PA 7330 (501) Spring 2011 (3 hrs) Professor Simon Fass T: 7:00-9:45 p.m. WSTC: 1.216 Office: WSTC 1.

220 Office hours: T 5:30-6:45; W 5:30-6:30; R 5:30-6:30 and by appointment tel: 972 883 2938 e-mail: e-learning for course purposes or, when e-learning is down:

preliminary This course, oriented toward first-year doctoral students in Public Affairs, introduces the foundations of social science research methods and design. Covered topics include the: logic of scientific inquiry; structure of research language and thought; key components of the research enterprise; measurement methods; sampling techniques; experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs; survey methods, arts of the interview, development of scales, evaluation research, and mixed-method approaches to investigation. Along the away of discussing these themes students will learn how to define and refine research questions, assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of alternative research methods designed to answer the questions, identify appropriate tools to carry out credible studies that can yield information worthy of analysis and interpretation, and prepare a research proposal. The course is of value to students who intend to conduct research, actual and prospective administrators who may find themselves required to assess research projects done by others and, in general, to anyone interested in discovering ways to better understand why people behave and organizations function as they do. A. Learning Outcomes: Students, through class readings and assignments, will become: familiar with a broad range of methods used in Public Affairs research; more able to distinguish problems that are and are not amenable to empirical research; adept at recognizing strengths and weaknesses of alternative research designs; proficient at critically assessing the validity of claims based on empirical research, and skilled at forming good research questions and designing effective means to answer them B. Pre-requisite: None, but completion of a course in statistical methods can be helpful. C. Required Texts: Approaches to Social Research, 5th ed 2009 Singleton, R., Jr., and Straits, B. London: Oxford University Press [Singleton and Straits] Research Methods in Anthropology: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, 4th ed 2006 Bernard, H.R. AltaMira Press [Bernard] The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3e. 2007. Trochim, W. and Donnelly, J.P. Atomic Dog Publishing [Trochim and Donnelly]

Recommended Texts: Craft of Research, 3rd ed 2008. Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G., and Williams, J.M., University of Chicago Press Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference 2001 Shadish, W.R., Cook, T. D. and Campbell, D. T.,    Houghton Mifflin Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration, 2nd ed. 2007 Miller, G.J. and Yang, K. (eds.) CRC Press D. Grades: Structure is: A(4.0), A-(3.67), B+(3.33), B(3.00), B-(2.67), C+(2.33), C(2.00), F(0) Grading is based on performance on two class project assignments, a research project proposal, a mid-term examination, and a final examination, as follows: Two class assignments (at 15% each): 30 % Research project proposal: 30% Mid-term and Final examinations (at 20% each); 40 % Total: 100 % E. Class Schedule and Readings: 1. January 11: Course Overview Singleton and Straits: Chapter 1. Introduction 2. January 18: Scientific Inquiry Singleton and Straits: Chapter 2. The Nature of Science Bernard: Chapter 1. Anthropology and the Social Sciences Durkheim, E. 1982. “What is a Social Fact?” in The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and its Method. New York: The Free Press. pp. 50-59 Bozeman, B. 1993. “A Theory of Government “Red Tape”,” The Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1993), pp. 273-304. 3. January 25: Research Language and Thought Bernard: Chapter 2 The Foundations of Social Research Chapter 3. Preparing for Research Chapter 4. The Literature Search Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 1. Foundations 4. February 1: Design Components Singleton and Straits: Chapter 4. Elements of Research Design Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 7. Design Gottlieb, B. September 1, 1999. “Cooking the School Books: How U.S. News cheats in picking its ‘best American colleges.’" Gaventa, J. 1993. The Powerful, the Powerless, and the Experts: Knowledge Struggles in an Information Age, in Park, P., Brydon-Miller, M., Hall, B. and Jackson, T (eds.), Voices of Change: Participatory Research in the US and Canada. Bergin and Garvey, pp. 21-40.

