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Welcome to a Course On

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using Co-ordinate

System of Dimensioning and GD&T

For

Lear Corporation – Philippine Engineering and

Technology Center, Cebu

11

How is Course Organized?

Total 12 Sessions; 3days

Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each

session

Classroom exercises at the end of each session

Homework

Extended hours as necessary

Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls

Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions

12

Classical Approach to Tolerance Stack-up

Analysis …

13

What is Tolerance Stack-up Analysis?

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis (also called as Gap

Analysis / Loop Diagrams / Circuit Analysis or COD

(Chain of Dimensions)) is the process of calculating minimum

and maximum airspaces or wall thickness or material

interferences in a single part or assemblies.

It’s a Decision making tool and helps designer to answer one or

more questions shown in next slides.

It is a logical process divided in few steps …

14

Typically, Tolerance Stack-up Provides

answers to …

Will these two surfaces touch in their worst case? If so, how much they

will interfere?

What is maximum thickness of the two parts that must fit in the slot?

Will the pin fit within the hole?

How do I know if the worst case assembly will satisfy its dimensional

objectives.

If we reduce the size of clearance hole, will the parts still assemble?

Will the dimensioning and tolerancing scheme used on the parts, allow

too much variation at assembly? Should the drawing be re-dimensioned

and re-toleranced to reduce the accumulation of tolerances?

….

….

15

Why Perform Tolerance Stack-up?

A Tolerance Stackup allows the designer to:

– Optimize the tolerances of parts and assemblies in a new design.

– Balance accuracy, precision and cost with manufacturing process capability

– Determine part tolerances required to satisfy a final assembly condition.

– Determine the allowable part tolerances if the assembly tolerance is known.

– Determine if parts will work at their worst-case or with the maximum statistical

variation.

– Troubleshoot malfunctioning existing parts or assemblies.

– Determine effect of changing a tolerance will have on assembly function

– Explore design alternatives using different or modified parts or tooling/fixturing

methods.

16

Factors affecting Tolerance Stack-up

Analysis

There are four major factors that determine which dimensions and tolerances

are included in a Tolerance Stack-up:

The geometry of parts and assemblies that contribute to the distance (objective)

being studied in the Tolerance Stack-up.

The Dimensioning and Tolerancing schemes on the drawing of the parts and

assemblies in the Tolerance Stack-up.

The assembly process: how and and which order the parts are assembled?

The direction of tolerance stack-up and direction of the dimensions and tolerances.

17

Basic Assumptions in Tolerance Stack-up

Analysis : Problem Idealization

Tolerance Stack-ups are preformed with following assumptions:

– All parts are considered in a static state. The tolerance stack-up allows parts

to adjust (translate/rotate) relative to one another during assembly process,

but the analysis is performed in a static condition.

If more than one position or configuration of part/assembly to be studied (such as linkage or

mechanism), then, tolerance stack-up should be done for the considered parts at each

required position or orientation/configuration.

– Tolerance Stack-ups are performed at a specified temperature. Unless

specified otherwise, Tolerance stack-ups are performed at ambient

temperature – the temperature at which the parts are assembled or inspected.

If parts are assembled at one temperature and operate at different temperatures, it is

important to study both conditions, as the parts must be assembled before they can operate.

18

Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis

Step #1:

– Identify objectives: what are your end requirements? Such as

flushness between features or gaps around a feature or

alignment of features

Step #2:

– Identify all dimensions that contribute to your objectives as

defined in step #1 and convert them to equal bilateral

toleranced dimensions; as necessary

19

Step #3:

– Assign each dimension a +ve or –ve value. For Radial stacks

(going up and down); start at the bottom of gap and end up at

the top of gap

– Down direction is –ve (top of gap to bottom)

– Up direction is +ve (bottom of gap to top OR towards end)

– Stacks that go left and right in the assembly, start at the left

side of gap and end up at the right side of the gap.

– Left direction is –ve (right of gap to left)

– Right direction is +ve (left of gap to right OR towards end)

Remember to work on one part at a time; so deal with that part’s pertinent

features before moving to next part. This approach is best to work with

assemblies having many parts

Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis …

20

Step #4 (tips):

– Remember that one set of mating features between parts creates the variable

or objective you are working for. Variables are either minimum gap or

maximum gap or maximum overall assembly dimension. One set mating

features creates it. So, though multiple routes may have to be evluated to find

this most significant set of features, only one set creates worst case, from one

part to next.

– Errors could creep in if you follow one route from one set of mating features

(hole/pin pairs) then continue the same route through another set. Only one of

these sets shall create the smallest or largest gap or maximum/minimum

overall dimension, Once you spot it, others become non-factors in analysis.

– While reaching end objectives or goals, using more than one set of features

within same two parts, will most likely produce incorrect results – and

tolerances from other features may contribute to the critical set you are

searching for. For example: when datum features are referenced at MMC or

when more than one set of datum features are assembly features.

Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis …

21

Step #5 (Basic Rules):

– When a single feature or a pattern of features are controlled by

multiple Geometric Tolerances (such as orientation refined

with position), the analyst must determine which, if either is

contributing factor to variable. It is likely that none of geometric

tolerance is a factor and instead size dimensions are factors.

– The Designer must evaluate which factors are relevant through

diagrams and logical reasoning.

– The judgment of designer is critical in these determinations.

Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis …

22

Its important to arrange all the features and parts in the directions

that will create the max or min gap / or variable you are searching

for. This is to allow your loop always pass through material and

you do not jump over an air space unnecessarily in analysis

You should position the features of the parts against each other so

that you will get extreme configurations and make clear to you the

correct path with +ve v/s –ve designations for each dimension.

Beginning Tolerance Stack-up Analysis

23

Session #1 : The Basics

Objectives:

Calculating mean dimensions with equal Bilateral

Tolerances

Calculating Inner and Outer Boundaries

Virtual and Resultant Condition of features

24

Finding Mean Dimensions

Few Important Concepts of Tolerance Stack-up Analysis:

– There is NO difference between equal, unequal or unilaterally

toleranced dimension.

– There is NO difference between a limit dimension and a plus

or minus toleranced dimension.

– They all have extremes and they all have means. So, first thing

is to change any dimension to an equal bilateral toleranced

dimension.

25

Finding Mean Dimensions

Limit dimensions:

n 22- n 20

Upper limit = n 22, Lower limit = n 20

Now, sum the limits : n 22 + n 20 = n 42. Take the mean of sum = n 21

Take the difference of limits: n 22 - n 20 = n 2. Take the mean of difference = n 1

Therefore, limit dimension of n 22 - n 20 is expressed as equal bilateral toleranced dimension

as n 21` 1

26

Finding Mean Dimensions

n 50

+1

-3

So, Upper limit = n 50+ 1= n 51

Lower limit = n 50 - 3= n 47

Now, sum the limits : n 51 + n 47 = n 98. Mean of sum is n 98/ 2 = n 49

Then, take the difference of limits : n 51 - n 47 = n 4. Mean of difference is n 4/ 2 = n 2

Therefore, unequal bilateral toleranced dimension of

n 50

+1

-3

converted to equal bilateral toleranced dimension is

n 49` 2

Unequal bilateral toleranced dimensions:

27

Finding Mean Dimensions : Exercise

Convert following Dimensions to an equal bilateral toleranced dimensions

26 . 0

37 . 0

0

47 . 0

2

0

3

1

500

30

200

155 150

100

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

28

Boundaries

Boundaries are generated by collective effects of size and

Geometric tolerances applied to feature(s) and often

referred to as simply inner and outer boundaries

There are two types of boundaries:

Virtual Condition Boundary (VCB)

Resultant Condition Boundary (RCB)

29

FCFs that use m (MMC symbol), generate constant

boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and

are calculated as:

– VCB for internal FOS such as hole = MMC Size Boundary –

Geometric Tolerance value

– VCB for external FOS such as pin = MMC Size boundary +

Geometric Tolerance

VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual

mating size of the feature mating size of the feature

Virtual Condition Boundaries (Refer ASME Y14.5M-1994

section 2.11)

30

Virtual Condition Boundaries (Refer ASME Y14.5M-

1994 section 2.11)

FCFs that use l (LMC symbol), generate constant

boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and

are calculated as:

– VCB for internal FOS such as hole = LMC Size Boundary +

Geometric Tolerance value

– VCB for external FOS such as pin = LMC Size boundary -

Geometric Tolerance.

VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual

mating size of the feature mating size of the feature

31

Resultant Condition Boundaries (Refer ASME

Y14.5M-1994 section 2.11)

RC Boundaries are non constant in nature and are

generated on opposite side of the virtual conditions.

When RFS (Regardless of Feature Size) concept

applies to FOS, they generate only non-constant or RC

boundaries.

32

Case#1: Internal FOS controlled at MMC

Hole – MMC Concept

33

Case#1: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric

Tolerance value

VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric

Tolerance value

54 3 51

52 2 50

50 1 49

) ( tan Re

48 3 51

48 2 50

48 1 49

) (

undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size

Hole

ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size

Hole

Worst case inner boundary

Worst case outer boundary

34

Case#1: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced

Dimension from VCB and RCB

Resultant condition of hole

- Virtual condition of hole

DIFFERENCE

SUM

+ Virtual condition of hole

Resultant condition of hole

54

48

102

54

48

6

51

2

102

,

Then

3

2

6

&

3 51 , So

Is an equal bilateral expression

of the dimension and its

tolerance

35

Case#2: Internal FOS controlled at LMC

Hole – LMC Concept

36

Case#2: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary

+Geometric Tolerance value

VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary -

Geometric Tolerance value

46 3 49

48 2 50

50 1 51

) ( tan Re

52 3 49

52 2 50

52 1 51

) (

undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size

Hole

ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size

Hole

Worst case outer boundary

Worst case inner boundary

37

Case#2: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced

Dimension from VCB and RCB

Resultant condition of hole

- Virtual condition of hole

DIFFERENCE

SUM

+ Virtual condition of hole

Resultant condition of hole

46

52

98

46

52

6

49

2

98

,

Then

3

2

6

&

3 49 , So

Is an equal bilateral expression

of the dimension and its

tolerance

38

Case#3: Internal FOS controlled at RFS

Hole – RFS Concept

39

Case#3: Calculating RC boundaries

Since it’s a RFS Callout, no virtual condition

boundaries exist and all boundaries are non-constant

49 1 48

50 1 49

51 1 50

49 1 50

50 1 51

51 1 52

Hole

Size GTol InnerBoundry

Hole

Size GTol OuterBoundary

Worst case Inner boundary

Worst case Outer boundary

40

Case#3: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced

Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries

Outer Boundary of hole

- Inner Boundary of hole

DIFFERENCE

SUM

+ Inner Boundary of hole

Outer Boundary of hole

52

48

100

52

48

4

50

2

100

,

Then

2

2

4

&

2 50 , So

Is an equal bilateral expression

of the dimension and its

tolerance

41

Case#4: External FOS Controlled at MMC

Shaft – MMC Concept

42

Case#4: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric

Tolerance value

VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric

Tolerance value

42 3 45

44 2 46

46 1 47

) ( tan Re

48 3 45

48 2 46

48 1 47

) (

undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size

Shaft

ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size

Shaft

Worst case outer boundary

Worst case inner boundary

43

Case#4: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced

Dimension from VCB and RCB

Resultant Condition of Shaft

- Virtual Condition of Shaft

DIFFERENCE

SUM

+ Virtual Condition of Shaft

Resultant Condition of Shaft

42

48

90

42

45

2

90

,

Then

3

2

6

&

3 45 , So

Is an equal bilateral expression

of the dimension and its

tolerance

48

6

44

Case#5: External FOS controlled at LMC

Shaft – LMC Concept

45

Case#5: Calculating VC & RC boundaries

VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary

+Geometric Tolerance value

VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary -

Geometric Tolerance value

50 3 47

48 2 46

46 1 45

) ( tan Re

44 3 47

44 2 46

44 1 45

) (

undary VariableBo tConditon sul GTol Size

Shaft

ary FixedBound dition VirtualCon GTol Size

Shaft

Worst case inner boundary

Worst case outer boundary

46

Case#5: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced

Dimension from VCB and RCB

Resultant Condition of Shaft

- Virtual Condition of Shaft

DIFFERENCE

SUM

+ Virtual Condition of Shaft

Resultant Condition of Shaft

50

44

50

44

6

47

2

94

,

Then

3

2

6

&

3 47 , So

Is an equal bilateral expression

of the dimension and its

tolerance

94

47

Case#6: External FOS controlled at RFS

Shaft – RFS Concept

48

Case#6: Calculating RC boundaries

Since it’s a RFS Callout, no virtual condition

boundaries exist and all boundaries are non-constant

46 1 47

45 1 46

44 1 45

48 1 47

47 1 46

46 1 45

ary InnerBound GTol Size

Shaft

ry OuterBound GTol Size

Shaft

Worst case Outer boundary

Worst case Inner boundary

49

Case#6: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced

Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries

Outer Boundary of Shaft

- Inner Boundary of Shaft

DIFFERENCE

SUM

+ Inner Boundary of Shaft

Outer Boundary of Shaft

48

44

92

48

44

4

46

2

92

,

Then

2

2

4

&

2 46 , So

Is an equal bilateral expression

of the dimension and its

tolerance

50

Formulae to Remember…

For External FOS controlled at MMC / LMC:

VCB at MMC (OB) = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at MMC

VCB at LMC (IB) = LMC Size boundary - Geometric Tolerance value at LMC

For Internal FOS controlled at MMC / LMC:

VCB at MMC (IB) = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric Tolerance value at MMC

VCB at LMC (OB) = LMC Size Boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at LMC

51

Finding Inner & Outer Boundaries : Exercise

Calculate Inner and Outer boundary for features having following specifications

52

Session #2: Analyzing a “C” Channel

Assembly

Objectives:

To determine min and max gap for a simple eleven parts

assembly.

Perform the calculations

Create a Loop Analysis Diagram

Create a Number Chart

53

“C” Channel Assembly

54

“C” Channel Assembly : Loop Analysis

Diagram

188.4+/-1.5

255.67+/-0.1

Min GAP

Max GAP

67.27 – 1.6 = 65.67

67.27 + 1.6 = 68.87

255.67 – 188.4

Totals 1.6 188.4 255.67

Channel inner 0.1 255.67

All 10 blocks 1.5 188.4

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down

Direction

Up

Direction

GAP

55

Session #2: Exercises

56

Session #2: Exercises

1 2

3

4 5

6

57

0.15 30

0.2 230.58

0.15 90

Min GAP / Max GAP (29.22 - 0.8) = 28.42

(29.22 + 0.8) = 30.02

Totals 0.8 211.36 240.58

0.1 10

0.1 34.74

0.1 56.62

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction /

Left Direction

Up Direction /

Right Direction

6

5

4

3

2

1

Loop #

58

Session #2: Exercises

59

Session #2: Exercises

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

60

0.5 51

0.1 22

0.1 60.2

0.1 28

0.15 39

04.35.15 23

Min GAP / Max GAP (62.8 – 1.55) = 61.25

(62.8 + 1.55) = 64.35

Totals 1.55 222.2 285

0.2 235

0.15 23

0.1 26

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction /

Left Direction

Up Direction /

Right Direction

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Loop #

61

Objectives:

– Using Loop Analysis Technique; determine Max and Min gap

in Horizontal and Vertical Directions

– Determine proper start and End points for stack-ups

– Graph the numbers calculated into Loop Diagram

Session #3: Loop Analysis for Box and Cavity

62

Problem Description

Calculate:

MIN / MAX Horizontal Gap

MIN / MAX Vertical Gap

63

Loop Diagram

Horizontal Direction Vertical Direction

1

2

1

2

64

Min GAP / Max GAP (0.85 – 0.6) = 0.25

(0.85 + 0.6) = 1.45

Totals 0.6 25.9 26.75

0.5 26.75

0.1 25.9

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction /

Left Direction

Up Direction /

Right Direction

2

1

Loop #

Number Chart

Min GAP / Max GAP (2.325 – 1.075) = 1.25

(2.325 + 1.075) = 3.4

Totals 1.075 24.425 26.75

0.5 26.75

0.575 24.425

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction /

Left Direction

Up Direction /

Right Direction

2

1

Loop #

Horizontal Direction

Vertical Direction

65

Session #4: Analysis of an assembly with Limit

tolerancing

Objectives:

