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The heart of the Saint was filled with sorrow. The Holy Author was induced to write this Work. to meet the numbers of infidel publications. &quot. preventing the introduction of irreligious publications into the and he published this Work.the induced me to undertake the Translation of his History of Heresies. LIGUOBI. own 2 heretical children. they turned away from the light of the Gospel. with which Europe was deluged in the latter half of the last century. dazzled by the glare of a false philosophy. THE ardent wish manifested by Faithful for an ac quaintance with the valuable writings of ST. founded by Jesus Christ himself. He implored the Ministers of his Sovereign to put the laws in force. that the Holy Catholic Church is the only true one the Kingdom of Naples \ Mistress of Truth the Church.TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. to prove. Men s minds were then totally unsettled . notwithstanding the persecutions of the infidel. one of his greatest works. among* others. He dedicates . as he says. which would last to the end of time. i. and he laboured to avert the scourge he saw impending over the unfaithful people. and the rebellion of her VOL.

as they really took place . and his vigorous execution of the laws He bring-s ag ainst the vendors of infidel publications. The reader will also find the circumstances. and the names of the actors. and especially in that portion of it. first. the Marquis Tanucci. I considered that it would be out of propor This Book may tion with the remainder of the Work. whom he praises for his zeal for Book to the Religion. for our own writers must naturally be supposed to be better acquainted with our History. concluding- with the Refutation of the I have added a Supple Heresies of Father Berruyer.a succinct account of the Heretics and Fanatics of the last eig-hty years. than the foreig-n authorities quoted by the Saint.vi TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. mentary Chapter. giving. variations between the original text and I have collated the Work with the writing-s of modern Historians the English portion. then. but. frequently given more in detail than in the original. down the History from the days of the Apostles to his own time. my intention to make it more diffuse. and wherever I especially with Hume and Ling-ard have seen the statements of the Holy Author not borne out by the authority of our own Historians. It at was. as a work of reference the Author constantly quotes his authorities . . be safely consulted. I have considered it more prudent to state the facts. the Student may perceive latter Ecclesiastical History can at once some slig-ht my translation. In the portion of the Work.to us. the History of the Engiish Reformation. the most interesting. and the Student of : compare his state ments with the sources from which he draws. when I considered it necessary. the Prime Minister of the Kingdom.

and the . we are not to imagine that he did not also please the learned. nothing inflated in his writings is he wrote for the people. chiefly ecclesiastical. vii I have endeavoured. the Authority of the Church. qualified him. he was one of the first Jurists of his day . to become an Ecclesiastical Historian. lucid statement of facts there is is what he aimed \ at . Free abstruse heretical opinions Will. but profoundly read in both Greek and Latin literature constantly employed in studies. the Procession of the Holy Ghost. he was not only a perfect master of his own beautiful language. there is no Heresy . the Refutation of Heresies. while he wrote : have been in such for the people. I imagine. In the Second Part. as closely as the to the genius of our language would allow. to keep ST. Not alone are the usual Heresies. ALPHONSUS never sought for ornament . the Mystery of the Incarnation. clearly and diffusely refuted.TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. a vast amount of Theological information in fact. above any man of also. his Theological science elicited the express approbation of the greatest Theologian of his age Benedict XIV. which we have daily to combat such as those opposed to the Eeal Presence. a clear. request but. the doctrine of Justification. but those concerning- Grace. and that why the principal reason. which cannot be refuted from it. but his Historical also. the Holy Author comprises. original. not only his Devotional Works. . life and a long his time. In the style. in a small space. His mind was richly stored with various knowledge. which I might so no one should attempt unless he be a general almost say a universal. scholar torical portion of the : much for the His Work. and Theological Writings.

the intricacies of Pelagianism. will here find explained and defended . &quot. while those not of the but for whom we ardently pray. and not the house on the &quot. the quotations from the Fathers in the original. which language would require a sentence to explain them in our tongue. Every Theologian will be aware of the difficulty of In the giving.&quot. I the Work a compact Manual of Polemic Theology all the Catholic who. and Jansenism. that they may fold. find The Theological Student will thus. the most abstract ideas. by its it &quot. are also clearly and copiously confuted . flexibility enough for the purpose. . are unravelled. daughters of the Latin.scholastic terms in an English dress. knowing how easy it is to give a heterodox sense to a passage. &quot. hope. attentive upon perusal.&quot. The reader will find. the Romance languages. wishes to be able to give an account of the Faith that is in him.&quot. and the true Doctrine of the Church triumphantly vindicated. but our Northern tongue has not. hear the voice of the one Shepherd. while he firmly believes 5 that the Church teaches. and soforth. in general. endeavoured. however. Calvinism. that they inhabit a house the sand. may see. to preserve the very terms of the original. built rock. have very nearly the same facility. The Scripture quotations are from the Douay version. They will behold the mighty tree of the grain of mustard-seed planted Faith sprung from by our Redeemer. by even the most trivial deviation from the very expression of the writer.viii TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. as far as I could. are most appropriately expressed by a single word all . but those unacquainted with Latin will easily learn their sentiments from the text. two Natures of Christ. I have.&quot. I imagine. of the Schools.

in Engiand and the grey mouldering ruins of our fanes on 1 the are compensated for by the Cathedral Churches across the ocean. The reader will see Heresy hill sides in every age. and the same for ever.&quot. to-day. rising up. and communicating it to those among.&quot. and to the Ceesars on the throne of 1 the world. as the seeds of fertility are &quot. in Australia. IX always flourishing always extending*. has turned the desert into itself. perish historian Empires are broken into fragments and nations die away. America. and is daily enduring. the very persecution the Church of God has suffered. which would otherwise be cursed with perpetual barrenness. from the days of the Apostles themselves down to our own time. and vanishing after a 1 1 while. cc yester day.&quot. nor withered by the sun of worldly prosperity. and are only known to the languages spoken by millions disappear s every thing that is man like the rest. heresies. for example.TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. but the always the same. rise. their decay. her Chief Pastors speaking with the same authority. only extends it more and more. neither uprooted by the storms of persecution. fly elsewhere. the Faithful. their progress. one 1 city. fruitfulness. Nay more. in The persecution of the Church &quot. . but Faith alone is eternal and unchangeable. in Ireland. and is 1 1 Church of God teaching the same doctrine to the trembling Neophites in the Catacombs. frequently borne on the wings of the tempest to the remote desert.whom they settle. have their work dies like man . perse cuted in bearing with them the treasure of Faith.


6. 10. 3. Canons. Paul of Samosata.CONTENTS. Manes. General Council Nice. 8. Decree for the Meletians. End of the Council. . Schism. 11. 2. - 30 the Council of Progress of Arms. I. . 7. CHAPTER Heresies of the Second Century 1. and Theodotus 12. CHAPTER Heresies of the First Century . . . Profession of Faith. of Bythynia. 13. Argentarius. . 7. 10. Sabellius. III. 13. Epiphanes. His errors and supporters. . Death of Conference commanded by Honorius. and Council of Carthage. cumcellionists. . Tatian. . . Cir7. G Corpocrates. 5. . Cataphrigians. CHAPTER Heresies of the Fourth Century . Satur- Simon Magus. Schism and Heresy of the Donatists. Novatus and Novatian. . . 11. 17. Severus. Confutation of St. Menander. Praxeas. Origin of Arius. . [Cerdonius. . Pattalorinchites. Artemon. 2. . II. 12. . Mpntanus. Marcellinus. . 16. Ascodrogites. CHAPTER Heresies of the Third Century 1. 24 ARTICLE 1. . the Quartodecimans. Artotirites. The Angelicals tullian. Prodicus. 3. Synod of Osius in Alexandria. . I. 4. . 4. Augustin. . 1 5. 1. . . Heresy. . I. Decree for 20. . 15. . Synod of 9. Theodotus the Currier. Nepos and the Apostolicals. Hermogenes. 13 5. Apelles. Exile of Eusebius of Nicomedia. II. Marcion. Origen. 9. 14. 19. Condemnation of Arius. VOL. 3. 2. Ebion. Ter4. . 3. 2. 6. 8. WITH REFERENCES TO THE MARGINAL NUMBERS IN EACH CHAPTER. 5. and insidious letter of Eusebius of Cesarea. . IV. Peputians. and his Condemnation by Nice. . 18. Bardesanes. Banishment of Arius. 14. Valentine. 8. 6. 4. Cerinthus. The Arian Heresy. ARTICLE I. ninus and Basilides. 6. The Nicholites.

23. Death. The Nestorian Heresy . 43. St. 21. . 22. the His errors and subter chalcus. 54. 6974. &c. Celestius and his condemnation. The Catholics separate from him. 27. 10. Cyril s letter to him. Semi-Pelagians. Council of Sardis. He is contradicted. 35. Return of Liberius to Rome. . . . Council of Aries. IV. Athanasius accused and exiled. Heresy of Elvidius. 33. Adverse opinions 1. . 24. 112 20. Council of Tyre. death. 84. Persecution of Hunneric. Errors of Nestorius. Origin of 8. St. Death of Liberius. . Eustasius exiled. ARTICLE III. Persecution of Valens. V. Dreadful death of Valens. 58. Jovian Emperor. He approves of the errors preached by his priest. Julian. of Sirmium. Julian is made Emperor. 53. 55. and horrible 26. Fall of Osius. Godes14. 92 Vigili- ARTICLE I. III. 37. 99 5. 57. . 9. . . 34. The Messalians. Of Aerius. The Schism of Lucifer. Anastasius . 80 78. . of Genneric. heresy of Pelagius. condemned by Sozymus. . Pelagius.Xii CONTENTS. Of CHAPTER Heresies of the Fifth Century . and antius. Lucius persecutes the Solitaries. Heresy of Macedonius. 56. 82. of Hunneric. ARTICLE fuges. St. 59 61. 31. Of Apollinares. . 83. . Fall of Liberius.First Formula Osius. . Arius banished from Alexandria. 4. Vigilantius and his errors. St. 44. . other Arian Kings . 39. Other Heretics. 16 19. his cruelty. Valens puts eighty Ecclesiastics to death his other cruelties. 50. Innocent. 62 64. and other acts of cruelty. . His Perjury. 7577. . Persecution of Theodoric. Council of Milan and exile of Liberius. Persecution of Genseric. 23. 49. and death of Felix. Empire. . Of Audceus. Division of the 28. Exile of 36. Council of Rimini. 30. Again 15. ARTICLE III. of Basnage refuted. in particular. 7. 80. Constantine s baptism and death . 42 Eusebius is re . . On the Heresy of Pelagius 6. 68. . lianists. . 65 52. 12. Predestination. 40. 67. He is condemned by St. 11. 24. The Empire descends to Julian. Death of Constantius. . 50 translated to the See of Constantinople . PAGE. . and Arius again taken into favour. The Emperor Constantius Mcomedia is persecutes the Catholics . 41. . Athanasius is made called. 65. 38. . 4548. Errors of Jovinian. . 2. Occurrences up to the Death of Constantine Bishop of Alexandria . The Heresies of Elvidius. II. Council of Diospolis. II. Third Formula of Sirmium. 32. Eusebius of Synods in Alexandria and Antioch. Jovinian. and his answer. . 79. his 51. . a follower of Pope. Persecution of Leovigild. 81. 25. The PriscilElvidius. and dies. Second Formula of Sirmium. 3. 42. 13. and his elevation to the Episcopacy. He signs the First Formula. Liberius signs the Formula. Perversity of Pelagius. . . . Valentinian and Valens Emperors. Division among the Arians. and .

A Council m m m intruded into the See of Alexandria. 70. 60. 38. 46. Peter the Stammerer happy andria. He is condemned. Flavian receives the charge. 33. The sentence of the Council is intimated to him. 29. 37. and the Pope St. . Eleurus commits suicide 77. . Martyrdom of St. Theodosius approves of the condemnation of Nestorius. Flavian. 3. assembled in Chalcedon. Leo. Letters to St.. Leo and the Council of Chalcedon. Of the Acephali. 83. III. the true Bishop. 65. Peter Chrysologus. Leo. . 59. Privileges granted by the Council to the Patriarch of 67. 61. .. The same subject continued. 44. Adventures and death Acacius Patriarch of Constantinople. he is accused by Eusebius of Dorileum. Dioscorus excom approved the Council or Cabal. r Henoticon of the Emperor Zeno . 49. he puts Basiliscus to death. die their obstinacy. Leo succeeds Marcian the Empire.134 or Cabal of Ephesus. 47. . I. Answer to Basnage. Eleurus is expelled from the See of Alex is 62. 66. who has unjustly undertaken the defence of Nestorius. dies excom&amp. Cabal of John of Antioch. Flavian. 76. Efforts of the Nestorians. doret against St. Flavian is deposed. CHAPTEE Heresies of the Sixth Century . 55. The Heresy of Eutyches The Synod of St. Theodosius. Confirmation of the Council by the Legates. 152 and Timothy Salofacialus is elected. 35. . . . 82. Beginning of Eutyches . The Pelagians are condemned. Cyril. 169 The Emperor Zeno publishes his Henoticon. 75. Theodosius . new Emperor S ^?de by the Anastasius Anastasius. Character of Theodoret. 68. Zeno is made Emperor. the great the Church. 31. Leo. 28. 1 Xm AGK. Death of St. of Theo58. The Errors of Theodore of Mopsuestia. 34. Articles of Faith defined in opposition to the Eutychian Heresy. Eutyches writes to St. St. . and the different Sects split into. Peter the A!f ^ Uste o municated with the See of An tioch. the Catholics to 2. and II. St. 45. Simon Stilites.The 80. Complaints of Eutyches. Death of St. Anathemas of St. Laws against the Nestorians. 30. persecutes . called the Latrocinium/ or Council of Robbers. 79. 72. Refused by St. 74. 39. His death. . 71. 26. according to the letter of St. It is condemned as heretical to assert that Jesus Christ is the adopted Son of God. Mongos anathe matizes Pope St. Character of Dioscorus/ 54. 36.CONTENTS. Cyril. &quot. 53. 51. 27. Confession of Eutyches in the Synod. and Eusebius of 52. Cabal at Ephesus. . Eutyches and Dioscorus Constantinople. 81. . 56. and his answer. Proterius. Sentence of the Synod against Eutyches. under the Emperor Marcian. He is admonished .gt. 64. ARTICLE IV. Leo. 50. 78. His cruelty. Flavian. He is condemned. Writings Defence of Theodoret. Disagreeable affair with the Emperor Theodosius. 32. in the name of the Pope. 173 they ARTICLE I. I. municates St. 63. Dorileum. and to St. 40 43. his VOL. where he dies. Pulcheria and of Marcian. and sends him into banishment. 69. The Council of Chalcedon . 48. dies. Timothy Eleurus intruded into the See of Alexandria 73. Synod of St. head of the Eutychians in Jerusalem. Leo. 57. Keign of St. . The sentence of the Pope is intimated to him. VI. . He is cited to the Council. Pulcheria and Marcian. The Council . 62. Celestine. . The cause of Dioscorus is tried the first Session. 25. St.

and is succeeded by Constantino Copronymus. 10. 12. 11. 8. Veneration of Images established. . 13. ARTICLE 13. . AnastaResistance of the Women. Honorius 9.. I. IX. Opposed by Sophronius. Condemnation of the Monothelites in the Sixth his violent death. . 4. opposition of the Council is held in Rome in Romans. The Incorruptibilists. Council persecutor Death of the impious Patriarch Anastasius. 6. The Acemetic Monks their obstinacy. The ARTICLE 4. Cruelty of Constans. 13. . . of the Emperor Constans. and 16. and is succeeded by his son. 5. St. Seditions against the Council. Cruelty of sius is put in his place Leo. VII. ruptibilists. error. The Three Chapters Condemnation of the Three Chapters of Theodore. not for Heresy. . who asserts that one Council contradicts another. II. . . 14. and the 17. Answer to the objec Theodoret. The Empress Irene. Per secution again renewed by the Iconoclasts. of the Iconoclasts. The Cor9. 14. Maximus with Pyrrhus. Erroneous opinion of the Council of Frankfort regarding the Eighth General Council. and beginning of his False Religion. Severus. 11. Beginning of the Iconoclasts. 18. VIII. He is replaced by . Other 15. CONTENTS. He resigns the See of Constantinople. 2. . 10. A .. . but Leo continues his persecution. . and their Chief. Dispute of St. . 7. . 7. 201 The Heresy 1. Honorius condemned in that Council. Martyrs in honour of the Images. a greater 12. Good and bad actions of the Emperor. 218 ARTICLE 1. The Sect of the Jacobites. 3. is expelled from the See of Constantinople. Germanus opposes the Emperor Leo. PAGE. . 9. Ignatius. Leo endeavours to put the Pope to death . .. Leo dies. CHAPTER Heresies of the Ninth Century . . His hand is miraculously restored to St. held by Constantine. succeeds to the Empire. Defence of Honorius. 187 Alcoran Birth of Mahomet. . Defended by Vigilius. Letter of Sergius to Pope . 12. The Council is held. . 10. 19. demands a Council. John of Damascus. 189 Honorius. Letter of the Pope. and his horrible death. The Greek Schism commenced by Photius. Sergius and Cyrus. . support of the Sacred Images. CHAPTER Heresies of the Eighth Century . The type of Heraclius afterwards condemned by Pope John IV. tyrannical acts of Constantine. II. 2. The Acephali. Council. filled with blasphemy and nonsense. The Ecthesis erred. . . 2. Condemnation of Paul and Pyrrhus. 16. 7. Leo IV. 15. . and his Answer. 14. Constantine.. by means of Bardas. 4. 8. 183 tion of a Heretic. 6. 5. Ibas. 15.XIV awful death. 11. Heresy of the Monothelites Commencement of the Monothelites their chiefs. but did not fall into any error against Faith. 6. St. 5. uncle to the Emperor Michael. . The Tritheists. 20. The Agnoites. in her son s name. Justinian falls into this 8. 3. CHAPTER The Heresies of the Seventh Century ARTICLE I. but for his negligence in repressing Heresy. . Of Mahometanism. 1.

and on the Bishops who defended him. Photius. . The Pope deposes false Council. His condemnation and relapse. The Pope sends 6. Glorious labours of St. . 17. Dominick. . 30. Ignatius appeals from the investigate the affair. . Ignatius dies. 11. He is deposed in a 9. Cerularius. I. . and his Disciples. and condemnation. the Greeks relapse into Schism. Berengarius. The Errors of the Greeks condemned . 230 13.. 24. Of the Consecration in Leavened Bread. His par 13. The afterwards promulgates his error concerning the Holy Ghost. 7. Photius gains over Basil. The Council held by Photius rejected by the sion of the See. 11. X. Heresies of the Eleventh century. 24. 4. 12. tius. 20. 261 . Council of Florence. and Basil is elected. ticular errors. Bardas is put to death by the Emperor. inflicted Photius is consecrated. 22. Of the Pains of Purgatory. in Three . Henry. Gregory X. His conversion and death. 19. . Montfort. 21. Arnold of Brescia. at the instance of the Emperor Michael it is assembled. They create an Anti-Pope. . 16. 18.CONTENTS. 17. 25. and his stupendous Miracles. 5. His condemnation. XV PAGE. 10. Causes a sedition. under Pope Adrian and the Emperor Basil. 8. ARTICLE Heresies of the Thirteenth Century 19. . . . Ignatius. 31. 15. and confirms St. Emperor Michael is killed. 22. General Councils . . Crusade under the command of Count 25. Ignatius in his See. his errors and condemnation. and is burned alive. 14. They 26. Pope unhappy death of Photius. &c. Glorious death of the Count. and his errors concerning the Trinity. 16. Heresies of the Twelfth Century 7. the Elerenth to the Fifteenth . 23. Legates to ARTICLE II. Sentence of the Fourth III. The Greeks confess and swear to the decisions of the Council. . Wrongs on St. 29. and their obstinacy. II. Their particular errors. His conversion and death. . . in which he is victorious. The Pope defends St. and the principles of his Heresy. The corruption of their morals. 20. The Patriarch. Nicholites and the Incestuosists. the Legates and Photius. 14. judgment of the Legates to the Pope himself. 247 ARTICLE 1. . and the Abbot Joachim the Apostolicals and the Bogomiles. 28. . 8. convokes the Council of Lyons. . Of the Primacy of the Pope. Igna 5. ARTICLE 6. errors are again discussed and rejected Definition of the Procession of the Holy Ghost. Peter Waldo and his followers under different denominations Waldenses. Photius again gets posses 18. Peter Abelard. 2. Unhappy death of Cerularius. . 251 The Petrobrussians. Their con demnation. Of the Glory of the Blessed. . Photius condemns and deposes Pope Nicholas II. Folmar. . the separate again. Instructions given to the Ar and Ethiopians. 4. Gilbert de la Poree his errors and conversion. The New Stephen and Lisosius burned for their Errors. Poor Men of Lyons. Tanquelinus. . 9. 3. . The Albigenses and their errors. and banishes Photius. . 15. Profession of Faith written by Michael. and he associates Basil in the Empire. . 3. 21. under Eugenius IV. and 12. Jacobites. Conferences held with them. menians. 10. 23. 27. and in the meantime St. and destruction of the Albigenses. revives and adds to the errors of Photius. and approved of by the Council. The Eighth General Council against Photius. . 26. St. CHAPTER The Heresies which sprung up from Century .

Heresies of the Fifteenth Century The Heresy . Diet of Spire. Meeting between the Legate and Luther. 16. 48. He is condemned in a Synod. burned. 38. and remains obstinate. . 34. in which the their Tenets. cursing the . 33. 37. 30. and clears himself.XY1 CONTENTS. .Diet of Augsburg. in favour of the authority of the Pope. 12. and John Jandunus their writings condemned as heretical by John XXII. where Luther appeared before Charles V. and endeavours to escape. 301 Diet of Worms. . Marriage of Luther with an Abbess. and Melancthon s profession of Faith. Council of Lateran. The Flagellants and their errors. William de St. 40. who burns the Bull and the Decretals. Is assisted by John Ball death of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 5. and Jerome of Prague 39. 42. 44. who is concealed by the Elector in one of his castles. 35. 1. . and his Theses on that subject. 2. 290 ARTICLE I. and the commencement of his heresy. 14. 17. His errors. Principles of Luther . 45. he dies. The Diets and principal Congresses held concerning. Jerome of Prague is also burned alive for his obstinacy. Heresy of Luther 13. of Wickliffe. . 21 Coun cil of Trent. 7. 11. Conference with the Zuinglians. Heresies of the Fourteenth Century The Beghards and Beguines their errors condemned by Cle ment V. . 9. persuades him to abolish Private Masses.the . Death the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist. Another Edict of the Emperor in favour of religion. Amalric and his heresy defined in opposition to the errors added by his 28. I. Dispensation given by the Lutherans to the Landgrave to have two wives. . Melancthon s Treatise. his familiarity with the Devil. and continues obstinate. Dogma is . Augustin. 3. He joins the Order of the Hermits of St. PAGE. 29. He presents himself before the 46. He is condemned to death. Marsilius of Padua. against which the Heretics protest. Edict of the Emperor against Luther. The Council of Constance condemns . 4. where the Emperor publishes a Decree. and Council. . Pub lication of Indulgences. and the beginning of Ms heresy. . League of Smalkald broken up by the Emperor. ARTICLE V. who heretical. and their errors condemned by John XXII. He is called to Rome. nor could it be called his Literature. Of the Heresies of Luther. called by some the Precursor of Luther . Bull of Leo X. . 43. . Luther perseveres and appeals to the Pope. 1 9. II. . to which Luther refuses to come. Doctrines and vices of Luther. He comes to Constance.. rejected by Luther. 32. Legate to Germany. 273 . The beginning and progress of the Lutheran Heresy. 281 CHAPTER Heresies of the Sixteenth Century XI. Erasmus of Rotterdam.. . 18. 15. Constance he is obliged to appear at it. Miraculous confirmation of forty-five Articles of Wickliffe. the Pope sends Cardinal Cajetan as his 8. John Huss s character. . of John Huss. . 47. 36. errors. Conference of Ecchius with the Heretics. 20. 10. 27. 31. Council of 41. His Doctrine was not sound. John Wickliffe. they are condemned. Amour and his The Fratricelli ARTICLE IV. Disciples. . Wars of the Hussites they are conquered and converted. condemning forty-one errors of Luther. 6. . .

Second Diet of Augsburg. 27. The heresy of Luther takes posses sion of Sweden. . . 312 26. . 339 55. . Prince of Protestant Theologians. The 22. under John of Leyden. by his labour in the field . . V. Zuinglius.&quot. and meets Erasmus. Ecolampadius. 49. He flies heresy . . Are again defeated under their who is converted at his death. 56. 28. . the Centuries. III. Trent. chief of the Antinomians. . . Ecolampadius j Bucer . but is obliged to fly arrives in Geneva. . He dies suddenly. is condemned to a cruel death. . and gets married victory of the Catholics. 43.Supper. His errors. 60. 65. Munzer.&quot. 40. and Andrevr Musculus. He goes to Germany to see Bucer. John Brenzius. II. and dies penitent. and his death. . 31. the Decree of the Senate rejected by the other Cantons. The Beginning. 36. 45. . Francis St-ancar. His method of Testament the Books he rejected. who Mass. . Zuing-lius .CONTENTS. 39. 320 and his character. He goes to Italy. Bucer. . They are split into various sects. His Book against the Sacramentarians. and the beginning of his heresy. and is made Master of Theology. III. 61. . The Anabaptists The Anabaptists . 29. Andrew Osiander. Other conscience. 50. . author of burg Confession composed by him. Denmark. 35. . II. 64. and introduces the &quot. in which Charles V. Zuinglius sells his Canonry. . The Disciples of Luther . 334 51.Instructions. Norway. and finishes his &quot. 62. . Leaders Seditions and defeat. . he afterwards goes to Basle. . and he makes his escape through a window. Melancthon. . Eeal Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. father of the Sacramentarians. . . and the Augs 34. .and Progress of the Heresy of 58. . . . His abuse of Henry VIII. Martin Chemnitz. . He begins to Calvin. 52. his erroneous translation 30. John Agricola. 326 41. 48. and opponent of the Council of 32. He returns to France. he gets married. 53. . . and other Kingdoms. ARTICLE I. . 24. . He commences to disseminate his impieties in Angouleme. 59. 44. . published the injurious Formula of the Interim. Their they refuse baptism to children. . They rebel again chief. Chief of the Ubiquists. 331 Carlostad. XVII PAGE. 42. Luther s remorse of errors taken from his Books. Peter Martyr 57. III. Errors of Luther . Atheists. 33. He is embarrassed there. He is reduced to and composed a Mass live on that subject. Congress held before the Senate of Zurich . . The Lutherans divided into fifty-six Sects. . 38. His Faith. . makes some followers. . 343 broach his they seek to imprison him. 54. . ARTICLE I. Errors of the Anabaptists. Gaspar Sneckenfield 37. . The Heresies of Calvin . 25. Carlostad. of the New celebrating denied the IV. the abhorred even by Luther for his impiety. The Sacramentarians . 23. who causes himself to be crowned King. . . Matthias Flaccus. . . Birth and studies of Calvin. Peter Martyr. Council. Forty-one errors of Luther condemned by Leo X. 63.

. . The Sacraments. and espe 96. His learning. succeeded by his son. . . who 356 80. 77. Francis de Sales employments. 85. 81. . 72. . IV. The Piscatorians. tans. and England 73. 68..XV111 CONTENTS. Melancholy death of Calvin. 103. ing the Scriptures. tlie Huguenots. The Puri divided. . cially Baptism. Charles I. The Quakers and Tremblers. 378 100. The Arminians and Anglo-Calvinists. turns to Scotland. Their disorders in Flanders. 76. was Gomarists. . The The different Sects of Calvinists Sects into which Calvinism . . Horrors committed by them they . and death. 78. who was beheaded. The 105. with Beza. Theodore Beza. is driven by violence to make a fatal renunciation of her Crown in favour of her son. Conference of St. and Faith alone in Jesus Christ is sufficient for salvation. That God predestines man to sin and to hell. The 89. III. 91. . of Mary Stuart. succeeds Elizabeth . 75. Theodore Beza his character and vices. and afterwards condemned to death by her. Unhappy end of the 69.. 102. and is imprisoned by Eliza 84. Continuation of the same subject. . from Geneva. Mary Stuart is married to Francis II. The difference between these Sects. Good Works and Free Will. And are proscribed in France. . 101. 90. disturbed France. Charles II. Calvin adopts the errors of Luther. 95. . the son of Mary. 70. He causes Michael Servetus to be burned alive. and marries Darnley . . Edifying death beth. who is succeeded by his brother. He returns to Geneva. and other Calvinists. . PAGE. where he marries a widow. The Eucharist and the Mass. The Independents and Presbyterians.. James I. 71. and is put at the head of the Republic impious works he publishes there his dispute with Bolsec. Seditions and disturbances in France Calvinistic Mission to Brazil. a Catholic. on Calvin s account Conference of Poissy. She re in Scotland. . . James II. 92. Disorders of the Huguenots in France. the 66. 82. Jesus Christ. 83. Divine Law. She takes refuge in England. . He denies Purgatory and Indulgences . His personal qualities and depraved manners. 98. 106. 86. . Calvin s errors regard 87. Penance. The Errors of Calvin . next Bothwell . 74. 79. and returns to Germany. other errors. Justification. . 67. 372 88. 104. 97. . 93. 94. He is he is succeeded by his son. Scotland. II. 99. who died in France. The Trinity.

xxviii. 22). cap. Rel. Lutherans. Mahometans. de Va. 2). still she always remained firm. not like the other false Churches. 3. Hence. relaxation by popular Augustin says that in heresies are only embraced by those who had they persevered the faith.) . gated by the Apostles &quot. c. and to show how carefully the Almighty guarded her. 1. Aug.AUTHOR S PREFACE. not ignorance. when we speak lagians. (Acts. would be lost by the irregularity of their lives (St. Irseneus says (Lib. and propa and although in the commencement persecuted and contradicted by all. Roman Church and by Jesus Christ. as St. and Pe as the and if any sect still reckons many it followers. Eutychians. of the Arians. or Calvinists. : gainsayed every where&quot. Paul in Rome For as concerning this sect (thus they called the This is the Church founded . all as on their fountain should depend on the head. n. as the Jews said to St. or they are upheld. 3. and brought her victoriously through alHhe persecutions of her enemies. Nestorians. My object Church in writing this is work is to prove that the so Roman other Catholic the only true one among many Churches. perished in the end. is easy to see that by the love of truth. 8. but either of morals. St. as we know that it is we shall see in the course of this history. but Church). which in the beginning numbered many followers.

in which he says that in Asia the temples of the gods were deserted. either through pride or ambition. called a . by tl^e magistrates. but those who associate with him. hut even gained strength from them ult. the kingdom of Christ and his reign is believed and he is worshipped by in the all nations. new religion. Pliny the Younger confirms this in his celebrated Letter to Trajan. ii. 17) for as a canker infects the soul. Tim. still greater were those she had to endure from the heretics which sprang from her own bosom. certainly. for it not only infects the person contaminated with is. so heresy infects the whole intellect. notwithstanding that she teaches her children a law opposed to the corrupt inclinations of human nature. and the fact that the spread of this plague in the . the blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians. as Tertullian (Apol. whole body. the and the will. the heart. rend the bowels of their canker &quot. forbidding them to pamper their sensual appetites.) says. by means of wicked men. never could have taken place without the to establish in the midst power of the Almighty. . cap. not only never failed in the midst of persecutions. by their ancestors. and by the emperors themselves. because the Christian Religion had overrun not only the cities but even the villages. and 20th chapter of the same work he says. It is also called it. the mind. : It spreadeth like a canker&quot. a plague. who. to destroy all the superstitions of the and the ancient belief in a multitude of false gods adored by the Gentiles. and the more we are mown down the more numerous we become . Heresy has been (II. endeavoured to parent. What but the power of 4. who intended of idolatry. a false religion. 3. God could accomplish this ? Great as the persecutions were which the Church suifered from idolatry. who made use of all their power to protect it. This.XX 2. Our Church. or the desire of sensual license. and still the Christian faith was embraced by many nations who forsook a relaxed law for a hard and difficult one. on the contrary.

depend on the Roman Church as their head and fountain all Churches should agree with this Church on account of her priority of principality. Valens and Ursacius. and behold the bark of the Church. and which the Church teaches. Tim. and this good mother has suffered more from her own children than from her enemies. St. hold by that faith which God has is. which appeared completely wrecked and sunk through the force of those persecutions.It truth&quot. But it is wonderful. 5. that they also (I. by the . Hieron. Paul says &quot. is necessary that should . which &quot. who ii. Still she has never perished in any of the tempests . . among the The pride makes them presume that they know the true and that the Catholic Church is in error. may be made silver. and. (I. says that as fire is necessary to purify and separate it from the dross. and at the same time consoling. was condemned. manifest among you&quot. says. are reproved St. in a little while floating more gloriously and triumphantly than before. of the heretics faith. revealed to his as the Apostle Church. says. for there the traditions delivered (1) St. through the intrigues of the wicked as St. so heresies are necessary to prove the good Christians bad. and to separate the true from the false doctrine. XXI world has injured the Church more than idolatry. all iii. : There must be heresies. as St. since the truths of Divine Faith are above reason we should. to read the end of all those heresies.AUTHOR S PREFACE. Dial. adversus Lucifer. the pillar and the ground of &quot. explaining this text. 15). but here is the : mistake our reason is not sufficient to tell us the true faith. when the faith perish at one time through of the Council of Nice. the . Hence. Jerom world groaned at finding itself Arian (1) and the Church appeared in the same danger during the time of Eastern the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches. Irseneus says. therefore. Augustin. 19). Cor. Bishops. which the heretics raised against her she appeared ahout to the heresy of Arius.

