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Welcome to a Course On
Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using Co-ordinate
System of Dimensioning and GD&T
For
Lear Corporation Philippine Engineering and
Technology Center, Cebu
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How is Course Organized?
Total 12 Sessions; 3days
Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each
session
Classroom exercises at the end of each session
Homework
Extended hours as necessary
Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls
Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions
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Classical Approach to Tolerance Stack-up
Analysis
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What is Tolerance Stack-up Analysis?
Tolerance Stack-up Analysis (also called as Gap
Analysis / Loop Diagrams / Circuit Analysis or COD
(Chain of Dimensions)) is the process of calculating minimum
and maximum airspaces or wall thickness or material
interferences in a single part or assemblies.
Its a Decision making tool and helps designer to answer one or
more questions shown in next slides.
It is a logical process divided in few steps
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Typically, Tolerance Stack-up Provides
answers to
Will these two surfaces touch in their worst case? If so, how much they
will interfere?
What is maximum thickness of the two parts that must fit in the slot?
Will the pin fit within the hole?
How do I know if the worst case assembly will satisfy its dimensional
objectives.
If we reduce the size of clearance hole, will the parts still assemble?
Will the dimensioning and tolerancing scheme used on the parts, allow
too much variation at assembly? Should the drawing be re-dimensioned
and re-toleranced to reduce the accumulation of tolerances?
.
.
15
Why Perform Tolerance Stack-up?
A Tolerance Stackup allows the designer to:
Optimize the tolerances of parts and assemblies in a new design.
Balance accuracy, precision and cost with manufacturing process capability
Determine part tolerances required to satisfy a final assembly condition.
Determine the allowable part tolerances if the assembly tolerance is known.
Determine if parts will work at their worst-case or with the maximum statistical
variation.
Troubleshoot malfunctioning existing parts or assemblies.
Determine effect of changing a tolerance will have on assembly function
Explore design alternatives using different or modified parts or tooling/fixturing
methods.
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Factors affecting Tolerance Stack-up
Analysis
There are four major factors that determine which dimensions and tolerances
are included in a Tolerance Stack-up:
The geometry of parts and assemblies that contribute to the distance (objective)
being studied in the Tolerance Stack-up.
The Dimensioning and Tolerancing schemes on the drawing of the parts and
assemblies in the Tolerance Stack-up.
The assembly process: how and and which order the parts are assembled?
The direction of tolerance stack-up and direction of the dimensions and tolerances.
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Basic Assumptions in Tolerance Stack-up
Analysis : Problem Idealization
Tolerance Stack-ups are preformed with following assumptions:
All parts are considered in a static state. The tolerance stack-up allows parts
to adjust (translate/rotate) relative to one another during assembly process,
but the analysis is performed in a static condition.
If more than one position or configuration of part/assembly to be studied (such as linkage or
mechanism), then, tolerance stack-up should be done for the considered parts at each
required position or orientation/configuration.
Tolerance Stack-ups are performed at a specified temperature. Unless
specified otherwise, Tolerance stack-ups are performed at ambient
temperature the temperature at which the parts are assembled or inspected.
If parts are assembled at one temperature and operate at different temperatures, it is
important to study both conditions, as the parts must be assembled before they can operate.
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Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis
Step #1:
Identify objectives: what are your end requirements? Such as
flushness between features or gaps around a feature or
alignment of features
Step #2:
Identify all dimensions that contribute to your objectives as
defined in step #1 and convert them to equal bilateral
toleranced dimensions; as necessary
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Step #3:
Assign each dimension a +ve or ve value. For Radial stacks
(going up and down); start at the bottom of gap and end up at
the top of gap
Down direction is ve (top of gap to bottom)
Up direction is +ve (bottom of gap to top OR towards end)
Stacks that go left and right in the assembly, start at the left
side of gap and end up at the right side of the gap.
Left direction is ve (right of gap to left)
Right direction is +ve (left of gap to right OR towards end)
Remember to work on one part at a time; so deal with that parts pertinent
features before moving to next part. This approach is best to work with
assemblies having many parts
Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis
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Step #4 (tips):
Remember that one set of mating features between parts creates the variable
or objective you are working for. Variables are either minimum gap or
maximum gap or maximum overall assembly dimension. One set mating
features creates it. So, though multiple routes may have to be evluated to find
this most significant set of features, only one set creates worst case, from one
part to next.
Errors could creep in if you follow one route from one set of mating features
(hole/pin pairs) then continue the same route through another set. Only one of
these sets shall create the smallest or largest gap or maximum/minimum
overall dimension, Once you spot it, others become non-factors in analysis.
While reaching end objectives or goals, using more than one set of features
within same two parts, will most likely produce incorrect results and
tolerances from other features may contribute to the critical set you are
searching for. For example: when datum features are referenced at MMC or
when more than one set of datum features are assembly features.
Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis
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Step #5 (Basic Rules):
When a single feature or a pattern of features are controlled by
multiple Geometric Tolerances (such as orientation refined
with position), the analyst must determine which, if either is
contributing factor to variable. It is likely that none of geometric
tolerance is a factor and instead size dimensions are factors.
The Designer must evaluate which factors are relevant through
diagrams and logical reasoning.
The judgment of designer is critical in these determinations.
Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis
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Its important to arrange all the features and parts in the directions
that will create the max or min gap / or variable you are searching
for. This is to allow your loop always pass through material and
you do not jump over an air space unnecessarily in analysis
You should position the features of the parts against each other so
that you will get extreme configurations and make clear to you the
correct path with +ve v/s ve designations for each dimension.
Beginning Tolerance Stack-up Analysis
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Session #1 : The Basics
Objectives:
Calculating mean dimensions with equal Bilateral
Tolerances
Calculating Inner and Outer Boundaries
Virtual and Resultant Condition of features
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Finding Mean Dimensions
Few Important Concepts of Tolerance Stack-up Analysis:
There is NO difference between equal, unequal or unilaterally
toleranced dimension.
There is NO difference between a limit dimension and a plus
or minus toleranced dimension.
They all have extremes and they all have means. So, first thing
is to change any dimension to an equal bilateral toleranced
dimension.
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Finding Mean Dimensions
Limit dimensions:
n 22- n 20
Upper limit = n 22, Lower limit = n 20
Now, sum the limits : n 22 + n 20 = n 42. Take the mean of sum = n 21
Take the difference of limits: n 22 - n 20 = n 2. Take the mean of difference = n 1
Therefore, limit dimension of n 22 - n 20 is expressed as equal bilateral toleranced dimension
as n 21` 1
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Finding Mean Dimensions
n 50
+1
-3
So, Upper limit = n 50+ 1= n 51
Lower limit = n 50 - 3= n 47
Now, sum the limits : n 51 + n 47 = n 98. Mean of sum is n 98/ 2 = n 49
Then, take the difference of limits : n 51 - n 47 = n 4. Mean of difference is n 4/ 2 = n 2
Therefore, unequal bilateral toleranced dimension of
n 50
+1
-3
converted to equal bilateral toleranced dimension is
n 49` 2
Unequal bilateral toleranced dimensions:
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Finding Mean Dimensions : Exercise
Convert following Dimensions to an equal bilateral toleranced dimensions
26 . 0
37 . 0
0
47 . 0
2
0
3
1
500
30
200
155 150
100