Calculate the airspaces and interferences for a plus and

minus toleranced assembly

Performing multiple loop analyses on an assembly

66

Assembly with limit tolerancing : Problem

Description

67

Assembly with limit tolerancing : Loop

Diagrams

1

2

3

1

2

68

Assembly with limit tolerancing : Number

Chart

Min GAP / Max GAP

Max / Min Overall Dim

(3.94 – 2.61) = 1.33

(3.94 + 2.61) = 5.55

Totals 2.61 32.7 36.64

1.2 32.7

0.75 15.8

0.66 20.84

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

3

2

1

Loop #

Min GAP / Max GAP

Max / Min Overall Dim

(0.85 – 0.95) = -0.1

(0.85 + 0.95) = 1.8

Totals 0.95 25.125 25.975

0.575 25.975

0.375 25.125

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

2

1

Loop #

Horizontal Direction

Vertical Direction

69

Session #5: Analyzing a Floating Fastener

Assembly

Objectives:

Calculate Virtual and Resultant conditions (Inner / Outer

Boundaries) for GD&T callouts

Determine mean of all these boundaries

Convert all FOS (diameters and widths) to mean radii with

equal bilateral tolerance

Mixing FOSs (widths and diameters) in number chart

Graph the numbers in tolerance stack-up diagram

Determine all unknown gaps in the assembly

70

Floating fastener assembly sketch with

GD&T

71

Floating fastener Part sketches with GD&T

¢3.5+/-0.5

140

¢6-7

_|gç¸ç_|¿|gg|

¢6-7

140

300

_|gç_|¿|_¿|

¢5.5+/-0.5

_|gç¸ç_|¿|gg|

72

Floating fastener Assembly with parts

shoved towards center

VCB of holes in top plates = (MMC – Gtol) = (6-0.5) = 5.5

RCB of holes in top plates = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (7+0.5+1) = 8.5

Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of these holes is: 7+/-1.5

VCB of holes in base plate = (MMC – Gtol) = (5.5-0.5-0) = 5

RCB of holes in base plate = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (5.5+0.5+0+1) = 7

Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of these holes is: 6+/-1

73

Loop Diagram with values printed…

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Basic dimension 0 300

Over radius of base plate hole 0.5 3

Over pin dia

0.5 3.5

Over radius of top plate hole 0.75 3.5

Basic dimension 140

Over radius of base plate hole 0.5 3

Min GAP / Max GAP 10.5

Totals 3.5 293 307

Over pin dia 0.5 3.5

Over radius of top plate hole 0.75 3.5

Basic dimension 0 140

Remarks `

Tolerance

(-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction /

Left Direction

Up Direction /

Right Direction

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Loop #

74

Can you imagine a configuration for MAX Gap? And then calculate MAX Gap

Min GAP / Max GAP

Max / Min Overall Dim

Totals

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction /

Left Direction

Up Direction /

Right Direction

Loop #

75

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and Overall

Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case)

76

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and

Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case)

77

Objectives:

Calculate assembly overall MAX and MIN dimensions

Calculate MAX and MIN gaps within assembly as shown

Calculate boundaries using various GD&T controls

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and

Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case)

78

Min Gap and Min Overall Dimensions

Configuration

Min overall Dimension Loop diagram (4)

Min Left bottom gap Loop diagram (6)

Min Right top gap Loop diagram (6)

Start Point of Loop

End Point of Loop

VCB of hole = (MMC – Gtol) = (13-0.03-0.05) = 12.92

RCB of hole = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (13+0.03+0.05+0.06) = 13.14

Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of this hole is: 13.03+/-0.11

VCB of pin = (MMC – Gtol) = (12.5-0.03-0.05) = 12.22

RCB of pin= (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (12.5+0.03+0.05+0.06) = 12.64

Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of this pin is: 12.43+/-0.21

79

Basic dimension 0 65

Min Overall Dim 169.54

Totals 0.16 6.515 176.215

Over radius of pin 0.105 6.215

Over radius of hole 0.055 6.515

Basic dimension 0 105

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

4

3

2

1

Loop #

Chart the values (Min overall Dim)

80

Basic dimension 0 65

0.7 143.5

Over radius of pin 0.105 6.215

Min left bottom gap 10.24

Totals 0.96 165.015 176.215

Over radius of hole 0.055 6.515

Basic dimension 0 105

0.1 15

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

6

5

4

3

2

1

Loop #

Chart the values (Min left bottom gap)

81

Basic dimension 0 65

0.1 15

Over radius of pin 0.105 6.215

Min right top gap 15.66

Totals 0.96 161.515 176.215

Over radius of hole 0.055 6.515

Basic dimension 0 105

0.7 140

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

6

5

4

3

2

1

Loop #

Chart the values (Min Right top gap)

82

Max Gap and Max Overall Dimensions

Configuration

Start Point of Loop

End Point of Loop

Max overall Dimension Loop diagram (4)

Max Left bottom gap Loop diagram (6)

Max Right top gap Loop diagram (6)

83

Min GAP / Max GAP

Max / Min Overall Dim

Totals

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

Loop #

Chart the values …

84

Session #7: Calculating MAX overall Diameter for a

Revolving Assembly

MAX?

85

Detailed Part Drawing with GD&T Controls

Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning

Part 1

Part2

86

Step#3: Create a Loop Diagram

OB = MMC + Gtol = 250+0.2+0.15 = 250.35

IB = LMC – Gtol = 250-0.2-0.15 = 249.65

Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 250+/-0.35

OB = MMC + Gtol = 250+0.2+0.15 = 250.35

IB = LMC – Gtol = 250-0.2-0.15 = 249.65

Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 250+/-0.35

87

Step#4: Chart the values …

0.175 125

Max Assembly Dia 250.425

Totals 0.35 25.035 275.11

LMC of spigot / 2 - 25.035

LMC of hole / 2 - 25.11

0.175 125

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

4

3

2

1

Loop #

88

Session #8: Analyzing a Guide Assembly with Fixed

fasteners

Assembly

89

Part #1 & #2: Detailed Drawing

90

Objectives:

Calculate Boundaries for Threaded features

Work with multiple Geometric Controls on a single feature

GD&T Controls affecting and non-affecting stack-up

Calculate desired gaps

Use product knowledge / experience and Assembly

conditions in stack-up analysis

Session #7: Analyzing a Guide Assembly with Fixed

fasteners

91

Locating parts to create MIN Gap

Configuration

CL of threaded hole in slot

CL of clearance hole in block

One line contact

92

Over 50% width of block 0.15 12.25

Min GAP / Max GAP

Max / Min Overall Dim

0.5925

Totals 0.475 16.3825 17.45

Over radius of clearance hole 0.055 4.1325

Over radius of screw 0.12 3.95

Over 50% width of slot 0.15 13.5

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

4

3

2

1

Loop #

Chart the values

OB of Slot = LMC + Gtol =27.2+0.1 = 27.3

IB of Slot = MMC – Gtol = 26.8-0.1 = 26.7

Mean width of slot with equal bilateral tolerance = 27+/-0.3

OB of Block = MMC + Gtol =24.7+0.1 = 24.8

IB of Slot = LMC – Gtol = 24.3-0.1 = 24.2

Mean width of block with equal bilateral tolerance = 24.5+/-0.3

OB of threaded hole/screw = MMC + Gtol =8+0.14 = 8.14

IB of threaded hole/screw = LMC – Gtol = 7.8-0.14 = 7.66

Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 7.9+/-0.24

OB of clearance hole = LMC + Gtol =8.25+0.05+0.06 = 8.36

IB of clearance hole = MMC – Gtol = 8.19-0.05 = 8.14

Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 8.265+/-0.11

93

Locating parts to create MAX Gap

Configuration

CL of clearance hole in block

CL of threaded hole in block

One line contact

94

Min GAP / Max GAP

Max / Min Overall Dim

Totals

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down Direction

Left Direction

Up Direction

Right Direction

Loop #

Chart the values

96

Form Tolerances in Tolerance Stack-up

Max Min

MIN / MAX?

97

Orientation Tolerances in Tolerance Stack-up

Max Min

MIN / MAX?

98

Part Stacks using Position (RFS)

(10.5)

Max Min

Find MAX and MIN Distance (1) between edges of two small holes.

99

Part Stacks using Position (RFS)

(10.6)

Find MAX and MIN Distance “X”.