&quot. justly says that God has disposed that alone. we confound draw St. 3) . contra part and the holy Doctor alleges as one of the reasons Donat. or many false faiths formed as there are This is rather different individuals. : and one doctrine for all Optatus Mile- vitanus. especially the case in England. then. writing to Parmenianus. and even families themselves divided in faith. priests the true Church of Christ? Count those who. that the faithful (2). might profess the one faith. Peter&quot. other. The enemy so has caused mankind to establish that each. following the faith of many his different churches. lib. 5) . says. &quot. the succession of prevail&quot. Bishops to the present time in the See of St. in a regular suc cession have succeeded St. and by the founded tradition derived at Rome from the Apostles which the Church preserves. n. Cyprian says invented heresies to destroy faith. (St. c. ness or an evil conscience false conclusions (Ibid). will of It was the the Almighty that the Church in which all the true faith was preserved should be one. St. Church there should be but one the faithful. St. fund. each individual following his own. in opposition to that of others. Do you wish to know. but the devil. and different churches. also You cannot be (2) St. the gates of hell will not : (St. &quot. and of no 6. in Ps. Iran. for in truth the uninterrupted succession is from the Apostles and disciples characteristic of the Catholic Church. . against which Aug. who is the Rock. the true faith as might be confused. Cyprian.XX11 Apostles have always been preserved&quot. those who through which is blind &quot. (Epis. says Augustin. 4. 3. c. own particular one. where we see as many religions as families. and the Faith preserved by the succession of the Bishops. and divide unity. the true faith should be preserved in the so that there being but one faith Roman Church St.) which detain him in the Catholic Church. Peter. Cyprian de Unitate Ecclesie.

they are but as so many useless branches cut off is from the Vine. True. All heresies come forth from still it. but it remains firmly rooted in charity. just as the Donatists did before them. can all those churches have which are says the Saint. divided from the Catholic Church. Jerom says that the very fact of the heretics is forming a itself. and the gates of hell shall not prevail against (St. in which one chair unity is observed by all&quot. (St. founded by Christ. that the Roman first Catholic Church was the true one. it&quot. c. then. one of the ministers of Luther. however. Tim. opposing all heresies it may be opposed. Aug. &quot. xxiii the Episcopal Chair of St. The Lutherans and down Calvinists say. as (I. for. 1. &quot. xviii. cap. but unity.) The St. and the spouse of Christ became an adulteress. could never for our Saviour himself it : promised that the gates of hell never should prevail against &quot. lib. as Gerard. &quot. iv. which is the only true one . refutes itself. of that they are followers of error. but cannot be conquered. that the Catholic Church preserved the true faith to a certain period fifth some say to the century third. cont. heretics. 6) . What Augustin says that it is unity against unity. some to the fourth. 1). and the gates of hell shall not prevail against It (Matt. Peter was first placed in ignorant that the city of Rome. admits (Gerard de Eccles. and disciples of the devil. 6). This supposition. St.&quot. which always firmly rooted. I 2. 18). boast of the unity of their Churches. too. This is the Catholic Church. Parmen.I say unto you that you are Peter. sec. 11. some to the but that after that the true doctrine was corrupted. 7. first granting that the Roman it Catholic Church was the Church fail. One Holy. a proof. my church. the . de Symbol ad Cath.AUTHOR S PREFACE. being certain. like useless shoots cut off from the vine. giving heed to spirits of error and doctrines devils&quot. church apart from the Roman Church. Opt. and on this Rock I will build it&quot. Apostle. described by the of 8. and Catholic Church.

8. the pillar and the ground of (I. that it follows as St. but according to the teaching of the is Holy Church which appointed the Mistress of true doctrine. that thou mayest know how is in the house of God. by showing how it has never changed and if. Nat. which the Church of the living God. that it is not by reading. which are the fountain of truth. this is useful. however. which frequently lead us astray. truth&quot. must always have remained so. Temp. de Nat Dim. at all times. as a learned author (3) justly remarks. who. in Epil. who deceived by the vanity of worldly wisdom. the care God always took to sustain : the Church in the midst of the tempests which were unceasingly (3) Danes. Heretics of every sort avail themselves of the Scriptures to prove their errors. have departed from (St. Leo says that the Catholic faith despises the errors of heretics barking against the Church. The heretics. Church. not considering. wish to teach her false and perverse dogmas of their own.) Hence St. Gen. instead of learning from the Church the dogmas they should believe. which has been appointed the pillar and the ground of truth thou oughtest to behave thyself : &quot. them. 15. it Leo.xxiv it AUTHOR have been for the first S PREFACE. as the Apostle tells us. Ser. could never become an adulteress. shows the truth of our Faith more pure and resplendent. but by understanding. that the truth can be found. for the spouse of Christ Cyprian says. . Tim. iii. 9. holy maxims and the principal dogmas of Religion are put in doubt it shows. when the most for . to five hundred years. and to whom God This is has the manifested the true sense of the Divine books. and it to have preserved the Apostolic doctrine during that period.) I think the History of Heresies is a most useful study. it must be particularly so at present. but we should not interpret the Scripture according to our own private opinions. besides. the truth of the Gospel 10. say that they have the Scriptures on their side.

the very reason which prompted me to write this Work for as so many authors have written. many is others. therefore. and as it is impossible for many persons either to procure so many and if such expensive I. phanius. they had them. and leave the reader dissatisfied. and to make God . at all events. and times. have studied brevity but I wish. Augustin. therefore.AUTHOR raised against it. not with such brevity as some others have done. informed of every notable fact connected with the rise and pro gress of. I have said in a small compass. however. who have paid most attention to his- . at the same time. 12. judged it better to collect in a small compass the com mencement and the progress of all heresies. who barely give an outline of the facts. works. or to find time to read them. the principal heresies that disturbed the Church. Another reason I had for publishing this Work was. Epihistory of various heresies. some may think this labour of mine superfluous. Theodoret. St. and ignorant of many of the most important circumstances. I will by not state subjecting themselves to the Church s now my reasons for writing this Work . St. The History us grateful to Heresies is also useful to preserve in us the spirit of humility and subjection to the Church. St. 11. and so extensively. Philastrius. Irseneus. St. I. in xxv which all and the admirable manner it the of enemies who attacked were confounded. teaching. but still. so that in a little time. Socrates. both in ancient and modern This. Sozymen. that as modern authors. Vincent of Lerins. and at little expense. especially as so many learned authors have written expressly and extensively the St. as Tertullian. S PREFACE. for giving us the grace of being born in Christian countries and it shows how the most learned men have fallen into the most grievous errors. any one may have a sufficient know ledge of the heresies and schisms which infected the Church. Nicephorus. that my readers may be fully . .

Fleury. should never cease praising Jesus Christ for this grace bestowed on us one of . Macedonius. and the I will merely speak of the authors of &quot. Francis de Sales good God ! many and great are the benefits thou hast heaped on me. And writing to one of his friends. imagine I Teresa never ceased to thank God for having made her a daughter of the Holy Church &quot. dear reader. give in particular. Arius. Orsi. St. We. Tillemont. Besides. as those of Sabellius. Raynaldus. works to find out the . either in beginning. likewise. and others. the Nestorius. unceasingly to thank our Lord for giving us the grace of being the bosom of exclaims &quot. he says: God! &quot. and I this precious gift in a heart all me so enchanting. Monothelites. that ought to enshrine perfumed with devotion. but how shall I : be ever able to thank thee for enlightening me with thy holy Faith?&quot.&quot. Noel Alexander. I have mentioned. and its have spoken of each heresy chronologically. Greeks. We ought. and disappearance of each heresy all I. Graveson. born and brought up in St. Eutyches. AUTHOR S PREFACE. as Baronius. progress. and I thank thee for them . progress. the reader so to different parts of the must turn over rise. : her consolation at the hour of I death was to cry out die a child of the : I die a child of the Holy Church Holy Church. and their falsity will be either from their evident weakness. the beauty of thy holy Faith appears to I am dying with love of it.apparent. at once the facts connected with each heresy 13. then. but only of the prin cipal ones. and I give this in the second part of the Work . Spondanus. therefore. other heresies of less note. the Catholic Church. Pelagius.&quot. the like. these writers have not given the Refutation of Heresies. and.XXVI torical facts. I do not mean the refutation of every heresy. have spoken of heresies only as a component part of Ecclesiastical History. the Iconoclasts. on the contrary. or decay. or from the proofs 1 bring forward against the more celebrated heresies 14.

: He has not done in like manner to every nation&quot. in many such case. that I have written this Work my Bishoprick.AUTHOR S PREFACE. to collect all that could . to the facts I could not give a critical examination. 9). who are born and die among infidels and heretics &quot. (Psalm cxlvii. have endeavoured. we with gratitude for so shall now see the triumph the Church has filled obtained through so to her. before amidst the cares of I begin. xxvii one distinguishing us from so many the greatest conferred on us millions of mankind. I wish to many ages. state. so that I times. be found in but it is the most correct and notable writers on the subject impossible that some learned persons not may be better acquainted with some facts than I am. and. however. . I give the various opinions of different I authors. over so many heresies opposed remark. without deciding myself on one side or the other. With our minds great a favour. however.


viii.-Cerintlms.-Ebion. He was called Magus. 4. was born in a part of Samaria called Githon or Gitthis. . . &quot. because he made use of and hence he acquired among spells to deceive the multitude The Great Power his countrymen the extraordinary name of This man is the power of God which of God&quot. Seeing that those on whom the Apostles Peter and John laid hands received the Holy Ghost. the first heretic who disturbed the Church. 11. c. &quot. he (Simon) was esteemed a t.THE HISTORY OF HERESIES THEIR REFUTATION. Ecclesias. Simon Magus (1). 1 0). N.-The Nicholites. His* Her. Van Ranst.-l. he offered them money to give to him the power of communicating the Holy Ghost in like manner and on that account the detestable crime of selling holy things is called Simony. 6. (Acts. Romans : In your royal city. 23. d. 2. (1) Baron. n.&quot. CHAPTER I. 1. Alex. is called great. He went to Rome. 56. n.-Saturninu3 and Basilides. and there was a statue erected to him in that city. Annal.&quot. in his first Apology. 1.~Menander. 1. or the Magician. 3. HEKESIES OF THE FIRST CENTURY. he says. 7. c. &quot. 1. Hermant. Hist. 5. a fact which St. -Simon Magus. flings in the face of the &quot. Con. Justin. 5. . His. 35.

. Eccl. (4) Baron. 23. Irenaeus. God. for memory. n. Peter never was in Rome. it Another of his errors was could not be separated from the soul. which corroborates their have. says St. and adduce in favour of it tion the authority of Tertullian. for salvation. Eusebius. t. His. sius. testimony. St. c. bearing this Latin inscrip Samuel Basnage. he fell down. in our favour. deny this fact. Chris. Brev. Christ (5). t. . and invoking the name of Jesus Christ. and thus that. Histor. c. that. Baronius and Fleury by force of magic spells. that good works are not necessary relate (4). . Eccl. Grotius. Joan. /. St.2 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Paul being . and many others. Peter and St. DEO SANCTO. that. 35.. he cast himself out of a high window the first heretic who ever disturbed the Church of perished present. n. in fin. who endeavours to prove that St. Augustin. (5) Baron. and Cardinal Orsi defend it. and. in despair. Alex. but Tillemont. Fleury. Alex. a passage in Seutonius. VI. 20. but. the body Irenssus it (3). 1. He was carried away by his friends but his corporeal and mental sufferings preyed so much on him. which Noel Alexander enumerates and refutes that the world was created (2). Augustin. 1.&quot. Irena3us. by angels enters into another body. Isidore of Pelusium. that man had no free will. Fleury. assisted at the public sports. cap. testimony of St. de Heresi. t. 2. and Theodoret. which. but St. 2. and many others. 5. Severus We Theodoret. xii). /. St. St. Istor. and the Emperor s pavilion was sprinkled with his blood. Ambrose. Simon broached many errors. while Nero Sulpicius. ad. Berti. who even says the statue was a bronze one. if true. 14. (3J St. and a statue was erected to him in the Island of the Tyber. being a spiritual quality. consequently. t. between the two bridges. 17. and f. c. Basnage. Cyril of Jerusalem. 2. n. 19. (2) Nat. Nat. besides. Maximus. St. 1. Orsi. 3. St. 24. St. Petavius. and never filled the pontifical chair of that but we have the city. for he says (lib. he fell down and broke both his legs. says that this is all a fabrication . Cyril of Jerusalem. Augus. . 5. /. 58. 17 . n. one which has been brought to light by the heretics of our own days. a man endeavoured to fly. Ann. St. n. St. he one day caused the devil to elevate him in the air . after elevating himself for a while. ValeSIMONI. Philastrius. it would recollect all that happened when it inha that The principal ones were when the soul leaves bited the former body. Dis. St. 11 .

n. 2. but he began to broach his doctrine in the same year (7). functions in appearance alone. and that he taught that Jesus Christ exercised human 3. 1. t. he said. and communicate it to mankind . Alex. when he was baptized in the river Jordan. according was baptized in his name. and left him to darkness and death. and . c. and he said. N. n. he denied the divinity of Jesus . Iren. The account Bernini St. : Orsi. in being a disciple of St. cit. and the unfor The Apostle tunate Cerinthus was overwhelmed in the ruins. ! nations. finally. . (8) Bernin. that Menander was the first who invented the doctrine of &quot. 5. unless he his baptism. that is. could be saved. to those along with him. No one. he denied that God was the creator of he asserted that the law of Moses was necessary for : he also taught that after the resurrection Jesus Christ terrestrial would establish a kingdom in Jerusalem. Peter. Berti. 11. St. by instructing mankind and working miracles. 42.&quot. c. cit. del Eresia. Cardinal ciples Orsi adds. and they had scarcely gone outside when the whole building fell with a sudden crash. 1. Christ. he was deserted by Christ. 1. 4. so that his dis would enjoy immortality even in this life (6). /. Alas what impiety men fall into when desert the light of faith. a virtue or power. Alex. gives of his death is singular (8). cit. t. in form of a dove. Christ descended on him.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and follow their own weak imagi they filled his mission. loc. His errors can be reduced to four heads the world salvation . met him going into a bath. art. he says. known Power. 1 (7) t. or.&quot. where the of every just would spend a thousand years in the enjoyment sensual pleasure and. n. /. Simon Magus he made his appearance in the year of our Un Lord 73. Istor. 42 loc. N. loc. 43. 3 Menander was a Samaritan likewise. Cerinthus was the next after Menander. One of the impious doctrines of this heretic was. or a spirit sent by God to fill him with know but after Jesus had ful ledge. and a disciple of 2. was the true resurrection. L 2. who returned to heaven. let us hasten out of turning this. mankind. &quot. and that. lest we be buried alive. for the salvation of to him. t. 4. de S. when. 2. 5 . (6) Fleury.Eons. that Jesus was a mere man. He announced himself a messenger from the . Fleury. . Ebion prided himself . 3. c. John. born as all other men are.

42. and admitted no part of the New Testament. iii). created man. . Let ns make man to the image and likeness. was one of these rebellious angels. He condemned matri mony and procreation as an invention of the devil. and that seven angels created the world and man. Fieury puts (10) Fleury. incapable of doing anything. and altered the others in John wrote many places. the Sovereign Virtue. there was one only Father. loc. Paul . on account of his great virtue.4 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. name mentioned. s could even bear to hear St. The most his Gospel to refute the errors of Ebion. the Almighty adopted him as his Son (9). however. that of Menander. 19. unless the Gospel of St. Fleury. and partly to the God of the Jews. con the host in unleavened bread. He attri buted the Prophecies partly to the angels. though he never had a real body. and Mcnanier. according to St. who created the The angels. was to destroy him that Christ appeared in the form of man. that the Supreme Virtue that is. first. He endeavoured to unite the Mosaic and Christian law. loc. but that. Alex. as Fleury tells us (10). that Jesus Christ was the son of Joseph and Mary. till &quot. the baptism of the Ebionites was admitted by the Catholics. was like a mere worm. saying. cit. The ancient writers say that St. partly to the devil. Augustin (Heres. 5. Jerome. but it vanished from them and they then created man to resemble it.] . impious of his blasphemies was. God and it of the Jews. Ebion lastly [N. and even that mutilated. as he left out two chapters. cit.B 6. born as the rest of men are that he was but a mere man. next Cerinthus. Saturninus. art. and for this reason Seeing a celestial light. According to St. and they made somo master. He also said. performed this every Sunday. pitying his image. they wished to retain it. He admitted the sacrament of baptism but in the consecration of the Eucha rist he used nothing but water in the chalice he. placed in him a spark (9) N. taught.&quot. a native disciples . with Menander. Matthew. and Eusebius says he secrated . seven of them : rebelled against him. . Man being thus created. n. he said. n. the Sovereign Father having created the angels. unknown to all. Saturninus and Basilides were whose history we have already seen additions to the heresy of their of Antioch.

and were addicted to every his fanaticism &quot. They promulgated their doctrines before Menander. Both Saturninus and Basilides fled from martyrdom. Word . is body. 2. at the Those of his sect alone. whom he called Abrasax. of himself. so that it was Simon. it. Nous. had spark all the others were deprived of and. Jesus. he said. and even exceeded Saturninus in fanaticism. was a native of Alexan He said that dria. the Word angels. this flies heaven. and so on. n. Simon the Cyrenean. was laughing at the folly of the Jews. otherwise we would incur the He danger of being subject to the angels who created the world. the other princes rose up against him. and afterwards On that account. but let no one know you. but that they were careful in avoiding observation. Prudence and Dunamis. and because he all nations. in the year 125 . who. intercourse (11) Orsi. and not Jesus. and impiety. we havo with mentioned them after him. should not venerate the crucifix. 7. the spark which. Intelligence . when the Jews wished to crucify him. and Prudence. incorporeal of virtue. produced Nous. and gave his form to Simon. that is. according to Fleury. Cardinal Orsi says (11) they practised magic. and always cloked their faith with this maxim Know others. according to him. who produced Logos. the Father. but. Wisdom and Power. that is. or the . and gave dissolution of the O him life. . Basilides. God sent his first-born. he said. wished to rule was the head of the second order of angels. and. produced a second heaven. on that account. This to . was an said. to free man kind from the dominion of the angels who created the world. Sophia produced Phronesis. 3. because they were disciples of his. .AND THEIR REFUTATION. he to the number of days in the year. was Jesus Christ. at the same time. This Nous. till thero were three hundred and sixty-five heavens produced. species of incontinence. 23. The Nicholites admitted promiscuous I. These created tho who formed the first heaven and other angels and these. t. (3. we ascended invisibly to heaven. according The God of the Jews. he took the form Hence. that is. in their turn. broached many other errors but these are sufficient to show . who was crucified. were reprobate. who put on whatever form pleased him. consequently.&quot.

Berti. n. 13.-Hermogenes. who were condemned . who. Alex.-Sevems. Corpocrates was a native of Alexandria. Ignatius the Martyr. 5. 9. Hilarian. Argentarius. The Nicholites called themselves disciples of Nicholas the Deacon. which brought forth four Eons that from these four Eons sprung the evil Eon. St. Eusebius. say. Ascodrogites. single. the angels.-Tatian. Baron. of Samosata. (12) Nat. Baronius. ll. 64 . pro duced a matrix or womb. acquit him of this charge (12). . Jerome. St. Theodoret. 21 . was of short duration but some new Nicholites sprung heresy up afterwards in the Milanese territory. 68.-Cataphrigians. An. as others His followers were called Gnostics that is. 7Cerdonius. 1. creator of the world. according to Noel Alexander. 6. 3. Peputians. 8. 9. 9. /.-Epiphanes. Fleury. and seven demoniacal spirits.-Theodotus the Currier. also said that the Father of Jesus Christ was not the Among the other foolish doctrines they was one. by Pope Nicholas II. t. was esteemed a heresiarch by St. or. uniting with the Holy Ghost. 4. CHAPTER II.P THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. diss. Orsi. n. Clement of Alexandria.-Apelles. This Gods. also. and Berti. L 2. and that the world was created by angels. men. Artemon. and St. Artotirites. n. that darkness. 1. St. t. 1. 5.Valentine. HERESIES OF THE SECOND CENTURY.-Bardesanes. Orsi. l.-Prodicus.. and distinguished from them by his virtue alone. and.-Corpocrates. They held. cit. Augustin. learned or enlightened.-Marcion. the use of married and meats offered to idols. Fleury. loc. However. 12. Eusebius. born as other men are. and Theodotus 14. Pattalorinchites. who created the . He said that Jesus Christ was the son of Joseph. 10Montanus. 2.

as to that of Jesus Christ. His followers. Corpocrates lived in the year 160. 20. monster called themselves Christians. n. was an Egyptian. /. (3) Fleury. (2) Van 49. that Jesus Christ did not become incarnate in the womb of the Virgin Mary. 1. 3. Valentine. . for this. and the spiritual. the animal. were excluded from eternal salvation and predestined to hell (3). ar. Alex. The carnal. and he divided mankind into three classes he said. we . 6. c. to which we should enemy spoken of in the yield. because he was disappointed separated in obtaining a bishopric. were the the carnal. having arrived at the apex of perfection. to Seth. 3. Ranst. They paid the same veneration to the images of Pythagoras. it was useless for them to suffer. c. for without the second. His. 6. c. as a distinctive mark. 7 Another blasphemous doctrine of his was. t. and abjured 2. which. 6. Berti. nin. n. Three sects take their origin : from Valentine. he said. show our contempt for the laws of the wicked angels. would pass from one body to another till it had committed all sorts of unclean actions. spiritualists. that. we should practise all the unclean works of concupiscence our evil propensities should be followed in every . . and. Bernin. brought his body from heaven. 2627 . 1. Plato. were exempt from the necessity of good works. t. t. was the Gospel (1). t. but soon again embraced them. and the other philosophers. and. but his errors. 1. rendered lawful every sensual pleasure. to unite our selves with God. and acquire the summit of perfection and the soul. 5 Graveson. (1) N. 20. thing. that they said Ber3. by this means. he said.AND THEIR REFUTATION. himself from the Church. on that account. who. t. it was supposed. t. . and being certain of eternal felicity. t. ar. 3. because. He admitted in man a continual exercise of spirit. c. Alex. 1. he said. uniting with the flesh. p. 2. and. Another of his doctrines was. N. /. they branded the lower part of the ear with a red iron. that had two souls. c. He invented a fabulous genealogy of Eons or Gods and another of his errors was. 3. he said. . 2. and persevered in them till his death (2). or observe the law. 3. The first were called Sethites These paid such honour Flemy. He came to Rome in 141. the first every one would b The followers of this hellish subject to the rebellious angels.

and. /. 20. 3. (5) Fleury. He also had other disciples Heraclion. whose followers invoked over the dead certain names of principalities. rejected the was the author sacraments Gospel. &quot. but their master admitted thirty Eons. the Sermons of the Apostles. disciples of Valentine Ptolemy and Saturninus were : . t. It is needless to add that all these were according to their own doctrines. The those third were called Ophites These said that Wisdom became a on that account. t. and creep up on the table where the bread for sacrifice was placed they kissed him while he crept round the . He also rejected the Gospel. The second sect were called Cainites These venerated as saints all : the Scripture tells us were damned as Cain. . Prodicus taught that it was lawful to deny the faith to avoid death. 4. The Prophetic Sayings and &quot. bread. and some went so far as to say that Jesus Christ and Seth were one and the same person. considering it they blasphemously called Christ. c.8 THE HISTOltY OF HERESIES. 30. 9 & (6) Van Ranst. n. they called Christ Alpha and Omega (5) and Van Ranst adds . c. (4) Fleury. whom broke it to the people. as The Parables of the Lord. and added various books to the Canon of the Scriptures. : who serpent they trained one of these reptiles to come out of a cave when called. to the list the Arconticites. the son of Carpocrates. t. 1. n. and they added eight more. 1. 10. who insisted that Easter should be celebrated after The disciples of Valentine made a new the Jewish fashion. n. .&quot. Bernin. 3. 4. 2. and. Ranst. 1. then sanctified by the reptile. besides defending the damnable opinions of his father. Core. they adored Jesus Christ as a serpent. 1. though he pretended to follow it (7).&quot. 20 . 2 Van /. truth was shut up in the Greek alphabet. on that account. p. p. Epiphanes. 3. . who who said that God of sin and Blastus (6). and adored the four elements and the sun and the moon he con. he rejected the worship of an invisible God. and anointed them with oil and water Marcus and Colarbasus taught that all . and especially the two last precepts of the Decalogue. Florinus. and especially Judas Iscariot. and. (7) Fleury. openly rejected the law of Moses. the inhabitants of Sodom. n. /. 3. 22. Jesus Christ was born of him. 30. they who received it as the Eucharist (4). Bern.

and thus light was created. 11 t. (8) Bern. body. c. 6. (9) N. pretending by this to imitate the innocence of Adam. (11) Fleury. the resur flesh. he taught. 7. a of Moses. /. with Valentine. naked. . 1. s. n. in which Jesus Christ is made to curse matrimony. who said that Jesus had not a real. Alex. but an apparent. as not instituted by God.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 3. Finally. and to be united with the He denied. An. as St. these always performed their religious exer cises in their churches. Bernin. and was a disciple of St. 8 Baron. He wrote a book on continence. but through the instrumentality of an inferior Eon. in reality. Severus was a disciple of Tatian . Noel Alexander impious worship and Theodoret assign to this heretic the institution of the sect called Adamites . . cit. Ver. 5. created and eternal . Alex. loc. cit. not by way of command. 1 . Justin Martyr. Eel. he attributed the creation to God. rection of the dead. he always performed naked. according as the seed of divine grace was infused or not into him and he rejected the law of Moses. because he used nothing but water in the consecration of the chalice. ar. /. n. joined with Severus. . by necessity. Tatian was born in Assyria. 27. but of supplication. c. his disciples were called Hydro. 3. Gotti. n. n. 12. and. especially in admitting the law Julius Capianus. loc. human he said was too unworthy divinity in the person of Christ. the Prophets. he condemned matrimony. but he prayed to the This elements and the planets to be propitious to mankind (8). 8. that matter was un or Continent . t. with Valentine. who said let there be light. Fleury. 2. Orsi. (10) Orsi. 4. 4 N. practising every abomination (9). 2. demned 9 all prayers to God as superstitious. saying he was good and spiritual. and the Gospels. but differed from his master in some essential points. parastati. ar. cit. but by the Eon who created the world. loc. 6. c. t. of Valentine. He deprived man of free will. Epiphanius calls them. in which he quoted a passage of the spurious gospel used by the Egyptians. 4. but. 6. He was the founder of the sect called Encratics. or bad and carnal. t. or rather brothels. n. cit. t. loc. and was the founder disciple of the heresy of the Doceti. 3. 174. or Aquarii (10). 12. In his commentaries on Genesis he says marriage was the for bidden fruit (11). . prohibited the use of flesh-meat and wine.

and the bad one. . but for an his by own then went to Rome. Saturninus first principles. Ann. 45 N. 2. n. the good God taught . Among other errors. except St.10 7. in the In his province of Pontus. c. t. the Gospels. Menander. and the creator of the a Christ. /. he. &c. 44. t. n. 2. Baron. Alex. The he said. 9. t. the creator of matter and the founder of the law. most famous Nat. He denied the incarnation of the Son of God. was excom- (12) Fleury. the Jewish Christ did not yet come. or other of the just of the old law. /. the 3. he taught. descended into . and the bad one good principle. 8. Luke s. with Maims. because they were friends any of the God of the Jews but that he saved Cain. the God of the Jews. or God of the Jews. saying it was repugnant to a good God to unite himself with the filthiness of flesh. Marcion was a native of the city of Sinope. the Sodomites. world. but not of the body. 3. He rage. 4 Orsi. and the good principle was the father of Jesus Christ. . (13) Orsi. or Henoc. t. then united himself to Cerdonius. or Noah. and endeavoured to accomplish but not being able to succeed. admitting two principles. and founding his doctrine on the sixth chapter of St. the the existence of two Gods one.&quot. t. Alex. he said. 30 . ment he rejected. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. ar. 6. 6. a good and a bad one. n. n. because they were the enemies of this God 9. Each of these Gods promised to send Our Christ appeared in the reign of Tiberius. ar. /. disciple of Marcion. Luke. 34. and that his soul should have for a He also companion a body infected and corrupt by nature. 146. and mutilated that in several places (12). said &quot. 3. he did not save Abel. was the author of good. 3. and the Egyptians. an evil one. the existence of two . and the son of a Catholic bishop. early days he led a life of continence and retirement act of immorality ho was cut off from the Church father. 3. and besides. Cerdonius followed the doctrines of Simon. 1. n. and admitted the He rejected all resurrection of the soul. I will cause an eternal division in your Church. Fleury. . He good tree cannot bring forth bad fruits. the where it is said a giver of grace. L 5 3. in a fit of his restoration . (13). other. that when Jesus hell. . c. . Apelles. because it was given by the bad principle. . and was the good The Old Testa Christ . of evil. or Gods.

