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Power Systems Communications

Implementation of IEC61850 in a
Substation Environment

26 October 2009
Reference VEE4700-01
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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

Contents
Section Page

1. Introduction 1
1.1 IEC 61850 Standard 2
1.2 Peer-to-Peer Message (GOOSE) 2
1.3 Process Bus Interface 2
1.4 True Interoperability 2

2. Generator Protection 3
2.1 Chosen Relay for Generator Protection 3
2.2 Key Benefits and Features of G60 Relay 3
2.3 Wiring Diagrams for Generator Protection 4

3. Transformer protection 7
3.1 Key Features 7
3.2 User Benefits 7
3.3 Single line diagram of how relay connected to the transformer 8

4. Switchgear Protection 9
4.1 Busbar Protection 9
4.2 The important issues of switchgear protection can be summarized 9
4.3 The requirements for good protection 9
4.4 330kV Busbars 10
4.5 Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) 10
4.5.1 Functional Block Diagram (GE Multilin) 11
4.5.2 Substation Monitoring (Human Machine Interface) 11
4.6 Differential Busbar Protection 12

5. Line Protection 15
5.1 Line Distance Protection 15
5.2 IED61850 Application 16
5.3 Distance IED Communications Application 18

6. Substation Communications Network (IED61850 Network) 19


6.1 Implementation of IEC61850 19
6.2 Redundant Network 19

7. Conclusion 20

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

1. Introduction
The aim of the project is to design the protection solution for the given system which has to be in
compliance with IEC61850 standard. It is also required to work out the infrastructure of the next
generation power system communications including the communication and telecommunication
protocols.

Figure 1: Given system

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

1.1 IEC 61850 Standard


IEC 61850 is the global standard for communication in substations. It enables integration of all
protection, control, measurement and monitoring functions within a substation, and
additionally provides the means for high-speed substation protection applications, interlocking
and intertripping. The comprehensive implementation facilitates integration of the relays into
IEC 61850-based Substation Automation Systems and at the same time it allows the interface
with different vendors' Merging Units over the IEC 61850 Process Bus. It combines the
convenience of Ethernet with the performance and security which is essential in substations
today. IEC 61850-enabled relays are fitted with an integral Ethernet card providing both
copper and fiber Ethernet. No external adaptors or data concentrators are necessary and only
standard Ethernet equipment such as switches and substation grade switches etc are
required.

1.2 Peer-to-Peer Message (GOOSE)


Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) messages can be used for interlocking,
disturbance recording cross-triggering, breaker failure protection tripping, directional
comparison bus protection and many other advanced applications, thus eliminating extensive
hardwiring in equipment bays and so reducing the cost of implementing advanced distributed
protection and control schemes. The implementation of the IEC GOOSE messaging provides
faster end-to-end transfer than using hardwiring.
1.3 Process Bus Interface
Analog interface units (or Merging Units) located in the substation yard interface with
conventional or non-conventional instrument transformers and send the sampled current and
voltage values over fiber, thus significantly reducing (actually eliminating) the copper wires
between the substation primary equipment and the protection, control and measuring devices.
1.4 True Interoperability
One protocol is all that is needed in the substation. Costly gateways and split path
communications are thus avoided. Peer-to-peer messages, control commands, disturbance
files transfer or event driven reports are interleaved on a single Substation Bus network.
Multiple clients can be integrated, allowing authorized operators and engineers to interrogate
and control the substation IEDs. The Substation Configuration Language defined in the
standard represents a leap in the engineering process related. The self-descriptive nature of
IEC 61850-compatible IEDs means that system integration and commissioning are easier.
Standardized data classes and services mean IEC 61850-enabled IEDs can operate
seamlessly in multi-vendor environments.

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

2. Generator Protection
Industrial and commercial power systems may include generators as a local source of energy.
These generators supply all or part of the total energy required, or they provide emergency
power if the normal source of energy fails. The application of generators can be classified as
single-isolated generators, multiple-isolated generators, unit-connected generators,
cogeneration generators, and induction generators. Generator protective schemes vary
depending on the objectives to be achieved. Generator protection requires the consideration
of many abnormal conditions that are not present with other system elements.