5. February 8: Measurement Singleton and Straits: Chapter 5. Measurement Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 3. The Theory of Measurement

Duffy, B. and Cary, P. September 7, 1999. “Dissension in the Rankings: US News responds to Slate’s ‘best colleges’ story.” Bohrnstedt, G.W. 2010. “Measurement,” in Wright, J.D. and Anderson, A.B. eds., Handbook of Survey Research, 2nd edition, Emerald Publishing pp 347-404 Wagle, U. 2008. Multidimensional Poverty: An Alternative Measurement Approach for the United States? Social Science Research. 37(2), 559-80 6. February 15: Sampling Singleton and Straits: Chapter 6. Sampling Bernard: Chapter 6. Sampling Chapter 7. Sampling Theory Chapter 8. Nonprobability Sampling and Choosing Informants Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 2 - Sampling Michael, R.T., Gagnon, J.H., Laumann, E.O. and Kolata, G. 1994. “Chapter 2: The Sex Survey,” in Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Warner Books, pp. 5-41 7. February 22: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs I Singleton and Straits: Chapter 7. Experimentation Chapter 8. Experimental Designs Bernard: Chapter 5. Research Design: Experiments and Experimental Thinking Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 7. Design Chapter 9. Experimental Design Lovaglia, M. 2003. “From Summer Camps to Glass Ceilings: The Power of Experiments.” Contexts, Fall. pp. 42-49. de Anda, D. 2006. Baby Think It Over: evaluation of an infant simulation intervention for adolescent pregnancy prevention, Health and Social Work, 31 (1) pp 26-35 8. March 1: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs II Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 10. Quasi-Experimental Design Greenberg, D.H., and Robins, P.K. 1986. The Changing Role of Social Experiments in Policy Analysis” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 5:340-62 Adamson, G., O'Kane, D., and Shevlin, M. 2005. Students' ratings of teaching effectiveness: a laughing matter? Psychological Reports, 96 (1) pp 225-6

Bretschneider, S., Straussman, J., and Mullin, D. 1988. Do Revenue Forecasts Influence Budget Setting? A Small Group Experiment. Policy Sciences 21:305-25 Rohrbaugh, J. 1981. Improving the Quality of Group Judgment: Social Judgment Analysis and the Nominal Group Technique, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 28:272-288 Burke, R.J. and Mikkelsen, A. 2004. Benefits to police officers of having a spouse or partner in the profession of police officer, Psychological Reports, 95 (2) pp 514-6 Recommended Landsbergen, D., Bozeman, B., and Bretschneider, S. 1992. ‘Internal Rationality’ and the Effects of Perceived Decision Difficulty: Results of a Public Management Decision making Experiment. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 2:3:247-64. Shangraw, R.F., Jr. 1986. How Public Managers Use Information: An Experiment Examining Choices of Computer and Printed Information. Public Administration Review, Special Issue: “Public Management Information Systems.” Barry B. and Bretschneider, S. eds. pp. 506-515 Wittmer, D. 1992. Ethical Sensitivity and Managerial Decision making: An Experiment, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 2:443-462. 9. March 8: Survey Research Singleton and Straits: Chapter 9. Survey Research Chapter 10. Survey Instrumentation Bernard: Chapter 10. Structured Interviewing I: Questionnaires Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 4. Survey Research Schuman, H. 2002. “Sense and Nonsense about Surveys.” Contexts. Summer, pp 40-47. Patchin, J.W. 2006. Bullies Move Beyond the Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, April, vol. 4 no. 2 pp. 148-169 Recommended Bobrowski, P. and Bretschneider, S.I. 1994. Internal and external interorganizational relationships and their impact on the adoption of new technology: An exploratory study, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 46, pp. 197-211 Bozeman, B. and Bretschneider, S.I. 1994. The Publicness Puzzle in Organization Theory: A Test of Alternative Explanations of Differences between Public and Private Organizations," Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 197-224 Welch, E. and Bretschneider, S. 1999. “Contracting In: Can Government Be a Business?,” in Frederickson, H.G. and Johnston, J.M. (eds.) Public management reform and innovation: research, theory, and application, University of Alabama Press 259-279 Tuesday, March 15: Spring Break