AND THEIR REFUTATION. first. c. who created this world to resemble the world above. . seemingly possessed by the same spirit as himself. possessed . and said the Son of God took a body of air which. cit. 17. They also said that God wished. Hist. esteem themselves greater than the apostles. as Cardinal Orsi tells us (15). Paul (I. among other errors. at his ascen sion. Montanus. t. make use of unknown words. By part we and they had the madness to know. Van Ranst says that he rejected the Prophecies. and refused to admit sinners to repentance. since they had received the Holy Ghost promised by Jesus Christ in perfection. they uttered the most Church. to save the world. (16) Euseb. and among the rest a power called the Lord. xiii. said that God created a number of angels and powers. his head was turned. 15. mortified life that he was esteemed a saint. . . he descended in the Holy Ghost into Montanus and his prophetesses. Corinthians. He established nine fasting-days and three Lents in the year. He soon acquired a number of followers. (14) Fleury. 2. he repented him of having created it (14). /. 10. /. was born in He first led such a Ardraba. and carried his madness to the utmost excess among others who joined him were two loose women of the names of Prisca or Priscilla and Maximilla. he himself became incarnate but even this not sufficing. He began to speak in an extraordinary manner. Eccl. by means of Moses and the prophets when he saw that these were . an obscure village of Mysia. and. which was only partially communicated to others. possessed by the demon of ambition. dissolved into air again. and he quoted in his favour that text of St. 9). n. Montanus said that he and his prophetesses received the plenitude of 4he Holy Ghost. Some thought him him others looked on as a saint . loc. but not being able to bring it to perfection. and by part we prophesy &quot. at . extraordinary rhodomontades. 4. 11 municated by his master for committing a crime against chastity. not able to accomplish it. and prohibited second marriages (16). and utter prophecies in contradiction to the traditions of the by a spirit of error and prophet. 5.&quot. This heretic. (15) Orsi. Among other errors he prohibited his disciples to fly from persecution. but. 35. and felt his disgrace so much that he fled to Alexandria.

(18) Nat. a stick. saying there . he was infected with some of them. a sign of strict silence . Philosopher Apollonius. because they wore a small stick in the mouth or nose. n. The Pattalorinchites were so called. that the (17) Baron. 8. St. which St. tells THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. as the Cataphrigians.] . and The Cataphrigians were called from the nation Pattalorinchites. by puncturing it all over if the infant died he was considered a martyr. and both are preserved. He told the 12. Heres. and rincJios. Jerome. a native of Edessa. 8. especially an excellent treatise on fate. n. (20) Nat. He wrote especially disbelieving the resurrection of the dead. cit. who en deavoured to pervert him. t. 6. they were so called. t. t. 2. 1. 6. This we learn from Noel Alexander (18). Epipha2. Alex. Cyril.&quot. His. c. 9. in his catalogue of ec clesiastical writers. We may truly man is say. that he was ready to seal his belief with his blood. but if he survived he was regarded as high priest. educated in his school. t. ar. because in the sacrifice of the Eucharist. Ascodrogites. to which Montanus belonged. in Syria. was no difference between them and men. 20. Bernin. cit. The Artotirites were so called.12 Eusebius self (17). it is L the Peputians. Artotirites. 11 . they offered up bread and cheese. Fleury. &quot. He opposed the errors of Valentine but. 1. the favourite of the Emperor. c. 173. 3. 1. Alex. 5 . 4. n. p. from pattalos. 3. ar. St. having hanged himof 11. Peputians. sec. n. p. saying that these were the new bottles Jesus Christ spoke of They shall put . loc. He was celebrated in the time of Marcus Aurelius for age his learning and constancy in defending the faith. being . 24. with Noel Alexander. t. The Eucharistic bread they used was made of flour and blood taken from the body of an infant . the nose (19). [St. lived in this also. 8 . Angus. c. 18. Bardesanes. The Peputians took their name from an obscure village of Phrigia. us that he died miserably. Alex. where they held their solemn meet ings they ordained women priests and bishops. new wine into new bottles. (19) Van Eanst. Vedia anche Nat. to be lamented (20). fall of so great a N. ar. Alex. An. 24. & nius says 4. Van Orsi. praises highly. The Ascodrogites were no better than the ancient bacchanalians they used bottles which they filled with wine near the altars. The heresy Montanus shot forth different branches. Ranst. many works in refutation of the heresies of his day.

~Mpos. He denied the mystery of the Trinity. 2. chisadech . 1.-Novatus and Novatian. he caused him to be condemned by Pope Zepherinus. The Angelicals and the Apostolicals. . Thou art a priest for ever. 15. according to the order of Mel &quot. descended into the womb of the Virgin. 21 . which he called the Father. a native of Phrigia.Tertullian. (22) Fleury. 5. Alex. he said. 33. ar. He Eusebius. ar. N.AND THEIR REFUTATION. This sole person. cit. but soon afterwards openly proclaimed them. was asserted like Ebion and Cerinthus. Hermogenes said that matter was uncreated and eternal. 10.&quot. he retracted his opinions. cit. and his followers were afterwards called Melchi- sadechites (21).-Manes. f. n. a native of Byzantium. and he. or even on account of that verse of the Psalms greater than Christ. loc. Fleury. also taught that the devils would hereafter be united with matter and that the body of Jesus Christ was in the sun (22). 4.. Alex. Praxeas.-Sabellius. cit. and (21) N. 34. Being soon discovered. 14. concealing his own heresy at the same time. but afterwards becoming an enemy of Montanus. along with Artemon. called Argentarius. 13. CHAPTER III. or the Banker. who taught that Melchisadech was Christ. - 13 Theodotus the Currier. 6. was at first a Montanist. 7. so called on account of his trade. saying that in God there was but one person and one nature. 4. HERESIES OF THE THIRD CENTURY. loc. Tertullian.-Origen. 3. -Paul of Samosata. Besides this there was another Theodotus. loc. . and Lactanctius refuted this error. n. /. 8.-Praxeas. that Christ was mere man. 1.

7. Ranst. 3. 35. This error we will refute in the last part of the work. he amassed a great deal of wealth. 7 . Hermant. The most remarkable among his disciples were Berillus. Alex. c. Alex. the heat the Holy Ghost. ibid. J^oetus. more obstinate in error. 1. by selling justice. by extortion appointment and sacrilege. and. though the sun be but one and the same. and his own praises were the only subjects of his sermons he not only abused those who did not flatter him. he was always preceded by one hundred servants. Sabellius was born in the Ptolemais in Africa. s. to the see Before his he was poor. c. being born of her by means of the incarnation. ex Euseb. t. and on that account his followers were called Patripassionists. Holy Ghost were but one person and one God were cut off from the Church. and on that account this impious sect was the Son. but frequently also offered them personal violence. According to this impious doctrine. 7. ar. 1. . ar. and lived in the year 227. and the The light re form. 2. he said. t. and at length (1) Nat. who. 2. contained the Son and the Holy Ghost (3). in one person alone.14 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Alex. 7. 3. . . he said that Christ. 5. in which we distinguish the light. He was so vain and proud that he never appeared in public without a crowd of courtiers . but afterwards. 7. Van 60. 3. Noetus. He shed a greater lustre. 65. the heat. Berillus was Bishop of Bostris in Arabia had no divinity. and the figure or substance of the sun itself the Father. 3. (3) Nat. (2) Nat. but only that of the Father. . p. as he The most died impenitent. on the heresy of his master. n. Orsi. c. celebrated promoter of this error was Sabellius. n. The Trinity. and brought him back to the Catholic faith (1). and followed by a like number. presents the Son. t. He denied the distinction of the three persons in the Trinity. if we may say so. and in his incarnation had no divinity Noel Alexander says of his own. ar. was like the sun. . and said they were but three names to distinguish the different operations of the Divinity. 48. Fleury. 3. and Sabellius. he was refused Christian burial (2). /. 14 I. c. he and his followers called Sabellians. p. before his in that Origen refuted him. it was the Father who suffered death. was called Jesus Christ. 1. Van Ranst. carnation. Paul of Samosata was Bishop of Antioch. said that the Father. and the . then. and making false promises.

not. t. (4) Orsi. To acquire a name for him self he undertook to cure the King of Persia s son. but an old lady of that country. c. 8. persons. /. 15 c. who ordered him to be flayed : alive with beasts. 8. Gotti de Vera Rel. this impious prelate crowned all with heresy. one by nature and the other by adoption he also denied the Trinity of the Divine . personal existence to the Son and the Holy Ghost. who was enlist the despaired of by the physicians. Alexander is says that heresy. attributing to the Father alone the incarnation and passion (4). .AND THEIR REFUTATION. t. hung up . his crimes he had always a number of ladies of In fine. and he adopted name on account of taking to himself the title of the Para and to conceal the lowliness of his condition. 4. Misfortune. and would have been put to death only he bribed the guards to let him escape. but N. he studied magic with particular attention. it uncertain whether Paul was the author of this this Manes was the founder of the Manicheans. Hermant. peasantry under the banner of his heresy. he fell again into the King s hands. 3. that Jesus Christ never existed until he was born of the Virgin. and hence he said he was a mere man . notwithstanding all his Unfortunately for him. 1. a sharp-pointed reed his skin 3. c. Fleury. was liberated and adopted by She sent him to the public academy to be educated. sec. 15 his vanity arrived at such a pitch that he had a choir of cour tezans to sing hymns in his praise in the church he was so . the child died. to . pursued him after travelling through various countries. 2. he also said that in Jesus there were two persons and two sons of God. he was at first only a slave in Persia. since clete. denying. endeavours to save him. or. however. . N. as Orsi thinks. 1. 7. and of the Holy Ghost. but he made little progress in learning. and on that account he endeavoured to institute a new sect and. t. dissolute in his morals that lax morals in his train. n. The first of his blasphemies was. however. and although he admitted the names of the Father. Alex. 11. n. Whatever he wanted in learning he made up in impudence. 2. s. sion of faith. 2. yet he did not recognize either one or the other as persons of the Trinity. his and t. and thus t. His disciples inserted those errors in their profes and in the formula of Baptism. in the body was thrown to the the city gate. 63. and of the Son. however. /. 2. 8. and he was thrown into prison.

16 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. one of good and the other of evil. when. he abandoned his errors. 1. 7. 2. . He admitted the plurality of Gods. 47. 1. Gratian. sec. Ann. saying that he to the bad soul. on the Soul. 1. c. 2. as Fleury (8) relates. which was co-eternal. ar. in Carthage. same nature with God. and all the evil ones he commits He deprived man of free-will. Alex ibid. t. (8) Fleury. therefore. who caused many of them to be burned alive in Ar menia. but especially by Justin and Justinian. and died at a very advanced age. but was converted about the year 197. in sec. Penance. and of the Among many other errors. and entirely created abolished that sacrament. t. caused them to be hanged. He denied the necessity of baptism. 1 Nat. 1. Graves. He was Pagan. alleging that there wero two principles. finding some of them lurking The refutation of this France. but. was always carried irresistibly forward by a force which his will could not resist. The errors of Manes can be classed under the following heads 1st. Augustin. 65. Henry II. . 2. as being created by the evil principle.. by the good principle. Another of : his errors was. c. the Mani- flesh. and became one of his most strenuous opponents (5). denied that Jesus Christ ever took a body like and. (6) Nat. almost over the entire world. and though condemned spread and they were addicted they were not annihilated till the year 1052. in his youth. among whom was St. Baron. 1012. & seq. still to every sort of impurity (6). L 4. Idolatry. in as Baronius relates. L 8. They by many Popes. 277. Ann. and (5) Baron. He wrote many works of the highest utility to the Church. He left many followers after impious Manes closed his career. part 3. and was a priest for forty years. 9. and persecuted by many Emperors. All the good actions which man performs he attributes to the good soul. was a centurion in the Pretorian Bands. good. which the evil principle created. we have written in the book called the Truth of the heresy Faith 5. as Dioclesian. n. and Theodosius. Hermant. that man had two souls one bad. Alex. 277. vide sec. 2. c. n. t. (7). on Proscriptions. together with the body. and another. t. and his father Tertullian was born. sec. him. (7) Verita della Fede. cheans detested the ours. ex n. 3. 3. on at first a Baptism. Fleury. . en lightened by the Almighty. .

which has acquired great cele Although in his book on Proscriptions he calls Montanus into still. who afterwards became an was one of martyr of the faith of Christ. Optatus. joined the belief that Montanus was the Holy Ghost. 1. Leonidas the Martyr. and his early days were spent in Origen Alexandria. I. . illustrious Plutarch. St. 12. t. Ann. I. He had the greatest horror t. Hilary. Augustin. & seq. who had him educated in every branch of sacred and profane literature (12). say (11). t. Alex. 1. . he attached himself to the Montanists. Baronius says that he was cut off from the Church. He called the Catholics. cum St. (13) Fleury. N. and St. fell . Alex. /. It is said his own father held him in the highest veneration. 3. remained in Carthage for two hundred years. /. that Tertullian taught that the soul was a body. according to the general opinion of authors. (10) Fleury. 25. Augustin. n. I. 28. 1. Fleury. 17 brity. In the height of the ceased to assist the confessors of Christ. 5. bosom of the Church. 8. 201. Augus. t. 3. but transparent. 5. t. n. and that it was not lawful to fly from persecution. persecution he never his disciples. 6. Fleury says (10). Orsi. c. and on account of a dispute he had with the clergy of Rome. (12) Nat. & Nat. and he discharged his duties so well that the very pagans flocked to hear him. 27. ar. but a sect. n. 6. 8. an Apology for the Christians. 5. 11 . n. (11) Fleury. 3. that he asserted the Church could not absolve adulterers. he Montanism himself. Jerome. on the authority of St. that he forsook the Montanists before his death. Psichici. 25 & 26 . n. ar. or Animals. of a palpable form. n. t. Tertullian was a man of the greatest austerity he had the greatest veneration for continence he practised extraordinary watchings. until the time of St. who called themselves Tertullianists after him. 2. 9. was an Egyptian. and excommunicated by Pope Zepherinus (9). 6. Pacianus. St. and to the when they once more returned that often while he slept he used to kiss his bosom.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 3. /. as the temple where the Holy Ghost dwelt (13). At the age of eighteen he was made Catechist of the Church of Alexandria. that those who married a second time were adulterers. a heretic. to the most rigid morti fication. 1. His father was St. n. Orsi. St. because one of the Pro Both Fleury and Noel Alexander phetesses heard so in a vision. who. ad. (9) Baron. Alexander proves. despising both torments and death.

n. would be of great 6. All this. and the Octapla. at that time that all the priests difficult matter. He edited different editions of the Scriptures. nr. although he endeavoured them to the to clear himself by saying that he subjected wrote his sentiments merely as opinions. that his mother was obliged him from going to his father. he dictated to seven or eight amanuenses at the same time. as seen. Octapla contained. so desirous of martyrdom. a country at that time dis tracted by various heresies. was to no purpose he avoided her vigilance. that it (16) Orsi. obliged to go into Achaia. who adhere to the letter of the Scripture will never see the kingdom different errors. besides that of Theodotian. by wishing of is God (15). Presuming too and doctors consulted him in any much on his wisdom. to take his clothes. Matthew in a wrong sense (14). himself. he says. hence we hidden and mysterious. 12. in the third that of Simmachus. jority condemn him. and. In his journey ho persuaded two bishops of Palestine He was whom he visited. and it of sensual pleasures. the Hebrew text and a Greek translation. contained the Finally. two other His name was so famous versions. Alex. t. and when he would not be allowed to speak to him. Stromata. interpreting the 12th verse of the 19th chapter of St. Those. the Hexapla. is related of him that for fear of offending against chastity. to prevent . he exhorted him by At the age of eighteen he was letter to persevere in the faith. and judgment of his readers (16). flew to his father. should seek the spirit of the word. 61. he fell into to interpret many texts of Scripture in a mystical. sense. (14) Nat. /.18 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. which He is defended by some but the ma . converted Ambrose from the errors of the Valentinians. or Septuagint. rejecting the literal. . (15) Origen. and in the fourth The Hexapla had six columns. in the second that of Aquila. /. He also He was his Commentaries on the Scriptures. and converted Berrillus. 10. . first The Tetrapla had four columns in each page in the was the version of the seventy. 7. When he was composing Prefect of the studies of Alexandria. He refuted the Arabians. compiling the Tetrapla. the former. who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. who and to avoid temptation. compiled by some Hebrews. however. besides the former. away who was in prison for the faith. he mutilated we have already denied the immortality of the soul.

in the year 253. /. 4 Pagius ad an. tells us (18). Dionisius. /. received Church his suggestions him in his misfortunes. c. 3. Orsi. the first words he read were those of the 49th Psalm : God said to the sinner. p. Eusebius says (19). t. n. 3. c. Bar. 2. n. n. . on the authority of St. a horrible manner. Orsi. that opening the book of the preach. but was likewise put on the rack. to avoid the indignities and insults inflicted on him by an Ethiopian. loaded with irons. Orsi. 1. 7. . to idols. yet Petavius. (23) Euseb. he began to weep bitterly. Istor. 59. Epiphanius s works by the enemies of Origen) that he denied the faith by offering incense ing. t. ibid. t. loc. /. 19. that. 204. Nat. I. cit.. Cardinal Orsi (20) proves the fallacy of Du Pin s conjecture. 7. Psalms. Ann. in the persecution of Decius he was imprisoned a long time. Not only St. c. 125. service to the 19 if he was ordained priest (17). . c. His. why dost thou at the request of the clergy It &quot. p. Epiph. not. Although Bernini (24) says this story is quite fabulous. Orsi. /. q. n. wrote him a letter. Origen did not long survive the torments he endured in that persecution. Alex. and entertained him honourably. was enforced under his successors Aracla and Dionisius. however. unic. in Animadv. Itanst. (26) Rone. Bernini tells us. 33. n. or rather a small treatise. 3. 117. on the authority of Eusebius. and a great iron ring on his neck and that he was not only tortured . Graves. in St. . Eccl. 30. Hist. t. 42 (22) Bernin. Alex. 251. and especially Noel Alexan der (25). to animate and console him and from that circumstance. diss. 1. 15. happened. . Ann. that the sentence passed against him by Demetrius. and take my covenant into thy mouth ? Struck dumb with sorrow. say (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) it is a fact. 1 . Yielding to ordained him. 6. in Natal. Daniel Uerius. 1. Heres. the sixty-ninth of his age (21). and this so displeased Deme they trius. Eccl. Epiphanius (22). and his life After that he went from Alexandria to Jerusalem. Orsi. s. to explain them. Huetius. 64. declare my &quot. Euseb. art. loc. justices but Eusebius (23) before him. loc. in the legs in . Pagi. & seq. Bishop of Alexandria. He died in Tyre. (24) Baron. cit. 6. cum Graves. and people went into the pulpit to however. 8 V. Hermant. t. n. 7.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and spared. bear witness to Origen s fall. (think however. (25) Petav. cit. Epiphanius. Roncaglia (26) is of opinion that Noel Nat. Orig. 253. and left the pulpit without saying a word. that in a council he deposed and excommunicated him. Several other bishops. 68. that this was foisted into St. and that he was then freed from prison. 33.

or to hell the punishment of their sins. He said that God alone was good and immutable. . after which. he never was without a world. God alone. Fleury. that is. they were shut up in the sun. who taught that men are either lated good or essentially wicked. being freed from their slavery by death. so many more would be created. Hermant. Valentine. was all included in his Periarchon. know. and that the punishment of the devils and the damned would not last for all eternity. Orsi. but that his creatures were capable of either good or evil. Another of his opinions was that the souls of men were of the same nature as the celestial spirits. all is a mystery known to opinion carries . He also said that before the creation of this world there existed many others. however. who endeavoured to correct it as much as The intent of Origen in this work was to refute possible. he said. Ann. on the authority of Baronius. that his Gelasius. because at the end of the world Jesus Christ would be again crucified. composed of spirit and matter essentially . and they would participate in the general redemption. Marcion. Fleury says. or Treatise on Principles. &c. as well as I could collect from the works of Noel Alexander. the blessed in heaven could be banished from that abode of happiness for faults committed there. This treatise. and that after this for. and even in human to punish them for a time it were in a prison. moon. was trans The substance by Rufinus. though Baronius says that St. Hence. and Ebion. (2?) Baron. and others.20 Alexander s THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. but that. as had ceased to exist God was never idle. but such rewards and punishments were not eternal. by making use of their free will for a good purpose. of the errors of Origen. 400. doctrine was condemned by Pope Anastasius and Pope We and afterwards by the fifth general council (27). Simeon Salus saw him in hell still. We can decide nothing as to the salvation of Origen. Van Ranst (who gives a great deal of information in a small space). as a punishment for some crimes committed. went to heaven to suffer to receive the reward of their virtues. they bodies. as . that they were all created before the beginning of the world. arguments are groundless. and other planets. or perverting it for a wicked one. and that Baronius s more weight with it.

Finally. St. cut off Ru In the reign of the Emperor Justinian. by Theodore of Cesarea. 1. (29) Hermant. . Nonnus died. 2i He is taught many entirely infected with the in fact his doctrine other erroneous opinions maxims of Plato. one of this party. says. (30) Orsi. Cyprian relates that he was a man (28) Cabassut. II. c. acl 7. this sentence relative to Gelasius. Novatus was a priest of the 7. and elected Conon. and that he.AND THEIR REFUTATION. al luogo cit. began to disseminate their errors among this brethren. t. Origen in the Roman council : We declare that those reject Jerome does not with their works of Origen which the blessed can be read. says. I . Church of Carthage. Hist. (31) Orsi. by means The author of the notes on Floury. his successor In the meantime. Saba. Pythagoras. of the priest Rufinus. that Pope gave &quot. Notit. in the twelfth canon of the second council of Constantinople. an. /. and no one ever erred more was condemned. 132. n. and in a short time infected the principal were expelled by the abbot Gelasius. following the example of Anastatius. n. 70. abbot (30). 553. in defending his doc Novatus and Novatian. Cone. some Origenist monks who lived in a laura founded by St. Hcrmant (29) Pope Anastasius had a great deal of difficulty in putting down the troubles occasioned by the Origenists in Rome. however. speaking of Origen. and expelled the greater part of the monks laura. 14.&quot. Constan. After the death of Origen his followers disturbed the Church very much by maintaining and propagating relates that his errors. and . Cabassutius (28) grossly in the part which says. they got possession of the great laura again. in fin. finus from the Church. 41. 1 & 5. on that account. and for immorality George being deposed by his own party. Favoured. the Catholic monks again got possession of the laura. n. but who disagreed with them. under the abbot Nonnus. the Manicheans. Cassiodorus. both trine - Origen and all those who would persist were condemned (31). 18. who got footing there under the auspices of Melania. that Anastasius wrote to John of Jerusalem to inform him of how matters were going on. t. wonder how the same man could contradict himself so much for since the days of the Apostles he had no equal in that part of his doctrine which was approved of. but we condemn all others author.

Cor nelius (32). according to the discipline of the Church in those days. he ought to have received after baptism. He was accused of robbing the orphans and widows. that he had his mind made up for other objects. At this time. Cyprian. and assist the faithful. Fleury. He was afterwards ordained priest. will not ambition do ? While he administered the Eucharist to his partizans. (33). 1. t. n. 4. 50. and when he recovered he neglected getting the ceremonies of baptism supplied. tian. and was one of the principal leaders of the schism of Novatian. and avaricious.22 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. He was also one of the principal agents in getting the deacon Felicissimus ordained priest without the leave or knowledge of St. n. pretend torical puffed up than the Popedom. n. seditious faith and that his was suspected by the bishops. (32) Baron. which he had the ambition to by the applause he received for his ora powers. for that reason. that you saying. afterwards rejected this sacra ment. Nat. and never received confirmation. which. We and his followers. that he . my party and join Cornelius&quot. and intrigue. exciting as many as he could to oppose the lawful Pope. or. got himself consecrated privately by three igno rant bishops whom he made intoxicated. 3. 1. Hence his ordination gave great umbrage both to the clergy and people. This was nothing less to. and appropriating to his own use the It is said he money given him for the use of the Church. cit. by anti-Pope who ever raised a schism in the Church of Rome. . he exacted an oath from each of them. 61. his bishop. allowed his father to die of starvation. 254. While the persecution was raging the deacons begged of him to leave his place of concealment. will never leave An. of a turbulent disposition. 51. Swear to me. &c. 6. Cornelius was elected Pope. did not henceforward intend to discharge the duties of a priest . 7. who were dragged to the place of punishment but he answered. loc. the bishop dispensing in the irregularity he incurred by being baptized in bed. and afterwards refused to bury him and that he caused the death of his wife by giving her a kick. But what &quot. 3. . . and causing premature labour. c. now come to speak of the character and errors of NovaBeing possessed by an evil spirit he was baptized in bed during a dangerous fit of sickness. by the blood of Jesus Christ. Thus he was the first he. t. (33) Nat. . Baron.

that Jesus Christ would reign on earth for the space of a thousand years. c. Nipos. Van s. and they denied the sacrament of confirmation. The insurmountable obstacle to salvation. 45. they condemned second marriages. 3. . and refused communion on the point of death to those who contracted them 8. an Egyptian bishop. adored them as the creators The and pretended to lead angelic lives themselves. 48. 1. 46 . 6. (34). Hermant. 3. taking the promise of the Apocalypse in a literal sense. Ranst. ibid. (35) Nat.(34) Nat. 51. . t. the Montanists. n. 51 . Angelicals offered the supreme adoration which should be given to God alone. again raked up the errors of the Millenarians. t. 9. These heretics received no married persons into this sect (35). p. Berti. cit. Van Ranst. Alex. Fleury. These were not the only heretics who disturbed the Church during this century. 1. Apostolicals said it was not lawful for any one to possess property of any sort. c.AND THEIR REFUTATION. or that she could grant pardon for any mortal sin committed after Like baptism. The and Novatian were 23 the following: errors of Novatus denied that the Church could use any indulgence with they those who became idolaters through fear of persecution. to the angels . ar. c. and that the saints should enjoy all manner of sensual delights. 3. p. and that the riches of this life were an of the world. 7. 47 & 64 . t. Alex. about the year 284.