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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Boundaries
Boundaries are generated by collective effects of size and
Geometric tolerances applied to feature(s) and often
referred to as simply inner and outer boundaries
There are two types of boundaries:
Virtual Condition Boundary (VCB)
Resultant Condition Boundary (RCB)
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FCFs that use m (MMC symbol), generate constant
boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and
are calculated as:
VCB for internal FOS such as hole = MMC Size Boundary
Geometric Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS such as pin = MMC Size boundary +
Geometric Tolerance
VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual
mating size of the feature mating size of the feature
Virtual Condition Boundaries (Refer ASME Y14.5M-1994
section 2.11)
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Virtual Condition Boundaries (Refer ASME Y14.5M-
1994 section 2.11)
FCFs that use l (LMC symbol), generate constant
boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and
are calculated as:
VCB for internal FOS such as hole = LMC Size Boundary +
Geometric Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS such as pin = LMC Size boundary -
Geometric Tolerance.
VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual
mating size of the feature mating size of the feature
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Resultant Condition Boundaries (Refer ASME
Y14.5M-1994 section 2.11)
RC Boundaries are non constant in nature and are
generated on opposite side of the virtual conditions.
When RFS (Regardless of Feature Size) concept
applies to FOS, they generate only non-constant or RC
boundaries.
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Case#1: Internal FOS controlled at MMC
Hole MMC Concept
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Case#1: Calculating VC & RC boundaries
VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary Geometric
Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric
Tolerance value