10. March 22: Interviewing Bernard: Chapter 9. Interviewing: Unstructured and Semistructured Chapter11. Structured Interviewing II: Cultural Domain Analysis Smith, G.F. 1995. Classifying Managerial Problems: An Empirical Study of Definitional Content, Journal of Management Studies, 32:5. September. 11. March 29: Scaling Bernard: Chapter 12. Scales and Scaling Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 5. Scales and Indexes 12. April 5: Non-Experimental Designs I Singleton and Straits: Chapter 11. Field Research Bernard: Chapter 13. Participant Observation Chapter 14. Field Notes: How to Take Them, Code Them, Manage Them Chapter 15. Direct and Indirect Observation Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 6. Qualitative and Unobtrusive Measures Chapter 13. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Analysis Barzelay, M. 1993. The Single Case Study as Intellectually Ambitious Inquiry, The Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 305-318 Feldman, M.S. 2000. Organizational Routines as a Source of Continuous Change, Organization Science 11(6): 611-629. Edin, K. and Lein. L. 1997. Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work. New York: Russell Sage. Chapters 1 and 2 Trinkaus. J. 2002. Shopping center fire zone parking violators: an informal look, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 95 (3 pt 2), pp 1215-6 Recommended Adler, P.A. and Adler, P. 2003. The Promise and Pitfalls of Going into the Field, Contexts. pp.41-47. Campbell, D. 1975. Degrees of Freedom and the Case Study, Comparative Political Studies, September 1975, pp. 178-93. Overman, E.S. and Boyd, K.J. 1994 Best Practice Research and Postbureaucratic Reform, The Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1994) pp. 67-83. Wolf, P.J. 1993. A Case Survey of Bureaucratic Effectiveness in U.S. Cabinet Agencies: Preliminary Results, The Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 3, No. 2 , pp. 161-181.

13. April 12: Non-Experimental Designs II Singleton and Straits: Chapter 12. Research Using Available Data Bernard: Chapter 16. Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Chapter 17. Qualitative Data Analysis I: Text Analysis Chapter 18. Qualitative Data Analysis II: Models and Matrices Stewart, D. and Kamins, M. 1993. Secondary Research: Information Sources & Methods, 2e. Newbury Park: Sage. Ch. 1 & 2, “Introduction” & “Evaluating Secondary Sources,” 1-32. Useem, B. and Goldstone, J.A. 2002. Forging Social Order and Its Breakdown: Riot and Reform in U.S. Prisons, American Sociological Review. 67(4): 499-525. Ospina, S. M. and J. Dodge. 2005. It’s About Time: Catching Method Up to Meaning; The Usefulness of Narrative Inquiry in Public Administration Research, Public Administration Review, March/April, Vol. 65, No. 2 pp 143-157 Malcolm Gladwell, 2007. Dangerous Minds, The New Yorker. November 12, 

Few, A.L. 2005. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters, Family Relations, Volume 54, Number 4, pp. 488-500 Recommended Weir, M. 1995. The Politics of Racial Isolation in Europe and America, in Peterson, P.E. (ed.) Classifying by Race. Princeton University Press pp. 217-242. Callahan, K. Dubnick, M.J. and Olshfski, D. 2006. War Narratives: Framing Our Understanding of the War on Terror, Pub. Admin. Review, July|August. Vol. 66, I 4, 554–68 Dodge, J., Ospina, S.M. and Foldy, E.G. 2005. Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry. Public Administration Review, May/June, Vol. 65, No. 3 pp 286-300. Rock, M. 2005. Diabetes Portrayals in North American Print Media: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, American Journal of Pub Hlth, Oct., Vol. 95, No. 10 pp. 1832-1838 14. April 19: Evaluation Research Singleton and Straits: Chapter 14. Evaluation Research Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 16. Evaluation, Research Synthesis, Meta-analysis, and Evidence-Based Practice SDRC. 1996. When Work Pays Better Than Welfare: A Summary of the Self- Sufficiency Project’s Implementation… 18- Month Impact Reports. Ottawa: Social Research and Demonstration Corporation. Smith, T.E., Sells, S.P., Rodman, J. and Reynolds, L.R. 2006. Reducing Adolescent Substance Abuse and Delinquency: Pilot Research of a Family-Oriented Psychoeducation Curriculum, Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 15 (4) pp 105-115

15. April 26: Mixed-Method Designs Singleton and Straits: Chapter 13. Multiple Methods Trochim and Donnelly: Chapter 8. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Designs Goughler, D.H. and Trunzo, A.C. 2005. Unretired and Better Than Ever: Older Adults as Foster Parents for Children, Families in Society, Vol. 86; No 3, pp 393-400

E. Internet Data Sources Worthy of Exploration Centre for Applied Social Surveys (UK):  FBI Uniform Crime Reports: FedStats, compiled by sundry US gov’t agencies: Freedom House Rankings of Political/Economic Freedom: General Social Survey: Int’l Institute for Democracy & Electoral Assistance, Voter turnout data for 140 countries: Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research (ICPSR), extensive datasets from different sources: International City/County Management Association: State Politics and Policy Data Resources: Statistical Abstract of the U.S.: UN Development Program, Human Development Indicators: World Bank, World Development Indicators: World Resources Institute, Natural resource and climate data:

To be continued…..