HERESIES OF THE FOURTH CENTURY. To . we must separate the schism from the heresy. Donaa second Donatus was first was the author of the schism . to fill Cecilianus was elected the vacant by the general voice of the people and was consecrated by Felix. whose sanctity was never recognized by the Church. was cited before the tyrant Maxentius on the charge of concealing of the name of Felix. Mar- cellinus. Augustin. 3. 4. the author of a Mensurius went to in his house a deacon Rome see. -Death Circumcelof St. a Spanish lady then Cecilianus happened to come into collision residing in Carthage. Another charge made against him was that he prohibited the faithful from supplying Aphthongum and At the head of this the confessors in the prisons with food. ARTICLE I.-Schism. to defend himself. Bishop of Carthage. was a bishop of an African city. the validity of his consecration. CHAPTER IV. 1. -Confutation of St. who deli vered up the Scriptures to the pagans. on the Emperor. and died on his way libel home. the father of the heresy. for 1. tus the they were at first schismatics before they were heretics. called the Black conspiracy &quot. Mensurius. 6. 5. for with her while he was yet a deacon. Bishop of His opponents immediately other prelates.24: THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. -Heresy. In order properly to understand the history of the Donatists. and he was called by his followers Donatus the Great.&quot. In the beginning of the fourth century. lionists. whose name was Donatus.-Conference commanded by Honorius. and Council of Carthage. 7. and it was very much strengthened by the intrigues of Lucilla. because it was began to question performed by those bishops called traitors (traditores). Houses. because he reprimanded her paying the veneration due to a holy martyr to a certain dead mar. 2. SCHISM AND HERESY OF THE DONATISTS.

give them no cause convoked at Aries. and of complaint. could satisfy the Donatists they even. 10. and by the of the bishops of Africa. Van Ranst. put himself at their head and although tinctured with the Arian heresy. tigate the matter. assembled a council of nineteen bishops. and declared both the innocence of Cecilianus and the The Donatists were discontented validity of his consecration. . deposed Cecilianus in his absence. & Hermant. in 316. . 303. Nat. to their innocence . n. (2) Hermant. 29. Emperor Constantine. /. under the presidency of the secondary primate of Numidia. and again appealed to the Emperor he used every means to pacify them. n. revenge herself on him for this. He referred the entire matter to Melchiades. (4^) St. but in his ex the amination before the Pro-consul. but in order to appease the Donatists. who. bribed a notary of the name of Ingentius. who was con secrated by Donatus 2. 1. 26. 78. extended themselves as far as Rome. c. aware that this investigation was to take place. name of Majorinus. 306. 74 & 75 . was true. Heresy now was added to schism. to inves . he acquitted both Felix and The Emperor being informed of this was satisfied as Cecilianus. pro-consul of Africa. according to Fleury (3). Scriptures to the idolators). and find out whether the crime laid to the charge of Felix who consecrated Cecilianus (that of delivering up The conspirators. & Ann. Nothing. or according to others. as successor . de Heres. the reigning Pope. 2. in the year 315. Alex. uniting together in party many council. were again acquitted by the council 3. to prove a falsehood . intruded himself into the See of Carthage. with this decision. 2f&amp. Augustin says (4).gt. to which Silvester. Orsi. sent his legate to preside in his name and in that and the following year. and elected a domestic of Lucilla s in his place. The second Donatus. Cecilianus remained stedfast in the faith which obliged the Donatists to have recourse to the St. of the (1). 69. (2). however. who succeeded St. n. called by them Donatus the Great. (1) Baron. but seeing them determined to keep up the schism. he ordered Elianus. as St. c. she became the soul of the con influence of her wealth brought over to her spiracy. he caused another council to be St. vide Fleury. Ann. (3) Fleury. who. t. Melchiades in the year 314. &c.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Notwithstanding all this persecution. Angus. Felix and Cecilianus .

alone. not having spot or wrinkle They also professed to find this doctrine in the twenty-seventh &quot. believing that the the sour leaven corrupteth the entire mass. Paul and St. interpreting that expression of the . or those who delivered up the holy books into the hands of the Pagans. Canticles. glorious Church.26 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. (Ephesians. which contains both . as they alleged Felix and Cecilianus to have done. speaking of the militant of the good alone. inferred that the Church of Rome was lost. : &quot. where thou where thou liest in the mid-day. feedest. and as First. and that all the wicked were excluded from it founding . it only remained pure in that part of Africa where the Donatists dwelt and to such a pitch did their infatuation arrive. heretical inference of theirs was. began to disseminate the Those consisted in the of one false principle. &quot. that they quoted Scripture for this also. in many places. Paul. being corrupted and stained by the admission of those. These two heretical opinions fall to the ground at once. There shalt verse of the twenty -first chapter of the Apocalypse The adoption of this erro not enter into it anything defiled. O thou whom my soul loveth. by proving the sists falsity of the first proposition. (5)0rsi. to Shew me. then the Church. v. : : Church was composed of the good alone. texts of St. and of Christ is free from all stain delivered himself up for it. 11. Church. 4.&quot. for our Redeemer. . that he might present it to himself a this belief on that text of St. n. which lies in the southern part of the world.) as relating Another Africa. where he says that the Church Christ loved his Church. (the south. He was the first who to Majorinus. errors of the Donatists in Africa (5). and on that account they re-baptized all proselytes. Augustin proves clearly that these John. 61 & 52. because the they Pope and bishops having admitted to their communion traitors. that the Church con St. which was the source of many adoption This was that the Church was composed of the just others. t. refer to the triumphant and not to the militant Church. because a Church that was lost had not the power of administering the sacrament. says. that the sacrament of baptism was null and void if administered out of their Church.&quot. was lost. neous principle led them into many heretical consequences &quot. it contains both good and bad in one place he likens it to a threshing floor. 27). 1. 4.

broke the chalices. and he will burn with In another place he compares (Matt. he says. and tore them. for they went about in armed bands. others drowned themselves. and put to death those who did not become proselytes to their doctrine but what was more astonishing than all was to see this fury turned against themselves. Augustin tells us that 1 . and endeavoured to induce others to follow their example. 27 : He will gather his it wheat into the barn. though nothing could be more unjust than their own proceedings. but gather the xiii. but the chaff thoroughly cleanse his floor. Alex. as if in revenge for the insult offered Not satisfied with tormenting the to the body of Jesus Christ. (6) Nat. the Circumcellionists sprung from the Donatists. for many of them committed suicide by throwing themselves over precipices. They were called by Dpnatus the chiefs of the saints all . living. 2. They destroyed the altars of the Catholics. and Let both grow&quot. (7) St. &quot. wheat my barn&quot. and they were called Cir cumcellionists from running about from town to town and house to house. But St. Opt. it fire&quot. They gave liberty to slaves. 31. Optatus Milevitanus (7) informs us that God did not suffer the indignity to his sacred body and blood to go unpunished. or cut their throats. some cast themselves into the fire. t. diss. telling them that all who died so were martyrs even women followed the example of their husbands in this madness. and St. if possible of a deeper dye. de Donatis. they boasted that they were the redressors of wrong and injustice through the world. this time. for the dogs getting mad turned on their own masters. and commanded debtors not to pay their debts. . 9. but committed a thousand others. straw and grain &quot. spilled the holy Chrism on the ground. 5. : then I bind it will say to the reapers. and exposed to the most unheard-of indignities. Their cruelty equalled their fanaticism. The Donatists were not content with the crime of heresy. . they outraged the dead. and cockle growing amongst till the time of the harvest. and threw the holy Eucharist to the dogs. whom they dragged out of their About graves. 3) (6). unquenchable to a field sown with good seed. also. iii. 12). (Matt. Gather up first the cockle and into into bundles to burn. telling them they were freed from ah obligation.AND THEIR REFUTATION. &quot. I. Their chiefs were Faber and Maxidus.

in a state of pregnancy. to hold the conference. one day. to put a stop to such frightful fanaticism. to avoid confusion. . 46. but Marcellinus. 51. which punishes with confiscation of property the practice of any religion except the Catholic. The Emperors Constantine and Constans. issued several edicts against In the reign of Hothe Donatists. however. into Africa. to proceed to a conference to see who was right and who was wrong. entirely to extinguish the heresy of Donatus. he revoked the edict. 2. they could not help lamenting. sons of Con6. and even called in the authority of the secular power to aid them. I 11. but all was of little avail.157. and. that peace should be established between them. norious an edict was published. but about the year 410 the Donatists. t. saying. even some. 15. The Donatists at first refused to come. sec (8) Baron. Marcellinus. taking advantage of this. c. giving liberty to all sects to profess publicly their doctrines.28 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in Carthage. 81. Ranst. but the edicts of Honorius were too strict to be avoided. and that they became the victims of such perverse doctrines from fol by every means lowing their own example (8). lie then published that law (L. stantine the Great and Valentinian. with orders to assemble all the African bishops. V. . these eighteen to be chosen from among all the rest. broke out into several acts of violence. . would allow only ference was held in the Baths of Gazilian. and even with pain of death if the professors venticles. The schismatics stratagem to avoid coming to the point voured to cushion the question concerning the true Church. and used every especially they endea An. threw themselves down pre It is true that even the Donatist bishops endeavoured cipices. drawn into it. eighteen on each side. seeing themselves caught. Hermant. and they consented. and the con Two hundred and hundred and seventy-nine Donatists assembled. n. refused to obey the regulations of Marcellinus. they were. but they could not deny that they were their own disciples. a man of the greatest learning and prudence. which so exasperated Honorious that. . with all their art. eighty-six Catholics and two thirty-six. he sent the Imperial Tribune. w. Codex Theodosianus). both Catholics and Donatists. at the sugges tion of the Catholic bishops of Africa. but. Floury. of any heretical doctrines should publicly assemble in their con In order.

his decision in Finally. n. 1. and priests who would persist Nothing could exceed their malice against the Catholics after that they murdered the de fender of the Church. but of the good and how insensibly the bad. and beheaded. the Catholic Carthage. 29 we have got into the bottom of the case. and the schismatical In this council it was prohibited to bishops then joined them. t. Thus Marcellinus died a martyr. I. in opposition to the erroneous opinion of the Donatists. 411. Or si proves re-baptize those who were baptized in the faith of the Trinity. proved clearer than the noon-day sun that the Church is not composed of the good alone. 24. in 348. &c. bishops of Africa assembled in great numbers to thank the Almighty for putting an end to this sect. 24. It was also forbidden to honour as martyrs those who killed themselves. but condemned to a heavy fine all those who would not join the Catholic Church. and stripped of all his honours. Then it was that St. in 349. Augustin. or. he would liberate both Marcellinus and day his brother Aprinius from prison. 28. n. 11. and although he swore St. (11) Hermant. as the threshing-floor contains both corn and chaff. Restitutus (10). n. Baron. . Orsi. Cardinal this on the authority of Orosius. c. 29. The means by which Marinus accomplished this were horrible. St. but Marinus was Augustin. being shortly after recalled by Ho In the Council of norius. Many were united to the Church. as Hermant (11) has it. Mar cellinus to be imprisoned on a charge of high treason. he ordered him the next to be taken out to a lonesome place. and they were allowed the rites of burial through (9) Orsi. (9). 412. Heraclian. and threatened to banish all the Donatist bishops in their opposition to his decree. which he was most innocent to his friend Cecilianus that of. He caused St. Ann. and St.AND THEIR REFUTATION. who de clared the baptism administered out of their communion invalid. and appealed to Honorius. who would not even admit them to an audience. as we have already shown. 25. alleging that he was one of the chief promoters of the rebellion of Marinus the destruction of Marcellinus. after many disputations. Marcellinus gave favor of the Catholics 7. 99. An. punished for his injustice. n. and plotted with the Count . 1. as the Donatists would have it. . Jerome. but many more persisted in their errors. (10) Baron.

& Theodoret. t. 10. though he taught nothing contrary to faith. 11. (1) Baron.-Profession of Eaith. AND HIS CONDEMATION BY THE COUNCIL OF NICE. till the time of Gregory the Great. 14 16. . 8. &c. /. Athan. .-Decree for 22. still was deposed by St. . 8. Fleury. Peter. At first he was a follower of Meletius. 9. Alex. a man of great learning and science of polished manners. An. one of which even was idolatry (2) . t. 12.85.- and insidious Letter of Eusebius of Cesarea.-Origin of Arius. n. ibid. and fond of novelty (1). Arius was an African. Cirenaica. cum. Hermant. 1.. 41 Fleury. n. 13. but of a forbidding appearance ambitious of glory. /. 21. . ar. /. 3. THE ARIAN HERESY. i-ight to the Arius judged that he would have no great chance of advancing himself according to his wishes. Orsi. 11. in Upper Egypt._ 5 L . the fourth century. :. -Exile of Eu18. Orsi. . p. c. by con(12) Baron. : .-Synod of Bythynia. ar. Peter.-End of the Council.- Condemnation of Arius.-His Errors and Supporters. 2.. in the beginning of Lycopolis. He was. . who endeavoured to put an end to it altogether. 20. . Nat. 2. and he also says that those heretics were the cause of the ruin of the Church of Africa (12). 12. 17. Bishop of us. Van Ranst. An. of many and went so far as to administer the ordination belonging by Saint. I. and he then raised a great schism in Egypt against St. lO.-Decree for the Meletians.. on account grievous crimes. Bishop of Alexandria. born in that part of it called Lybia and he went to Alexandria in the expectation of some ecclesiastical dignity. n. This bishop. ARTICLE II. 12. c. 319. 15. 3. (2) Nat. . Banishment of Arius.30 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. -Canons. Socrat. the Quartodecimans. Cardinal Baronius says that this sect lasted compassion alone. -General Council of Nice. as Baronius tells obtaining 8. St. -Synod of Osius in Alexandria. : _. 19. sebius of Nicomedia.-J PROGRESS OF ARIUS. 591. 70.

3. tinuing a partizan of Meletius. Alex. Theod. (4) N. Peter. quoted by Socrates. on the authority of the Acts of the martyrdom of St. the Son of God. sec. as Fleury tells us. was of a mutable nature. and expected to succeed of great knowledge : .Arius has torn this. but that. as a reward for his good works. and got the charge of a parochial church (5). n. n. the feast of St. according to his free will. Her. he said. Athanasius. of November. was promoted martyred called to the priesthood by Achilla.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 84. Peter. that these errors are taken from an impious work he wrote. . 31 so he made his submission to and was ordained deacon by him but he. That the Word was not from all following blasphemies eternity. advanced . and it was then. him but St. Roman Breviary on the 26th Arius. 19 & 20 Hermant c. as he embraced goodness. 8. and said to him: &quot. that Christ appeared to the Saint with a torn garment. ar. 9. who was now. Alexander has strong doubts of the truth of this vision (4) it has been admitted into the but his arguments are not convincing. 315. finding that . Epiphanius. a man and most exemplary life. was the heresy of Sabellius. 28. Alex. Fleury. . take heed lest you receive him and into your communion. who succeeded St. 69. Baucal in Alexandria. . made him a participator in the divine nature. Alexander was chosen. was equal to the Father. 2. Epip. turned him out of St. An. God. An. continued to correspond with Meletius. and of Wisdom JSToel Alexander (6). the same as one of ourselves and. Arius began to censure his conduct and condemn his doctrine. (5) St. Peter. On the death of Achilla. Peter was soon after put in prison for the Alexandria. &c. (3) Baron. Arius endeavoured again to faith. and from an Epistle of his to St. for all that. 310. the Son. cit. and from the Synodical Epistle of the Council of Nice. t. and honoured him with the title of the Word. in years.&quot. Alexander. says called Thalia. which. He then began to promulgate the 1. as Baronius(3) tells us. and created. St. 4 & 5. immediately saying that he falsely taught that the Word. St. n. begotten by him from all eternity. diss. (6) Nat. and that he might have followed vice. in 311. and of the same nature and substance as the Father. Peter. referred to by St. but was brought forth out of nothing by the Father. he still be received by him. Arius. Baron. and about to be martyred. 2ndly. that Christ.

( J) Socrut. c. 4. Alex. He then took refuge with his friend Eusebius of Nicomcdia. loc. and succeeded in seducing several bishops of that and the neighbouring provinces. ibid ilcrmant. but he bold that he publicly preached them in his first soon became so parish. When it. (9). Fleury. Paulinus of Tyre. and forsook Arius. Alexander heard of this. Arius was called before them. complained very much of (7) N. and intruded himself into the see of Nicomedia. he had recourse to and as some bishops were even then especially Secundus of Ptolemais. Fleury. THE HISTORY OF Noel Alexander HERESIES. /. (8) Theodoret. n. St. He wrote to Alexander. influence of Constantia. . both men and women more rigorous measures tainted with his heresy . J. Orsi. Notwith standing this.32 Tlieodoret. but. and St. . a powerful and learned. on the authority of St. andria 10. 1 . who left his own bishopric of Beyrout. and that the soul was part of the divinity. 4. Arius then went to Palestine. but wicked. privately to teach his errors . in 320. and St. s. besides a great number of priests. . and Theonas of Marmorica he convoked a synod in Alexandria. man. He then put himself under the protection of Eusebius of Nicomedia. c. ( . at which nearly one hundred bishops from Lybia and Egypt assembled. 6 . Alexander at first tried to bring him back by admonition. cit. espe cially Eusebius of Cesarea. and publicly professed his errors so the assembled Fathers excommunicated him and his adherents. giving an account of it to all the bishops of the Church (7). also says. . he and wrote to several of the bishops of Palestine. Aezius of Lidda or Hospolis. 1. c. through the seduced several of his female followers. St. /. and Theodotus of Laodicea. Arius began at 9. Alexander wrote from the synod an encyclical letter. 86 Orsi. . requesting him to receive Arius again into his but the Holy Patriarch not only refused his communion but obliged Arius and all his followers to quit Alex request. Arius only became more obstinate. Athanasius and Theodoret. Gregory of Beiroot. finding that of no avail. the sister of Constantine. that he taught that the Word in the Incarnation took a body without a soul. who yielded to his advice. ar. Athanasius of Anazarbus. and made many and Theodoret says (8) lie proselytes.

telling him it was unwise to disturb the Church after this manner. (14) N. to believe that Jesus Christ was either God . and leave every one Osius. that the evil was greater than he imagined. by which Fleury and Noel Alexander. this time Constantine gained the victory over which gave him peaceable possession of the empire but Licinius. n. c. Apol. and that the wisest way would be to hold his tongue. sec. 16 . /. So. An. 43. Fleury. About . I 10. Alexander (12). . 518. ar. / Her10. The Emperor being thus deceived. c. matter of trifling importance it or a simple creature was a but this has always been the aim of heretics. at length. p. 12. Sozymen. Spain for thirty years. is that he was sent by he Emperor (13). 63. and saw . a man of only Bishop of Cordova. 42 Van Ranst. ftanst say he was sent St. n. to make great appear that the dogmas they impugned were of no consequence. he summoned a synod of bishops in concert with St. was sent to put an end to it. /. disturbance in the East. When Osius arrived in Alexandria. Eusebius. . 86. earning. interlarding it with low and with all his blasphemies jests. . Eusebius of Nicomedia. in the greatest merit and however. Alexander. . Sylvester but the general opinion. and Theodoret adopt. Alexander to receive him again to his communion. 33 there he wrote his book called Thalia. 4. on the authority of Socrates. . n. 37. (13) Baron. when he came to Mcomedia he was afflicted to hear of the dissen 11. Costant. to instil into the minds of every class the against Eusebius called together a synod in poison of his heresy (10). who wrote to several Bythinia other bishops to interfere with St. to take the common people. and that all that was requisite was that both sides should be silent. of bishops favourable to Arms. 88 Fleury. so The that. n. Orsi. the faith. 1 Fleury. (11) Orsi. who had the first story for the Emperor. sions between St. 71. (10) St. /. Athan. 15. (12) Eussb. and Arius and lis followers were again excommunicated. wrote to St. n.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and who suffered a great deal in the persecution of Baronius and Van Maximilian. Alexander and Arius and the bishops of the East. Alex. in Vit. 21 mant. but the saint was inflexible (11). and his errors con demned (14). to follow his own opinions. 12. and did not touch on the integrity of the faith. ncreased . told him it was a matter of no great importance altogether. 1. n.

The Arians were so annoyed at this that they pelted the Emperor s statue. and Europe were re penses (16). and Bythinia. The Emperor then judged put an end to it it . and provided for all their ex its borders The bishops of Asia. After this . for &quot. how glorious it was for the Church to see so many pastors assembled in this council Among them were many prelates bearing on their persons the marks of per general council. & Soz. n. in not Nice. both those of the empire.. n. and he also ordered that in his defence this letter should be made public. but rather burned more violently every day. Orsi. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. the sinews being burned with a red iron St. Nat. 12. in Thrace. /. Paphnutius. age did not /. 1. who were tortured by the idolaters (18). Bishop of Thrace. 24. Oh. 1. Sylvester seconded the pious intention of the and assented to the council . 13. St. when his ministers urged him to punish them. St. Bishop order of Licinius. best to call together a and appointed Nice. as Noel Alexander asserts. /. joiced at this. after refuting his errors.&quot. 325. in which. three hundred and eighteen bishops were assembled in Nice. on the occasion. 12. c. Ann. Potamon. & . and those beyond invited all bishops to assemble there. . in contradiction to Eusebius. an swered him in a long letter. put his hand to his face. and disfigured the face of it but he showed his good sense. whose right eye was plucked out. (17) Baron. and many other ecclesiastics. Emperor. he. Fleury. Athanasius. laughing. who. he proved him to be a malicious fool. The fire of discord was not. however. and his left hand burned. and as his advanced (15) Orsi. ! secution suffered for the faith. Floury. . especially St. 25 - 11. man of great moderation. who reduces the number to two hundred and fifty (17). on the authority of St.34 12. Paul. (16)Fleury. (18) Theoiloret. and took no and said. more notice of the matter (15). Soc. in the persecution of Maximilian of Neoceserea. St. new condemnation. Ruf. to . 7. and came to the council so that. 7. Alex. Ambrose. bishop in the Thebaid. extinguished. whose right eye also was torn out for the faith . Orsi. in the year 325. lost the use of both his by hands. I don t perceive they have hurted me. &quot. Arius wrote to the Emperor but Constantine. Africa. and proved himself a . now informed of his errors. as the place of meeting.

was present and being called on to give an account of his faith. was On the 19th of June. and perse A letter of Eusebius of cuted him for the rest of his life. was not. he vomited forth. and regulate the sessions (19). speaking of the Nicene Council. but not alone all the authors cited speak of him as president. St. notwithstanding. St.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and was mutable. Roman priests. 11. 35 permit him to attend in person. who. in Nice . Athanasius calls Osius the chief and leader allows the fact. ceased not to defend the of Arius but they contradicted one another. (20) St. from which it appeared that he coincided in his opinions with Arius. he says. Nicomedia was read in the council. and. who marked him from that out. friends of his. 22. that the Son of God did not exist from all eternity. Alex. . and. and. the first but the last one (22). the general opinion. those blasphemies he before preached. (21) Orsi. which number was afterwards reduced to five. the English annotator of Mosheim. but Maclaine. Orsi. along with Vito and Vincentius. Vito and Vincentius. by his bishop. and he was covered with confusion. at the year 325. exclaimed against him (23). as Fleury was opened believes. as his legates. Apol. Fleury. c. the historian of the century. . he sent. and Osius. full of holy zeal. . de Fuga. and capable The holy bishops hearing such blasphemies for all were against him with the exception of twenty-two. (19) Socrat. with the greatest auda city. says Osius held the place of Sylvester. Notwithstanding this. Bishop of Cordova. to Tillemont. 10 (23) Ibid. /. The nothing. as Cardinal Orsi (21). /. and Gelasius Cizicenus. just like of virtue or vice. saying. N. Alexander showed forth his prowess against the enemies of the faith. infra. following held in the palace. and finally to two stopped their ears with horror. n. Eusebian doctrine party. 3. but was created from any other man. in his history. the synod present at that meeting. n. preside in his place. Athanasius brought from Alexandria. The session. (22) Fleury. in the great church of Nice. 325. Athan. The first examination Constantino s that was made was of the errors of Arius. of the synod (20) fifth . in presence of Constantino. 1. The letter was publicly torn in his presence. the council wished that his propositions should be separately examined and it was then that St. by orders. doubts if Osius presided at this council. relates.

&quot. Cor.&quot.Nor life nor death shall be able to separate us from the love of God&quot. 14. al loc. &quot. con St. many objections. &quot. and his image. seeing how they thus distorted 15. having whispered a while among to admit of God if undecided.&quot. which they considered as be introduced into the profession of faith. the very substance. 8. the power of God. they made. and this word was &quot. so that even are always delivered unto death for Jesus s we have always existed in the power and mind of God. x. The Fathers of the Council. a name sometimes given unto men Gods&quot. all. . since it is written of us (II. therefore. They could grant he was like the agreed Father. as our Saviour himself says I and the Father are one&quot. but themselves. 28. &quot. and be Acts. for the Son of God. 34) (25). consubstantial. since it is written in St. they argued. that he always existed. and knocked away the last prop on which this heresy rested . c.&quot. and move.&quot. terms . 2. them . &quot. and could not be explained away by their adversaries. &quot. for even soothsayers are called the power of God the true God. ii. /. (25) Fleury. . 7). it is written. necessary to &quot. showed the inconsistency If of their opinions (24). with the Father. iv. in the in him we live. judged it necessary to avail themselves of a word which would remove all doubts.36 by their THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. We (24) Socrat. At first the Arian party were whether they should admit all or only part of these the Eusebians. cit. 30). The Arians were asked by the Catholics : they admitted that the Son was in every tiling like the Father if he was his image if he always existed if he was unchangeable if he was subsistent in the Father if he was the power he was true God. that man is the image and glory of God Paul (I. The Arians stoutly refused to admit this (John. the Scriptures. for that one word did away with all subterfuges. very answers. he was made God. : I said you are (John. &quot. Cor. the meaning of which is that the Son is not only like but is the very thing. using the Greek word omousion. that he was immutable. x. since it is written that nothing could separate us from the charity of God. but all were overruled. For we who live sake. xvii. by his merits. 11). Athan. expression. since. they might say he was subsistent in the Father. and gave their own meaning to the texts.

our salvation descended. One Lord. Bishop of then arose and delivered an oration. and gave . and we are properly judged by you. 1. 11. it is generally supposed Eustachius. Concil. every one liberty to speak his mind of the faith. and again shall come to judge the quick and the dead and in the Holy Ghost. . One of the fathers . and ascended into . in vita Const. Theological The Emperor. 12. Cardinal Orsi says. Eccles. sent at the last session of this synod. he praised the defenders and reproved the temerity of the Arians. and wished it to be held in more and came from Mcomedia to Nice for that purpose. ex St.&quot. The Refutation of Errors. . as Ca. and has given you power even to his palace. Socrat Kufin. . in which he praised the Emperor s zeal. shall treat 37 fully of this in the third part of the work. (30) Cabass. His. (27) Fleury. and appealing to his judgment but he ordered them to be burnt. heaven. . p. (26) N. 1. accusing their colleagues. (28) Theod. of the council Antioch (28) tories. the only begotten Son it &quot. bassutius gives believe in one God. and in Almighty. The fathers then framed the decree in the following form. and all the bishops bishops desired him with his permission also took their seats (27). When he entered the assembly. : the greatest consolation to see so many fathers thus united in the same sentiments he recommended peace to them. for you are given to us by God as Gods on this earth. Kufin. : We of the Father God of God. Athanasius says (31). Jesus Christ. c. the Father (30) Creator of all things visible and invisible . Athan. he said. consubstantial to the Father by whom all God. . (31) St.AND THEIR REFUTATION. n. &quot. Athan. 42. Not. the Son of God. c. 2 Theodoret. things were made in heaven and in earth who for us died. & Theod. This symbol. Light of Light. was anxious to be pre 16. 4. 7. .&quot. true God of true not made. God has made you priests. Arian. some discontented bishops handed him memorials. Alex. ar. St. 88. His. 1. became incarnate and was made man he suffered and rose again the third day. for . He refused to sit down on the low seat he had prepared for himself in the council until the he then sat down. born. judge ourselves. making use of those remarkable expressions quoted by Noel Alexander (26). sec. 10. and gave God thanks for his vic Constantine then spoke (29) It aiforded him. (29) Euseb. n. and it is not meet that man should judge Gods.

as we have already seen. (36) Orsi. c. were deposed and banished (35). other substance or essence. that the council approved the formula handed in by Eusebius of Nicomedia. twenty-two at first. Amen. that the council then added to the hymn. n. The bishops . 54. distinguish the Catholics from the Arians. &quot. as Sozymen (33) says. n. All who speak thus of the Son of God. (35) Flemy. as a touchstone to The fathers. and states. when the fact was that it was not &quot. and fearing to lose their sees. we must acknowledge that they were more sincere than their colleagues. 17. born and not made. or created. 8. &quot. in adopting this word intended merely to signify that the was of the Father. who subscribed the decrees. c. 24. to seventeen and even these. these were Eusebius of ^Nicoinedia . Thegonis of Nice . and was recited in the synod. /. Son and part that the words. Orsi. 1. 325. t. Ann. (34) Soerat. the words. Baronius says (32). .&quot. lishing the formula of faith and pub promulgated by the council. Eusebius of Cesarea especially merits reprobation on this score. but they were reduced. and not as a substantial of him . n. for writing to his diocesans. Marmorica . 12. (33) Sozyraan. three and the two first alone remained obstinate. or convertible. he says that he subscribed it merely for peace sake. 173. The council then fulminated an anathema against any one who should say there was a time when the Son of God did not exist. was inserted to please the Emperor. meant that he was merely (32) Baron. but were afterwards persecutors of the council and the Catholics. 1. terrified by the threats of Conbeginning. when it was inserted by the fathers after the most mature deliberation. of the opposite side were. ibid. /. or that he did not exist before he was born. temerity of those. as Socrates tells us (36). 5. and finally yielded. &c. 28. But while we condemn the . /. all gave in with the exception of five (34) . is now. he adds. that the word consubstantial&quot. As it was in the Glory be to the Father. and be banished. for ever. but torn in pieces. only rejected.38 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. was composed by Osius. and ever shall be. stantine. the Catholic and Apos tolic Church anathematizes. or mutable. and ever. among other falsehoods. L 11. or that he was made of those things that exist not or should assert that he was of any . Theonas of and Secundus of Ptolemais and of these. Maris of Chalcedon .

20. after a strict examination of the arguments taken from his works. who were afterwards created by He concludes by saying him. by ordering that in future it should be celebrated not in the Jewish style. Theol. 24. Jerome (37) says. Though Arius was abandoned by still nate bishops. all except the two obsti continued to defend his errors. t. 4. at the same time. and the Emperor published a circular or decree the entire empire. before he was generated. but Juenin (38) on the contrary proves that the synod came to this decision. n. ordering the writings of Arius to be through every where burned. Arius. ar. 39 not made like other creatures. who was potentiBesides the aliter from all eternity the creator of all things. ar. he his partisans. 1. from all his episcopal functions. in the sixth Actio. afforded by this letter of his opinion. as theologians say. St. that all his followers should be admitted to the communion of the Church on condition of renouncing his schism and doctrine (40). ad Ctesiphont. 18. 12. in the Father. and that he did not exist before he was born. but of a more excellent nature. Roman Orsi. together with All his writings. /. and banished to Illiria. sec. 4. 3. Bishop of Lycopolis. t. (38) Juenin. against 19. and especially from ordaining any one but ordered. Alex. w. t. Yalois remarks that this may have been said inci dentally by the fathers. and denouncing the punishment of death and the council. in as far as such expressions are not found to be used in the Scriptures.AND THEIR REFUTATION. any one who would controvert this order (39). next suspended Meletius. declare to a reprobate cause. The council having disposed of Arius. 11. though he did not exist. The fathers that the council anathematized no one is igno of the seventh synod. and especially by the infamous Thalia. Epist. and likewise because the Son. 42. sec. 2. given over holds the same opinions as those who follow the impiety of &quot. The on the fourteenth day of the moon but according to the (37) St. any one who would assert that the Son was made from nothing. rant that Eusebius Pamphilius. so he was ex communicated by the council. were likewise condemned by the Emperor Constantino. Hieron. 2. tion of Easter. (39) Fleury. council likewise arranged the question of the celebra which then made a great noise in Asia. 5. . was nevertheless existing potentialiter. .&quot. /. proof that every one knows that Eusebius was an Arian. (40) N.

59. and sub-deacons even. the council. . but they were turned from this by St. according to Sozymen.** - V 5. 5 . the words are. 18. 42. and deacons. de Synod. Uis. was embraced by all the Churches (42). an Athenian astronomer. 12. & Socrat. . Cardinal Orsi. &quot. C 45 ) . but in making this order. Atlian. The council excludes from the clergy. ar ec 2 . or if married. 3. /. who were all eunuchs but more especially to condemn those . adv. c. however. (41) St. priests. shall mention some of the principal ones. The council next decreed twenty canons of discipline . faith. to them oblige to separate themselves says (45). and it is thought that the council then adopted the cycle of nineteen years invented by Meto. a sister. ibid. /. and deposes.&quot. not a matter of but discipline (41) for whenever it speaks of articles of faith as opposed to the errors of Arius. N. 1st. that the lish this fact. authority of Socrates is not sufficient to estab since both St. who separated in the fourth himself from his wife. which This the council declared was after the vernal equinox. & St. who justified and followed the example of Origen. . as every nineteenth year the new moon falls on the same day of the solar year as it did nineteen years before (43). for fixing the lunations of each year. in opposition to the heresy of the Valerians. on the Sunday after the fourteenth day of the moon. through love of chastity (44). Soc. who lived in the time of from their wives. It was ordained canon that bishops should be ordained by all the (44) Ibid. but that it would be laying too heavy an obligation on those who were married before they were admitted to ordination. Hier. 1. Paphnutius. who was born a few years after. the words. n. This the church believes. Alex. . &quot. Epiphanius. We have decreed. O rsi ibid. This decree met with no opposition. &c. Nat. By the third canon. Vigilan. (43)6rsi % (46) Epiphan. but as we learn from the circular of Constantine. the clergy are prohibited from keeping in their houses any woman unless a mother. who forcibly contended that it was quite enough to decree that those already in holy orders should not be allowed to marry. Her. or some person from whom no suspicion can arise. all those who have voluntarily made themselves eunuchs.40 style. and St. are used. an aunt.&quot. It was the wish of the council to establish the celibacy of bishops. we 21. /. (42) Euseb. Jerome (46). falls THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. attest that no one was admitted to orders unless unmarried.