Max Min

100

Part Stacks using Position (RFS)

(10.9)

Find MAX and MIN Distance between Centerlines of Hole and Slot.

Max Min

101

Part Stacks using Position (Bonus)

(11.7)

Find MAX and MIN Distance between Edges of two small holes.

Max Min

102

Part Stacks using Position (Bonus)

(11.8)

Find MAX and MIN Distance (2)

between Centerlines of the

two small holes.

Max Min

103

Part Stacks using Position (Bonus)

(11.9)

Find MAX and MIN wall thickness.

Max Min

104

Part Stacks using Position (Bonus & Shift)

(12.6)

Find MAX and MIN horizontal distance between edges of datum G and n 8.6-8.2 hole.

Max Min

105

Part Stacks using Position (Bonus & Shift)

(12.8)

Max Min

Find MAX and MIN distance between edge of the groove and side of the part.

106

Part Stacks using Profile

Find the MAX and MIN distance.

Max Min

107

Part Stacks using Profile

Find the MAX and MIN distance

Max Min

109

Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile

Max Min

110

Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile

Max Min

111

Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile

Max Min

113

Part Stacks – Composite Position Control

114

Part Stacks – Composite Position Control

MIN?

MIN?

MIN / MAX?

MIN / MAX?

Max Min

115

Session #10: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis of an

Assembly with Revolving Parts

GAP?

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

116

Objectives:

Calculating tolerance stack-ups on a five part rotating

assembly with a variety of geometric controls such as:

position, perpendicularity, parallelism, profile, flatness,

projected tolerance zones, runout, total runout,

concentricity, positional coaxiality

Learn Simplifying a complex situation

Calculate radial clearance and interference

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis of an Assembly

with Revolving Parts

117

Part #1: Detailed Drawing

Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning

118

Part #2,3 : Detailed Drawing

Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning

119

Part #4: Detailed Drawing

Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning

120

Part #5: Detailed Drawing

Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning

121

Session #11: Trigonometry and Proportions in

Tolerance Stack-up Analysis

122

Objectives:

Understanding the role of trigonometry and proportions in

tolerance stack-up and geometric tolerancing

Understanding the effect of “Unstable Datums features”

Know how vertical stacks affect horizontal envelope

requirements.

Mixing trigonometry and algebra determining stack-up

results

Consider the rules in Y14.5.1 (Math Standard) for

constructing a valid Datum

Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance

Stack-up Analysis

126

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

…

Out of flatness is shown on datum A on one

side of part center; since this is worst case

than flatness tolerance being evenly spread

on entire surface

Y14.5.1 states that in order to be a valid

primary datum feature, the points used to

construct a datum plane (3 high points of

contact minimum) must not lie solely in one

of the outer thirds of the surface. So its

possible to conceive of slightly worse

situation than this, but we are restricting to

rocking at center point of part

The illustration shows that flatness

tolerance allows datum A to lean by an

amount equal to flatness tolerance = 0.002. If

the part is inspected on surface that does not

lean; but assembled on surface that leans,

the pin will be forced to lean with with it, by

an amount = 0.006

127

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

…

Normally this is ignored while

calculating worst mating

conditions of features like 80

length pin. We normally calculate

worst mating condition diameter

= MMC size + geo tol at MMC =

20.2+0.4 = 20.6.

But with additional radial lean of

0.376, the worst mating condition

can be seen as 20.4 +

2x0.376=21.352

Also, while calculating the

minimum gap between this shaft

and the housing into which it fits,

as per procedure we used in

previous sessions, we would

probably be working with radii,

therefore ½ of 21.352 = R10.676

Simple Proportions:

0.2/42.5 = X/80

80*0.2 = 45.5*x

0.376 = x

128

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

…

Parallelism is also a factor that can be

related to the problems that flatness creates.

Parallelism when used on planer surfaces,

controls flatness and angle to datums

referenced.

In the illustration on left, produced part has

crest in middle (rock point) and surfaces

sloping on either side of rock point.

So, when two or more such parts are

stacked on top of one another, and each

having problem as shown, such assembly

would exhibit a problem of not fitting other

assemblies/housings or closing holes on parts

into which pins ore screws had to fit. (see next

slide)

129

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

…

Initially, the three parts were aligned with

center, left edge and right edge aligned,

then the parts are either to left or right

This would assume that interior part

features such as holes (not shown here)

have been positioned from one of these

features as secondary datum feature.

Each part during inspection has been

adjusted 9shimmed up) to allow high point

shown at the bottom center of part 1 and

2 to establish the datum plane, but during

assembly parts have been rocked instead

of equalized.

This is just one speculation as what can

happen due to out of flatness of bottom of

parts 1,2. Many such scenarios are

possible.

This much space would be

needed if parts were

stacked this way and

allowed to rock this way

130

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions

…

Unlike previous configuration, this

configuration calculates the space needed to

house these parts if they were stacked with

their edges aligned and then rocked in either

direction.

This much space would be

needed if parts were stacked

this way and allowed to rock in

either direction

132

Session#12: The Theory of Statistical

Probability

133

The Theory of Statistical Probability

Objectives:

Convert arithmetically calculated tolerances to statistically

calculated tolerances.

Use Root Sums Square (RSS) formula

Comparing “Worst-case” and “Statistical” tolerances

Reintegrating statistical tolerances into the assembly

137

The dispersion of dimensions

under the curve is described as

“standard deviation” and often

represented by letter σ (sigma),

and calculated as:

Background …

σ

The arithmetic mean +or- one

standard deviation (` 1 σ ) is often

described as containing 68.26% of the

produced parts under this normal curve.

By the same logic ` 2 σ is 95.46% of

the total production and ` 3 σ is

99.73%

138

Root Sum Squares (RSS) Method

The statistical probability can be applied to tolerance stack-up analysis for

assemblies both with and without geometric tolerances.

Thus the tolerance of an assembly is expressed as “square root of the sum of

squares of the individual component tolerances” and is called as RSS

formula:

Statistical probability has been practiced for several years and well

documented. Statistical approaches are more reliable for volume production.

For small production runs, the frequency curve tends to be skewed from its

normal shape.

2 2 2 2

1 2 3

......

A

n

T

T T T T

139

Applying RSS: Steps Involved with Example

Method: once the worst case calculations are

performed,

1. Using the RSS formula, calculate assembly tolerance

2. Determine the percentage (%) ratio between statistical

probability tolerance and 100% assembly tolerance

3. Determine the increased statistical probability tolerances

to be re-assigned to the assembly’s individual part

features.

140

RSS Calculations: Example#1

Min GAP

Max GAP

67.27 – 1.6 = 65.67

67.27 + 1.6 = 68.87

255.67 – 188.4

Totals 1.6 188.4 255.67

Slot inner 0.1 255.67

All 10 blocks 1.5 188.4

Remarks ` Tolerance (-ve) (+ve)

Down

Direction

Up

Direction

Worst case table

Sqrt of total

tolerance

1.5033

Totals 2.26 1.6 188.4 255.67

Channel Inner 0.01 0.1 255.67

All 10 blocks 2.25 1.5 188.4

Remarks ` Tolerance

Squared

` Tolerance Down

Direction (-)

Up Direction

(+)

RSS case table

141

Previous slide shows that the worst case assembly tolerance is +/-1.6, while the assembly tolerance

based on RSS calculations is +/-1.5033

It states that if the parts are produced under statistical control, the likely tolerance on assembly is +/-

1.5033 and NOT +/-1.6.

If we calculate the ratio of worst case tolerance to RSS tolerance = 1.6/1.5033 = 1.064.

This ratio can be used to increase the individual part level tolerance, in short, you can multiply part

tolerances by factor of 1.064.

Therefore the individual blocks will receive a new tolerance of 0.15 * 1.064 = 0.1596 and the channel will

receive a new tolerance of 0.1 * 1.064 = 0.1064

149

Suggested Readings & References …

ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Principals

Geometrics IIIm - Lowell W. Foster

Tolerance Stack up Analysis – Alex Krulikowski

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in

Design, Manufacturing, and Inspection - James D. Meadows

Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specifications – Clyde M.

Creveling

CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid (Dedicates a chapter on Mechanical

Tolerancing) A good reference book.(< Rs.500/-)

Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Daniel Puncochar.