54 3 51
52 2 50
50 1 49
) ( tan Re
48 3 51
48 2 50
48 1 49
) (






undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size
Hole
ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size
Hole
Worst case inner boundary
Worst case outer boundary
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Case#1: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced
Dimension from VCB and RCB
Resultant condition of hole
- Virtual condition of hole
DIFFERENCE
SUM
+ Virtual condition of hole
Resultant condition of hole
54
48
102
54
48
6
51
2
102
,

Then
3
2
6
&
3 51 , So
Is an equal bilateral expression
of the dimension and its
tolerance
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Case#2: Internal FOS controlled at LMC
Hole LMC Concept
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Case#2: Calculating VC & RC boundaries
VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary
+Geometric Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary -
Geometric Tolerance value








46 3 49
48 2 50
50 1 51
) ( tan Re
52 3 49
52 2 50
52 1 51
) (






undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size
Hole
ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size
Hole
Worst case outer boundary
Worst case inner boundary
37
Case#2: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced
Dimension from VCB and RCB
Resultant condition of hole
- Virtual condition of hole
DIFFERENCE
SUM
+ Virtual condition of hole
Resultant condition of hole
46
52
98
46
52
6
49
2
98
,

Then
3
2
6
&
3 49 , So
Is an equal bilateral expression
of the dimension and its
tolerance
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Case#3: Internal FOS controlled at RFS
Hole RFS Concept
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Case#3: Calculating RC boundaries
Since its a RFS Callout, no virtual condition
boundaries exist and all boundaries are non-constant
49 1 48
50 1 49
51 1 50
49 1 50
50 1 51
51 1 52
Hole
Size GTol InnerBoundry
Hole
Size GTol OuterBoundary














Worst case Inner boundary
Worst case Outer boundary
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Case#3: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced
Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries
Outer Boundary of hole
- Inner Boundary of hole
DIFFERENCE
SUM
+ Inner Boundary of hole
Outer Boundary of hole
52
48
100
52
48
4
50
2
100
,

Then
2
2
4
&
2 50 , So
Is an equal bilateral expression
of the dimension and its
tolerance
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Case#4: External FOS Controlled at MMC
Shaft MMC Concept
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Case#4: Calculating VC & RC boundaries
VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary Geometric
Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric
Tolerance value








42 3 45
44 2 46
46 1 47
) ( tan Re
48 3 45
48 2 46
48 1 47
) (






undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size
Shaft
ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size
Shaft
Worst case outer boundary
Worst case inner boundary
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Case#4: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced
Dimension from VCB and RCB
Resultant Condition of Shaft
- Virtual Condition of Shaft
DIFFERENCE
SUM
+ Virtual Condition of Shaft
Resultant Condition of Shaft
42
48
90
42
45
2
90
,

Then
3
2
6
&
3 45 , So
Is an equal bilateral expression
of the dimension and its
tolerance
48
6
44
Case#5: External FOS controlled at LMC
Shaft LMC Concept
45
Case#5: Calculating VC & RC boundaries
VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary
+Geometric Tolerance value
VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary -
Geometric Tolerance value








50 3 47
48 2 46
46 1 45
) ( tan Re
44 3 47
44 2 46
44 1 45
) (






undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size
Shaft
ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size
Shaft
Worst case inner boundary
Worst case outer boundary
46
Case#5: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced
Dimension from VCB and RCB
Resultant Condition of Shaft
- Virtual Condition of Shaft
DIFFERENCE
SUM
+ Virtual Condition of Shaft
Resultant Condition of Shaft
50
44
50
44
6
47
2
94
,