I 12. however. and among other proofs adduces the sixth canon of the great council of Chalcedon . Noel Alexander (47) has written a special dissertation to prove that the primacy of the Roman See &quot. he affectionately took leave The sentence of exile against Eusebius and of them (48). and of Pantopolis. t. says that especially those of the See of Alexandria. . the fathers wrote a circular letter addressed to all churches. and took cogni zance of the sentences passed by them. they were banished to Gaul. that after this canon was passed. The sixth canon Metropolitan. giving them notice of the condemnation of Arius. (49). or violated the sixth canon of the council of Nice. till the bishops of their shewed that they accepted the decrees of the council party . Diss. 41 or at least by three with consent of the co-provincial bishops. and that the right of confirmation appertaining to the rest. and again their wounds recommending them to live in peace. and had those who suffered for the faith placed near himself. through fear alone (47) N. t. but before the bishops separated. and frequently kissed the scars of he then made presents to each of them. should be strictly preserved.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Constantino had them all to dine with him. and no one ever the Roman Church always had he complained that he usurped an authority which did not belong to him. Theognis. and it is proved. Finally. judged the persons of the other patriarchs.&quot. 5. It was not long. in the See of Nice. was then carried into execution. who enjoys a similar authority over the Churches subject to his Patriarchate. the rights of the Patriarchal Sees shall be preserved. 22. (49) Ibid. after the example of the Bishop of Rome. over the Churches of Egypt. and Amphion succeeded Eusebius in the Bishopric of Nicomedia. The council was then dissolved. is not weakened by this canon. 20. of Lybia. the Bishop of Rome says. Alex. the primacy. 8. Theogius. (48) Orsi. and the regulation concerning the celebration of Easter. and Chrestus.

23. and re-established in their sees. placed on the episcopal throne of clergy. was banished and deposed. and. (4) Theodoret. Atlianasius is made Bishop of Alexandria . witness in the case for the . Eustatius. . on a charge of adultery. a.-St. and they left no stone unturned to promote the only feigned. died. Nat. and St. (2) Orsi. contradicted all she had previously charged him with (4).~Council of Tyre. 1. but the Arians were highly discontented. 24. Alexandria (1).42 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 22. Arius s greatest opponent. with the unanimous consent of the bishops of Egypt and the people but when he heard of it he fled out of the way. Patriarch of Alexandria. next. n. 4. woman. 4. Among Antioch the rest. 84. and Arius again taken into favour. they were recalled by Con This conversion was stantino. 11. 25. n. and having sent in writing a feigned retraction of their opinions to the principal bishops of the East. Alexander. having ulterior t. n. interests of Arius. n. got up against him by an infamous woman. St. in caballing council. ii. Eusebius who previously had intruded himself into that . Eularius were intruded Eularius dying soon after his intrusion. 326. 26. St. OCCURRENCES UP TO THE DEATH OF CONSTANTINE.-Constantine s 27. falling sick. . deposed from that see. t. and exiled. He. 29. In the following year. ibid. however. church. -St. 23. Athanasius accused andria. Fleury. 11. Athanasius was elected his successor. therefore.-His Perjury and horrible Death. the only but the calumny was soon after discovered. and disseminated many calum nious reports regarding his elevation (2). first. discovered and obliged to yield to the wishes of the people and He was. 80. Eustasius exiled. but he. I. Alex. /. -Arius banished from Alex 28. was elected to succeed him (1) Fleury. About the same time Eusebius and Theognis pretended to be sorry for their errors. and Paulinus of Tyre. (3) Orsi. in a (3). of Ceserea. Eusebius succeeded. at getting St. Baptism and Death Division of the Empire. Eusebius is recalled . but was . to the great joy of his fellow-citizens. into his see.

on his arrival. of which we . in view. theless. believing that Arius now embraced the decisions of the Council. in which he professed to believe. that Jesus Christ was the Son of God. was &quot. where a council was sently. so Euphronius. 1. when she was on the point of ror s sister She did so. Eusebius of Nicomedia next intrigued successfully to establish Arius in the good graces of Constantine. Arian priest. 12. Emperor a profession of faith. giving the history of this unjust that previously the Arians had the Eusebians contrived to banish St. we should remark 5) Orsi. the Empe and he induced her. however. We have now to speak of the cabal of Tyre. according to the Scriptures. was omitted. Sozom. to his communion on his own authority. shall treat pre undergo the scrutiny of the bishops he wrote to the assembled prelates to examine Arius s profession of faith. to sitting. death. The partisans of Eusebius were in great force in the Council of Tyre. and presented to the recalled. Arius was Council of Nice. a native of Ceserea. proving the He would not receive him. Alex. and Constantine said that. that in this document the word and that the introduction of these words. /. Nat. Athanasius from the see of Alexandria. consubstantial&quot. and came to Constantinople. Constantine. and to see whether his retraction was sincere. was both Arians but many appointed. n.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in which Before. 1. of the Catholics of Antioch would never hold communion with those intruded bishops (5).according to the distort to his own meaning the clearest expression of the Scriptures. &quot. & 90. 5. t. & 33. produced before all ages that he was the Word by which all things were in reality had made (6). Rufin. refused to first go to Antioch. 87. he would pardon him. 6) Ibid. but he never adverted to the fact. was only a pretext of Arius to Scriptures. (7) Socrat. . c. who was a great friend of Constantia. expulsion. was immediately again received into com munion 24. and after him Flacillus. to request this favour from the Emperor. never divinity of the Son of God. (7). .&quot. and obtain permission for him to This he accomplished by means of an return to Alexandria. so Arius. but sent him to Tyre. if Arius subscribed the decrees of the In fact. satisfied with this profession . Fleury. objects 43 now .

in the days of persecution for left the faith. Athanasius.44 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. The impious synod was now opened. to crush St. who was &quot. Constantino. Athanasius. Eusebius next contrived that the Count Flavius should be present. and charged him plotted the destruction of the holy bishop. Potamon saw him &quot. and they now in the Council of Tyre (9). so that there were sixty bishops in all but many of these were . but (11) the prison /. Athanasius. St. who had planned . and selected Tyre as the most convenient place for the bishop* to meet on their way to Jerusalem. When judges that. St. came. in this position he was highly indignant with Eusebius of Cesarea. as he said. to preserve order. and had invited a great number of bishops to consecrate it with all solemnity. storm he had to encounter. O rs i. had built the great Church of the Resurrection. Eusebius. accordingly. ready to seize on any one opposed Eusebius s party (11). Helen. who. 96. should preside. St. in right of his dignity. the scheme. 12. in Jerusalem. most anxious for peace above all things so he at once agreed. now got together all the bishops of his party. was obliged to stand as a criminal to be tried for crimes he never was guilty of. to establish a general peace. 12. how you did happen when we were both prisoners. Eusebius. before the Emperor with many crimes (8). who 25. I. in reality. Potamon. who threatened him with banish ment in case of refusal (10).&quot. seated among the it Tell me. panied by a large body of troops. The Emperor was into a council. in the Thebaid renewed the same ing a consecrated chalice. and keep down any disturbance but. said he. and St. . it was on this would be well occasion that Eusebius of JSTicomedia suggested to him that it to collect all the bishops. Catholics. Flavius. accom . n. and this number was increased soon after by the the arrival of St. (8) Orsi. refused constrained to come at first. 92. my right eye was plucked out. the Bishop of casting down an altar. but was by Constantino. (12). n. and break of Ipsele. at the request charges of his mother. before the consecration. Athanasius and his friends. They accused him of having violated a virgin of having killed Arsenius. accompanied by Paphuntius. seeing and several other Egyptian bishops.

the with having violated you charge unfortunate wretch. you have robbed me of God. ex St. This last charge they they confined themselves to the two former . Thus this first calumny was most triumphantly refuted. they exhibited a hand which was cut off from his dead body. that he did not kill him. 12. dedicated to : accused of the crime. and. /. but cut off his hand only . : &quot. without any mark of constancy how could that have happened. did showing they know Arsenius ? They answered. A than. of the name of Timothy. and concealed himself. but in vain. that all council. for while the accusers were might recognize him. so Athanasius had robbed her of her honour. Apol. knowing the plot beforehand. 65. and told him to hold up his head. Athanasius protested that he did not wish to submit himself to the judgment of his enemies. for they then said. Athanasius. got up. they introduced into the synod a prostitute. The Saint. But even this would not stop their mouths. made one of his priests. 93. however. Athana sius. and the dead hand as a proof. . 45 and sound. stand forward and he said to the woman . that they did. they said. Do you mean Yes. /. the murder of the bishop. you have which I me my virginity. he came to Tyre. Athanasius asked them. But he soon repented of such wickedness. could not bring any proof of. (14) Ibid. enraged at the charge. 12. n.&quot. He then called forth the man they said was dead. (15) Orsi. that his death might be proved. instead of making any defence. contra Ar. and confronted the Saint s accusers in the making the charge. n. but Athanasius Arsenius s opened (13) Orsi. 94. to &quot. and the . safe . unless you yielded to the will of the tyrant Eusebius. St. and the synod was dissolved for that ?&quot. and left the council. desecration of the altar and chalice. who declared that St. said &quot. to prove the crime of violation (14).&quot. and the other charge was equally proved to be unfounded. by St. day (13). 97. Arsenius lent himself to the Arian party.AND THEIR REFUTATION. thinking he was St. violated me ?&quot. n. Among the other proofs they adduced of the murder of Arsenius. and. He was first accused by two bishops of Meletius s party and the principal charges they brought against him were the violation of the virgin. But the fact was thus (15) When the Saint was first Athanasius. to clear St. n.

Athanasius (16) munion with him. him with all he suffered in the Council of Tyre and acquainted others. and elected. After Arius was received in Jerusalem to The council was (16) Nat. this principal reason the Arians had in assembling to re-establish Arius in his place again. and the bishop of that city. and. Emperor. flogging and tormenting plished by magic. and confirm his doctrine. t. stantinople. did every thing in his power to prevent it. a partisan of Arius. This was only a secondary consideration. and that the Saint and that he even deposed and flogged some bishops and the winding up of the matter was. for some heresies alleged to have been written by him in a book. Basil. Beaten mantle. truth. was not one of their party. they invented a new charge that he threatened to prevent the usual against Athanasius of grain from being sent from Alexandria to Constanti supply This was just the charge calculated to ruin him with the nople. or the broken chalice. that he even threatened to put him to death and. Athanasius in the Council of Tyre. c. St. seeing . Alexander. he was condemned to banishment (18). however. 3. they then said that it was all accom out of this was a magician. (18) Hid. In the year 336 there was another council held in Con 26. though the Saint refuted the accusation. and account for their conduct (17). and showed that both his hands were perfect. . as he They. forced persons to hold com they said. (17) Orsi. 8. cit. c. . Alex. the defender of St. excommunicated and deposed Marcellus. saying nothing more about the murder of Arsenius. Constantino wrote to the bishops who were yet remaining in Jerusalem. that St. he appealed to the Emperor in Constantinople. therefore. The Eusebians then tried Marcellus of Ancira. by imprisoning some. . Finally. that he was condemned and When St. last accusation. Ilermant. and deposed. The Eusebians obeyed the imperial order.46 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. who was so enraged. 92. t. but could not succeed. 1. in his place. that the Eusebians would have it all their own way. reproving them for tumultuously smothering the and ordering them to come immediately to Constantinople. published in opposition to Asterius the Sophist. who composed a treatise filled with Arian errors. &Fle:ry. Athanasius saw that he was so unjustly deposed.

the next Sunday.AND THEIR REFUTATION. however. . and that it was to that one he intended to swear. The Eusebians persuaded the Emperor that Arius held the doctrine of the Church. and remained there many nights. but. banished by ConstanIn this he was tine. the affair was arranged it is certain that the Emperor. he only irritated him more and more. Alexander. told St. and they. in the imperial city St. 27. he returned to Alexandria. by that. matter of duty to assist a man who wished for nothing but his St. his residence there excited the Emperor was informed of this he some commotion. then in Constantinople. said to him. St. hoping. The Saturday previous. However. in the absence of St. asked him did he profess the faith of Nice. but in this they were most strenuously opposed Alexander. but salvation. Epiphan. . trusting to his oath. that he might be quite certain of the faith of Arius. and swore that he neither then or at any other time believed differently some say that he had another profession of swear to it. cit. who you don t wish to receive Arius to-morrow I will myself bring him along with (19) Fleury. Constantine. When It is said that the ordered him to come to Constantinople. and it was. to be there received by the Catholics. and Arius gave him the written profession. weeping and praying (19). hoping to have Arius received into the communion of the Church. that they would have himself deposed. taking his advice. threatened him. and insisted that he should give him a written profession of faith. regulated that he should. James. under his arm. Alexander that it was a faith . the 47 communion of the bishops. Alexander endeavoured to undeceive him. unless he received Arius into his communion on a certain St. said that prayers and penance remedy these evils. Socr. if he soon after met Eusebius of Nicomedia. alone could of Nisibis. but a fraud ulent one. and shut himself up alone in the Church of Peace. be received to the communion. and St. Bishop day. Athanasius. as he had many partisans in the city. disappointed they would have nothing to do with him . Orsi. me to the church. therefore. gave up both preaching and disputing. St. Alexander. . Sozyman. loc. Eusebians induced the Emperor to give this order. in consequence. held his tongue. ordered him to be called into his presence. finding and retired .

his friends came to the door. thirteen years Cardinal Baronius holds this opinion. Theodoret. St. He fell sick. or take Arius. and was obliged to seek a place of retirement a private place near the square was pointed out to him he went in and left a servant at the door he immediately burst open like Judas. the world. and took baths in Constan tinople at first. church accompanied by only grieved to the heart. prayed to the Lord : three o clock. that Thus St. who answers the arguments of Baronius. the Eusebians were triumphantly conducting Arius through the city. Sozymen. follow Eusebius. he was baptized in the Church of St. in the year 324. Libcllus. a few hours before his death. . He daily got worse. . but when he came . Saturday. and finding himself near death.48 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. either take me out of he may not ruin your Church. and Noel Alexander. her her Creator. . deprived of the communion of the he delayed too long. but receiving no benefit from them. Lucian. and Schelestratus Rome by and quotes many brings forward many Greek and Latin authorities to prove the same. 28. & Fausti. and especially Isidore. Sylvester. however. boasting of his re-establish to the great square the vengeance of he got a terrible spasm in the bowels.) - s c. Eusebius says that he was baptized in Nicomedia. and cites for his own opinion St. 337. Sozymen. with tears in two persons. Socrates. Orsi. and on opening it. being near his end. and thus his guilty soul took ment. and his liver all fell out. Authors vary regarding the time and place of Constantino s baptism. they found him stretched on the floor in a pool of blood in that horrible state. Papebrock and the fathers of St. 19. p. but other writers assert that he was baptized in before. at his eyes. my God. Maur. Marcel. and he went along. authorities in favour of it. He was then 64 years of age. In the following year. St. Ambrose. When the year 336 (20). God overtook him . This event took place in flight to Church. he tried the baths of Helenopolis. and St. St. his spleen. The generality of authors. and on the same day. Alexander prayed. Epiplian. in Nicomedia. Fleury. went to the and prostrating himself on the floor. his intestines. Jerome. so went to Nicomedia. Constantine died. These last say that Constantino. wished to lo f 20 Baron .

. asius. His officers then came to him. on the 21st of May. life. a little distant from Nicomedia. Vita Constant. in the church of St. he says. this order in his will. said he. 336. Hilary. his father. . in doing and St. and. Sozymen. (21) Socrates. notwithstanding the opposition of diately Eusebius of Nicomedia. this is ought not to render his faith suspected. Jerome imme especially since he recalled St. receive 49 from the bishops. Euseb. at the same time.&quot.&quot. Athanasius. and divided the empire among his children and nephews. An. Sozymen says that the Emperor left and that Constantine the Younger. since we see defended the Council and doctrine of Nice. &c. in the synodal and quoted by epistle written to the Emperor Constantius.&quot. Athanasius of his father fulfilling the will St. the a ceremony then in use previous to imposition of hands and practised with every catechumen.. He was then baptism. Constans. and St. but his festival is commemorated in the Greek Menalogy. Ambrose and we have. attests that. Auctores. sessed by . Asia. the authority of the Council of Rimini. Baron. Schelestr. &quot. carried to a castle. &quot. and. called Aquirion. the 23rd of May. when . by Eusebius. he sent back so. St. says that he lapsed into Arian errors. with tears in their eyes. Athanasius from exile after his baptism. he received baptism I feel myself with the greatest devotion. and Gaul. as St. besides to Constantius the Second. he was Athanasius to his see. having summoned the bishops. and all the ancients. but he said. cit. and the same author wrote a dissertation to prove that he died a good Catholic. Lucian. Now.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and St. Spain. Constantine died on the feast of Pentecost. expressed the wish they I health and long life . likewise. all the other Catholic bishops were reinstated in their sees (21). . Jerome. Cardinal Theodoret. accord ing to Noel Alexander. and I have no other wish but to go and enjoy St. no proof how and strenuously he suspects. Athan- Epiphanius. declared that. St. in Antiquit. truly happy. Orsi remarks that the baptism of Constantine. had for his restoration to have now received the true God. Assyria. agree in that opinion with St. &quot. and that of a leaning to Arianism. Socrates. in his Chronicle. To Constantius the Elder he left all that was pos 29. and Britain and Egypt . 337.

-Death of Constantius. Italy. . -The Empire descends to Julian. 43. signs 40. the Thebaid. who now publicly . 37. 49. . and and Illyria . in which he was declared innocent of the calumnies laid to his charge the following year. Africa.~Exile of Osius. was highly indignant on his return to Constantinople.-FalI of Osius. so the whole empire sway of Constantius. -Council of Sardis. pretend ing that Paul was unworthy of the bishopric. cit. Dalmatius and Hannibalianus. however. 32-Council of Aries. Formula. in which he the deposition procured Paul and the appointment of Eusebius of Nicomedia. for the second time. 241. -Third Formula of Sirmium. professed himself an Arian. Libia. and had a council convoked. joined with the Arian party. that Con less note. . The Schism of Lucifer. consisting of about a hundred bishops from Egypt. for Constans were Younger and Constans died. &c. now. 33. 30. 50. stantino the fell into the Church. -Second Formula of Sirmium. 34. another council was assembled in Alexandria. some provinces of It was the will of the Almighty. St. 45 48. in favour of St. died about the year 340. THE EMPEROR CONSTANTIUS PERSECUTES THE CATHOLICS. Alexander. Athanasius. and Pentapolis. HI. and to his nephews. 44. ibid. 42. on the occasion of the dedication of the church of that city com(22) Auctores.50 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.~Return of Liberius to Rome.-Counoil of Rimini. and Paul of Thessalonica was chosen his successor but Constantius. 35.-Eusebius of Nicomedia in Alexandria is translated to the See of Constantinople 31. .-Council of Milan. and Exile of Liberius. Patriarch of Constantinople. and. 30. at the age of ninety-eight.First Formula of 38. translated to a new see. Sirmium. to Constantius the Youngest. in of About the same time opposition to the laws of the Church. in Antioch but again. 39. -Division among the Arians. and Constantius and its friends (22). being absent during the election. 36. a great misfortune for the he was a violent persecutor. -He the first Formula. a council by the Eusebians was assembled .Pall of Liberius. and Death of Felix. -Li berius signs the 41. Synods and Antioch.

and permitted them to return to their churches he received St. adapted to was afterwards promulgated as the formula Eight bishops of the Eusebian party were convicted of the crimes they were charged with. only about one hundred remained. together with Osius. . Athanasius was again declared innocent. infected with the Arian heresy. St. that one hundred and seventy bishops were assembled. bishops. otherwise they said they would go away them This audacious proposal was universally rejected. condemned fled to Philipopolis. who was before president of The the Council of Nice. Athanasius says Annatus. by the true Council of Sardis. intruded into his place (1). for it those should be separated from is but just. the metropolitan city of Dacia in Illiria. all excesses. In the year 357. Athanasius most graciously in Antioch. and St. so they selves. (I) Fleury. but among them were more than fifty orientals. Battaglini.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to separate the Son from the Father (2). Arians being aware that many well founded charges would be brought against them in the council. their errors. demanded that the bishops in their synod should be expelled from the assembly of the prelates. was assembled in Sardis. and were deposed and condemned. was of ninety bishops . showed himself more favourable to the Catholic bishops after this council. Athanasius was again deposed. Noel Alexander. 51 menced by Constantine and finished by Constantius. and as these left Sardis to avoid the condemnation which they knew awaited them for their It had. in which the JSTicene Creed was confirmed. and St. cit. and allowed him to return to Alexandria. and this and drew up a formula of faith. con. Ath. who wish Constantius . as appears from the circular letters. loc. Peter St. (2) Orsi. and Gregory of Cappadocia. N. and Archimides and Philosenus. the requisites for a general councillor the convocation was general. and restored to his see.Fleury. another council. that of the Council of Sardis. where he was received by the bishops of the Church 32. consisting this was planned by Eusebius of Mcomedia and his partizans. priests. and gave an order in his favour. Alex. consisting of many 31. Apol loc. presided as legates of Pope Julius. There is no doubt but that this was a general council. said the fathers. and many others prove. as (in opposition to Peter of Marca) Baronius. & Bar. besides.

Pope Liberius was anxious for the celebration of this council. as he would not conscientiously act in opposition to the Council of Sardis. cit. to (3) Orsi. Athanasius. . and when the legates arrived there. Constantius. 2 & seq. St. as he thought it would unite the Church in the profession of the faith of Nice. obtained the favour of Constantius. and his colleague followed his example. he sent to Constantius. so he yielded. Athanasius. the Arians endeavoured to induce him to sign the condemnation of St. was also summoned. /. Severus. so in the year 355. Athanasius (3). Fragm. having selves. strations of joy. and. Athanasius. assembled a council in Milan. Eusebius of Vercelli. he had declared him inno In the meantime. to implore of him to summon a synod in Aquileia to settle finally the cause of St. and both promised to hold no more communication with St. defending the saint. Hilarion relates that Pope Liberius. knowing the plans of the Eusebians . as they expected to obtain a general sentence of condemnation on St. 5. Julius in 342. but the Arians worked hard also to have it assembled. who held his cent. and the Pope s legates them and the Deacon Hilary. bishop in the Campagna. Sulpiei. finally determine the articles of faith. solicited him come to Milan. but that. The Emperor now intended to crush the Catholic party for ever. 33. and St. Athanasius had been Church. and convoked a synod in Aries. and to establish their heresy . Vincentius of Capua and Marcellus. he was. they found that St. two legates. On his arrival. His. and establish the peace of the not why. He then insisted that the legates should sign it likewise. who succeeded St. Hilar. we know already condemned by the synod. Vincentius of Capua refused at first to do so. wrote to him that the Eusebians wished to cheat him out of a condemnation of St. Egypt and by the people and clergy with the greatest demon The Arians soon again. but he was beaten and threatened.52 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. however. court at Aries. St. he having received letters signed by eighty bishops. however. and with this intention. was highly offended at this request. and that Constantius had published a decree of banishment against the bishops who refused to sign the condemnation. there were assembled over three hundred bishops in Milan. constrained to attend. but endeavoured to absent himself. Lucifer. Pancratius. Athanasius.

I 2. they murmured loudly. and sign a profession filled with all the errors of Arianism. St. but sword on them. : demn St. Soc. immediately prepared to subscribe to it. and St. Dionisius. I.AND THEIR REFUTATION. one of the legates. and obliged Liberius to come to The Emperor. to the drew his place of their exile. was accordingly banished to Berea. was stripped naked and cruelly flogged on all the while Why did crying out to him not you oppose Liberius?&quot. the back. /. a perfidious Arian. he answered: &quot. put to death. and told the . and also be sent into exile. Hilary. Orsi. and told him that if he refused he would Liberius persevered in his refusal. on his refusal to do so. that he actually . under a guard of soldiers. At the same time. assembled bishops that they should obey his edict in the affair. and they were sent off from the council. and gave orders that they should be when his passion cooled a little. The bishops then told him that he would have to answer to the Almighty if at he used any violence towards them but he became so indignant being remonstrated with in this manner. and said. on Liberius s arrival. of (4). and when they determinedly refused to do so. that 53 But all St. trans ferred the council to the church of his own palace. Athanasius. Athanasius. which Demo- 4. that nothing ever would be concluded if that course was followed.Whatever called especially on the Dionisius. gave him three days for consideration. should subscribe the formula of the Council of Nice. He Legate Lucifer. Dionisius. Ser. loaded with chains. dreading a popular tumult. Eusebius said. he was satisfied with sending them into banishment. Constantius then appointed Ausentius in the place of St. and complained that the bishops themselves were betray ing the faith so the Emperor. &c. and. where they had to endure a great deal of harsh treatment from the heretics. philus. St. but Valens of Murcia snatched the pen and paper out of his hands. Bishop of Milan. and then that other matters could be taken into consideration. is my will is law. the Arians &quot. obey me or you shall be banished. and ordered them to subscribe the condemnation of St. the first thing to be done was. . Snip. Eusebius. Fleury. as being against the laws of the Church. was bishop (4) Sozyraen. ordered him to con Milan. in Thrace. When this came to the knowledge of the people. 2.&quot. again renewed the fable of the broken chalice.

to induce him to yield. and he endured a and violent torture long his strength failed him. tunately signed the second formula of Sirmium. Bishop of Alvira. and his learning he was at this time sixty years Bishop of Cor . and next of Liberius. that he broke down his resolution. him inflexible. burning with zeal. by publicly confessing the faith. Constantius sent for him once more. : prepared my blood sooner than betray the truth you may then save yourself the trouble Tremble at the last judg of writing to me on the subject again. and do not intermeddle with the affairs of the Church God has given you the Empire. first got him banished Spain. but. and he unfor . The great Osius was. refused to com municate with him on account of his Two authors. in which he disproves of both the word consubstantial. he was beaten so violently that his flesh was all torn. therefore. next to Liberius. joined the Eusebians. Constantius allowed him to go away to punish but soon after wrote to him. first. am to shed ment. and threatened him if he refused any longer to obey his will. Athanasius. he could suffer no more.54 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. to persecute me. but he resolutely refused to do either one or the other. 34. he induced him to use such violent measures with him. committed to us. and the words like in substance. in Spain. and condemn St. thirsting for revenge. and caused him to fall. prevarication. to Sirmium. He now was permitted to return again to Spain. Athanasius. dova. both on account of the holiness of his life. condemning St. . The poor old man was weakened with torments. and then finding the Emperor there. The principal author of Osius s fall was of Lisbon he was at first a defender of the Potamius. denounced his impiety through all Fotamius. finding . the great prop of the Faith in the West. and he showed his constancy in the persecution Constantius had of Maximilian. him brought before him. I . he. Sozymen particularly mentions that Eudosius saw the letter of Osius. of an estate of the Chancery . and advised him to communicate with the Arians. . Osius If you are resolved answered him with even greater firmness for that time . he banished him to Sirhe was then nearly in the hundredth year of his age. the fall of Osius. but Gregory. mium 35. and Osius. said he. Bishop but Constantius gained him over by giving him possession Faith. We now have to treat of. the government of the Church he has . and holding communion with the Arians.

when they got Liberius to sign one of the council. that he all besought We to who heard him to hold it now come to speak of the fall anathematized the heresy of the Arians. Bishop of Sirmium. Alex. followers of Lucifer. Athanasius. formulas. Faustus . write that Osius but St. Athan. of Sirmium. Arian. at which Here his doctrine was conConstantius himself was present. and thus fell into error. necessary to have a of the three formulas of faith composed in Sirmium. Augus. and that the others were published elsewhere but Baronius. and in horror (5). and 36. by some that Osius subscribed the second formula of Sirmium now. St. that the Son of God Cerinthus. was again con he denied to Jesus Christ not only consubstantiality . Parmen. St. Alex. (6) Socrates. To make the matter clear we must investigate the Sirmium formula which he subscribed (6). and in demned. deserves more credit. Photinus. His. and the generality of writers hold that the whole three formulas were promulgated in the councils. or rather cabals. as Cardinal died an unhappy death Orsi justly remarks. 2. . loc. Fragni. likewise asserting. says that at his death he declared he was subdued by violence. however. Orsi persuades himself that Liberius was innocent altogether. Ebion. . Photinus was previously con demned in the Council of Sardis . had no existence before Mary. Athanasius. It is said . His. There is no probability of the truth of what Socrates says. 1.AND THEIR REFUTATION. for this. Sozymen . (5). Nat. that he did not fall into heresy. Arian. 55 and Marcellinus. boasted. Hilary. it is The Arians. as Orsi says. cit. Nat. Sozymen. on account of a promise made by Constantius to the Roman ladies. St. but opinion. fall of Liberius. with and Paul of Samosata. con. Orsi. understand the knowledge Noel Alexander says that there was but one formula of Sirmium. and that Liberius professed their faith. is that Liberius committed a great error. who. or to put an end to the disturbances which The most generally received at that time distracted the city. with the Father.Senates. St. of Liberius. but he obtained from the Emperor the right of appeal to this Council of Sirmium. that the whole three formulas were promulgated in one and the same . but his Divinity. The first formula of Sirmium was adopted in the year 37. and supposes that he was liberated and allowed to return to Rome. Fleury. On the other hand. that there was a union of faith between them. 351.

