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Ball-Flight - Varying the True Clubpath Orientation at Impact The clubface (CF) orientation at impact and the true

clubpath (CP) orientation at impact determine the balls flight. The true CP orientation at impact is calculated by the following equation: True CP = HSP [AA * TAN (90 VSP)]
Vertical Swing Plane (VSP) (or Swing Plane) is a measure of how vertical the swing is, where a high value represents a very up and down (steep) swing plane and a low value is a relatively flat (to the ground) arc. More technically, it is the angle made between the ground and the plane of club head trajectory at the bottom of the swing arc. The higher your VSP (the steeper your swing plane) the less effect the AA has on your true CP and vice versa.

Horizontal Swing Plane (HSP) (or Swing Direction) is the orientation of the swing arc, relative to the target line, where positive means to the right, negative means to the left. More technically, it is the horizontal direction the club head is traveling in the bottom of the swing arc.

Angle of Attack (AA) (or Attack Angle) is the vertical (up-down) angle at which the club head is moving at impact. Positive means hitting up on the ball, while negative means hitting down on the ball. If your AA is zero (you swing dead level), then your true CP will simply be your HSP. With shots off the ground, you want to have a negative AA. With a driver, you want to have a positive AA or a slight negative AA (which ever works best for you).

Spin Axis:
The spin axis is the axis around which a golf ball spins. The value is plus or minus relative to the horizon. A positive value means the ball is going right and a negative value means the ball is going left.

The spin axis tilt is calculated as 2 times the difference between the true club path (CP) orientation at impact and the clubface (CF) orientation at impact. A golf ball will spin sideways 0.7 percent for every one degree of spin axis tilt. Off Center Hits:

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There are two contributions to tilting the spin axis. The first is the tilting when the true CP orientation at impact does not equal the CF orientation at impact. The second contribution is the horizontal gear effect that occurs when the ball is impacted anywhere but the center of gravity of the clubhead in the heel-toe direction. If the ball is hit toward the toe, the clubhead will twist clockwise and the gear effect causes the ball spin axis to tilt left (counter-clockwise, draw spin). If the ball is hit toward the heel, you get the opposite effect, or fade spin axis tilt. A one dimple (0.14 inches) off center hit creates a 6-degree tilting of the spin axis. For every 10 degrees of spin axis tilt, the ball spins sideways by 7 percent. Initial Ball Flight Direction: The initial ball -flight direction will be approximately 75 to 35 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. A driver will be closer to the 75 percent and a wedge closer to the 35- percent. The ball will then curve away from the true CP orientation. To hit the ball straight, you need to zero out the true CP and orientation at impact with the CF orientation at impact.

Playing a Draw:
If you like to play a slight draw, you would want your true CP orientation at impact inside of +3 degrees (in-toout path) with a CF orientation near zero at impact. Tour players that have a sizable draw swing in-to-out with a true CP orientation at impact of approximately +6 degrees. You do not want do have the CF orientation at impact too closed relative to the true CP orientation at impact because this will cause the ball to curve too much rightto-left. The following picture depicts a true CP orientation at impact of plus 6 degrees and a CF orientation at impact of zero degrees.

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Degree of Spin Axis Tilt = 2 * (angle of difference between the true CP and CF orientations at impact) Percent Sideways Curve = 0.7 * Degree of Spin Axis Tilt Amount of Sideways Curve = Distance of Shot * Percent of Sideways Curve Initial Starting Direction of the Ball Flight (Assumptions) For a Driver = 75 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. For a Four-Iron = 55 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. For a Wedge = 35 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. End of Shot Distance from Target = Amount of Sideways Curve minus the Initial Start of Ball The following calculations (for a driver, four-iron, and wedge) assume there is zero gear effect (i.e. no off-center hit). All distances are flight distances and do not include any bounce/roll-out distance.