Then
3
2
6
&
3 47 , So
Is an equal bilateral expression
of the dimension and its
tolerance
94
47
Case#6: External FOS controlled at RFS
Shaft RFS Concept
48
Case#6: Calculating RC boundaries
Since its a RFS Callout, no virtual condition
boundaries exist and all boundaries are non-constant
46 1 47
45 1 46
44 1 45
48 1 47
47 1 46
46 1 45














ary InnerBound GTol Size
Shaft
ry OuterBound GTol Size
Shaft
Worst case Outer boundary
Worst case Inner boundary
49
Case#6: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced
Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries
Outer Boundary of Shaft
- Inner Boundary of Shaft
DIFFERENCE
SUM
+ Inner Boundary of Shaft
Outer Boundary of Shaft
48
44
92
48
44
4
46
2
92
,

Then
2
2
4
&
2 46 , So
Is an equal bilateral expression
of the dimension and its
tolerance
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Formulae to Remember
For External FOS controlled at MMC / LMC:
VCB at MMC (OB) = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at MMC
VCB at LMC (IB) = LMC Size boundary - Geometric Tolerance value at LMC
For Internal FOS controlled at MMC / LMC:
VCB at MMC (IB) = MMC Size Boundary Geometric Tolerance value at MMC
VCB at LMC (OB) = LMC Size Boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at LMC
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Finding Inner & Outer Boundaries : Exercise
Calculate Inner and Outer boundary for features having following specifications
52
Session #2: Analyzing a C Channel
Assembly
Objectives:
To determine min and max gap for a simple eleven parts
assembly.
Perform the calculations
Create a Loop Analysis Diagram
Create a Number Chart
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C Channel Assembly
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C Channel Assembly : Loop Analysis
Diagram
188.4+/-1.5
255.67+/-0.1
Min GAP
Max GAP
67.27 1.6 = 65.67
67.27 + 1.6 = 68.87
255.67 188.4
Totals 1.6 188.4 255.67
Channel inner 0.1 255.67
All 10 blocks 1.5 188.4
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down
Direction
Up
Direction
GAP
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Session #2: Exercises
56
Session #2: Exercises
1 2
3
4 5
6
57
0.15 30
0.2 230.58
0.15 90
Min GAP / Max GAP (29.22 - 0.8) = 28.42
(29.22 + 0.8) = 30.02
Totals 0.8 211.36 240.58
0.1 10
0.1 34.74
0.1 56.62
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction /
Left Direction
Up Direction /
Right Direction
6
5
4
3
2
1
Loop #
58
Session #2: Exercises
59
Session #2: Exercises
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
60
0.5 51
0.1 22
0.1 60.2
0.1 28
0.15 39
04.35.15 23
Min GAP / Max GAP (62.8 1.55) = 61.25
(62.8 + 1.55) = 64.35
Totals 1.55 222.2 285
0.2 235
0.15 23
0.1 26
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction /
Left Direction
Up Direction /
Right Direction
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Loop #
61
Objectives:
Using Loop Analysis Technique; determine Max and Min gap
in Horizontal and Vertical Directions
Determine proper start and End points for stack-ups
Graph the numbers calculated into Loop Diagram
Session #3: Loop Analysis for Box and Cavity
62
Problem Description
Calculate:
MIN / MAX Horizontal Gap
MIN / MAX Vertical Gap
63
Loop Diagram
Horizontal Direction Vertical Direction
1
2
1
2
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Min GAP / Max GAP (0.85 0.6) = 0.25
(0.85 + 0.6) = 1.45
Totals 0.6 25.9 26.75
0.5 26.75
0.1 25.9
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction /
Left Direction
Up Direction /
Right Direction
2
1
Loop #
Number Chart
Min GAP / Max GAP (2.325 1.075) = 1.25
(2.325 + 1.075) = 3.4
Totals 1.075 24.425 26.75
0.5 26.75
0.575 24.425
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction /
Left Direction
Up Direction /
Right Direction
2
1
Loop #
Horizontal Direction
Vertical Direction
65
Session #4: Analysis of an assembly with Limit
tolerancing
Objectives:
Calculate the airspaces and interferences for a plus and
minus toleranced assembly
Performing multiple loop analyses on an assembly
66
Assembly with limit tolerancing : Problem
Description
67
Assembly with limit tolerancing : Loop
Diagrams
1
2
3
1
2
68
Assembly with limit tolerancing : Number
Chart
Min GAP / Max GAP
Max / Min Overall Dim
(3.94 2.61) = 1.33
(3.94 + 2.61) = 5.55
Totals 2.61 32.7 36.64
1.2 32.7
0.75 15.8
0.66 20.84
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
3
2
1
Loop #
Min GAP / Max GAP
Max / Min Overall Dim
(0.85 0.95) = -0.1
(0.85 + 0.95) = 1.8
Totals 0.95 25.125 25.975
0.575 25.975
0.375 25.125
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
2
1
Loop #
Horizontal Direction
Vertical Direction
69
Session #5: Analyzing a Floating Fastener
Assembly
Objectives:
Calculate Virtual and Resultant conditions (Inner / Outer
Boundaries) for GD&T callouts
Determine mean of all these boundaries