Tolerance Stack up Analysis – James Meadows

Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr.

All books are priced in US$ 40-US$125 range.

How is Course Organized?

Total 12 Sessions; 3days Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each session Classroom exercises at the end of each session Homework Extended hours as necessary Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions

11

Classical Approach to Tolerance Stack-up Analysis …

12

It’s a Decision making tool and helps designer to answer one or more questions shown in next slides.What is Tolerance Stack-up Analysis? Tolerance Stack-up Analysis (also called as Gap Analysis / Loop Diagrams / Circuit Analysis or COD (Chain of Dimensions)) is the process of calculating minimum and maximum airspaces or wall thickness or material interferences in a single part or assemblies. It is a logical process divided in few steps … 13 .

will the parts still assemble? Will the dimensioning and tolerancing scheme used on the parts.Typically. 14 . If we reduce the size of clearance hole. allow too much variation at assembly? Should the drawing be re-dimensioned and re-toleranced to reduce the accumulation of tolerances? …. how much they will interfere? What is maximum thickness of the two parts that must fit in the slot? Will the pin fit within the hole? How do I know if the worst case assembly will satisfy its dimensional objectives. …. Tolerance Stack-up Provides answers to … Will these two surfaces touch in their worst case? If so.

Why Perform Tolerance Stack-up? A Tolerance Stackup allows the designer to: – – – – – – – – Optimize the tolerances of parts and assemblies in a new design. Determine the allowable part tolerances if the assembly tolerance is known. Balance accuracy. Determine effect of changing a tolerance will have on assembly function Explore design alternatives using different or modified parts or tooling/fixturing methods. Troubleshoot malfunctioning existing parts or assemblies. Determine if parts will work at their worst-case or with the maximum statistical variation. 15 . precision and cost with manufacturing process capability Determine part tolerances required to satisfy a final assembly condition.

The assembly process: how and and which order the parts are assembled? The direction of tolerance stack-up and direction of the dimensions and tolerances.Factors affecting Tolerance Stack-up Analysis There are four major factors that determine which dimensions and tolerances are included in a Tolerance Stack-up: The geometry of parts and assemblies that contribute to the distance (objective) being studied in the Tolerance Stack-up. The Dimensioning and Tolerancing schemes on the drawing of the parts and assemblies in the Tolerance Stack-up. 16 .

tolerance stack-up should be done for the considered parts at each required position or orientation/configuration. Tolerance stack-ups are performed at ambient temperature – the temperature at which the parts are assembled or inspected. If parts are assembled at one temperature and operate at different temperatures. it is important to study both conditions. – Tolerance Stack-ups are performed at a specified temperature. The tolerance stack-up allows parts to adjust (translate/rotate) relative to one another during assembly process. If more than one position or configuration of part/assembly to be studied (such as linkage or mechanism).Basic Assumptions in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis : Problem Idealization Tolerance Stack-ups are preformed with following assumptions: – All parts are considered in a static state. as the parts must be assembled before they can operate. then. but the analysis is performed in a static condition. Unless specified otherwise. 17 .

Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis Step #1: – Identify objectives: what are your end requirements? Such as flushness between features or gaps around a feature or alignment of features Step #2: – Identify all dimensions that contribute to your objectives as defined in step #1 and convert them to equal bilateral toleranced dimensions. as necessary 18 .

so deal with that part’s pertinent features before moving to next part. For Radial stacks (going up and down). Left direction is –ve (right of gap to left) – Right direction is +ve (left of gap to right OR towards end) – Remember to work on one part at a time. start at the left side of gap and end up at the right side of the gap. This approach is best to work with assemblies having many parts 19 .Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis … Step #3: – Assign each dimension a +ve or –ve value. start at the bottom of gap and end up at the top of gap Down direction is –ve (top of gap to bottom) – Up direction is +ve (bottom of gap to top OR towards end) – – Stacks that go left and right in the assembly.

Once you spot it. While reaching end objectives or goals. For example: when datum features are referenced at MMC or when more than one set of datum features are assembly features. only one set creates worst case. others become non-factors in analysis. Only one of these sets shall create the smallest or largest gap or maximum/minimum overall dimension.Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis … Step #4 (tips): – Remember that one set of mating features between parts creates the variable or objective you are working for. though multiple routes may have to be evluated to find this most significant set of features. Variables are either minimum gap or maximum gap or maximum overall assembly dimension. So. will most likely produce incorrect results – and tolerances from other features may contribute to the critical set you are searching for. One set mating features creates it. from one part to next. – – 20 . Errors could creep in if you follow one route from one set of mating features (hole/pin pairs) then continue the same route through another set. using more than one set of features within same two parts.

The judgment of designer is critical in these determinations.Steps in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis … Step #5 (Basic Rules): – When a single feature or a pattern of features are controlled by multiple Geometric Tolerances (such as orientation refined with position). the analyst must determine which. if either is contributing factor to variable. The Designer must evaluate which factors are relevant through diagrams and logical reasoning. – – 21 . It is likely that none of geometric tolerance is a factor and instead size dimensions are factors.

22 .Beginning Tolerance Stack-up Analysis Its important to arrange all the features and parts in the directions that will create the max or min gap / or variable you are searching for. This is to allow your loop always pass through material and you do not jump over an air space unnecessarily in analysis You should position the features of the parts against each other so that you will get extreme configurations and make clear to you the correct path with +ve v/s –ve designations for each dimension.

Session #1 : The Basics Objectives: Calculating mean dimensions with equal Bilateral Tolerances Calculating Inner and Outer Boundaries Virtual and Resultant Condition of features 23 .

24 . So. first thing is to change any dimension to an equal bilateral toleranced dimension. There is NO difference between a limit dimension and a plus or minus toleranced dimension. unequal or unilaterally toleranced dimension. They all have extremes and they all have means.Finding Mean Dimensions Few Important Concepts of Tolerance Stack-up Analysis: – – – There is NO difference between equal.

sum the limits : n22 + n20 = n42. Take the mean of difference = n1 Therefore.Finding Mean Dimensions Limit dimensions: n22-n20 Upper limit = n22. Take the mean of sum = n21 Take the difference of limits: n22 . limit dimension of n22-n20 is expressed as equal bilateral toleranced dimension as n21`1 25 .n20 = n2. Lower limit = n20 Now.

unequal bilateral toleranced dimension of converted to equal bilateral toleranced dimension is n50 +1 -3 n49`2 26 . Mean of sum is n98/2 = n49 Then. take the difference of limits : n51 . Upper limit = n50+1= n51 Lower limit = n50-3= n47 Now. sum the limits : n51 + n47 = n98.n47 = n4.Finding Mean Dimensions Unequal bilateral toleranced dimensions: n50 +1 -3 So. Mean of difference is n4/2 = n2 Therefore.

5.Finding Mean Dimensions : Exercise Convert following Dimensions to an equal bilateral toleranced dimensions 1. 27 100 150 155 200 2 0 0 0.47 3 1 30 500 0.37 .26 0. 2. 3. 4.

Boundaries Boundaries are generated by collective effects of size and Geometric tolerances applied to feature(s) and often referred to as simply inner and outer boundaries There are two types of boundaries: Virtual Condition Boundary (VCB) Resultant Condition Boundary (RCB) 28 .

generate constant boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and are calculated as: – VCB for internal FOS such as hole = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric Tolerance value VCB for external FOS such as pin = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance – VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual mating size of the feature 29 .Virtual Condition Boundaries section 2.5M-1994 FCFs that use m (MMC symbol).11) (Refer ASME Y14.

generate constant boundaries (VCB) for features under consideration and are calculated as: – VCB for internal FOS such as hole = LMC Size Boundary + Geometric Tolerance value VCB for external FOS such as pin = LMC Size boundary Geometric Tolerance.5M- FCFs that use l (LMC symbol).11) (Refer ASME Y14.Virtual Condition Boundaries 1994 section 2. – VC Boundaries are Constant and do not vary based upon actual mating size of the feature 30 .

Resultant Condition Boundaries Y14. 31 .5M-1994 section 2.11) (Refer ASME RC Boundaries are non constant in nature and are generated on opposite side of the virtual conditions. When RFS (Regardless of Feature Size) concept applies to FOS. they generate only non-constant or RC boundaries.

Case#1: Internal FOS controlled at MMC 32 Hole – MMC Concept .

