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MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE

RELATIONS

( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 )
2 2
Distance =

 x +x y + y2 
Midpoint, ( x, y ) =  1 2 , 1 
 2 2 

Phythagoras Theorem = c 2 = a 2 + b2

SHAPE AND SPACE

1. Area of rectangle = length × width


1
2. Area of triangle = × base × height
2
3. Area of parallelogram = base × height
1
4. Area of trapezium = × (sum of parallel sides) × height
2
5. Circumference of circle = π d = 2 π r

6. Area of circle = π r 2

7. Curved surface area of cylinder = 2 π r h

8. Surface area of sphere = 4 π r 2

9. Volume of right prism = cross sectional area × length

10. Volume of cuboid = length × width × height

11. Volume of cylinder = π r 2 h

1 2
12. Volume of cone = π r h
3
4 3
13. Volume of sphere = π r
3
1
14. Volume of right pyramid = × base area × height
3
15. Sum of interior angles of a polygon = ( n − 2 ) × 180
ο

arc length angle substended at centre


16. =
circumference of circle 360ο

area of sector angle substended at centre


17. =
area of circle 360ο
CIRCLES

Identifying a circle
- we have learnt a point that moves at a constant distant from a fixed point is a
circle
- a circle is a set of point that is equidistant from the fixed point
Circumference of a circle
- the ratio of the circumference to diameter is a constant
- this constant is known as ‘ pi ’ and is represented by the symbol π
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- π= OR π = 3.142
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Circumference = π d OR
π
Circumference = 2 r , r = radius

- Examples:
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1) Calculate the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 7 cm ( use π = )
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2) Calculate the circumference of a circle with a radius 3.2 cm ( use π = 3.142 )

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3) Find the diameter of a circle which has a circumference of 44 cm. ( use π = )
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4) If a circle has a circumference of 66 cm, find its radius. ( use π = )
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5. The tyre of a bicycle rotates 50 times per minutes. Given the diameter of the tyre is 42 cm, find the
distance traveled by the bicycle in 5 minutes. Give your answer in meters.

6. A piece of wire in the shape of a rectangle 24 cm long and 20 cm wide is reshaped into a circle. Find the
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radius of the circle. ( use π = )
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Arc of a circle

length of arc angle at centre


=
circumference 360ο

Examples :

1) Calculate the length of an arc that subtends an angle of 72ο at the centre of a circle with a radius
of 21 cm

2) O

A x
B
Find the value of x given that the circle with centre O has a radius of 14 m and the minor arc AB is
44 m long.

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3) The length of an arc of a circle of radius 10 cm is 22cm. Find the angle at the centre of the sector
2

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4) In the figure, the length of the minor arc PQ is 13 cm and angle POQ is 84ο . Calculate the
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a) radius of the circle
b) length of the major arc

5) The figure shows a right-angled triangle joined to a semicircle. find the perimeter of the figure.
6cm

8cm

6) The figure given shows a rectangle PQRS overlapped by two quadrants PAD and RCB of radius
7cm. If PS = 10cm and PQ = 14cm, calculate the perimeter of the shaded area.

P A S

D B

Q R
C

Area of a circle
Area of circle = π r2 where r is the radius

- Examples:
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1) Calculate the area of a circle with a radius = 1.4 cm. ( Take π = )
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2) Calculate the area of a circle with a diameter. ( Take π = 3.142 )

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3) The area of a circle is 154cm 2 . Find its radius and diameter ( Use π = )
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4) Find the area of the circle with the circumference of 88cm. ( Use π = )
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3 cm
4 cmcentre O. Find the area of the annulus.
5) The figure shows two concentric circles with
O
Important!
Concentric Circles
= circles having the same centre

Annulus
= area between two concentric
circles
= area of big circle – area of small

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6) Take π = , find the area of the shaded regions
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42cm
O P

Area of a Sector of a Circle

Area of Sector Angle At Centre


=
Area of Circle 360 °
OR
θ
Area of sector = ×π r2
360°

Examples:
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1) Find the area of the shaded region. ( Take π = )
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O 7cm

72o

2) Given that the area of the shaded sector of circle with radius of 6.3 cm is 27.72 cm 2 , calculate the angle
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substended at centre of the circle. ( Use π = )
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3) The area of the shaded region in the circle with centre O is 48 cm 2 . Given that the angle substended at
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the centre is 144ο , calculate the radius of the circle. ( Use π = )
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4) The diagram below shows a circle with centre O and a radius of 14mm. OAB is a right-angled triangle.
Find the area of the shaded part.

O
B

5) In the diagram as shown, PS and QR are the arcs of two circles with centre O. Find the area of the
shaded region. Give your answer in π

PMR Past Year Questions (Chapter 10 Circles)


2004 Paper 1 Question 19
Diagram 12 shows a circle with centre O.

1 22
The radius of the circle is 10 cm. Calculate the length, in cm, of the minor arc MN. (Use π = )
2 7
55 77 1155 1617
A B C D
2 2 8 8

2004 Paper 1 Question 20


In Diagram 13, POR is the diameter of circle PQR.

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Given that PQ = QR and PR = 14cm, calculate the area, in cm2, of the shaded region. (Use π = )
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A 56 B 93 C 105 D 142

2005 Paper 1 Question 40


Diagram 25 shows a circle with centre O. The length of the minor arc PQ is 3.3 cm.

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Calculate the radius, in cm, of the circle. (Use π = )
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A 2.42 B 4.50 C 14.85 D 29.70

2006 Paper 1 Question 20


Diagram 15 shows a circle with centre O.
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Calculate the length, in cm, of the minor arc PQ. (Use π = )
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A 22 B 44 C 88 D 176

2006 Paper 1 Question 22


Diagram 17 shows two sectors, QSR and UST, with the common centre S. RSU and QST are straight lines.

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It is given that ST = 2QS. Calculate the area, in cm2, of the sector UST. (Use π = )
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A 11 B 19.25 C 38.50 D 77

2007 Paper 1 Question 23


Diagram 16 shows a circle with centre O. PT, QU, RV and SW are diameters of the circle.

Which of the following minor arcs is the longest?


A TU B UV C WP D RS

2007 Paper 1 Question 24


Diagram 17 shows a circle with centre O and radius 6 cm.
Calculate the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.
A 18 π B 5.4 π C 10.2 π D 30.6 π

2007 Paper 1 Question 31


Diagram 22 shows a square OPQR and an arc RSP with centre O.

Calculate the perimeter, in cm, of the whole diagram.


A 61 B 58 C 47 D 33

2008 Paper 1 Question 21


Diagram 12 shows a circle with centre O.

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Calculate the area, in cm2, of the coloured region. (Use π = )
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A 105 B 116 C 539 D 616

2008 Paper 1 Question 22


Diagram 13, O is the centre of the circle and POR is a diameter of the circle. PQRS is a rectangle.
It is given that PR = 10 cm and PQ = 6 cm. Find the area, in cm2, of the coloured region.
A 25 π – 48 B 25 π – 96 C 100 π – 48 D 100 π – 96

2008 Paper 1 Question 30


In Diagram 19, PQRS is a square and STU is an arc of a circle with centre P.

The area of PQRS is 576 cm2. Calculate the length, in cm, of the arc STU.
A 16 π B 28 π C 32 π D 48 π