The abnormal conditions that may occur with generators include:

• Overheating
• Stator (due to overload or loss of cooling)
• Rotor (due to overexcitation, loss of cooling)
• Winding faults
• Stator (phase and ground faults)
• Rotor (ground faults and shorted turns)
• Overspeed and underspeed
• Overvoltage
• Loss of excitation
• Motoring
• Unbalanced current operation
• Out of step
• Subsynchronous oscillations
• Inadvertent energization
• Nonsynchronized connection

2.1 Chosen Relay for Generator Protection


The relays selected for generator protection is manufactured by GE Multilin.

Figure2: GE Multilin G60- Comprehensive protection for generators

2.2 Key Benefits and Features of G60 Relay

Complete IEC 61850 Process Bus solution providing resource optimization.


Secure high-speed protection elements for complete generator protection, compliant with
IEEE C37.102.
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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

Reduced relay to relay wiring and associated installation costs through high-
high-speed inter-relay
communications.
Redundant architecture for dependability and security
security.
Networking interfaces – 100Mbit Fiber Optic Ethernet, RS485, RS232, RS422, G.703, and
C37.94.
Multiple Protocols - IEC61850, DNP 3.0 Level 2, Modbus RTU, Modbus TCP/IP, IEC60870
IEC60870-5-
104, Ethernet Global Data (EGD).
(EGD)

2.3 Wiring Diagrams for Generator Protection

orm the followin


This relay can perform followingg ANSI functions if configured using standard scheme as
shown below in single line diagram:

Figure 3
For our particular system single line diagram showing VT & CT connections is given
below:

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

Generator Protection
87
81O/81U
67N
59N CT/VT Connection

50G/51G Circuit Breaker Trip

27P/27TN
24
GE G60 Multilin IED

110V
VT Metering

Generator Protection

GE G60 – Multilin
IED

200MVA
Generator
Protection Employed

87
81O/81U
67N
59N
50G/51G
27P/27TN
24

22kV/330kV
Transformer

Figure 4

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

Three CT’s and one VT were used to implement the generator protection and the protection
functions employed were:

ANSI Device Number Function


87 Generator Stator Differential
81O Overfrequency
81U Underfrequency
67N Neutral Directional Overcurrent
59N Neutral Overvoltage
50G Ground Instantaneous Overcurrent
51G Ground Time Overcurrent
27P Phase Undervoltage
27TN Third Harmonic Neutral Undervoltage
24 Volts Per Hertz

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

3. Transformer protection
Transformers are high capital cost assets in electrical power systems. Elimination of all electrical and
mechanical stresses desirable to preserve transformer life is impractical. Adaptive techniques to
measure and alarm in such instances and advise on service duty can help to schedule preventive
maintenance.
Internal faults are a risk for all transformers. With short circuits dissipating the highest lacalized
energy. Unless cleared quickly the possibility to rewind windings reduces and core damages may
become irreparable.
The MiCOM P642, P643 and P645 from AREVA address all the issues - preserving service life, and
offering fast protection for transformer faults. The P642 incorporates differential, REF, thermal, and
overfluxing protection, plus backup protection for uncleared external faults. So we decided to use
P642 as it is cheap and suitable for our substation design.
3.1 Key Features
• High-speed transformer differential protection. A proven 2nd harmonic current scheme is used
• Simple setting – wizard requires only nameplate data
• Restricted earth fault (REF) boosts trip sensitivity
• Voltage, frequency, thermal and overfluxing elements
• CT, VT, trip circuit and self-supervision:
• Patented CT supervision ensures no trip for CT or wiring failures
• Integrated backup overcurrent per winding
• Readily interfaces to multiple automation protocols, including IEC 61850

3.2 User Benefits


• Universal IED for all transformer configurations
• Simple to specify, set and commission
• Backup and logging of faults
• Protection , control , measurements and recording in one device

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

3.3 Single line diagram of how relay connected to the transformer


CTs on both side of the transformer are for differential protection. Grounding CT is to tell weather the
connection is delta/star or star/delta
Overcurrent backup protection indicates from dotted red line.

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

4. Switchgear Protection
4.1 Busbar Protection
Busbars are one of the most important components in a substation. There can be open busbars in an
outdoor switch yard or contained inside a metal clad cubicle restricted within a limited enclosure with
minimum phase-to-phase and phase-to ground clearances. Busbars form an electrical node where
many circuits come together, feeding in and feeding out power.

It is very clear that for any reason the busbars fails, it could lead to shutdown of all distribution loads
connected through them, even if the power generation is normal and the feeders are operating
normally.