Case#1: Calculating VC & RC boundaries Hole Size GTol VirtualCondition( FixedBoundary ) 49 1 48 50 2 48 51 3 48 Hole Worst case inner boundary Size GTol Re sul tan tConditon(VariableBoundary) 49 1 50 50 2 52 51 3 54 Worst case outer boundary VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric Tolerance value VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance value 33 .

So.Case#1: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced Dimension from VCB and RCB Resultant condition of hole + Virtual condition of hole SUM 54 48 102 54 48 6 Resultant condition of hole .Virtual condition of hole DIFFERENCE Then. 51 3 Is an equal bilateral expression 6 of the dimension and its 102 & 3 51 tolerance 2 2 34 .

Case#2: Internal FOS controlled at LMC 35 Hole – LMC Concept .

Case#2: Calculating VC & RC boundaries Hole Size GTol VirtualCondition( FixedBoundary ) 51 1 52 50 2 52 49 3 52 Worst case outer boundary Hole Size GTol Re sul tan tConditon(VariableBoundary) 51 1 50 50 2 48 49 3 46 Worst case inner boundary VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary +Geometric Tolerance value VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary Geometric Tolerance value 36 .

So.Virtual condition of hole DIFFERENCE Then. 49 3 Is an equal bilateral expression 6 of the dimension and its 98 & 3 49 tolerance 2 2 37 .Case#2: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced Dimension from VCB and RCB Resultant condition of hole + Virtual condition of hole SUM 46 52 98 46 52 6 Resultant condition of hole .

Case#3: Internal FOS controlled at RFS 38 Hole – RFS Concept .

Case#3: Calculating RC boundaries Since it’s a RFS Callout. no virtual condition boundaries exist and all boundaries are non-constant Hole Size GTol InnerBoundry 49 1 48 50 1 49 51 1 50 Hole Worst case Inner boundary Size GTol OuterBoundary 49 1 50 50 1 51 51 1 52 Worst case Outer boundary 39 .

Case#3: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries Outer Boundary of hole + Inner Boundary of hole SUM 52 48 100 52 48 4 Outer Boundary of hole . 50 2 Is an equal bilateral expression of the dimension and its tolerance 4 100 & 2 50 2 2 40 . So.Inner Boundary of hole DIFFERENCE Then.

Case#4: External FOS Controlled at MMC 41 Shaft – MMC Concept .

Case#4: Calculating VC & RC boundaries Shaft Size GTol VirtualCondition( FixedBoundary ) 47 1 48 46 2 48 45 3 48 Worst case outer boundary Shaft Size GTol Re sul tan tConditon(VariableBoundary) 47 1 46 46 2 44 45 3 42 Worst case inner boundary VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at MMC = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric Tolerance value VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at MMC = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance value 42 .

So. 45 3 Is an equal bilateral expression of the dimension and its tolerance 6 90 & 3 45 2 2 43 .Case#4: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced Dimension from VCB and RCB Resultant Condition of Shaft + Virtual Condition of Shaft SUM 42 48 90 42 48 6 Resultant Condition of Shaft .Virtual Condition of Shaft DIFFERENCE Then.

Case#5: External FOS controlled at LMC Shaft – LMC Concept 44 .

Case#5: Calculating VC & RC boundaries Shaft Size GTol VirtualCondition( FixedBoundary ) 45 1 44 46 2 44 47 3 44 Shaft Worst case inner boundary Size GTol Re sul tan tConditon(VariableBoundary) 45 1 46 46 2 48 47 3 50 Worst case outer boundary VCB for internal FOS (such as hole) controlled at LMC = LMC Size Boundary +Geometric Tolerance value VCB for external FOS (such as pin) controlled at LMC = LMC Size boundary Geometric Tolerance value 45 .

Virtual Condition of Shaft DIFFERENCE Then. 47 3 Is an equal bilateral expression of the dimension and its tolerance 6 94 & 3 47 2 2 46 . So.Case#5: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced Dimension from VCB and RCB Resultant Condition of Shaft + Virtual Condition of Shaft SUM 50 44 94 50 44 6 Resultant Condition of Shaft .

Case#6: External FOS controlled at RFS Shaft – RFS Concept 47 .

no virtual condition boundaries exist and all boundaries are non-constant Shaft Size GTol OuterBoundry 45 1 46 46 1 47 47 1 48 Shaft Worst case Outer boundary Size GTol InnerBoundary 45 1 44 Worst case Inner boundary 46 1 45 47 1 46 48 .Case#6: Calculating RC boundaries Since it’s a RFS Callout.

Inner Boundary of Shaft DIFFERENCE Then.Case#6: Creating equal Bilateral Toleranced Dimension from Inner and Outer Boundaries Outer Boundary of Shaft + Inner Boundary of Shaft SUM 48 44 92 48 44 4 Outer Boundary of Shaft . 46 2 Is an equal bilateral expression of the dimension and its tolerance 4 92 & 2 46 2 2 49 . So.

Geometric Tolerance value at LMC 50 .Formulae to Remember… For Internal FOS controlled at MMC / LMC: VCB at MMC (IB) = MMC Size Boundary – Geometric Tolerance value at MMC VCB at LMC (OB) = LMC Size Boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at LMC For External FOS controlled at MMC / LMC: VCB at MMC (OB) = MMC Size boundary + Geometric Tolerance value at MMC VCB at LMC (IB) = LMC Size boundary .

Finding Inner & Outer Boundaries : Exercise Calculate Inner and Outer boundary for features having following specifications 51 .

Session #2: Analyzing a “C” Channel Assembly Objectives: To determine min and max gap for a simple eleven parts assembly. Perform the calculations Create a Loop Analysis Diagram Create a Number Chart 52 .

“C” Channel Assembly 53 .

5 255.67 67.87 All 10 blocks Channel inner Totals Min GAP Max GAP Down Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance Remarks 255.6 = 65.67 – 188.“C” Channel Assembly : Loop Analysis Diagram Up Direction (+ve) GAP 188.1 188.1 1.4 188.67 255.6 = 68.4 54 .4+/-1.5 0.27 + 1.67 255.6 67.67+/-0.27 – 1.4 1.

Session #2: Exercises 55 .

Session #2: Exercises 6 3 2 1 5 4 56 .

74 ` Tolerance 0.36 0.Up Direction / Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 5 6 230.02 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP 57 .8) = 30.1 0.15 0.1 0.0.2 Remarks 240.8 (29.58 211.22 .42 (29.15 0.8) = 28.22 + 0.62 34.1 90 30 0.58 10 (+ve) Down Direction / Left Direction (-ve) 56.

Session #2: Exercises 58 .

Session #2: Exercises 5 2 1 8 3 9 7 6 4 59 .

2 0.8 – 1.8 + 1.55) = 61.Up Direction / Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 28 22 235 (+ve) Down Direction / Left Direction (-ve) 26 23 ` Tolerance 0.1 39 0.35.15 0.35 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP 60 .2 23 51 04.25 (62.15 Remarks 285 222.15 0.55) = 64.55 (62.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.1 60.

determine Max and Min gap in Horizontal and Vertical Directions Determine proper start and End points for stack-ups Graph the numbers calculated into Loop Diagram 61 .Session #3: Loop Analysis for Box and Cavity Objectives: – – – Using Loop Analysis Technique.

Problem Description Calculate: MIN / MAX Horizontal Gap MIN / MAX Vertical Gap 62 .

Loop Diagram 1 1 2 2 Horizontal Direction Vertical Direction 63 .

75 24.425 (+ve) Down Direction / Left Direction (-ve) 24.075 (2.9 ` Tolerance 0.6) = 1.75 25.45 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Remarks Vertical Direction Up Direction / Right Direction Loop # 1 2 26.85 – 0.075) = 3.25 (2.9 (+ve) Down Direction / Left Direction (-ve) 25.85 + 0.25 (0.Number Chart Horizontal Direction Up Direction / Right Direction Loop # 1 2 26.75 26.5 0.425 ` Tolerance 0.6) = 0.325 – 1.75 26.575 0.1 0.4 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Remarks 64 .325 + 1.075) = 1.6 (0.5 1.

Session #4: Analysis of an assembly with Limit tolerancing Objectives: Calculate the airspaces and interferences for a plus and minus toleranced assembly Performing multiple loop analyses on an assembly 65 .