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Driver Shots Varying The True CP Orientation at Impact


Table 1 - True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 6 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 12 12 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 8.4 25.2 yards 8.4 21 yards Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 31.5 (.75 * 31.5) = 7.9 yards 26.3 - (.75 = 26.3) = 7.05 yards 17.3 yards left of target 13.95 yards left of target

Table 2 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 6 6 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 4.2 12.6 yards 4.2 10.5 yards Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 15.7 (.75 * 15.7) = 3.9 yards 13.1 - (.75 = 13.1) = 3.3 yards 8.7 yards left of target 7.2 yards left of target

Table 3 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 1.5 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees.

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Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards

Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3

Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 6.3 yards 2.1 5.25 yards

Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 7.9 (.75 * 7.9) = 2 yards 6.5 - (.75 = 6.5) = 1.6 yards 4.3 yards left of target 3.7 yards left of target

Table 4 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Plus 1.5 Degrees Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 6.3 yards 2.1 5.25 yards Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 15.7 (.75 * 15.7) = 3.9 yards 13.1 - (.75 = 13.1) = 3.3 yards 2.4 yards left of target 1.95 yards left of target

Four Iron Shots Varying the True CP Orientation at Impact


Table 1 - True CP Orientation at Impact is plus 6 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees.

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Carry Distance to Target 200 yards

Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 12

Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 8.4 16.8 yards

Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 21 (.55 * 21) = 9.5 yards 7.3 yards left of target

Table 2 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees Carry Distance to Target 200 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 6 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 4.2 8.4 yards Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 10.5 (.55 * 10.5) = 4.7 yards 3.7 yards left of target

Table 3 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 1.5 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 200 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 4.2 yards Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 5.2 (.55 * 5.2) = 2.3 yards 1.9 yards left of target

Table 4 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is 1.5 Degrees

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Carry Distance to Target 200 yards

Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3

Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 4.2 yards

Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 10.5 (.55 * 10.5) = 4.7 yards .5 yards right of target

Wedge Shot Varying the True CP Orientation at Impact


Table 1 - True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 6 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 12 12 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 8.4 8.4 yards 8.4 4.2 Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 10.5 (.35 * 10.5) = 6.8 yards 5.3 (.35 * 5.3) = 3.4 yards 1.6 yards left of target .8 Yards left of target

Table 2 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees Carry Distance to Target Degree of Spin Axis Tilt Percent Amount Initial Start End of Shot Sideways of of Ball (Right Distance from Curve Sideways of Target) Target Curve
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100 yards 50 yards

6 6

4.2 4.2

4.2 yards 5.2 (.35 * 5.2) = 3.4 yards 2.1 yards 2.6 (.35 * 2.6) = 1.7 yards

.8 yards left of target .4 yards left of target

Table 3 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 1.5 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 2.1 yards 2.1 1 yard Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 2.6 (.35 * 2.6) = 1.7 yards 1.3 (.35 * 1.3) = .84 yards .4 yards left of target .16 yards left of target

Table 4 True CP Orientation at Impact is Plus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Plus 1.5 Degrees Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 2.1 yards 2.1 1 Initial Start End of Shot of Ball (Right Distance from of Target) Target 5.2 (.35 * 5.2) = 3.9 yards 2.6 (.35 * 2.6) = 1.7 yards 1.8 yards left of target .7 yard left of target

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Playing a Fade:
If you like playing a slight fade, you would want your true CP orientation at impact inside of -3 degrees (out-to-in path) with a CF orientation near zero at impact. Tour players that have a sizable fade swing out-to-in with a true CP orientation of -6 degrees. You do not want to have the CF orientation at impact too open relative to the true CP orientation at impact because this will cause the ball to curve too much left-to-right. The following picture depicts a true CP orientation at impact of minus 6 degrees and a CF orientation at impact of zero degrees.