Convert all FOS (diameters and widths) to mean radii with
equal bilateral tolerance
Mixing FOSs (widths and diameters) in number chart
Graph the numbers in tolerance stack-up diagram
Determine all unknown gaps in the assembly
70
Floating fastener assembly sketch with
GD&T
71
Floating fastener Part sketches with GD&T
3.5+/-0.5
140
6-7
_|g_||gg|
6-7
140
300
_|g_||_|
5.5+/-0.5
_|g_||gg|
72
Floating fastener Assembly with parts
shoved towards center
VCB of holes in top plates = (MMC Gtol) = (6-0.5) = 5.5
RCB of holes in top plates = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (7+0.5+1) = 8.5
Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of these holes is: 7+/-1.5
VCB of holes in base plate = (MMC Gtol) = (5.5-0.5-0) = 5
RCB of holes in base plate = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (5.5+0.5+0+1) = 7
Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of these holes is: 6+/-1
73
Loop Diagram with values printed
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Basic dimension 0 300
Over radius of base plate hole 0.5 3
Over pin dia
0.5 3.5
Over radius of top plate hole 0.75 3.5
Basic dimension 140
Over radius of base plate hole 0.5 3
Min GAP / Max GAP 10.5
Totals 3.5 293 307
Over pin dia 0.5 3.5
Over radius of top plate hole 0.75 3.5
Basic dimension 0 140
Remarks `
Tolerance
(-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction /
Left Direction
Up Direction /
Right Direction
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Loop #
74
Can you imagine a configuration for MAX Gap? And then calculate MAX Gap
Min GAP / Max GAP
Max / Min Overall Dim
Totals
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction /
Left Direction
Up Direction /
Right Direction
Loop #
75
Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and Overall
Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case)
76
Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and
Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case)
77
Objectives:
Calculate assembly overall MAX and MIN dimensions
Calculate MAX and MIN gaps within assembly as shown
Calculate boundaries using various GD&T controls
Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and
Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case)
78
Min Gap and Min Overall Dimensions
Configuration
Min overall Dimension Loop diagram (4)
Min Left bottom gap Loop diagram (6)
Min Right top gap Loop diagram (6)
Start Point of Loop
End Point of Loop
VCB of hole = (MMC Gtol) = (13-0.03-0.05) = 12.92
RCB of hole = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (13+0.03+0.05+0.06) = 13.14
Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of this hole is: 13.03+/-0.11
VCB of pin = (MMC Gtol) = (12.5-0.03-0.05) = 12.22
RCB of pin= (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (12.5+0.03+0.05+0.06) = 12.64
Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of this pin is: 12.43+/-0.21
79
Basic dimension 0 65
Min Overall Dim 169.54
Totals 0.16 6.515 176.215
Over radius of pin 0.105 6.215
Over radius of hole 0.055 6.515
Basic dimension 0 105
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
4
3
2
1
Loop #
Chart the values (Min overall Dim)
80
Basic dimension 0 65
0.7 143.5
Over radius of pin 0.105 6.215
Min left bottom gap 10.24
Totals 0.96 165.015 176.215
Over radius of hole 0.055 6.515
Basic dimension 0 105
0.1 15
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
6
5
4
3
2
1
Loop #
Chart the values (Min left bottom gap)
81
Basic dimension 0 65
0.1 15
Over radius of pin 0.105 6.215
Min right top gap 15.66
Totals 0.96 161.515 176.215
Over radius of hole 0.055 6.515
Basic dimension 0 105
0.7 140
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
6
5
4
3
2
1
Loop #
Chart the values (Min Right top gap)
82
Max Gap and Max Overall Dimensions
Configuration
Start Point of Loop
End Point of Loop
Max overall Dimension Loop diagram (4)
Max Left bottom gap Loop diagram (6)
Max Right top gap Loop diagram (6)
83
Min GAP / Max GAP
Max / Min Overall Dim
Totals
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
Loop #
Chart the values
84
Session #7: Calculating MAX overall Diameter for a
Revolving Assembly
MAX?
85
Detailed Part Drawing with GD&T Controls
Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning
Part 1
Part2
86
Step#3: Create a Loop Diagram
OB = MMC + Gtol = 250+0.2+0.15 = 250.35
IB = LMC Gtol = 250-0.2-0.15 = 249.65
Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 250+/-0.35
OB = MMC + Gtol = 250+0.2+0.15 = 250.35
IB = LMC Gtol = 250-0.2-0.15 = 249.65
Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 250+/-0.35
87
Step#4: Chart the values
0.175 125
Max Assembly Dia 250.425
Totals 0.35 25.035 275.11
LMC of spigot / 2 - 25.035
LMC of hole / 2 - 25.11
0.175 125
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
4
3
2
1
Loop #
88
