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.0.

6
.5 5044

'

',},{1\i'!j;:i\.."JtiJr:~';rtj!",;\It!'M~'~~1
:,~:~~'i,~,~?}'j]~'::~,;,,",;~

, ' ,::}:

6 1:~~~(-'1:ttt~~ .';'[;\~1;;i1""~~r,j~'~",{I~~~1~;'f:~

""

Cc ,;:':.:!

'; , ,:

,:;':!',t

Table

for

Comparing .. veloc!ty mo ecu e v


I

the

Physical

Properties

of ,
fi oef . clent

the

Aether
,

with

well

known

Terrestrial
per'
= - 11 v

Gases,
Radll
calculated .

C o 11 ..' IsiOns
M f ean ree pat h d secon c

..'

pf

molecules
by four

':(\~ '1\
;,; .

Mean

of

Molecular

as

(0

f o

wt.

VIscosIty 1( at O
2 1800

..

C.=

31( pv

cms kms cms " ~ " "

8t ' -..percen. lor col1~lon rebound 0.82 , 7765XI06,. 1,4743X106 7108x106. 6732XI06 7941X 6064X 106:, 106:" '

In d epen dt en processe,. except in the


f th ' th case o e a er , 2.53? X 10-12 (~ 1/405 1.86XI0=8; T.34x10 1.IIXI0=8 1.81X10 ofH) 8 i

,
:

~ther

47

123900000

cms

15.56XI0-

57295900000 = 572959 0.0059 0.0000116 0.0000171 0.0000063 0.000057 0.0000063

,:

Air Hydrop,en Helium Oxygen Nitrogen Argon

49800 185900 132113 46100 49200 41527

~ ~ ~ ~

14.43 I 1.9.8 16 14 19.96 :

0.0001724 0.0000867 0.0001889 0.0001896 0.0001660 0.000210

;'1 cr.

,;:;,:1?; .;!.It~

'

1.90X 10-8\,;:.,~ 1.81 X 10-8;:;;,:~:;~

GO
GO2 Chlonne
SteamH2O .,

4 n 7 00
...,

'~
) ~

14
22 35.36
9

0.0001626
: 0,0001410 0.0001287
0.0000912

0.0000 5 8
0.0000040 0.0000029
0.0000040

17901 X 106""
9 108 X 106;; 6 \"
,":,"

1.88XI0.-8
, ." :;\;,'t:~! ""' ~

.39600 31262
62000"

',2.28

xI018,t,;':.'~rfri (,~.;;~Ij 4\"~+i'


,,' ,;:-), ,

9874X~06"i\j
14260XI0,~' , '

'!;i2.68XI0~: " .8'.'


,i!2.21><17.,;'t:;;"'; ., ] ",

As due of to gas

,vas t~e

first

clearly

shown

by

Maxwell, when of such

viscosity one layer

is

~ its

long

free

path, of

and that.of

small

mass,

with

a" radius molecu~e;

of As Soc.,

only far

ohe

.;,

molecular over

resistance another, In

developed the case

four-thousandth as 184 5, Stokes

a Hydrogen (Trans. to an

back.,.\~!:. ),

slIdes

a superfine

recognIzed

, Camb.

PhIl.

8.287

gas as the aether the cesses for establishing is explained p. 22 7, and is in Daniell's the notably

viscosity passes into rigidity; the prothis transition of viscosity into rigidity Principles basis by gas than of \ve gross the made a a of of Jeans, up Phy~ics, Maxtl'elts Dynamical of corplTScles molecule, of \vhy as is energy the not the this mass superfin--e is the by in is no such finer 3rd ed., theory Theory 4000 and of 1895, of

that the physical treacle, substances bodies

aether is similar properties in pitch, are beeswax,. fluid into for them

wel~ known accentuated pulled acting through

solids, but has degree. ' Thus for forces, without candy, and

t1:1eir ice, other hard ;;

molasses slowly to pass

theoretical improved a

allowing any

viscosity of Gases, , As

pressed

fracture,

;.1

2nd ed., 1916. the aether is in 15.56 diameter

by a gentle yielding struck violent blows and may It yield to be thus fractured appears to of ho,vever, of the aether kilometres the shape yield

or flow of the substance; , like these bodies vibrate like that forces with to glass a or other is to measures in some have as one it, brittle

but yet when'!!; elastic solids,' substances. does not

, :~!

times having the

smaller only hydrogen

hydrogen millionth see But and

' c

millionths

soli.d

which the

fnolecl\le, all of we

readily bodies.

reaqily change

applied time forces

and the degr~e.

"re~istance All in the

medium ultimate anything a medium

pervades medium finer, cannot to that

aether underlaid

rigidity. Now,

universe, perceive

bodies, case of

also be

that

carried there

the

corpuscles per second,

the

enormous pointed

velocity. out earthly swiftest :

dissipated,

because

47 I 239

already

medium follows Brit. is not cular approved , of this

which ,vave energy Larmor's argument 191 I ), to the effect

might be given up. (in the article Aether, that valid aether is not to

Thus it Encyc. molecular, a corpus-

and in velocities planets, by their of the

cqmparison with su~h are trivial. :Even like extreme Mercury and

tremendous the velocities .are

speed, all of our

I Ith ed., \veIl aether, by

Venus, of have one the the and

exceedep ~n

10000-fold addition free to path t

founded. such Preston gas see as

There ,vas

is no conceived Maxu'ell, \vorked

objection by Netoton, The in

s\viftness they nearly

aetherons. ,immensely a half

172 kinetic

I,

and

rapid 573000

motion, kms,

long times ," the

and

I 87 7. out

theory greater the most

moon's

superfine and substantial of energy. we

is here that

somewhat it affords for the

distance. The length all of enormous the mean bodies. waves ,vith velocity free For a path of the aeth~ron the aether forces

detail, most

quite ground

unexpectedly ever doctrines, developed namely,

and unique

the

great among and ;:

physical all

the

makes

fundamental vation of .the -ne~d our of " the with of

physical

conser-

physical

rapidly velocity

acting of

it vibrates kms per

transmits detailed explanation of the processes derive the high molecular velocity of in section 6 below. 'At present we obvious advantages ,vhich of show having what before manner

300000

second,

Some\vhat more calculation used to aetheron are given only minds gas the point definite aether out the

and is capable of sl1ch as are required but for slo\vly acting its own molecular with bodies such

exerting the for holding' forces yields motions extreme are velocity, without

most tremendous stresses, the planets in their orbits; without Tesistance, because so rapid. get out The of the when particles, way of all

;'"" c" ,

numerical is.

results

travelling moving

--absolutely

hindrance,

the bodies

6. The aetheron, radius

excessively its long on-ly molecule, power one of

high free

molecular path, and

velocity small of that

of mass, of a

move velocity

uniformly; and of movement It is by recognized diffusion others, molecules layer,

offer but slight resistance due'to acceleration or that the viscosity qf

for chapging retardation. gases, as deterof into

four-thousandth ensures penetrati elastic both on to properties high velocity

Hydrogen and great The due mainly

great elasticity the aether, of of the the aethe.r aetheron, are

mined Maxwell the

the and

experiments depends on projected when

of Loschmidt, the molecular one layers layer are

O,E.Meye'., friction of slid gas

extraordinary to the

moving

from two

excessively

another

adjacent

relatively