minimal structure movements while
providing a smooth transition over a joint. Flexible concrete plug joints are only to be used for
existing bridge maintenance applications. A typical joint cross section is shown below.

The designer shall refer to Part 3 of this manual for Standards and Notes to Designer pertaining to
Flexible Concrete Plug Joints.

JOINTS PART 2
DATE: 03May2018
FLEXIBLE CONCRETE PLUG JOINTS SHEET 1 of 1
GENERAL INFORMATION FILE NO. 14.06-1