Session #8: Analyzing a Guide Assembly with Fixed
fasteners
Assembly
89
Part #1 & #2: Detailed Drawing
90
Objectives:
Calculate Boundaries for Threaded features
Work with multiple Geometric Controls on a single feature
GD&T Controls affecting and non-affecting stack-up
Calculate desired gaps
Use product knowledge / experience and Assembly
conditions in stack-up analysis
Session #7: Analyzing a Guide Assembly with Fixed
fasteners
91
Locating parts to create MIN Gap
Configuration
CL of threaded hole in slot
CL of clearance hole in block
One line contact
92
Over 50% width of block 0.15 12.25
Min GAP / Max GAP
Max / Min Overall Dim
0.5925
Totals 0.475 16.3825 17.45
Over radius of clearance hole 0.055 4.1325
Over radius of screw 0.12 3.95
Over 50% width of slot 0.15 13.5
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
4
3
2
1
Loop #
Chart the values
OB of Slot = LMC + Gtol =27.2+0.1 = 27.3
IB of Slot = MMC Gtol = 26.8-0.1 = 26.7
Mean width of slot with equal bilateral tolerance = 27+/-0.3
OB of Block = MMC + Gtol =24.7+0.1 = 24.8
IB of Slot = LMC Gtol = 24.3-0.1 = 24.2
Mean width of block with equal bilateral tolerance = 24.5+/-0.3
OB of threaded hole/screw = MMC + Gtol =8+0.14 = 8.14
IB of threaded hole/screw = LMC Gtol = 7.8-0.14 = 7.66
Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 7.9+/-0.24
OB of clearance hole = LMC + Gtol =8.25+0.05+0.06 = 8.36
IB of clearance hole = MMC Gtol = 8.19-0.05 = 8.14
Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 8.265+/-0.11
93
Locating parts to create MAX Gap
Configuration
CL of clearance hole in block
CL of threaded hole in block
One line contact
94
Min GAP / Max GAP
Max / Min Overall Dim
Totals
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down Direction
Left Direction
Up Direction
Right Direction
Loop #
Chart the values
96
Form Tolerances in Tolerance Stack-up
Max Min
MIN / MAX?
97
Orientation Tolerances in Tolerance Stack-up
Max Min
MIN / MAX?
98
Part Stacks using Position (RFS)
(10.5)
Max Min
Find MAX and MIN Distance (1) between edges of two small holes.
99
Part Stacks using Position (RFS)
(10.6)
Find MAX and MIN Distance X.
Max Min
100
Part Stacks using Position (RFS)
(10.9)
Find MAX and MIN Distance between Centerlines of Hole and Slot.
Max Min
101
Part Stacks using Position (Bonus)
(11.7)
Find MAX and MIN Distance between Edges of two small holes.
Max Min
102
Part Stacks using Position (Bonus)
(11.8)
Find MAX and MIN Distance (2)
between Centerlines of the
two small holes.
Max Min
103
Part Stacks using Position (Bonus)
(11.9)
Find MAX and MIN wall thickness.
Max Min
104
Part Stacks using Position (Bonus & Shift)
(12.6)
Find MAX and MIN horizontal distance between edges of datum G and n 8.6-8.2 hole.
Max Min
105
Part Stacks using Position (Bonus & Shift)
(12.8)
Max Min
Find MAX and MIN distance between edge of the groove and side of the part.
106
Part Stacks using Profile
Find the MAX and MIN distance.
Max Min
107
Part Stacks using Profile
Find the MAX and MIN distance
Max Min
109
Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile
Max Min
110
Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile
Max Min
111
Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile
Max Min
113
Part Stacks Composite Position Control
114
Part Stacks Composite Position Control
MIN?
MIN?
MIN / MAX?
MIN / MAX?
Max Min
115
Session #10: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis of an
Assembly with Revolving Parts
GAP?
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
116
Objectives:
Calculating tolerance stack-ups on a five part rotating
assembly with a variety of geometric controls such as:
position, perpendicularity, parallelism, profile, flatness,
projected tolerance zones, runout, total runout,
concentricity, positional coaxiality
Learn Simplifying a complex situation
Calculate radial clearance and interference
Tolerance Stack-up Analysis of an Assembly
with Revolving Parts
117
Part #1: Detailed Drawing
Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning
118
Part #2,3 : Detailed Drawing
Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning
119
Part #4: Detailed Drawing
Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning
120
Part #5: Detailed Drawing
Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning
121
Session #11: Trigonometry and Proportions in
Tolerance Stack-up Analysis
122
Objectives:
Understanding the role of trigonometry and proportions in
tolerance stack-up and geometric tolerancing
Understanding the effect of Unstable Datums features
Know how vertical stacks affect horizontal envelope
requirements.
Mixing trigonometry and algebra determining stack-up
results
Consider the rules in Y14.5.1 (Math Standard) for
constructing a valid Datum
Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance
Stack-up Analysis
126
Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