Assembly with limit tolerancing : Problem Description 66 .

Assembly with limit tolerancing : Loop Diagrams 2 1 3 1 2 67 .

Assembly with limit tolerancing : Number Chart Horizontal Direction Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 36.8 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Max / Min Overall Dim 68 .94 + 2.375 0.8 32.61 (3.975 25.125 ` Tolerance 0.84 15.55 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Max / Min Overall Dim Remarks Vertical Direction Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 25.33 (3.975 (+ve) Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) 25.95 (0.85 – 0.85 + 0.61) = 1.125 0.2 2.66 0.575 Remarks 25.7 Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance 0.7 32.75 1.61) = 5.94 – 2.95) = 1.95) = -0.1 (0.64 (+ve) 20.

Session #5: Analyzing a Floating Fastener Assembly Objectives: Calculate Virtual and Resultant conditions (Inner / Outer Boundaries) for GD&T callouts Determine mean of all these boundaries Convert all FOS (diameters and widths) to mean radii with equal bilateral tolerance Mixing FOSs (widths and diameters) in number chart Graph the numbers in tolerance stack-up diagram Determine all unknown gaps in the assembly 69 .

Floating fastener assembly sketch with GD&T 70 .

5 5.5+/-0.5 300 71 .Floating fastener Part sketches with GD&T 140 140 6-7 6-7 3.5+/-0.

Floating fastener Assembly with parts shoved towards center VCB of holes in top plates = (MMC – Gtol) = (6-0.5 RCB of holes in top plates = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (7+0.5 VCB of holes in base plate = (MMC – Gtol) = (5.5) = 5.5+1) = 8.5+0.5+0+1) = 7 Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of these holes is: 6+/-1 72 .5 Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of these holes is: 7+/-1.5-0) = 5 RCB of holes in base plate = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (5.5-0.

5 3 0.5 307 293 3.5 ` Tolerance 0 0.75 Remarks Basic dimension Over radius of top plate hole Over pin dia Over radius of base plate hole Basic dimension Over radius of base plate hole Over pin dia Over radius of top plate hole Basic dimension Loop # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3.5 300 3.5 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP 73 .5 140 0.75 0.5 0 3 0.5 10.5 3.Loop Diagram with values printed… 2 1 9 8 3 7 4 5 6 Up Direction / Right Direction (+ve) Down Direction / Left Direction (-ve) 140 3.5 0.

Can you imagine a configuration for MAX Gap? And then calculate MAX Gap Up Direction / Right Direction Loop # (+ve) Down Direction / Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance Remarks Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Max / Min Overall Dim 74 .

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case) 75 .

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case) 76 .

Session#6: Analyzing an Assembly for Gaps and Overall Dimensions (Fixed Fastener Case) Objectives: Calculate assembly overall MAX and MIN dimensions Calculate MAX and MIN gaps within assembly as shown Calculate boundaries using various GD&T controls 77 .

05+0.5-0.14 Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of this hole is: 13.64 Mean Dia with equal bilateral representation of this pin is: 12.5+0.03-0.22 RCB of pin= (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (12.03+0.05) = 12.03-0.43+/-0.11 VCB of pin = (MMC – Gtol) = (12.03+0.Min Gap and Min Overall Dimensions Configuration VCB of hole = (MMC – Gtol) = (13-0.21 Start Point of Loop End Point of Loop Min overall Dimension Loop diagram (4) Min Left bottom gap Loop diagram (6) Min Right top gap Loop diagram (6) 78 .05+0.05) = 12.03+/-0.92 RCB of hole = (LMC + Gtol + Btol) = (13+0.06) = 12.06) = 13.

**Chart the values (Min overall Dim)
**

Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 6.215 65 (+ve) 105 6.515 Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance 0 0.055 0.105 0 Remarks Basic dimension Over radius of hole Over radius of pin Basic dimension

176.215

6.515

0.16 169.54

Totals Min Overall Dim

79

**Chart the values (Min left bottom gap)
**

Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 5 6 176.215 6.215 65 143.5 165.015 105 6.515 (+ve) Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) 15 ` Tolerance 0.1 0 0.055 0.105 0 0.7 0.96 10.24 Totals Min left bottom gap Basic dimension Over radius of hole Over radius of pin Basic dimension Remarks

80

**Chart the values (Min Right top gap)
**

Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 5 6 176.215 6.215 65 15 161.515 105 6.515 (+ve) Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) 140 ` Tolerance 0.7 0 0.055 0.105 0 0.1 0.96 15.66 Totals Min right top gap Basic dimension Over radius of hole Over radius of pin Basic dimension Remarks

81

Max Gap and Max Overall Dimensions Configuration Start Point of Loop End Point of Loop Max overall Dimension Loop diagram (4) Max Left bottom gap Loop diagram (6) Max Right top gap Loop diagram (6) 82 .

Chart the values … Up Direction Right Direction Loop # (+ve) Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance Remarks Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Max / Min Overall Dim 83 .

Session #7: Calculating MAX overall Diameter for a Revolving Assembly MAX? 84 .

Detailed Part Drawing with GD&T Controls Part 1 Part2 Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning 85 .

15 = 250.2+0.35 86 .35 IB = LMC – Gtol = 250-0.15 = 249.2-0.35 OB = MMC + Gtol = 250+0.15 = 249.Step#3: Create a Loop Diagram OB = MMC + Gtol = 250+0.35 IB = LMC – Gtol = 250-0.15 = 250.65 Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 250+/-0.2+0.2-0.65 Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 250+/-0.

11 25.175 0.11 25.175 LMC of hole / 2 LMC of spigot / 2 Remarks 275.Step#4: Chart the values … Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 125 (+ve) 125 25.425 Totals Max Assembly Dia 87 .035 0.35 250.035 Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance 0.

Session #8: Analyzing a Guide Assembly with Fixed fasteners Assembly 88 .

Part #1 & #2: Detailed Drawing 89 .

Session #7: Analyzing a Guide Assembly with Fixed fasteners Objectives: Calculate Boundaries for Threaded features Work with multiple Geometric Controls on a single feature GD&T Controls affecting and non-affecting stack-up Calculate desired gaps Use product knowledge / experience and Assembly conditions in stack-up analysis 90 .

Locating parts to create MIN Gap Configuration One line contact CL of clearance hole in block CL of threaded hole in slot 91 .

5925 Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Max / Min Overall Dim OB of Slot = LMC + Gtol =27.25+0.15 Remarks Over 50% width of slot Over radius of screw Over radius of clearance hole Over 50% width of block 17.36 IB of clearance hole = MMC – Gtol = 8.7+0.1 = 26.05 = 8.14 = 8.1 = 27.14 Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 8.7 Mean width of slot with equal bilateral tolerance = 27+/-0.8 IB of Slot = LMC – Gtol = 24.8-0.055 0.15 0.5+/-0.1 = 24.12 0.24 OB of clearance hole = LMC + Gtol =8.3825 0.25 Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance 0.2+0.1325 12.06 = 8.11 92 .3 OB of threaded hole/screw = MMC + Gtol =8+0.14 IB of threaded hole/screw = LMC – Gtol = 7.05+0.9+/-0.3-0.66 Mean dia with equal bilateral tolerance = 7.14 = 7.265+/-0.2 Mean width of block with equal bilateral tolerance = 24.3 IB of Slot = MMC – Gtol = 26.3 OB of Block = MMC + Gtol =24.1 = 24.95 4.19-0.475 0.45 16.5 3.Chart the values Up Direction Right Direction Loop # 1 2 3 4 (+ve) 13.8-0.

Locating parts to create MAX Gap Configuration One line contact CL of clearance hole in block CL of threaded hole in block 93 .

Chart the values Up Direction Right Direction Loop # (+ve) Down Direction Left Direction (-ve) ` Tolerance Remarks Totals Min GAP / Max GAP Max / Min Overall Dim 94 .

Form Tolerances in Tolerance Stack-up Min Max MIN / MAX? 96 .

Orientation Tolerances in Tolerance Stack-up Min Max MIN / MAX? 97 .

5) .Part Stacks using Position (RFS) Min Max Find MAX and MIN Distance (1) between edges of two small holes. 98 (10.

Part Stacks using Position (RFS) Min Max Find MAX and MIN Distance “X”.6) . 99 (10.