This formula St. cit. qui diciint: ex non ente. orThe second was that there was a time when he did not exist. considered Athanasius looked on this formula as impious. asserted.Eos the original Greek. besides. and the Arian heresy. relating to the by the Arians themselves. administrumque ad universitatis opificium fuisse. as there was nothing about them in the Scriptures. Noel Alexander thus Latinises &quot. Athanasius and St. any one denied that Christ-God the Son of God was ages. let him be anathema. and that it was only then his Deity com menced. citati . and that his Divinity is from eternity. and two anathemas were attached to it. Nat. I. taken in the sense of the Arians. alienos a se censet sancta. Filium Dei ante est. anathema esto. it is laid down that the Son is God to all eternity. without any doubt. aut quod tempus. and not from God. was drawn up in tells us. . and they were This was not the only unintelligible to the human intellect. was written in Latin. absolutely in itself. Hilary subjected (7) Auctores. were rejected. quando ille non erat. blasphemous error introduced into this profession. dignity. The The Holy and Catholic Church does was to this effect first &quot. even demned a second first formula. and by whom all things were made. that the Father was. et non ex Deo Filium extitisse. consubstantial. and that it was only from the time he was born of Mary that he was called Christ and the Son. but in the year 357.56 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. as Noel Alexander on the authority of St. appellatum principium suae Deitatis turn accepisse dicat. together with all things to the Son. it is Catholic. aut that &quot. and like in substance.&quot. secula. and was subscribed This was totally Arian. Hilary it Catholic the truth is that. : not recognize as belonging to her. St.&quot. The second formula was published and it also in Sirmium. et Filium . and Godship. those who say that the Son existed from any creation or substance. Thus in this formula. et fuisse Catholica Ecclesia. for the words by Potamius and Osius. it is Arian (7). if before all aetas fuit. aut ex alio subsistente. Hilary. Alex. et sed ex quo tempore e Maria genitus neget Christum. St. if it be considered . for it was. time. the Son was subject which the Father to the Father.&quot. but. Greek. 38. and that greater than the Son in honour. Si quis Christum Deum.

broken Athanasius. In the second. (8). that is in 359. that it was this one which was presented to the Council of Rimini. was likewise composed in Sirmium. and com municating with the Arian bishops. down by solitude and flogging. quemadmodum Litter se dicunt. above all. et scandalum affert. condemning. eo quod in Scripest. and this was also in Latin. par Osium et PotaExemplum &quot. at the same time. conscripts 39. quia simplicius a Patribus positum a populis ignoratur. St.&quot. for the third was not drawn up till 359. to leave no means untried to make Liberius sign the formula of Sirmium. but the word substantial retained. He. Bishop of Berea. mium. and subscribed the Felix. and St. et Filium turis non contineatur. then. deeply afflicted his Rome occupied by an anti-Pope. I. now come to the case of Liberius. Athanasius informs us. liberate laid him till he communicated with them. the words like unto is retained and explained. . commands on Demophilus. and on Fortunatus. in the third. Bishop of Aquilea. formula. another apostate. and. which of the three formulas was subscribed by Liberius.&quot. and St. but this has no foundation. Athanasius. Athanasius tells us that Liberius was then it after returning to Rome. Blondel and Petavius say 13 was the (8) Nat. by third formula The Valens and Ursacius. 41. and. therefore. Vocabulum porro autem Patri per omnia similem dicimus. as equal to the Father in all things recognised : In this the word substance substantive. 40. the word is consubstantial is omitted. We Constantius had promised the ladies of Rome that he would restore him again to but had also promised the Eusebians that he would not his see . no mention is made of either word. calls it : 57 of Synods. Liberius was now three years in exile. he thus describes blasphemous. but the Son &quot. and. Valesius says it was the at seeing the see of third. It is a question among authors. Alex. where Liberius was exiled. is is rejected. et decent. but not for eight years after. Fleury. in his Book blasphemiae apud Sirmium. in his Book on Synods. nor even of the words like unto . the Deacon and thus he had the weakness to yield.AND THEIR REFUTATION. sacrae In the first formula. and the condemnation of St. placuit ut de niedio tolleretur. .

in which both the words substance and like unto were omitted. St. bishops who joined the Arians. written to the Semi-Arians. Basil of Ancira. Graveson. and Selvaggi. From all this it is proved that Liberius signed the formula. and Ursacius belonged. same substance. and this is the general opinion followed bywho strive thus to prove that the Catholic Church may The Protestant Dana3us numbers Liberius among the fail. do not belong to the Church. Alexander.58 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. no agreed one can deny that the Roman Church can err. 48. the first Secondly The formula he signed. also. Fleury. . for Constantino. in obserr. was not drawn up by the Anomeans. favoured the Semi-Arian party. but not in the second. Another proof is from Sozymen. Rel. . but said he was of and this was expressed in the first formula alone. Petav. Gotti. 14. Epiphan. t. Tlieol. but which approved of the words substantiality and like unto (9). de Her. or pure Arians. and says that all historians are that he signed this formula. 3 ques. and second. Baron. These did not admit that the Son was consubstantial with the Father. Nor does by that the formula subscribed it militate against this opinion. that annotator gives it it as the first was the There are very weighty reasons to prove First The formula sub that this opinion is founded on fact scribed by Liberius was the one drawn up at the time Photinus formula he signed. second he signed. (9) Tournelly. heretics. . not. this was. and not the and which was laid before him by Demophilus. .Arians. but by the Semi. and which is. and after that. the learned and in of Mosheim. de Vcr. Theol. These very bishops even who subscribed the first rejected the second in a synod purposely the substance of the Father . who. Danaeus. de Primatu. indubitably. ad Mosh. the most probable. Blondell. Liberius was also subscribed by the Anomeans. of the t. . Orsi. Graveson. 40. But the general opinion held by Catholics. join with Gotti. Alex. he says. An. obliged them to subscribe to it. p. Juenin. Berninus. 2. Nat. N. that those who assert that the Son is not like unto the Father in all and things. Valcns. as Socrates informs us. to which sect Demophilus. Fleury. . Hermant. I. is. 357. Opus. 52. in which he declares. Selvaggi. Juenin. Orsi. which Baronius.. convoked in Ancira. : was condemned. who general opinion of Catholic authors. because they would not approve of the Nicene Creed. Tournelly. Bern in. 1. Hermant. who quotes a letter of Liberius. from which the word consubstantiality was omitted.

for Noel Alexander supposes. as Sozymen informs us. not that he signed a formula in itself heretical. conquered exile. in sub scribing the formula. a perfidy. Hilary calls the formula signed by Liberius 42. this. 43. for these fragments were written after the return of Liberius to Rome. that St. Alex. in the year 358. and entered Noel Alexander says. for he writes. Hilary called the formula perfidious. that Liberius. Orsi the catacombs. the argument is not weakened. since. who. says. subscribed to heretical pravity. & cit.. according to Baronius. he called it a deduced from the by a weary Chronicle of St. itself). . imagined. and that they ad hered to Felix II. Athanasius and communicating . and Liberius as fallen from his office. that there was a large section of the people opposed to him on account of his fall. in the perverse sense as understood by the is Arians. people . Jerome might have written this under the belief that it was true. that St. and he was thenceforth looked on as the lawful Pope. and was. as (10) Nat. were foisted in by some other hand. Nevertheless. almost like a conqueror. withal. 59 Because St. However. since speak ing of it before (considered absolutely in Another argument Catholic formula. in St. when he most strenuously refused to approve of the formula of the Council of Rimini others again. was a schismatic. to whose sect he belonged at the time. as Juenin. he was received. not only denied the consubstantiality. He till afterwards refused to sign the formula of Rimini. T Another answer is. that Liberius. with the liveliest demonstrations of joy and unlawfully ordained by three Ari#n bishops.. that St. When Liberius returned to Rome. in consequence. that these words.we do not justify Liberius for condemning St. and the anathema hurled against Liberius. the heretics spread every where abroad. or the following year. with heretics. obliged to conceal himself in the death of Constantius (10). when he learned the lapse of Liberius. taking it . and excommunicated the Emperor. Hilary s fragments. and although Rome Jerome means by the communion with heretics was an error. it was not heresy itself. but even the likeness of the Son to the Father but. Jerome. but that he communicated with heretics. by the clergy and but Baronius says. he joined the Catholics. in the commencement.AND THEIR REFUTATION.

and Eustatius of Sebaste. 357. XIV. Sozymen. I ? /. of the opinion that it should be done. that he was taken and conveyed by the Imperial Ministers to Ceri. Alexander. and the body of St. (1 Na AlcX ^ t. with some relics of saints on one side. not Felix I. that there was a doubt in the time of Gregory XIII. on account of his illegal intrusion into the Popedom . is opposed by N.i. on the contrary. in his notes. loc. his name was left undisturbed in the Martyrology. Canon. on that account. that the Pope Felix commemorated in the Martyrology. A An. that Felix lived eight years after the return of Liberius but Sozymen. must necessarily be Felix II. We now come back once more fell. those who followed the opinions of Basil. cit.. by by the sufferings he endured for Christ. a marble sarcophagus was casually dis covered buried in the earth. in which he was enumerated among the saints. says. us he died almost immediately after that event. lL 359. and the Pagi prove. (11).S. (&amp. should be expunged or not from the sword or of Felix. in opposition . se&amp. Eudoxius. were called Semi. Finally. Felix. Felix on the other. who denies that Felix II. were called Anomeans those were pure Arians. and Aesius. /. tells . the day preceding the festival of St.60 Baronius THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. quoted by Fleury. Felix. . . When split up some who followed the party of Acasius. Bened.. of Ancyra. Eunomius. The schismatic seventeen miles from Rome. tells us. : to the Arians. 2 . and beheaded. but even the likeness of the Son to the Father but the followers of Ursacius and Valens. 32 Sozymen. Baronius says. it appears from the Book of the Pontiffs.. did not follow the Osius and Liberius sects they were already into a great many . 44.gt. Baron. &quot. An.Arians . Orai. and he was himself. with this inscrip The body of St. 1582. and both the Pagi. 4. Baronius to Noel Alexander. but the learned are divided as to whether he died the Martyrology. Theolog. & . contend for the contrary. Baron. 14 . and they not alone rejected consubstantiality. thqugh called Arians.gt.&quot. and. S. Benedict XIV. as to whether the name of Felix II. Marcellinus. opinion of Arius in every thing. these condemned the blasphemies of Arius. who condemned Constantius and this discovery was made on the 19th of July. he confesses. but soon after he says. ever was a true Pope but Roncaglia. 2. tion. t. de . iss&amp.lt. c. &quot. that there is no doubt about the sanctity and martyrdom says. Pope and Martyr.

/. 1. of Arius. Arians sent ten likewise. and published ten anathemas against the errors . as St. and Photinus. along with Ursacius and Valens. and proposed that all should be satisfied with signing that. in which. and the whole world groaned. of sorrowful celebrity. giving him notice that the fathers had decided that there should be nothing added to or taken from the council of Nice. 2. and (12) N. ad. and decreed that there should be no addition to or subtraction from that formula that the word substance should be retained. c. de Synode. Fleury t. and Ursacius. S. (13) S. according to the document they pre The ten legates accordingly went. All the Catholics subscribed Valens and the Arians refused. but the rest were Catholic. Ten bishops were now sent as legates from the council 46. Jerome the Nicene faith was condemned.. it one in Rimini in Italy. but the sented to the council. 61 the divine per not admit the consubstantiality of We have now to relate the events of the Council of says. t. but Ursacius. but it was allowed that the Son was like unto the But the Catholic Bishops unanimously Father in all things. but did sons (12). it is true. When they came to treat of matters of faith. Dialog. 2. Ursacius. themselves were judged heretics. finding was considered that the best way of arranging every thing quietly. and other heads of the Arian party produced a writing. and Germinius. but that of the Council of Nice. Hieron. Caius. Gaul. LuciOrsi cit. Italy. would be to hold two about the articles of the faith. and they again condemned the doctrine of Arius. Sabellius. were condemned and deposed by a formal act (13). t. Africa. in which was laid down the last formula of Sirmium of the same year. Yalens. Athan. to the Emperor. fer. and among those there were eighty Arians. The Council of Rimini was held in 359. and was attended by more than four hundred bishops from Illiria. and that they regretted to find that Ursacius and Valens wished to establish another formula of faith. 102. Hermant. Sozymcn. the word substance was rejected.AND THEIR REFUTATION.. the other at Selucia in the East. so they to this. councils. Rimini. Spain. answered that there was no necessity for any other formula. in which. . 45. bearers of the letters of the council. When the whole Church was in confusion itself Arian. and Britain. Valens. 9. Alex.

they were induced to sign . He likewise wrote a letter to the fathers of the council. they seized on the that he was obeyed. against the express orders of the council. likewise. Rimini. and Constantius then gave orders to his Prefect Taurus. church. 2. and give them his final answer. and partly by threats. c. When the legates sent by the council arrived. When the Emperor came to Adrianople.62 these THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. till the bishops had signed the last formula of Nice. and that (14) Thood. telling him that nothing would ever change them. which was admitted in the Sirmium formula. and that he . and to send into banishment any bishops refusing their signature. at first. the legates followed him. were. induced to revoke the deposition of Ursacius. The legates having put things in this state returned to 47. prohibiting them from using any more the words substantial and consubstantial. not to permit the council to be dissolved. They his companions. a formula. they could not obtain an audience from the Emperor. The fathers of the council wrote again to Constantius. which particularly restricted them on this point. made a show of constancy. and were taken to the small town of Nice. but leaving out in all things. and it was only after a long delay. Partly by deception. that barbarians. he was about to proceed against the had given orders to the legates to wait for him in Adrianople. Soz. /. worse even than the third formula of Sirmium for not only was the word substance omitted. but the Son was said to be like unto the Father. 19 . formula with their own hands (14). and begging therefore that he would give an audience to the legates and let them depart. and wrote to the Emperor the expressions he objected to were not allowed to be used any more. The Catholics. Ursacius and Valens now returned to Rimini. /. 2. Soc. 4 . arrived first and prejudiced the Emperor against the and presented him with the formula of Sirmium. where he would see them on his return. and condemned by the council and they signed the . which was rejected by the Council of Rimini. /. in the neighbourhood and there they answer to the council. and as their party was now in the ascendant. and refused to communicate with the who excused their legates. if their number did not exceed fifteen. that he sent an council. . began to treat with the Arians.

and with very convincing arguments. mitted a great error. him be excommunicated who says that he is not like unto the &quot. and when they were all assembled in the church. that the Son was not a creature. They : were wavering as to whether they should sign the formula or not. and were induced to sign the formula and thus the Council of Rimini. and when it was abolished.&quot. St. . They persuaded themselves that Valens was not an Arian. 453. St. . and return to their homes. and along with it the Nicene faith . he protested that he was not an Arian. 2. by alleging all they suffered at the Court of the Emperor but by degrees they were tired out. but more perfect than or that he is from nothing. immediately on the dissolution of the council.&quot. born of the Father before all ages. /. from St. excommunicated. said. They were not they discovered their error . and not from the the others) . or. Sulp. These denunciations of anathema. Jerome. &quot. who drew up the formula.Tragmen. Jerome says. or that there was a time . in subscribing that formula. Jerome tell us. St. he who says he is a creature. too. : excommunicated. which opened long. were Let him be read out. began to The word substantial. . Ser. so fraudu lently put forward. the bishops got leave to was ignominiously terminated. is now boast of their victory. &quot. so gloriously. like all other creatures (how he conceals the poison. found Noel Alexander proves. their constancy failed. said they. and then itself was that the world. did not (15) St. till for the Arians. and the errors attributed to Valens. who asserts that Jesus Christ he exclaimed. is Father. that he was not like the other created beings.&quot. when he was not or that any him he who teaches any of those things let thing was before Let him be him be excommunicated. it Arian. and they subscribed the same formula as the legates (15). And all answered Father . as for not being more guarded against the wiles of the This was the snare that was laid for them Arians. groaning. and others. the meaning was. but they are not so much to be blamed for bad faith. for all he taught that Christ was a creature. error 63 . but of a higher order. p. that the bishops of Rimini. Let not the Son of God. Hilar-. according to the Scriptures. threw the Catholics off their guard.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Ambrose. We cannot deny but that the bishops of Rimini com 48.

to sign the formula constantly of Rimini. in the . 9. con. however. Ffeury. at which many Arian bishops were present but it was soon dismissed. we will relate the schism caused by the wretched Lucifer. Bishop of Cagliari. in the year 361. (16). but in vain. 21. Gregory of Nazianzen says that Constantius. Oral. Fleury counts sixteen formulas published by the Arians. for a time restored peace to the Church as St. (17). as we have already related (No. just before his and of causing arms of the Arians. as Baronius relates in his Acts of Pope Liberius. . that the Son every thing unlike the Father. and that he was formed out of nothing. refused. Jerome says. 14. repented. administered him baptism His death put an end to the synods.64 violate THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 33. whom he had made Bishop of Antioch. professing idolatry. loc. of three things of his relatives of having made Julian. but through hatred of Christianity itself. after his liberation in 360. the faith . and. that they could not agree to any nothing heretical. de Synod. An. not alone in substance. n. death. Liberius. he was obliged to leave Rome and hide himself in the catacombs. 41). Nat. Meury & Orsi. taken in its obvious sense. Lucif. 17. the impious Julian the Apostate took the reins of empire. and. for the bishops were so divided. 33. where Damasus and the rest of his clergy went to see him. . not out of any liking for the Arians. formula 49. Hieron ad. Alex.. 50. Soc. but also in will. not satisfied with the formula adopted was drew up another in which they said. com menced a most fierce persecution against the Church. and he remained there until the death of Constantius in 361. c 47. Naz. t. however. 2. After the Council of Rimini was dissolved. . On the death of Constantius. Athan. N. &quot. Cassar : Of the murder such confusion in the Church. in had already taught. Before we speak of the other persecutions the Catholics had to endure from the Arians. n. after his first error in subscribing the formula of Sirmium. St. St. and Euzoius. Dis. 359. who after all his (16) S. Greg. /. there was another council held in Seleucia. /. as Arius at the Council. and just before his death. it contained While the Council of Rimini was in progress. (1?) Baron. . The beast dies and the calm returns&quot. He died. St. whom he protected with such zeal. for. the Arians of Antioch.



labours and fortitude in defence of the Catholic Church, vexed



Eusebius would not approve of his having consecrated

Paulinus Bishop of Antioch, separated himself from the commu nion, not only of St. Eusebius, but also of St. Athanasius and

Pope Liberius; he was thus the founder of a new schism, and, in he died in 370, despite, retired to his see in Sardinia, where without giving any proof of returning once more to ecclesiastical He was followed in his secession by some people in unity. Sardinia and other kingdoms, and these added error to schism, It by re-baptizing those who had been baptized by the Arians. is of remark that Calmet in his Sacred and Profane History worthy (Book 65, No. 110), tells us that the Church of Cagliari celebrated
the feast of Lucifer as a saint or holy personage, on the 20th of May. Benedict XIV., in his work de Sanctor Canon, tome 1, lib.
1, cap. 40, says, that two Archbishops of Sardinia having written for and against the sanctity of Lucifer, the Sacred Congregation

of the Roman Inquisition, in the year 1641, imposed silence on both parties, under severe penalties, and decreed that the venera The Bollandists (die. 20 tion of Lucifer should stand as it was. Maii, p. 207) strenuously defend this decree of the Sacred Congre

Noel Alexander (sec. 4, cap. 3, art. 13) and D. Baillet gation. vita Luciferi, 20 Maii) maintain, that the Lucifer whose feast (in

celebrated in the Church of Cagliari, speak of, but another of the same name,
in the persecution of the Vandals.


not the personage




51. -Julian

made Emperor, and


52.-Jovian Emperor; his Death.

53.-Valentinian and Valens Emperors. 54.-Death of Liberius. 55, 56.-Valens puts eighty Ecclesiastics to Death his other Cruelties. 57. -Lucius
persecutes the Solitaries.

58.-Dreadful Death of Valens.
64. -Persecution of


61 .-Perse

cution of Genseric.
of Theodoric.




67, 68. -Persecution of Leovigild.




death of

Constantius, the

Apostate succeeded to the Empire.



impious Julian the he restored the



Catholic bishops to their sees, but he soon began to persecute not only the bishops but the faithful in general, not because they were Catholics, but because they were Christians, for he declared

enemy of Christ. He perished in the Persian war in the year 363. He was engaged in the heat of Persians flying before his troops, he battle, when, beholding the
himself an idolater and an

on his own soldiers to the pursuit, when just at the moment, as Fleury relates, a Persian horseman let fly an arrow, which went through his arm, his ribs, and deep into
raised his


to cheer

and even wounded his fingers and fell over his horse. He was borne off the field and some remedies applied, and he felt himself so much better that he called for his horse and arms again to renew the fight, but his strength failed him, and he died on the same night, the 26th of June, being only thirty-one years and six months old, and having reigned but one year and eight months after the death of Constantius. Thodoret and Sozymen relate that when he felt himself wounded he filled his hand with blood and threw it up towards heaven, exclaiming, Galilean,
the liver

he tried to pull



in the attempt, but could not succeed,


thou hast conquered


Theodoret likewise relates that

St. Julian

Solitary, while lamenting the threats uttered by Julian against the Church, suddenly turned to his disciples, with a serene and smiling countenance, and said to them, The wild boar

Saba the

which wasted the vineyard of the Lord is dead and when the news of Julian s death afterwards reached them they found that he died at the very hour the holy sage announced the fact to

Cardinal Orsi quotes the authority of the Chronicle of Alexandria, which says that the horseman who executed the Divine vengeance on Julian was the martyr St. Mercurius, who,


a hundred years previously suffered in the persecution of Decius, and that this was revealed in a heavenly vision to St. Basil (1).
52. On the very day of Julian s death the soldiers assembled and elected Jovian, the first among the Imperial guards, though he was not general of the army he was much beloved for his fine appearance and for his great valour, of which he gave frequent

When Jovian was elected Emperor, he proofs during the war. said, As I am a Christian I cannot command idolaters, for the

Fk ury,





& 15




3; Philost.

c. 2.



army cannot conquer without the

assistance of God.





Then all command Emperor, you

He was delighted with this answer. truce for thirty years offered by the Persians, accepted the and was most zealous in favouring the Catholics, opposing


both the Arians and Semi-Arians.

Church, but


was of

restored peace to the but short duration, for he died eight





The of his age. attribute his death to

elevation to the Empire, in the 33rd year generality of authors, following St. Jerome*

want of caution

in sleeping in

a room in

which a large quantity of charcoal was burned, to dry the walls which were newly plastered, and thus died one of the greatest
champions of the Church (2). O n the death of Jovian, Valentinian was elected by the 53. in 364. He was the son of Gratian, Prefect of the Prearmy
torium, and he was banished


Julian, because, being a Christian,

he had struck the minister
with lustral water.


the idols,




was solicited by the army to elect a colleague, as the empire was attacked in various points bythe barbarians, so he chose his brother Yalens, declared him
emperor, and divided the empire with him. Valentinian governed the West, when the Church enjoyed a profound peace, and Valens


governed the East, where he kept up and even increased

the dissensions already too rife there, and treated the Catholics with the greatest cruelty, as we shall shortly see.
54. Pope Liberius died in the year 366, and before his death had the consolation of receiving a deputation in Rome of several Oriental bishops, who were anxious to return to the unity of the Church. Liberius sat for fourteen years, and notwith


standing the error he fell into by signing the formula of Sirmium, is called a pontiff whose memory is in benediction by St. Basil,

Orsi says that his name is St. Epiphanius, and St. Ambrose. found in some Greek Martyrologies, and that he was venerated


and Sandinus says that his name is still in the St. Martyrologies of Bede and of Wandelbert. Damasus, a man of great learning and sanctity, was elected Pope, at his death, but he was troubled for many years by the

Church as a


(2) Orsicit. Theod. Fleury, loc.




Ilicron,Ep. 60.



commonly called Ursicinus, who sacri legiously got himself elected Pope at the same time (3). 55. We now come to the reign of Valens, who was even a Eudosius, greater persecutor of the Church than Constantius. an Arian bishop, had a great influence over him, and, from his extraordinary anxiety to protect this bishop, he became a perse Before he set out to undertake the war cutor of the Catholics.
against the Goths, he was baptized by Eudosius, and, just as he was receiving the Sacrament, the bishop made him swear that he would persecute and banish from the country all the defenders and Valens fulfilled this impious oath of the Catholic faith

with dreadful exactness.




strong in the


favour, began

to maltreat the Catholics,


these, not

being able to endure

any longer the persecutions they were

subjected to, deputed eighty ecclesiastics of great piety to go to Nicomedia, and implore Valens to put a stop to the violent measures of their enemies. Valens was outrageous at this pro ceeding, and commanded Modestes, Prefect of the Pretorium, to put them all privately to death. This impious order was

barbarously obeyed by Modestes. He gave out that he was only sending them into banishment, lest the people should be incited to break out and he had them all put on board a ship,

and the sailors were ordered, when they were a good distance from the land, so that no one could observe them, to set fire to the vessel, and leave them to perish. The order, cruel as it was, was obeyed the vessel was fired but the Almighty deranged

a strong wind immediately sprung up, and blew the vessel on shore while it was still burning, and it was
all their plans, for






Valens next sent

Edessa into

It is well

many ecclesiastics of the Church of known how he strove to banish St.

but the hand of the Lord miraculously prevented it, for when he was about to sign the sentence, the pen was broken in

and his arm was paralyzed. He, likewise, persecuted the Catholic followers of St. Meletius, and banished them from the churches but these faithful Christians used to assemble at
his hand,

the foot of a mountain, and there, exposed to the winter
(3) Sulpicius,



1. 5 Fleury Sandinus; Vit, Pon.



(4) Fleury, ibid ; Theod. /. 4, c. 24 Soz. L 6, c. 14; Soc. /. 4, c. 15.



and the summer s sun, they praised God but even then he dispersed them, and few cities in the empire but had to their pastors. deplore the tyranny of Valens, and the loss of

Gregory of Nyssa gives a sad description of the desolation caused by the tyrant in many provinces. When he came to Antioch he put a great many to the torture, and ordered a




be drowned, and sent


a very great multitude

into exile, into Palestine, Arabia, Lybia,

and many other pro

The holy solitaries of Syria and Egypt, by their lives and miracles, were the great upholders of the faith of the people, and were, on that account, particularly odious to Yalens. He,
therefore, issued a decree, directed against those champions of the faith, obliging them to enrol themselves among his troops,

and intending to punish them severely in case of disobedience, Full scope well that they would not do as he ordained. knowing
was given by
this to the Arians, to gratify their malignity, at

the expense of these innocent men, and especially against the monks of St. Basil. Phontonius, who usurped the see of Nico-

but media, exercised horrible cruelties against the Catholics even he was surpassed by Lucius, the pretended Bishop of


who obtained


was promulgated, Lucius left Alexandria, and, accompanied by the commander of the troops in Egypt, placed himself at the head of three thousand soldiers,

by monks should bear arms

possession of that see by cruelty, and When the law of Valens that the same means.

and went

to the deserts of Nitria,

where he found the monks,

not, indeed, prepared to fight, but to die for the love of Jesus Christ, and he put whole companies of them to death, but five

thousand of them escaped his fury, and

fled to

a place of safety,

and concealed themselves.

Wearied out with

and tor

turing these holy men, Lucius now seized on their chiefs, Isidore, Heraclides, Macarius of Alexandria, and Macarius of Egypt, and

banished them to a marshy island in Egypt, where all the inha but when they arrived at the shore, a bitants were idolaters child possessed by the devil was thrown at their feet, and the

devil cried out


O, servants of the true God,
(5) Anctor.


do you come


to drive us


this place, which we have possessed so long." over the child, cast forth the devil, and restored They prayed the infant to his parents, and were received with the greatest

of the idols joy hy the people, who threw down the old temple and hegan to build a church in honour they previously adored,

of the true God.


the news of this transaction was told in

Alexandria, the people

all cried out against their impious bishop, who, they said, was warring, not against man, but against God, and he was so terrified with the popular excitement, that he gave the solitaries permission to return again to their



The Goths extended

Valens was overtaken by the Divine vengeance in 378. their ravages to the very gates of Constan

and he was

so lost to shame, that

he thought of nothing

The people the while but enjoying himself in his capital. to murmur loudly at this state of inaction, and he, at began
roused himself, and marched against the enemy. Theodoret relates, that, as he was leaving the city, a holy monk, called

who lived in the neighbourhood, thus addressed him Where are you going to, Emperor, after having made war Cease to war with the Almighty, and he will against God ?


put an end to the war raging against you but should you not do so, mark my words, you will go to battle, but the vengeance




pursue you


will lose

your army, and never
said Valens, in a rage,

return here

shall pay for your audacity and he imme ordered that he should be sent to prison. The hermit s diately prophecy turned out too true. When Valens arrived in presence

and your



of the Goths, their king, Fritigern, sent him an embassy, asking peace, and leave to establish himself and his people in

and, on the 9th of rejected his offer both armies were drawn up in front of each other, August, 378, and Fritigern again made proposals of peace. But while the Romans were deliberating on their answer, the division of


The Emperor

Bacurius, Prince of the Iberians, was attacked, and the battle

became general


and never,

since the slaughter at Canne, did


suffer such losses as

on that day.


the night

(6) St. Hieron. Chron.


St. Taulin.

Ep. 29; Auetor. antea.




Yalens mixed himself up with some of his soldiers and thinking thus to conceal himself but he was wounded with

and was brought by his hut of a peasant by the way-side. He was scarcely there when a troop of Goths, looking for plunder, arrived, and, without knowing who was inside, endeavoured to
an arrow, and




soldiers into the

but when they could not succeed at once they set fire to the hut, and went away, and the unhappy Valens was burned alive in the fifteenth year of his This was, as Orosius writes, a reign and the fiftieth of his age.

break open the door




just judgment of God the Goths asked Valens for some bishops, to instruct them in the Christian religion, and he sent them

Arians, to infect the poor people with their impious heresy ; and so they were justly appointed afterwards, as ministers of the

On the death of Yalens, Gratian Divine justice, to punish him. became master of the whole empire, and this good prince gave liberty to the Catholics of the East, and peace to the

We now have to treat of the persecution of the Catholics of Africa by Genseric, the Arian King of the Vandals. He com menced persecuting the Catholics in the year 437, with the
intention of

making Arianism the

religion of all Africa, as St.

Prosper writes. Immediately after conquering Carthage, he commenced a most cruel war against the Catholics, plundered
the churches, and gave them as habitations to his vassals, after banishing the priests, and taking away the sacred vessels and,

have no religion but Arianism, he drove the bishops, not alone out of their churches, but out of the cities, and put many to death. He would not permit the Catholics, on the death of St. Deogratias, to elect another Bishop of Carthage,
intending to

and he prohibited all ordinations in the province of Zeugitania, and in the Pro-consulate, where there were sixty -four bishoprics

the effect of this order was, that, at the end of thirty years, there were only three bishops in the province, and two of these

were banished, and the third


to Edessa.

Cardinal Orsi,

following the historian of the Vandalic persecution, says that the number of martyrs was very great. The history of four

(7) Orsi, cit.


St. Pros, in




brothers, in particular, slaves of one of Genseric s officers, is These martyrs, finding it impossible to serve very interesting God according to their wishes in the house of their Vandal




and took refuge in a monastery near the city of but their master never ceased till he found them out,

and brought them back to his house, where he loaded them with chains, put them in prison, and never ceased to torture them.