Out of flatness is shown on datum A on one


side of part center; since this is worst case
than flatness tolerance being evenly spread
on entire surface
Y14.5.1 states that in order to be a valid
primary datum feature, the points used to
construct a datum plane (3 high points of
contact minimum) must not lie solely in one
of the outer thirds of the surface. So its
possible to conceive of slightly worse
situation than this, but we are restricting to
rocking at center point of part
The illustration shows that flatness
tolerance allows datum A to lean by an
amount equal to flatness tolerance = 0.002. If
the part is inspected on surface that does not
lean; but assembled on surface that leans,
the pin will be forced to lean with with it, by
an amount = 0.006
127
Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

Normally this is ignored while


calculating worst mating
conditions of features like 80
length pin. We normally calculate
worst mating condition diameter
= MMC size + geo tol at MMC =
20.2+0.4 = 20.6.
But with additional radial lean of
0.376, the worst mating condition
can be seen as 20.4 +
2x0.376=21.352
Also, while calculating the
minimum gap between this shaft
and the housing into which it fits,
as per procedure we used in
previous sessions, we would
probably be working with radii,
therefore of 21.352 = R10.676
Simple Proportions:
0.2/42.5 = X/80
80*0.2 = 45.5*x
0.376 = x
128
Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

Parallelism is also a factor that can be


related to the problems that flatness creates.
Parallelism when used on planer surfaces,
controls flatness and angle to datums
referenced.
In the illustration on left, produced part has
crest in middle (rock point) and surfaces
sloping on either side of rock point.
So, when two or more such parts are
stacked on top of one another, and each
having problem as shown, such assembly
would exhibit a problem of not fitting other
assemblies/housings or closing holes on parts
into which pins ore screws had to fit. (see next
slide)
129
Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