Part Stacks using Position (RFS) Min Max Find MAX and MIN Distance between Centerlines of Hole and Slot.9) . 100 (10.

101 (11.7) .Part Stacks using Position (Bonus) Min Max Find MAX and MIN Distance between Edges of two small holes.

8) .Part Stacks using Position (Bonus) Min Max Find MAX and MIN Distance (2) between Centerlines of the two small holes. 102 (11.

103 (11.Part Stacks using Position (Bonus) Min Max Find MAX and MIN wall thickness.9) .

6) .6-8. 104 (12.2 hole.Part Stacks using Position (Bonus & Shift) Min Max Find MAX and MIN horizontal distance between edges of datum G and n8.

105 (12.8) .Part Stacks using Position (Bonus & Shift) Min Max Find MAX and MIN distance between edge of the groove and side of the part.

Part Stacks using Profile

Min

Max

Find the MAX and MIN distance.

106

Part Stacks using Profile

Min

Max

Find the MAX and MIN distance

107

Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile

Min

Max

109

Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile Min Max 110 .

Part Stacks using Form/Orientation/Profile Min Max 111 .

Part Stacks – Composite Position Control 113 .

Part Stacks – Composite Position Control MIN / MAX? MIN / MAX? Min Max MIN? MIN? 114 .

Session #10: Tolerance Stack-up Analysis of an Assembly with Revolving Parts GAP? Part 1 Part 4 Part 2 Part 5 Part 3 115 .

runout. concentricity. projected tolerance zones. positional coaxiality Learn Simplifying a complex situation Calculate radial clearance and interference 116 . perpendicularity. flatness. total runout. profile. parallelism.Tolerance Stack-up Analysis of an Assembly with Revolving Parts Objectives: Calculating tolerance stack-ups on a five part rotating assembly with a variety of geometric controls such as: position.

Part #1: Detailed Drawing Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning 117 .

3 : Detailed Drawing Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning 118 .Part #2.

Part #4: Detailed Drawing Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning 119 .

Part #5: Detailed Drawing Determine factors and non-factors affecting objectives with logical reasoning 120 .

Session #11: Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis 121 .

Mixing trigonometry and algebra determining stack-up results Consider the rules in Y14.5.Trigonometry and Proportions in Tolerance Stack-up Analysis Objectives: Understanding the role of trigonometry and proportions in tolerance stack-up and geometric tolerancing Understanding the effect of “Unstable Datums features” Know how vertical stacks affect horizontal envelope requirements.1 (Math Standard) for constructing a valid Datum 122 .

If the part is inspected on surface that does not lean. but assembled on surface that leans. but we are restricting to rocking at center point of part The illustration shows that flatness tolerance allows datum A to lean by an amount equal to flatness tolerance = 0. So its possible to conceive of slightly worse situation than this. since this is worst case than flatness tolerance being evenly spread on entire surface Y14.Example of Rocking Datum and proportions … Out of flatness is shown on datum A on one side of part center. the pin will be forced to lean with with it. by an amount = 0.1 states that in order to be a valid primary datum feature.002. the points used to construct a datum plane (3 high points of contact minimum) must not lie solely in one of the outer thirds of the surface.5.006 126 .

352 Also. We normally calculate worst mating condition diameter = MMC size + geo tol at MMC = 20.376 = x while calculating the minimum gap between this shaft and the housing into which it fits. as per procedure we used in previous sessions.376=21. the worst mating condition can be seen as 20. we would probably be working with radii. Simple Proportions: 0.376.5*x 0.4 = 20.2/42.Example of Rocking Datum and proportions … Normally this is ignored while calculating worst mating conditions of features like 80 length pin.676 127 .2 = 45.4 + 2x0. therefore ½ of 21.2+0.6.352 = R10.5 = X/80 80*0. But with additional radial lean of 0.

Example of Rocking Datum and proportions …

Parallelism

is also a factor that can be related to the problems that flatness creates. Parallelism when used on planer surfaces, controls flatness and angle to datums referenced.

In

the illustration on left, produced part has crest in middle (rock point) and surfaces sloping on either side of rock point.

So,

when two or more such parts are stacked on top of one another, and each having problem as shown, such assembly would exhibit a problem of not fitting other assemblies/housings or closing holes on parts into which pins ore screws had to fit. (see next slide)

128

**Example of Rocking Datum and proportions …
**

Initially,

the three parts were aligned with center, left edge and right edge aligned, then the parts are either to left or right

This

would assume that interior part features such as holes (not shown here) have been positioned from one of these features as secondary datum feature.

Each

part during inspection has been adjusted 9shimmed up) to allow high point shown at the bottom center of part 1 and 2 to establish the datum plane, but during assembly parts have been rocked instead of equalized.

This

is just one speculation as what can happen due to out of flatness of bottom of parts 1,2. Many such scenarios are possible.

This much space would be needed if parts were stacked this way and allowed to rock this way

129

**Example of Rocking Datum and proportions …
**

Unlike

previous configuration, this configuration calculates the space needed to house these parts if they were stacked with their edges aligned and then rocked in either direction.

This much space would be needed if parts were stacked this way and allowed to rock in either direction

130

Session#12: The Theory of Statistical Probability 132 .

The Theory of Statistical Probability Objectives: Convert arithmetically calculated tolerances to statistically calculated tolerances. Use Root Sums Square (RSS) formula Comparing “Worst-case” and “Statistical” tolerances Reintegrating statistical tolerances into the assembly 133 .

46% of the total production and `3 σ is 99. and calculated as: σ The arithmetic mean +or. By the same logic `2 σ is 95.one standard deviation (`1 σ ) is often described as containing 68.26% of the produced parts under this normal curve.Background … The dispersion of dimensions under the curve is described as “standard deviation” and often represented by letter σ (sigma).73% 137 .

. 138 ..T n 2 2 2 Statistical probability has been practiced for several years and well documented.. the frequency curve tends to be skewed from its normal shape. For small production runs. Statistical approaches are more reliable for volume production.. Thus the tolerance of an assembly is expressed as “square root of the sum of squares of the individual component tolerances” and is called as RSS formula: TA T 2 1 T 2 T 3 ..Root Sum Squares (RSS) Method The statistical probability can be applied to tolerance stack-up analysis for assemblies both with and without geometric tolerances.

calculate assembly tolerance Determine the percentage (%) ratio between statistical probability tolerance and 100% assembly tolerance Determine the increased statistical probability tolerances to be re-assigned to the assembly’s individual part features.Applying RSS: Steps Involved with Example Method: once the worst case calculations are performed. 3. 1. 139 . 2. Using the RSS formula.

1 1.4 255.6 67.6 = 65.4 255.5033 Remarks All 10 blocks Channel Inner Totals Sqrt of total tolerance 140 .RSS Calculations: Example#1 Worst case table Up Direction (+ve) Down Direction (-ve) 188.5 0.4 ` Tolerance 1.6 = 68.87 Remarks All 10 blocks Slot inner Totals Min GAP Max GAP 255.67 255.27 – 1.6 ` Tolerance Squared 2.67 188.67 188.26 1.5 0.01 2.67 – 188.27 + 1.67 67.4 ` Tolerance 1.67 255.1 1.25 0.4 RSS case table Up Direction (+) Down Direction (-) 188.

while the assembly tolerance based on RSS calculations is +/-1.6.064.6. This ratio can be used to increase the individual part level tolerance.064.15 * 1.5033 It states that if the parts are produced under statistical control. in short. you can multiply part tolerances by factor of 1.6/1.1596 and the channel will receive a new tolerance of 0. Therefore the individual blocks will receive a new tolerance of 0.5033 and NOT +/-1.1064 141 .064 = 0. the likely tolerance on assembly is +/1.5033 = 1. Previous slide shows that the worst case assembly tolerance is +/-1. If we calculate the ratio of worst case tolerance to RSS tolerance = 1.064 = 0.1 * 1.

500/-) Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Daniel Puncochar. Meadows Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specifications – Clyde M. Creveling CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid (Dedicates a chapter on Mechanical Tolerancing) A good reference book. Tolerance Stack up Analysis – James Meadows Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr. All books are priced in US$ 40-US$125 range. 149 .James D. and Inspection . Manufacturing.Lowell W.(< Rs.Suggested Readings & References … ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals Geometrics IIIm . Foster Tolerance Stack up Analysis – Alex Krulikowski Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design.

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