Genseric heard of


instead of blaming the master for

his cruelty,



only encouraged him to continue it, and the them with branches of the palm tree to that

and entrails were laid bare but, though was done many days in succession, the following days they were always found miraculously healed. He next shut them up in a narrow prison, with their feet in stocks made of heavy timber but the beams of the instrument were broken in pieces, When this was told to Genseric, he like twigs, the next day.
pitch, that their bones

banished them to the territories of a Pagan king, in the deserts
of Africa.



of their

place of exile were


Pagans, but these holy brothers became apostles among them, and converted a great number but, as they had no priest, some

them made their way to Rome, and the Pope yielded to their wishes, and sent a priest among them, who baptized a great



Genseric heard


he ordered that each of

the brothers should be tied to a car

by the


and dragged

through the woods


dead, and the barbarous sentence was

The very barbarians wept when they saw


thus torn to pieces, but they expired praying and praising God in the midst of their torments. They are commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, on the 14th of




Genseric was daily becoming more inimical to the Church, and he sent a person called Proculus into the province of Zeugitania, to force the bishops to deliver up the holy Books and
the sacred vessels, with the intention of more easily under mining their faith, when deprived, as it were, of their arms. The bishops refused to give them up, and so the Vandals took every




and even stripped the

cloths off the altars,

and made

(8) Fleury,

4; Baron. An. 437

& 456


Orsi, cit.

but the Divine vengeance soon overtook Proculus. but the Arians soon heard of it. that was. or that of his son. unless he was an Arian. and he then subjected him to the most cruel torments. Roman Martyrology on Saturus. The Arians even frequently trampled the Holy Sacrament under their for feet in the Catholic Church. he ordered him to be beheaded. as Victor Vitensis informs us. beautifully finished. shirts of 73 them. to bury him after his death at the foot of that he died in a few days after tree and when his friend. Armogastes is marked in the buried him. but in vain . constancy. he next threatened He him. and compelled him to dig the earth. had his head and legs bound with cords twisted with the greatest possible force. Genseric next issued a decree. he then was hung up in the air by one leg. they attacked the faithful in their church. but when he could not shake his faith. and killed a great many before the altar a great many took to flight. While Armogastes was one day engaged in this humble employment under a tree. and Archiminus and who suffered likewise. Genseric used every artifice with Archiminus to cause him to apostatize. after eating away his own tongue. he died raving mad. that Armogastes if this sentence were carried into execution. the . and then. with his head down. and when all this could not shake his He knew. a person called Armogastes. and collecting a body of armed men under the leadership of one of their priests. however. one of the sons of Genseric. to death in various ways by order of Genseric. the 29th of March. and tend a herd of cows. some rushed in at the door.AND THEIR REFUTATION. that if but there was a private condition he showed any symptoms of fear. are commemorated with him. sword in hand. . and there he The name of St. When the Catholics were deprived of their church they secretly opened another in a retired place. set about digging his grave. would be venerated as a martyr by the Catholics. a Christian of the name of Felix. he found in the spot a marble tomb. annexed . who was in the court of Theodoric. so he changed the sentence. he gave orders that he should be beheaded. he first made him promises of preferment. in . that no one should be admitted into his palace. Theodoric tried every means to make him apostatize. signalized himself for his constancy in the faith. but they . others mounted up to the roof with arrows. he begged a friend. compliance with his request. were afterwards put 61.

He made Hunneric heir to his kingdom. sentence should be executed but if on him at the moment. in the of his reign over the Vandals. Hunneric then placed executioners at the door of the church. unless he me leaves all things to follow him. nine years after his landing in Africa. he did not become an Arian. out of the way. and these tore off not only the hair but even the scalp of the persons who went in. that no one can be his disciple. in the male line. and by the prayers of his companions. and settled the succession so that the oldest his. and even some lost their lives. that he should not preach any more. a decree published . and he commenced with his own relatives. if with his four children. had a withered hand. and threw herself weeping at his feet. with clubs stuck over with spikes. and he would likewise have put his other brother. my &quot. or to the tears of his wife. was despoiled of every thing. who came to see him one day son. He now began to persecute the Catholics . He thus remained firm. lest he He awaited should be venerated as a martyr by the Catholics.dear wife. unmoved. and forty. but Saturus. He sent away noblemen into the fields to the corn one of these reap . and he was. spared. He put to death his decendant of 62. and such violence was used that some lost their sight.74 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. either man or woman. besought him to have pity on her and her poor children. the He Almighty restored him the use of it. and his young child. and that he had no power to prohibit any one from entering. but he was still obliged to go. only he:had the good fortune to be forewarned. he commanded the holy bishop Eugenius. should always be king. . brother Theodoric. but he soon showed the innate cruelty of his disposition. and he 1 year 477. the king s eldest and he was threatened with confiscation of his entire property. and embracing his knees. and that he should allow no one. the fiftieth Genseric died at length. so that he could not work. death with the greatest intrepidity. The saint answered that the church was open for all. that his life no terror could be remarked should be spared. and saved himself. into the church. Hunneric. if you loved me you would not tempt me to send myself to hell they . reigned with clemency. in the beginning of his reign. Saturus was in thejservice of Hunneric. he yielded neither to the threats of the tyrant. consequently. said. but I will never forget the words Divine Master. Genton. may of do with my as they please.

hundred golden crowns. Alex. In the com mencement of their journey they had some little liberty. 10. Fluery. all their lives after. and. but in a . and no egress allowed for a moment. 15. they were shut up together in a very narrow prison. t. The Catholic bishops. and banished all into Italy and Sardinia. to force them to accuse the bishops and priests of having had criminal intercourse with them many of them died in these until Catholic bishops should go to the Crown that no successor could be consecrated to the property of the after their death. and length they filth. thrown across a mule. or and hold any public employment. in Carthage but the barbarian answered if he cannot go on horseback let him be tied . a bishop. He had all the nuns collected together. if he were not an Arian those who refused obedience to this iniquitous order. were despoiled of their properties. t. of Abbitirus. . no one allowed little to visit them. between bishops. t. N. desert. having their skin burned up. and eat the little conveyed to their destination . was for forty-four years paralyzed. and caused them to be tormented with burning plates of iron. deacons. crowded together one almost over the other. without any preparation. were crooked 63. like a log of wood.AND THEIR REFUTATION. that 75 in no one should be allowed to serve the palace. not knowing to bring him along with them. torments. priests. and even speechless. and many among them were afflicted with gout. . altogether four thousand nine hundred He banished to the and seventy-six Catholics. as Victor the historian relates. how moving. and deprived of all power of . and many blind with age Felix. no torment could equal what they suffered up to their knees in the most horrible and there alone could they sit quantity of barley given to them for food. the aged. so that the state of the prison soon became horribly infectious. and those who survived. down. /. 30. and dragged on by oxen and they were obliged to carry him. while they were treated with the greatest cruelty . At were taken out of that prison. as if they were horses. and those who were too (9) Orsi. begged of the King to allow him to wear out the few days he had to live. or rather sink. sleep. and he paid five . 5. he likewise ordered that any deceased bishop. and lay people. and to be be hung up with great weights to their feet. : with a rope.

so that he was even buried in pieces. Genseric. He was not altogether eight years on the throne when he died. following in that the decree. the crown descended to Guntamond. while he had the bishops in Carthage. all his entrails fell out. and he tore his own flesh in a rage with his teeth. On among them was the glorious the death of Trasamond. to walk. The King was now highly incensed against the Catholics. Alexander. and dragged them on through stones and briars. would be ruined by the conference.76 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Hunneric. closed his reign and his life by a most horrible death he died rotten. by who endeavoured the year 504. and all the property belonging both to the churches and the Catholic bishops was given over to the Arians. and eaten up alive by a swarm of worms . and thus an immense number of them died. ordered to give them neither food nor shelter. wishing to destroy Catholicity altogether in Africa. to extirpate Catholicity totally in Africa. the Moors tied them by the feet. and he was succeeded. and on one and the same day all the churches of Africa were closed. and road covered with their blood. despoiled of all they were driven out of Carthage. under pain of being burned themselves. was put Uunneric. leaving the weak with lances. but of the Islands subject to the Vandals. because. after committing so many acts of tyranny. as if they were carcases of beasts. into execution. and he privately sent an edict to all the provinces. it did not take place. dreaded that his sect between the Catholics and the Arians. about Among his other acts. and all persons were possessed. commanded that there should be a conference held in Carthage 64. he banished two hundred and St. in 523. but as Cyril. in 496. for whom he had committed such slaughter in his family. In the year 483. and killing so many Catholics. and their houses along with them. at last. were driven on with blows of stones. assembled there. bishops. not alone of Africa. laid down for the punishment of heretics in the laws of the Emperors. he was and . and he had not even the satisfaction to leave the throne to his son Hilderic. in the year 484. and they could not move on any longer. the Arian Patriarch. twenty-four Fulgentius. and prodded when nature failed them. Trasamond. according to Floury and N. the son of his brother Genton . according to the will of his father. This barbarous decree and the bishops. The bishops.

martyr. he does not think that the Pope (10) Fleury. put to death in horrible torments. St. the Catholics till his death. a prince. for having induced the pious Emperor. but others deny his having done so. was favourable to the Catholic Religion. he was driven out of his kingdom by Glimere. Hilderic. He also caused the death of the holy Pope John. 3. that he was son-in-law to Boetius. and son of Theo- domire. tells us. in the year 524. death of Hunneric. in prison. as Procopius writes. Vand. and of a mild disposition. Orsi. was. Theodoric likewise put to death Symmachus. Belisarius. and a true Christian but through the envy of his calumniators. to restore the churches to the Arians. and given an opportunity till of that twisted his eyes leaped out of their sockets. and then it his intimate friend. and . at last. Thus died Boetius. in a most barbarous manner and his crime was. since in the Church as and a this holy man is venerated inculpate this pontiff. in the year 526. by privations and starvation. Eccles. /. t. Theodoric. King of the Ostrogoths. the Arians were banished. King of Italy. but. cle . cities. Procopius. There were other persecutions by the Arians. Nal. and the churches restored to the Catholics (10). a man of learned ministers. and the fifty-fifth of his age. was that the Emperor Justinian. to be lauded for always keeping in his employment honest and One of them was the great Boetius. /.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Justin. he was cast into prison by his sovereign. the great prop of the faith in that age. after the 65. His. declared general. however. without being defending himself. and subjected all Africa once more to the Roman Emperor. 1. to revenge war against Glimere and his having conquered Carthage and the principal . con. and granted the free year exercise of their religion to all the Catholics of his kingdom . Some Cardinal Orsi says. but in the 530. Graveson his subjects. an Arian. the tyrant dreaded that he would conspire against his kingdom. Bellow. his head being tied round with a cord. profound learning. Graveson. that a great deal of obscurity hangs over the transactions of this age . a man of the highest character. affable to This good King. and persecuted He ought. was also an Arian. 77 succeeded by Hilderic. and . after being kept there a long time. taking the anonymous commentator on Valesius as a guide. and he recalled Fulgentius and the other exiled bishops.

and died there on the 27th of May. and not consecrated Theodoric might rest satisfied with this arrangement. Leovigild. obtained the restitution to the Arians of all their churches. the Catholics in possession of their churches. John and Symmachus. at all. and the head of a big fish was placed before him he immediately imagined .78 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and that they brought him to the neighbouring Volcano. was likewise an Arian he had two sons by his first wife. what he imagined he then regretted sincerely his cruelty to Boetius and Symmachus. Baronius. Gregory writes. and caused to be restored to the Catholics in the East. but only of such as they were already in possession of. as the above-mentioned anonymous writer informs us. at length. . and Orsi himself and with these Berti agrees say. 526. and give them up to the Arians. he took to his bed. was dreadfully alarmed and. saw him in a vision after his death. and he removed him by a sudden death. giving to the Arians all the Catholic but God. A cotemporaneous historian gives a curious account of the beginning of his sickness. Ilermcngild and Rcccarede. he lost his power and his put churches . John refused to solicit the Emperor. all the churches in possession of the Arians and. Elpidius. He was going to supper. . and that this is proved from his second epistle to the Italian Bishops. and not turn them out. worn out with sufferings. But Noel Alexander. . on his return to Italy. not satisfied with those acts of tyranny. published an edict on the 26th of August. for the restitution of the churches to the Arians. seized with sudden terror. and told his physician. and leave . the widow of . between St. He . and between agitation of mind. Symmachus. 67. that St. it was on that account that he was put into prison by Theodoric. and cast him into the burning crater. in the island of Lipari. 66. in Spain. and stripped of all his ornaments. and he married a second time. as it was feared he would. bare footed. he was soon dead. or such as were and that he did this only that deserted. that a certain hermit. that he saw the head of put to death. . St. that he consecrated. Theodoric. with more likelihood. and the racking of his bowels. had pity on the faithful. in which he tells them. life. king of the Visigoths. whom he had a little before and that it threatened him with eyes of fury. A dreadful flux brought him to death s door in three days and on the very Sunday in which his decree was to be into execution. Goswind.

The impious Leovigild did not long survive his son he 68. and the whole nation of the Visigoths. and stoned confiscated perties Seven to death. 70 to Ingonda. and. by the victories of Belisarius. an hundred and eighty years before. her to change her faith. has been since venerated as a martyr. an Arian bishop came to give him communion. and one of them split open his head with a This took place in the year 586. was convinced of the truth of the Catholic religion. and sent him off as a heretic his father then sent the executioners to put him to death. but nothing could induce and she even converted her husband When Leovigild heard this. at the festival of Easter. Goswind seized her one day by the hair. Hermengild was cast into prison by his father. and that he died a Catholic in the year his people. or put out of the way by other cruelties. to embrace it. . another King of the Visigoths. and received the sacrament of Confirmation in the Catholic church. and their pro others were beaten. who became a Catholic. He married his son Hermengild who was a Catholic. in the beginning of the fifth century and when the Emperor Justinian. of his reign it where . Not being able to induce her. cution against the Catholics many were exiled. and covered her over with blood. as he dreaded the vengeance of tells us. to re-baptize her by force . He left the kingdom to his 587. and the churches were deprived of bishops their possessions. . he commenced a perse Hermengild. and then stripped her violently. quotes many authorities to that Leovigild spent a week before his death. threw her on the ground. but he refused to receive it from his hand. all heretics. The beginning in Spain. and threw her into a fountain of water. Gregory . and cashiered from his army. herself an Arian. nevertheless. but had not the grace to embrace it. about . kicked her. deploring prove the crimes he committed. and deposed from his employment. was thus the end of the Arian heresy reigned from the conquest of that country by the barbarians. as her mother-in-law Goswind. and this holy prince hatchet. and refused to allow herself to be baptized by the Arians. the eighteenth of his reign. son Reccarede. were also banished. by fair means. and such was his zeal for the faith. deeply regretted having put him to death and. . wished. . Fleury. as St. to consent. became master of Africa. imprisoned. that he induced the Arian bishops.AND THEIR REFUTATION.

4. was again revived in Poland and Transylvania. not by his clergy. out of curiosity to see the pageant._The Priscillianists. -Heresy III. No. As Arius uttered blasphemies to against the Son. but hundred years. in particular. He temerity speak blasphemously of the was. and have since remained faithful to the Church. 9. Danes. 75 77. 69. He was then intruded by the Arians into the see of Constantinople. by modern Arians and Antitrinitarians. the re-established. an Arian. Metropolitan see.-Of Audeus. 79. the son and successor of King Gontaband. was then alive. 82. as legate of the Emperor Constantius. in about the year 1530. and are confounded with Deists and Socinians ARTICLE 69 74. Temp. at first. essay on the heresy of the Arians the fruitful parent of so many evils. 83. Catholic faith under their King. Avitus. 81. t. A and he received ordination at the hands of the Arians. who. was also The Burgundians. This dreadful hydra. to strike terror into the people. forsook the Arian heresy under the reign of Sigismund. 64). &quot. though Paul. but with the imperial Prefect by his side. The Lombards in Italy abandoned Arianism. his : Danaeus thus concludes &quot. Sigismund was converted to the faith in 515. Bishop of Vienne. and embraced the in 660. not. p. of Macedonius. and surrounded by a powerful body of armed troops. 237. Catholic faith the year 535 (chap. accompanied. -Of Apollinaris. and was deputed to the the Council or Cabal of Tyre. the lawful bishop. . Bimbert. Gregor. He went 5. was then extinguished. 80. 85. circumstance horrible occurred at his to induction into the take possession in a splendid chariot. so Macedonius had Holy Ghost. have after the lapse of about nine become far worse than the ancient Arians. Jovinians. by St. who died in 516. t.- 84. Jur. -Of Elvidius. 78. -The Messalians. falling from bad to worse.(11).80 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.-Other Heretics. Gen. in Gaul. and the throng (11) Fleury.-Of Aetius. as Socrates informs us. An immense multitude was assembled. 15.

streets. their spears. that the church.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and trampled on the slain and fallen the consequence was. . but against the wretch . he vented foundations. have their mouths forced open with a wooden tongs. he caused some of them to be publicly flogged. or burned them with red coals. confiscated the property of others. or with red-hot balls. Tlu-od. mothers. the place of his exile (1). or . through their and whether it was by orders of the bishop. His rage was not alone directed against the friends of 70. as Socrates informs us. his competitor in the See. on their churches. and the new bishop could the people with the shafts of clearing the way they first struck . 81 and squares were all choked not proceed. and have them most cruelly flogged in their mothers and the mothers themselves he used to torture by presence . (T t. which he destroyed to the very and their ruins he had scattered abroad. and the a punishment greater than consecrated particle forced on them. Daneus and One would think (1) Bernin. quite enough. He used to take the children from their death to the faithful. The soldiers set about up. and as his entrance to the episcopal throne was marked by blood and slaughter. 25 . squeezing both their breasts under the lid of a heavy chest. He used. stretched in gore in the street . c. that these sacrilegious excesses were But he was determined to do something more. and then caused them to be cut off with a sharp razor. and he marked his hatred of one in particular by causing him to be branded on the forehead. /. Several authors even say that. all who professed the faith of the Council of made use of atrocious torments to oblige them receive communion from him. and this was the last act he was permitted to perform as bishop. \ . he began to for vengeance and cruelty. 1. so his future government of the See was distinguished In the first place. As if it was not die in prolonged tortures. persecute the friends of Paul. they soon began to wound and kill the people. more he banished. was so great. and destroy the Catholics themselves in this his rage and left them to enough to torture manner. after he had banished Paul from the See. to stamp him through life with a mark of infamy. 71. he caused him to be strangled at Cucusus. the bishop passed through. that three thousand one hundred and fifty dead bodies lay own ferocity. Coc. Nice to to Paul.

They were. Bernin. . Macedonius was again condemned. and though only an hundred and fifty bishops were present.82 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in the Council of Constan tinople (the first Constantinopolitan). whose heresy will be discussed presently. in But his heresy his old age. so. Bishop of Nicomedia. The Macedonian heresy was condemned in several par 73. and a Semi-Arian of deposition. he paid the penalty of his crimes. in the Council of Alexandria . and observers of almost monastic regularity they were usually called Pneumatomachi. in a Council held in St. and the chief among survived him : them was Marantonius. the year 360. what was remarkable. the diabolical ambition seized him. Damasus. and these were all Orientals. he was only remarked for being a very bad man. of Constantino. &c. in general. so he ignominiously deposed him from the bishopric. Alex. t. and taught that he was only a creature like the angels. from the Greek word signifying enemies . He. and in all the cities of Cizica. for the condemnation of Apollinaris. ticular Councils. In the year 381. and was held in high esteem by the This heresy had many adherents in the monasteries of people. but neither bishops nor churches till the reign of Arcadius. the audacity to disinter the it He had transfer body . after the return of St. 1. in the year 360. he had many followers. Thrace. and from one tomb to another but Constans could not stand this. by (2) N. but after his becoming great and the chief of a heresy. in a Council in Illyria and in 373. where. he determined to blaspheme the Third Person. Monks. the Holy Ghost. attacks considering that preceding heresiarchs had directed their against the Father and the Son. in impiety. this Rome. and among the people of Constantinople. denied that the Holy Ghost was God. it was condemned . in 367. and formerly his disciple. in the Arian The Macedonians were principally scattered about domination. . therefore. and was exiled to a place called Pila?. and. along the Hellespont. in Bithynia. In the year 362. of the Spirit (2). but of a higher order. Athanasius. he was distinguished for the regularity of his life. people of moral lives. Lambert Dana3us says that Macedonius was deposed in 72. While he was Bishop of Constantinople.

regarding the discipline of the Church. and Maximus Cinicus. and condemned the same heresy. est. : This was a Council of the Oriental Church alone. as the Oriental Church. who Gregory of Nazianzen was confirmed seized on the See of Constantinople. by letters of St. 74. inasmuch as the Western Church. thing (Auctor Lib. it The Nicene Creed words alone ft &quot.&quot. under Pope Damasus. to be held in Rome.&quot. Several canons. and some few words were added to through love of peace. for Popo Damasus. and another Council of Bishops assembled in Rome immediately after. Passus est. In this Council of Constantinople.West. the heresies of Apollinaris and Eunomius were also condemned . volume the refutation of the heresy of Macedonius. incarnatus . and what was decreed in that Council was confirmed in the other to St. and a more ample explanation of the article regarding the Holy Ghost was added. says. Damasus. Damasus. N. and the whole Church of the &quot. Ecumenical. Apparat. Alexander says &quot.AND THEIR REFUTATION. afterwards resigned concerning the mystery of the Incarnation. ad Theol. ex post facto. 83 Council was recognized as a general one. The Fathers of the Council wrote Damasus. says : This Council of Constan tinople was afterwards reckoned a general one. congregated in the Synod of Rome. presented to the bishops assembled in Constantinople. to assist as members of the The reader will find in the third Council. resurrexit tertia die et ascendit in ccelos et iterinn ventures . invited them. by his fraternal charity. by letters of the Emperor. . it. on account of the heresies of the Macedonians. held in Rome. because Jus Canon). it followed in everything what was previously denned in the Roman Council. who denied his Divinity. but he. held the same doctrine. in 382. And Graveson &quot. and Neptarius was chosen in his place by the Council. that he had. This Council is considered a General one. et homo factus. in possession of it. besides the condemna tion of the heresy of Macedonius. brev. et propter nostram salutem descendit. to which the Eastern bishops were convoked. was deposed. Synod. and was only. and the Nicene Creed was confirmed by the Council. by the authority of St. these et : Qui propter nos homines. and St. of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. on account of the Apollinarists and other heretics. gave it this An anonymous author says the same dignity and authority. in 382. were passed.

that St. de Nat. t. : This is the faith believe&quot. cum Patre et Filio coadorandum et conglorificandum. Dom. ex St. the soul. 2. to wit the body. et cum Patre et Filio adorandum et conglorificandum qui locutus est per PropJietas. for he possessed that part of the sensitive soul. t. p. Nicephorus (4) relates. 18. Leo. concerning the person of Jesus Christ. 36? . as Noel Alexander tells us. who wished to establish in man three substances. and the mind. the false philosophy of Plato. Gregory of Nyssa laid Et in down the declaration of the Council in these words Sanctum Dominum et vivificantem.84 est THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. et et mortuous est . fyc. . Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio . c. - (3) Cabassutius. . 8. . t. with which we see and feel in common with all other sensitive beings . et sepultus est tertia die resurrexit a mortuis secundum Scripturas. was. and Socrates (6). We demned in the have now to speak of Apollinaris. 77. &quot. St. and hence it followed that the Divinity (5) Bernini. 37 ur 2 Au - n /. Ser. judicare vivos. Jerome s master in sacred literature but he broached another heresy. St. qui locutus est per Prophetas&quot. and St. 55. 12. Epiphanius. 136. rsi. c. in Word made flesh answered as a soul to his body. or the mind. This error is founded on supplied that in the Person of Christ. & seq.. c. &quot. . He was Bishop . : read in the Council. Epiph. who was con same Council of Constantinople. St. homo factus de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine. passus. for then he admitted that Christ was not without a soul altogether. et in Spiritum Sanctum. (Act. 3. ex Patre proceden Spiritum tem. - n. & seq. The Apollinarists added three other errors First. (5). the body of Christ. Socrat. &quot. I 18. 1. Const. Leo. Her. of Laodicea. His principal error. that he supposed the human nature of Jesus Christ only half human nature place of one. He softened down this doctrine a little after.) When this was #c&quot. 1. n. but that. ccelis. he said. Not. 75. 81 Fleury. Cone. (6) Nat. born of was consubstantial with the : Divinity of the Mary. Word. all the bishops cried out of all this is the orthodox faith this we all . . Nat.&quot. that 76. Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum et vivificantem. ar. (3). Concil. St t] e er. $c. . 71. Augustin. the he supposed that Christ had no soul. p. ex Patre procedentem. 2. 316. but that he had not the reasoning part. But the Symbol de et of Constantinople goes on thus : Descendit incarnatus est. Pilato. and the Word. on the authority of St.

Christ-God. by teaching that there were different He calls the Holy degrees of dignity in the Trinity itself. and suffered. in the sufferings of the body. in 373. (9) Fleury. t. Word did not take flesh from the Virgin. when the body is hurt. by St. give an account of to his heresy (9). t: 17. (10) Bernin. that the Divine Divinity. taught the errors of the Millenarians. 225 . because. in reality. and the Father greatest. Orsi. that Apollinaris. . ibid. it is the soul that suffers in reality. ibid. Apollinaris erred also in the doctrine of the Trinity. 3. Greg. the Son greater. like wise. these three errors. Homicolists. but a Quaternity. 4. Enhreiu. s. in the Council of Alexandria it was also condemned. because the body without the soul is not capable of suffering. quoted by St. Thirdly The last error was. likewise. n. contended that the Divine Nature suffered in the flesh. the Roman Council. 7. Alexander Apollinaris. An author. according to their suffer. But even in this illustration he was in error. c. conjoined with the body. (8) Nat. /. in the year 362. t. 2. Fleury and Orsi. so that. but says. torments and an Apollinarist. on that account. of the 85 Word was passible. The heresy the referring of Apollinaris. and Man. 8. Serm. entirely distinct. even of the children (10). who believed that the body of Christ was taken from Mary. and. He. de St. and the same year Bernini tells us that Apollinaris died. was hurt. n. and. Damasus in .AND THEIR REFUTATION. Athanasius. by the communication it has with the system. if from heaven. that the Divine substance of the Word was converted into flesh but . the laughing-stock of the people. death. 115. Niss. Ghost great. by St. supposed to be consubstantial to the The second error was. and said that the Jewish rites ought to be resumed (8). I 16. but brought it down body would . especially that part of it Mystery of the Incarnation. were not taught by by his disciples (7). was already condemned. besides the three Divine Persons. the Divine Nature the flesh. to keep (7) Nat. 77. they called the Catholics. just as the soul suffers. Eranistes. and accused them of establishing. not a Trinity. (11) St. gave the book con taining his doctrines to a lady of Antioch. they admitted a fourth substance. relates. Gregory of Nyssa (11). N. of Persons. being in his dotage. a disciple of his.

this heresy was condemned of Constantinople. Joseph. 79 . that the Blessed Virgin was a sort of Deity. that he in the sick and died. : days. from the lady knowledge of St. 3. Alex. weakened in his intellect. S. vel imperfcctam esse asserimus. Epip. said that the answers to St. the Synodical letters appears DominicsB Incarnationis integram : pra3terea doctrinam & (12). and sent it back again to the lady. Ephraim s arguments would be all found in his book. on account of his great age. It is said that the. neque dispensationem carnis Christ! vel anima?. vel mentis expertem. Ephraim the Syrian. but after the birth of had other children by St. and ran out of the place as fast as ever he could. Apollinaris. and the whole book just like a log of wood he was so enraged that he . sed agnoscimus Verbum Dei ante secula omnino perfectum horninem in novissimis diebus pro nostra salute factum 78. following Elvidius. (13) St. this came to the who was then at Antioch. who continued hooting after him as long as he was in dashed it violently to the sight. a Conference with Apollinaris. folded up the Soon after this he had book. Her. 26 & 78. n. so that nothing could open them. and he borrowed the book for a few he took it home and pasted the leaves one to the other. and they began to dispute about the doctrines of his book. amid the laughter of the bystanders. Epip. c. This superstition came from Thrace and Upper Sythica. ground and trampled on it. first !N&quot. refuted it in a Christ long letter directed to all the faithful of that region. Finally. (the in &quot. . These said. (14) St. 77. that she did not remain a virgin.80 for THE HISTORY OF him . and he sent to the lady for it but when he tried to open the first page he found it pasted up.) as Second General Council. At the same time. in Greek. St. t. and passed (12) N. fell poor old man took it so much to heart. and in the same country. 1481. HERESIES. esse&quot. Epiphanius (13).os perfectam tenemus. hearing that this error was prevalent in Arabia. a. because they worshipped the Virgin by offering her a certain sort of cakes called. The followers of this sect were called Collyridians (14). in presence of a great many persons. Collyrides. Her. Among the followers of Apollinaris were the Anti- dicomariamtcs or adversaries of Mary. another error altogether opposed to this was broached.

and when. 8. 50. tried to gain him over by more kindness. 7. of this sect. with that oblation (15). who professed to abandon the world. 79. but he added other errors of his own to the pre-existing heresy. Alex. t. . 87 especially. 26. 15 Fleury. and. and that the worship they offered to the Virgin was idolatrous for. 19. is only a Jewish rite. n. 7. they said that the whole essence of religion consisted in (15) Fleury. Orsi. although the most perfect of all creatures. . were almost all followers certain fast days every year they ornamented a car. and when Eustasius was elected to that See. The fourth century was also infested by the Messalians were wandering monks. 36. Aerius hospital. /. though they were not properly monks at all. (16) Nat. and should not be honored like God this superstition. 3. . in combating showed that women can never take any part in the priesthood.AND THEIR REFUTATION. n. t. he admonished him. he was devoured with envy. even of Easter. and even villages. though sometimes covered with snow. . or Messalians. and began to teach his errors to a number of followers. for the same 80. 17. being offered to the Virgin. these reason . On divided among the worshippers. was then The women. St. This heresy sprung up in 370. they assembled in the open fields. and placed on it a square bench covered with a cloth . 1. but was never very extensive. gave him the government of his hospital. she was still but a creature. but threw up the government of the all in vain. Aerius was ambitious of becoming Bishop of Antioch. c. and when these were turned out not only of the churches. 3. with all this. . then threatened him. into Arabia. and useless (16). on this a loaf was placed. 3. Epiphanius. art. from a Syriac word signifying prayer. /. . Aerius was an Arian all out . but even out of the towns and in the woods and caverns. They were called Messalinians. and festivals. he could not prevent him from talking badly of him. n. t. Eustasius did all in his power to gratify him he ordained him priest. : These can be easily First That there is no difference reduced to three heads Second That prayers for the between priests and bishops dead are useless and. Third That the observance of fasts . t. and the Greeks called them Euchitians.