Initially, the three parts were aligned with


center, left edge and right edge aligned,
then the parts are either to left or right
This would assume that interior part
features such as holes (not shown here)
have been positioned from one of these
features as secondary datum feature.
Each part during inspection has been
adjusted 9shimmed up) to allow high point
shown at the bottom center of part 1 and
2 to establish the datum plane, but during
assembly parts have been rocked instead
of equalized.
This is just one speculation as what can
happen due to out of flatness of bottom of
parts 1,2. Many such scenarios are
possible.
This much space would be
needed if parts were
stacked this way and
allowed to rock this way
130
Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

Unlike previous configuration, this


configuration calculates the space needed to
house these parts if they were stacked with
their edges aligned and then rocked in either
direction.
This much space would be
needed if parts were stacked
this way and allowed to rock in
either direction
132
Session#12: The Theory of Statistical
Probability
133
The Theory of Statistical Probability
Objectives:
Convert arithmetically calculated tolerances to statistically
calculated tolerances.
Use Root Sums Square (RSS) formula
Comparing Worst-case and Statistical tolerances
Reintegrating statistical tolerances into the assembly
137
The dispersion of dimensions
under the curve is described as
standard deviation and often
represented by letter (sigma),
and calculated as:
Background

The arithmetic mean +or- one


standard deviation (` 1 ) is often
described as containing 68.26% of the
produced parts under this normal curve.
By the same logic ` 2 is 95.46% of
the total production and ` 3 is
99.73%
138
Root Sum Squares (RSS) Method
The statistical probability can be applied to tolerance stack-up analysis for
assemblies both with and without geometric tolerances.
Thus the tolerance of an assembly is expressed as square root of the sum of
squares of the individual component tolerances and is called as RSS
formula:
Statistical probability has been practiced for several years and well
documented. Statistical approaches are more reliable for volume production.
For small production runs, the frequency curve tends to be skewed from its
normal shape.
2 2 2 2
1 2 3
......
A
n
T
T T T T

139
Applying RSS: Steps Involved with Example
Method: once the worst case calculations are
performed,
1. Using the RSS formula, calculate assembly tolerance
2. Determine the percentage (%) ratio between statistical
probability tolerance and 100% assembly tolerance
3. Determine the increased statistical probability tolerances
to be re-assigned to the assemblys individual part
features.
140
RSS Calculations: Example#1
Min GAP
Max GAP
67.27 1.6 = 65.67
67.27 + 1.6 = 68.87
255.67 188.4
Totals 1.6 188.4 255.67
Slot inner 0.1 255.67
All 10 blocks 1.5 188.4
Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)
Down
Direction
Up
Direction
Worst case table
Sqrt of total
tolerance
1.5033
Totals 2.26 1.6 188.4 255.67
Channel Inner 0.01 0.1 255.67
All 10 blocks 2.25 1.5 188.4
Remarks ` Tolerance
Squared
` Tolerance Down
Direction (-)
Up Direction
(+)
RSS case table
141
Previous slide shows that the worst case assembly tolerance is +/-1.6, while the assembly tolerance
based on RSS calculations is +/-1.5033
It states that if the parts are produced under statistical control, the likely tolerance on assembly is +/-
1.5033 and NOT +/-1.6.
If we calculate the ratio of worst case tolerance to RSS tolerance = 1.6/1.5033 = 1.064.
This ratio can be used to increase the individual part level tolerance, in short, you can multiply part
tolerances by factor of 1.064.
Therefore the individual blocks will receive a new tolerance of 0.15 * 1.064 = 0.1596 and the channel will
receive a new tolerance of 0.1 * 1.064 = 0.1064
149
Suggested Readings & References
ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Principals
Geometrics IIIm - Lowell W. Foster
Tolerance Stack up Analysis Alex Krulikowski
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in
Design, Manufacturing, and Inspection - James D. Meadows
Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specifications Clyde M.
Creveling
CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid (Dedicates a chapter on Mechanical
Tolerancing) A good reference book.(< Rs.500/-)
Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Daniel Puncochar.
Tolerance Stack up Analysis James Meadows
Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr.
All books are priced in US$ 40-US$125 range.