4.2 The important issues of switchgear protection can be summarized


• Loss very serious and sometimes catastrophic
• Switchgear damaged beyond repair
• Multi-panel boards not available ‘off-the-shelf’
• Numerous joints
• Air enclosure
• Dust build-up
• Insect nesting
• Ageing of insulation
• Frequency of stress impulses
• Long earth fault protection tripping times

4.3 The requirements for good protection

The successful protection can be achieved subject to compliance with the following:

• Speed
– Limit damage at fault point
– Limit effect on fault stability

• Selectivity
– Trip only the faulted equipment
– Important for busbars divided into zones

• Stability
– Not to operate for faults outside the zone
– Most important for busbars
– Stability must be guaranteed

• Reasons for loss of stability


– Interruption of CT circuits – imbalance
– Accidental operation during testing

• Tripping can be arranged ‘two-out-of-two’


– Zone and check relays

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

4.4 330kV Busbars

This is the 330kV busbars that require busbar protection.

4.5 Intelligent Electronic Device (IED)


IEDs selected to protect the 330kV busbars.

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

4.5.1 Functional Block Diagram (GE Multilin)

4.5.2 Substation Monitoring (Human Machine Interface)

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

4.6 Differential Busbar Protection


The busbars will be protected by two IEDs; the purpose of the two IEDs is to provide reliability and
backup protection. If one IED fails, one busbar will still be protected.

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

5. Line Protection
This part of the report will be covering the transmission line protection of the substation. The main
faults that can occur on the transmission lines are:
• Line to Line
• Line to ground
• Double line to ground
• Three phase line to ground

These faults can be caused by simply things such as birds, snakes, bushfires, and branches falling on
to the line. They can also be caused by lightning and deterioration of insulation. This section will be
focusing on the four transmission lines for the 2 buses which have to lines each as shown below.

Figure 5.1 Four transmission lines

5.1 Line Distance Protection


In order to protect these four lines two relays from
different vendors has been chosen. The first relay
chosen is the ABB REL 670 Distance relay (figure
2). The REL 670 relay is fully IEC61850
complaint and features Control, monitoring and
protection integrated in to the one IED. This relay
is also chosen because of its maximum reliability
and performance optimized for Figure 2.
ABB relay
transmission overhead lines and cables.

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Power Systems Communications Assignment - VEE4700
Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

The way in which The ABB REL 760 relay is connected to the transmission line is in the Dual breaker
configuration instead of a simply configuration which uses 1 VT and 1 CT. The Dual breaker
configuration uses 2 VTs and 2VTs it will cost more but is a lot more reliable. The connection scheme
can be seen in figure 3.

The second relay used in the system is the GE D90Plus (figure 4) . The D90Plus is also fully
IEC61850 and also features back up protection such as time over current. The D90Plus is also
selected because of the fact that it can use fibre optic communication.
The D90Plus is connected on the same scheme as the ABB in which it is connected in a Dual breaker
scheme with 2 VTs and 2 CTs.(Figure 5) Figure 4. GE D90Plus

Figure 5. D90Plus connection

5.2 IED61850 Application


When all the relays have been place in the substation, the relays from the two vendors are connected
together by the fibre optic link on the process bus as can be seen in figure 6. One each bus we have 4
CTs and 4VTs with 3 circuit breakers with one of those circuit breakers being used by both relays.

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

5.3 Distance IED Communications Application


This report covers the transmission line protection of a new substation but Figure 7 shows a larger
picture of the system with the top half being the new substation and the bottom half being another
substation xxx Kilometres away, the top substation uses a ABB relay while the bottom substation uses
a GE relay and the two are connected by a fibre optic cable xxx Kilometres away.

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

6. Substation Communications Network (IED61850


Network)
6.1 Implementation of IEC61850

6.2 Redundant Network


• Redundant bay controller has default settings
• Local servers store all real time data
• operate substation in the event of network hack, security breach or corrupted data
transmitted to control centre
• can only take instructions from the local HMI
• Require passwords
• A SMS message will be sent using a mobile phone or other similar device via a message
broker in an emergency

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Implementation of IEC61850 standard in a Substation Environment

7. Conclusion
The IEC61850 standard will become the most widely used standard for substation communications.
The main features being interoperability, reliability (easy to replace IED’s with different vendor IED’s),
advanced protection, advanced automation and control (smart grid compatibility), advanced metering
and easier/simplified human interface with the power system.

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