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Degree of Spin Axis Tilt = 2 * (angle of difference between the true CP and CF orientations at impact) Percent Sideways Curve = 0.7 * Degree of Spin Axis Tilt Amount of Sideways Curve = Distance of Shot * Percent of Sideways Curve The following calculations (for a driver, four-iron, and wedge) assume there is no gear effect (i.e. no off-center hit) and a CF orientation at impact of zero degrees. Initial Starting Direction of the Ball Flight (Assumptions) For a Driver = 75 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. For a Four-Iron = 55 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. For a Wedge = 35 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. End of Shot Distance from Target = Amount of Sideways Curve minus the Initial Start of Ball The following calculations (for a driver, four-iron, and wedge) assume there is zero gear effect (i.e. no off-center hit). All distances are flight distances and do not include any bounce/roll-out distance.

Driver Shots Varying The True CP Orientation at Impact


Table 1 - True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 6 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees.

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Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards

Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 12 12

Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 8.4 25.2 yards 8.4 21 yards

Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 31.5 (.75 * 31.5) = 7.9 yards 26.3 - (.75 = 26.3) = 7.05 yards

End of Shot Distance from Target 17.3 yards right of target 13.95 yards right of target

Table 2 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 6 6 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 4.2 12.6 yards 4.2 10.5 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 15.7 (.75 * 15.7) = 3.9 yards 13.1 - (.75 = 13.1) = 3.3 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 8.7 yards right of target 7.2 yards right of target

Table 3 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 1.5 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 300 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 6.3 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 7.9 (.75 * 7.9) = 2 End of Shot Distance from Target 4.3 yards right of target

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250 yards

2.1

5.25 yards

yards 6.5 - (.75 = 6.5) = 1.6 yards

3.7 yards right of target

Table 4 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Minus 1.5 Degrees Carry Distance to Target 300 yards 250 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 6.3 yards 2.1 5.25 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 15.7 (.75 * 15.7) = 3.9 yards 13.1 - (.75 = 13.1) = 3.3 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 2.4 yards right of target 1.95 yards right of target

Four Iron Shots Varying the True CP Orientation at Impact


Table 1 - True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 6 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 200 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 12 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 8.4 16.8 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 21 (.55 * 21) = 9.5 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 7.3 yards right of target

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Table 2 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees Carry Distance to Target 200 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 6 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 4.2 8.4 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 10.5 (.55 * 10.5) = 4.7 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 3.7 yards right of target

Table 3 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 1.5 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 200 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 4.2 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 5.2 (.55 * 5.2) = 2.3 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 1.9 yards right of target

Table 4 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Minus 1.5 Degrees Carry Distance to Target 200 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 4.2 yards Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 10.5 (.55 * 10.5) = 4.7 yards End of Shot Distance from Target .5 yards left of target

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Wedge Shot Varying the True CP Orientation at Impact


Table 1 - True CP Orientation at Impact is minus 6 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees. Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 12 12 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 8.4 8.4 yards 8.4 4.2 Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 10.5 (.35 * 10.5) = 6.8 yards 5.3 (.35 * 5.3) = 3.4 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 1.6 yards right of target .8 Yards right of target

Table 2 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 6 6 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 4.2 4.2 yards 4.2 Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) End of Shot Distance from Target .8 yards Right of target .4 yards Right of target

5.2 (.35 * 5.2) = 3.4 yards 2.1 yards 2.6 (.35 * 2.6) = 1.7 yards

Table 3 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 1.5 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Zero Degrees.

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Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards

Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3

Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 2.1 yards 2.1 1 yard

Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 2.6 (.35 * 2.6) = 1.7 yards 1.3 (.35 * 1.3) = .84 yards

End of Shot Distance from Target .4 yards right of target .16 yards right of target

Table 4 True CP Orientation at Impact is Minus 3 Degrees; CF Orientation at Impact is Minus 1.5 Degrees Carry Distance to Target 100 yards 50 yards Degree of Spin Axis Tilt 3 3 Percent Amount Sideways of Curve Sideways Curve 2.1 2.1 yards 2.1 1 Initial Start of Ball (Left of Target) 5.2 (.35 * 5.2) = 3.9 yards 2.6 (.35 * 2.6) = 1.7 yards End of Shot Distance from Target 1.8 yards right of target .7 yard right of target

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