&amp. and that baptism takes away sin. to leave every and follow him. act 16. 11. Alex. they used even to work of any kind. Epiphanius wrote his Treatise too literal a sense. Their principal error consisted in sense . Eplph - 11. vagabond life. sacraments with indifference. begging and living in common. that they took in of Jesus Christ. but open to the sky ing and evening. . (22) St. their origin is doubtful they came from Mesopotamia. t. . 4 c - 2 &amp. and they literally observed it but they thing led an idle. that they saw a sow and a number of little pigs come out of their mouths. men and women. in the literal they did so to excess. They looked on the The . is They said the domestic devil expelled by spitting and blowing the nose. a devil attached to him. c. Christians. as they considered it wicked they never fasted. but . and. &quot. * m 3 &quot. both St. Those who called themselves Eusemites. They were of two classes the most ancient were and had no connexion with Christians or Jews they Pagans.gt. c. on that account (19). and that prompted the only remedy against him was prayer. n&amp. 3 l 19 &amp. and used to eat at an early hour in the morning a practice totally opposed to the Oriental 81. - L ( 21 ) Theod Her fab - - 1 &amp. 3. Their oratories were large buildings. which banished the devil. They . n . Iheod.gt. 35 Aug. and said the Eucharist did neither good nor harm. Floury. so that in the summer sleep together in the streets. and. surrounded with and they assembled there morn porticos. and destroyed the root of sin. them (21) manner of fasting (20). t. sang hymns of praise to God. t. 8. or It is supposed. enter into them (22). THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. began to appear about the reign of Constans. and a fire that did not burn. Hypsisteri. alone. and it was the parent of a thousand !S I Epip Her t. taking the precept. but they were established in Antioch. to pray continually. of the Most High (18). 7. though they adored but one . . and when they purified themselves in this manner. 4. which leaves the roots. - 5. that these were the people called adorers. refused to do time. by the light of numerous lamps. just like a razor. Her. following errors were taught they said that every man had. in 376. and practised by from his birth. n 30. when St.88 prayer (17). whom they called the Almighty. the Epiphanius says. they were called by the Greeks. on Heresies.gt. Nat - rin Supplem.gt. who him to all evil. /. believed in a plurality of Gods. &quot.lt. c. command .

Alex. 8. he might not injure us. churches. Nat. M. /. and that we should never pray in When you pray. they did very extraordinary things while praying. Her. they would frequently jump forward with violence. It was a long time before this heresy was extinct in the East. Orsi. always denying their heresy. taken from the Messalians and Manicheans he said principally Our Father. or monk. They boasted that they saw the Trinity with the eyes of the flesh. a native of Mesopotamia. man promulgated many blasphemous opinions. c. ar. 78. except the unfortunate . that they acquired the name of the Enthusiasts (23). and deluding a great number. and from him they were called Adelphians. &quot. a physician. and that they visibly received the Holy Ghost. for our Lord says (23) St. the beloved of God. Bishop of Iconium. and they were proscribed by the Emperor Theodosius. especially in the seventh session. 3. during the reign of the finally Emperor Alexius Comnenus. in 387. 19. 3. and prophesied things which never happened. They were finally condemned in the first Council of Ephesus. and then began to say they had revelations. Anphilochius. and condemning it as strongly as any one else. t. he said. n. and that we should use no prayer. 8. . 16. which. and also in another Council. n. 12. never could afterwards sin. t. so that those who once arrived at perfection. was burned This alive. t. : (24) Floury. 3. and this folly became so glaring. which signifies. the followers of which were called Bongimilists. that . rejected every other prayer but that. by order of the Emperor. with all his followers. 89 follies in this case. after practising his errors for fifty-two years.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and then say that they were dancing on the devil. held by Flavian. Their founder was Adelphius. They said that man s science and virtue could be made equal to that of God. held about the same time by St.&quot. They never formed a separate community from the faithful. the Metropolis of Pamphilia (24). enter into your &quot. even through ignorance. was the true Eucharist that we ought to pray to the devil even. who. Epip. 25. when they were convicted of it. another heresy sprung out of it. I. they slept the greater part of the day. The Messalians were condemned in a Council. was Basil. Bishop of Antioch. in the year 428. Their founder in the Bulgarian language. and in 1018.

Eccl. 195. a rhetorician. that the Father. The founder of this sect was an Egyptian of Memphis. but mixed and other heresies. vain. s. Nat. c. invited to join two next wheedled Priscillian to join them. and Holy Ghost. but they believed. Alex. the Son of God. but his senses likewise (25). but they reject explained everything in it allegorically. and it was not. 2. and soon the heresy spread like a plague over great part of Spain. p. a great gained a great number of followers. he denied the books of Moses. and the existence of the Trinity. t. and that our bodies depended on the signs of the zodiac. so that there is little doubt but that he lost. were one and the same thing. 8. they said. Ver. His. Hist. 1. and so on with the remainder of the Twelve Signs. and that there was no real distinction of persons. Gotti. both noble and plebeian. as Instantius and Salvianus. The soul. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. xii. and proud of his By his affable manners he knowledge of profane literature. and his first disciples were. like the Manicheans. t. c. who became He published many incarnate. . About the year 380. the heresy of the Priscillianists 82. and him by the lady. other like opinions. col. the bull over the neck. Bernini. facility of speech. . a lady of the name of Agapa. t. 2. passing through the seven heavens. adherents. but the Archangel Michael. They made merely a verbal profession of the doctrine of the Trinity. the twins over the back. to combat the evil principle.90 &quot. was of the substance of God himself. Van Ranst. the ram presiding over the head. were infected by was Manicheism. which was sown in the body of the flesh. but was unsettled. and from him the Priscillian was both noble and rich he had sect took its name. . They abstained from meat. and had a great number of women. first appeared in the East. as an unclean thing. notwithstanding the repugnance manifested by those who were not followers of the Son. with Sabellius. &quot. of the name of Mark he went to Spain. 4. and they added many apocryphal books to the canonical ones. These Elpidius. which decided our it. t. chamber . 3. and separated married people. and even some bishops. c. and the (25) Gravcson. up with the Gnostic. 2. 2. 88. especially. Eel. he said. not alone the^faith. ar. They taught that we depended altogether on the stars. sec. 5. The foundation of this doctrine fate. and of its own will came on earth. They did not the Old Testament.

t. 20. 84. They were condemned in Damasus. and the lights and this . Audeo. 56. by Maximus 83. Berti. particular synods. t.AND THEIR REFUTATION. appointed Prefect of the Pretorium by the tyrant Saragossa. ar. in the plainest literal sense. and they the doctrine contained in tho taught their followers to practise Jura perjura. 8. They used to fast on every tiousness . but as for the rest. 18. that corporeally Let us make man of Genesis. (26). by St. n. f. Audseus. 17. n. and not appear on these days they their reason for this conduct was their hatred of at Church the flesh. t. like other Christians. c. Augus. they denied all this when caught. I 18. & 68. and others. n. Diz. but afterwards separated from the after Church. . Koncag. and said that man was like to God . St.&quot. Alex. (28) Nat. Evodius. ad N. deHer. 3. sec. Nota. of the Audseans was in separating themselves from the Church. (27) St. 1. Ver. their sect. in revolting and promiscuous licen being extinguished. and taught that all Christians were bound to do likewise (28). interpreting. He celebrated Easter the Jewish rite. secretum prodere noli&quot. Alex. c. as they believed that Christ was not really born or . and Sunday.3. 8. attribute to them the errors of (26) Nat. . and in several Finally. 1. the flesh. c. Bishop of Ossobona. : away. and was at first a man of exemplary life. Swear distich Latin but never tell the secret. . L 17. 8.&quot. and even on Easter Sunday used to hide themselves. Alex. Augustin (27) speaks of some heretics who lived about this time. 4. & /. and a strict observer of ecclesiastical discipline. and Christmas-day. where the Lord says passage : in our and he and his followers were likeness Noel Alexander says that the only error Antropomorphites. at the instance of Ithacius. Petavius (29). 3. and became founder of a sect. (29) App. 44. t. t. and always went barefooted. indulged however. they never deviated from the faith but own image and &quot. of procreation for they did through hatred the flesh. but of the devil but they used to assemble by night for prayer. 91 . ar. was born in Mesopotamia. 30. but only in appearance. was not the work of God. ar. 100. they said. Orsi. c. &quot. t. 9. but arose in they did not consume the the Council of species. Fleury. in the year 383. ibid. 3. They used to receive the Eucharist in the church. Portat. Priscillian was condemned to death. chief of the Audseans. &quot.

1. and especially St. -Adverse Opinions of Bas- nage refuted. Jerome proves that Tertullian never held such doctrine.-Errors of Jovinian. He also taught some errors concerning the administration of the sacrament of penance. the Antropomorphites. AND VIGILANTIUS. Joseph. notwithstanding this high authority. 3. 2. Elvidius was a disciple of the Arian Ausentius. since they attributed to God. -Heresy of Elvidius.-Vigilantius and his Errors. THE HERESIES OF ELVIDIUS. St. CHAPTER V. in 370 (30). Epiphanius. but. cit. (30) Nat.92 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Jerome refuted the errors of Elvidius. he was a poor peasant. HERESIES OF THE FIFTH CENTURY. . both as priest and layman . ARTICLE I. 4. besides our Lord. Alex. and died in the country of the Goths. Dionisius. because. and he relied on the authority of Tertullian for this blasphemy but St. JOVINIANUS. doctrines in the year 382. it is doubtful whether he ever was a priest. : : &quot. St. He drew three arguments from the Scrip tures in support of his heresy First That text of St. who He began to disseminate his heretical scarcely knew his letters. when he banished St. as Noel Alexander says. Ambrose. St. Jerome says he was a turbulent character. who was intruded into the See of Milan by the Emperor Constans. loc. 1. literally. the corporeal members the Scripture mystically speaks of. He said that the Blessed Virgin had other children by St. Matthew Before they came together she was found with child of the .

the waters were dried up ? Away. &quot. xv.&quot. 29). 93 He.&quot. The Lord have had others after. : by death before he did penance. &quot. that the first-born that which openeth the &quot. His (1) St. &quot. but what is taken from the : text already mentioned (Matt. But the Scripture says first &quot. her not until she brought forth knew her after. . when our Lord has conquered In the book of G enesis longer. days even to the consummation of the does that prove. The same declared in Exodus. Jerome answers this : commanded. The Lord slew every first-born in the Here there is no doubt. then. it did not return it the waters were dried it viii.&quot. the world ? St. 1. &quot. /. Here.. (Gen. not what took place. paid a month after the birth (Numbers. in derision If any one should say that folly. she must therefore. xxviii. was done. argued. in cap. Therefore. and then itself. Should I grieve or smile at this Jerome. The second proof . Hieron.&quot. it is a proof that they after wards did so. 18). the ark. 20) Jesus Christ will not be with his elect any more after the end of world&quot. For he must reign until his enemies under his feet&quot. i. &quot. ii. Jerome. all he hath put Paul says of Christ. says St. Elvidius adduces &quot. I can pay for the is is first-born. that for every first-born a certain ransom should be 15. says same chapter her first-born St. Holy Ghost&quot. that (Matt. according to Elvidius. Comment. does then follow that returned to the ark when this sort. he That 7) . he argues he &quot. his enemies. it is till reign no said of the crow that left will up&quot. says St. 16). xii. in his answer. says St. i. is that a He then brings other that he did penance after death ? proof texts of Scripture to refute him. with arguments of Jerome (1) the Scripture here tells. says He then asks. 25) so. before they came together.&quot. womb. not what . as the text (Matt. therefore. Elvidius was seized on Behold I am with you all . Our Lord says to his apostles. must wait till a second is born to me. . says : that the text speaks of only-born as well as first-born. Next he adduced the twenty-fifth verse of the &quot. 25) She brought forth her first-born son if he was her first-born. (Cor.AND THEIR REFUTATION. where land of it Egypt&quot. but what was not done did not. : And he knew : son. then. xviii. Jerome. St. Matt. but (Exod.&quot. one might say : How can I be obliged to pay a price for my first-born after a month how can I tell whether I shall ever have a second ? I .

and St. Fleury. he had brothers monk going monastery. 19. ar. held in Rome. Molineus. Ambrose. He taught many errors First. and clothed in silk and linen garments frequented taverns. Alex. Ambrose (2) informs After falling into this impiety he abandoned his mortified manner of living went nourished and shod. Ambrose. Alex. /. that . and soon after. Preaching a doctrine pleasing to the senses. Jovinian was first condemned by Pope Siricius. after spending the early years of his life in the austere practices of monastic life fasting on bread and water. is from the text of St. but has been ably refuted by St. ar. that those who fast and those who eat have : . Bucer. to Boas. . the sister of the Mother of God. reward in if they praise God heaven fifthly. where. all sins fourthly. 19. 3. Orsi. now aban doned themselves to luxury. to avoid dressed his hair the responsibility of marriage. Jerome. in the year 390. t. 8. (3) Nat. that the Blessed Virgin was not a virgin after giving birth to our Lord (4). in Therefore. Pom. John. as us. In the end he was exiled by the Emperor Theodosius. and condemned in a Synod by St. and got married. that all have an equal are equal . mother and brethren came to him. and afterwards by Honorius. ad an. 9. and went to Rome. n. equal merit. and died there in misery.&quot. (4) Nat. James and St. that all the Fathers unanimously (2) St. 2. 9. the children of the other Mary. 5. he began to disseminate his errors. in Milan. and labouring with his hands Milan . . that marriage and virginity were equally mcritorius secondly. /. Peter Martyr. 27 . n. Ambrose. n. held by St. 19. Luke &quot. in the year 412 (3). having previously led chaste and mortified lives. Petavius says. St. 41. 20. This last error was followed by Hinckmar.94 third argument THE HISTORY OP HERESIES. t. that those once baptized can sin no more thirdly. t. a maritime town of Dalmatia. and indulged in play. he soon had many followers of both sexes in Rome. He was a Jovinian shall now occupy our attention. 8. (5) Basnape. from a great many passages in the Scrip tures. that first-cousins are also called brothers. and still pro banquets. and led a life of celibacy. Wickliife. who. 3. in another Council. Jerome proves. c. sixthly. and the brothers but referred to in that text are St. he forsook his barefooted. Ep. delicate dishes. ante 25. 19) : His . t. and Basnage (5). (viii. in a Council. and exquisite wines fessed all along to be a monk. .

Theol. and St. speaking of the Blessed Virgin. St. was approved of by the General Council of Ephesus. (6) Col. The text of Ezechiel : it shall not be opened&quot. xliv. 6. St.. col. 692. understood it thus. and in the eleventh Council of Toledo. Pope Hormisdas. is generally under stood to refer to the perpetual virginity of the Mother of God. inviolated cloister of : The third year 649. Paulinus. says : who does not confess that the Mother of God was alway s a in virgin. at his nativity. (7) Petav. The letter of Theodotus. quotes (Mat then argues on this text The prophet Basnage : . t. he says the birth of Jesus Christ makes her a mother without injury to her virginity. have to say. Prosper. 14. Their first argument is founded on that text of Isaias. says. speaking of the Incarnation of the Divine thew. (8) St. Peter and any one who wishes to see the St. in which. 1. 95 profess the virginity of the Blessed Virgin. 2). 13).. &quot. Matthew.AND THEIR REFUTATION. opinions expressed by the fathers. vii. as Jesus Christ entered into the house. and shall bring forth a son&quot. Pelagius I. Ambrose. 3 . he left the Mary. St. in 675 He was also condemned by Gregory. that Mary conceived as a virgin But what sort of that she brought forth her son as a virgin. as fixed by a decree of the Catholic faith. Augustin. which St. Let us now hear what Basnage. St. Bernard. St. Gregory says. Siricius. under Martin canon of the Lateran Council. Proclus. in the same manner. Theology (7). Peter Chrysologus. col. in the discourse addressed to the all Emperor Marcion. 14). I. and the heretics who hold the contrary opinion. Dog. Damian. in a synod held in Rome). argument is this ? Because the text does not say that she was 1151. A similar declaration was made St. celebrated in the that he should be condemned. 3. Fulgentius. Con. Epist. St. Hilary. Pope. St. the Council of Trullus. and many others . St. in (6). St. 1. Leo. St. of Nyssa. 10. that. (Ezechiel. John Chrysostom. St. and the Council of Chalcedon. Anselm. with the doors shut. of Ancira. John St. where the apostles were assembled. Eucherius. (Isaias. St. c. but he does not say. (who excommunicated him and his followers. /. &quot. has only to look to Petavius s This gate shall be shut. Behold a virgin shall conceive. St. i. Pelusiot. Word. St. Damascenus. Isidore St. Leo (8).

which he deems unanswerable. immunda erit sephaec autem cum facta sit Emmanuelis Mater sine . shall be called holy to the Lord&quot. pura. &quot. : accomplished. xii. whereas. as we have seen. Mother of God is both to Scripture and opposed. &quot. Basil. to fulfil the This argument he took from Origen (9) but. by the general her purification. says the Saint. 1 .Scriptum est enim. in Luc. not alone to avoid scandal. Isa. Maur. 285. Maur say. . et intemerata est . (11) St. says Basnage. were read in St. and still it the opinions of the ancients. apml S. in can. that Mary ought not to fulfil argument. and brought forth our Lord a virgin. to present him to the Lord as it is written in the law of the Lord. and this is clear. after birth.&quot. The Luke is quite plain days of her purification. he says according to the law of Moses. justly. as opposed to Scripture. (and it is worthy of remark. and. ii. p.9G THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in the birth of her son. every male : opening the womb. Horn. they carried him to Jerusalem. and the opinion of the perpetual opinion of virginity of the is the learned). Basnage brings forth another argument. the universal tradition of the Church. the days of her purification. to offer a sacrifice for The days of her purification could not be she had no necessity of purification. et peperit masculum. &quot. Mary was then subjected to the usual law of women. the generally held. this was a blasphemy uttered by that Father (10) . 22). Basil (11). 2. is reduced to this. but not to one who conceived by the Holy Ghost.&quot. for in Leviticus. Now. imo postquam effecta est (9) Origen. that she conceived a virgin. but as a matter of duty and she was compelled. quas conceperit semen. accomplished if discipline of the law. for all that. 14. therefore. for all the Fathers have said with St. &quot. it is a proof that she did not bring him forth a virgin. with what temerity he threw overboard the doctrine of the Fathers. a virgin.mulier tem diebus semine. narrative of St. S. n. and. she was obliged (coacta sit) . After Luke. All his then. it is clearly proved. from the Scriptures . if there was no necessity of purifi cation rite. as the Fathers of St. Ilioron. /. 7. that this law applies to ordinary mothers. : When the . says the holy Father. this virgin never was obliged to the law of purification . &c. (10) Patres. We the days of her purification. explains the text in its true sense. (Luke. 201. truly. .

. 5. 1. Epis. de Virg. I. Paulinus. n. Hie (Christus) solus aperuit sibi vulvam (15). is rank heresy. 4. 4. (14) St.&quot. and the other Lutherans. 57. who knew him to be a man of relaxed morals. &quot. Jerome as a heretic.&quot. Jerome. of Nola. Fulgentius himself. But how are we this is to be under then to understand he opened the womb &quot. Ambrose. womb. (16) writings Christ alone opened the closed doors of which. that St. Basnage lauds St. Luc. says. n. : &quot. for some time and lead a pious life at the same time. wise says Why do you treating of the Mysteries against Jovinian. St. /. . and he undertook a journey to the Holy Land. is not to be found in St. Jerome as being of his opinion . of the sect of Origen. This letter was so far useful to him. near the foot of the Pyrenees. Vigilantius was a native of Comminges. Ambrose like the virginity of his holy mother. He had the audacity to treat St. Fulgent. 2. where he says Matris Omnipotentia Filii nascentis aperuit. 10. &quot. And. Nys. (17) St. Deip.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in his Dialogues the virginal closed .&quot. as St. With all that. But we have another passage. Jerome. he says: stood. (16) St. /. in the year . so that the very Fathers 12) Canis. Pelag. . devere Protest. n. in St. in 2. (15) St. 61. did not treat him as his hypocrisy deserved (17). and Vulvam he quotes a passage of St. Agricola. as we read in Canisius (12). he found leisure to study. Greg. in which he declares that the mother of Christ was the only one who remained : immaculate. de Occursu. 97 Matre. Solus ille haud Gregory of Nyssa explains it (14) that he preserved ante patefactam virginalem aperuit vulvam This is what St. c.&quot. Jerome : s besides. having been a tavern-keeper somehow or other. because he saw him reading Origen s work but the Saint. Jerome. Fulgentius.&quot. all say that Mary had no necessity of purification. contra Hier. Dial. 4. ?&quot. Cyril of Alexandria. and of very low origin. . after giving birth to a son (13).&quot. seek the order of nature. Even Melancthon. when setting aside the order of nature. adhuc virgo permansit. 13) St. who gave him a letter of recommendation to St. remained ever and always &quot. /. Jerome Basnage quotes in his favour. nevertheless. St. he was born of a virgin.Orat. in the body of Christ. so that he acquired the friendship of St. the same author states teaches that to assert the contrary &quot. most expressly condemn the impious error he attempts to defend. but the passage he adduces . Basnage is not convinced.

con. He totally condemned monastic life. was in a hurry to return to Egypt (20). to take whatever was good out of them. . making ourselves useless to our neighbours. First. if we embraced it This sect was not condemned by any council. when he would have read Vigilantius Jerome. Like Jovinian. n. St. . the martyrs idolaters. and treat work (19) it summary answer. art 1 . 397. wrote to him (18). The following are the errors of Vigilantius. who brought it to him. he condemned the practice of Second . and soon became extinct (21). 4. n. 10 c. because the monk Sisinius. that Vigilantius began to dogmatize. 3. 55. by day Fifth He condemned public Vigils in the churches. followers. and he exhorts him either to learn or be silent. Alex. refuted by St. ver 10. and promised to return again to the subject. 3. Riparius. about the year 404. Vigilan. Jerome gave and having soon after seen the production. Hier. Some years . Hier. Orsi. not to follow all their doctrine but. and said.98 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. he gave a short but strong answer. that Seventh it was only it. candles Fourth He maintained. 22. .CIS) St. 25. speaking against the Relics of Martyrs and Vigils in churches. /. 2. He condemned the veneration of the relics of and called those who honoured them Cinerists and Third He said it was a pagan superstition to light in their honor. (20) St. (19) Idem. celibacy. t. /. Portatif. 5. 1. it more amply. Sixth He reprobated the custom of sending alms to Jerusalem. t. Nat. had but few (21) Fleury. ad llipar. Diet. 62. Jerome. wrote to St. Vigilan. Epis. after. that he read these works. 75. /. Epis. a priest. c. and he founded this opinion on the apocryphal book of Esdras. that the faithful after death could no longer pray for one another.

began in particular. . about the year 405. Jerome). Pelagius was born in Great Britain. a bishop having quoted the words of St. 6. Innocent Pope. while he sojourned at Rome. Nos. 7-Celestius and his Condemnation. Bishop of Mopsuestia. and a collection of passages of the Scripture on . ibid. who.-He is Condemned by St. and deduced them from the same sources. the principles of Origen (4). 12. unhappily. c. He.-Godeschalcus. 5. then coming to Rome. called Rufinus. esteemed by St. he did not . 42. 16 & 5.-Again Condemned 14. This Rufinus. not to bring himself into trouble. n. in the reign of Pope Anastasius. about the year 400. that in his youth. had already taught the same errors as Pelagius .-Perversity of Pelagius. was the first introducer there of that heresy but. 09 ARTICLE II. however. fell into heresy. 22. t. and was respected for his virtues.-Semi-Pelagians. 23. 25. 10 & ll. in regard to grace . to wit. de Gestis Pelagian. Lord. who disputed with St.-Council of Diospolis. Fleury. and that was all the dignity he ever arrived at. he scarcely received in letters . 4. 17. He was also looked on as a learned man. One day. Paulinus (1) and. and his parents were so poor. any instruction he became a monk. grant us what thou orderest. 1 . as he composed some useful works (2). and he took his doctrines from a Syrian priest. /. ON THE HERESY OF PELAGIUS. (1) St. /. c. -Origin of the Heresy ofPelagius. already spread through the East (3) for Theodore. and (4) Orsi. three books on the Trinity. He lived a long time in Rome.-His Errors and Subterfuges. Aug.-Julian. . (3) Orsi. to dispute against the Grace of Jesus Christ.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 9. Augustin. by Sozymus. of Pelagius. 13. (not Rufinus of This error was Aquilea. *. . (2) Gennad de Scriptur. publicly promulgate but availed himself it himself. in his Confessions &quot. t. Augustin. and 42 2. by very many persons he was loved by St. Christian Morality. as he was a cautious man.-Predestination. but nothing more than a mere lay monk. 11. a follower of Pelagius. 8. 15.

Verb. These are his words. (6) St.Will. 26. and only communicated them to his disciples. ibid. however. He concealed his errors for a time. by the natural force of his free-will. Disp. that 1.c 2. St. n. I. that man. 1. and inveighed against the author. and not their posterity. . de. without any merit on their part. de. was. 5. (9) Idem. (9). ex Mereat. The Adam and Eve were born in the same state that Adam was before his fall. n. St. c. which saps the whole system of our Faith. so he and his disciples searched consequences. how he should live. and. Augustin says. and to approve or reject them He afterwards became afterwards. and that their sin only hurt Second Infants are now themselves. apost. 48. Spir. followers. 3. 3. &quot. Serm. (8) St. 1. for a loop-hole to escape from the to mitigate the horror excited by so dreadful : a blasphemy. conquer all temptations and passions. We shall now review That errors of Pelagius were the following: First created mortal. himself the disseminator of his heresy.. as suited his convenience (5). I say not without Grace. Theolog. teaches him (5) Fleury. and loudly exclaimed against him. Fluery. art. that was necessary this Pelagius to distinguish between Grace and Free-Will. for he asserted. concerning Grace and Free. granted gratuitously by God. a. and arrive When he at perfection without the assistance of grace (7).100 HISTORY OF THE HERESIES. Augustin testifies. t. 3. Augustin writes &quot. :&quot. &quot. 10. al. do not indeed go to heaven. first began to disseminate this pernicious error. c. could fulfil all the Divine precepts. to man. To answered (and here is the second subterfuge). Tournelly. August. & littas. his errors. but the Catholics said. quoted by St.&quot. St. (7) Nat. God created giving him precepts. de Gertis Pelagian. Aug. that he did not deny the necessity of Grace. 11. were the The principal error of Pelagius and his errors of Pelagius (6).&quot. order what thou wishcst Pelagius could not contain himself. St. Augustin (8) : Free-Will is sufficient that I may it be just. Third Children dying without baptism. that by the name of Grace is understood the law or doctrine by which the Lord gave us the Grace to teach us how we are to live. man with Free-Will. Such. pt. and every way. but that Grace was FreeWill itself. . and in Comp. I e. to see how they would be received. 35 & 35. The first subterfuge was this Pelagius said. They say. 6. but they possess eternal life. that the Catholics were horrified. t. Alex.

Augustin (11). he removes ignorance. a. that Grace is given to us. (11) St. c.AND THEIR REFUTATION. the internal grace of illustration but we should admit. commanded to us by God. but this example given by Christ. us an example by living holily (10) Augustin answers. We finally admitted internal grace. (13) St. solely ex parte objecti. de Gratia Christ!. for our . Augustin explains it (13). strengthened by grace to do well admit it as necessary according to our belief. but abso lutely necessary to do good and avoid evil. the fourth species of grace the grace of the remission of sins. should be more is but Faith teaches us that Grace (10) Apud. says Lord taught both by precept and example. 26. /. de Gratia c. St. de Gratia Christi. therefore. added a fourth subterfuge. Angus. not only on the part of the object. that the sins. the coming of Jesus Christ is not without its utility. as by teaching him. : as St. The Pelagians that their position regarding these three points was seeing untenable. the internal grace . as St. since the grace of pardon is of value for the remission of past sins. Augustin (12) tells us. The fifth subterfuge of the Pelagians was this They admitted. that is. to know the value of good and the deformity of bad works. since by he his left Christ affords a help to us. the Passion of Jesus Christ would be useless. that what is easily accomplished . not only useful. the remission of Grace of God is only valuable for and not for avoiding future ones and : they say. but not ex parte intellectus. was not distinct from his doctrine. not to good example. that we might imitate him . with the holy doctor. The Pelagians answered. Augus. cap. 2. (and this was the third subterfuge.) and as Adam injured us by bad example. but only as useful to to the sixth and last shift : He .de Gratia. arb. so our Saviour assisted us sin. Augus. . but on the part of human but he did not ability. But the Catholics answered. St. Christi. (12) Idem lib. and the example of Christ for avoiding future ones. that was. assists 101 * him. St. 13. that the Grace of Christ consisted in giving us the good example of his life. lib. 7 & 10. that if Grace consisted in the Law alone given to man. c. accomplish more easily what is good. that they admitted this illustration. inasmuch. so that this grace would give a man now come strength to embrace the good and avoid the evil. They say. Pelagius asserts.


THE HISTORY OF HERESIES, The Pelagian heresy was very widely extended
His chief
in a little


and and

of noble family, disciple a eunuch from his birth. He practised as a lawyer for a time, then went into a monastery ; he then became a disciple of




Pelagius, and began to deny Original Sin. Pelagius was reserved, but Celestius was free-spoken and ardent. They both left Home



it is


together, where Celestius

was taken by the Goths, in 409. They went belived, first to Sicily, and afterwards to Africa,
thought to
get himself ordained priest,

Carthage but when the heresy he was teaching was discovered, ^e was condemned, and excommunicated by the Bishop Aurelius,

and a Council summoned by him, in Carthage he appealed from the Council to the Apostolic See, but, instead of going to Rome, to prosecute his appeal, he went to Ephesus, where he was raised

to tHe priesthood without sufficient caution


became manifest, he was banished from the
followers (14).

but when his heresy city, with all his


all this,

after the lapse of five

years, he went to Rome condemned again, as we

to prosecute the appeal, but shall now see.

he was then

Pelagius, instead of repenting after the condemnation of Celestius, only became more obstinate in his errors, and began to

About this time the noble virgin, teach them more openly. of the ancient Roman family of the Anicii, put Demetriades, into execution a glorious resolution she had made. She had
taken refuge in Africa when when her parents were about
the Goths desolated

forsook the world, and, clothing Jerome (15) tells us, consecrated her virginity to Christ. St. Jerome, St. Augustin, and even the Pope, St. Innocent, con

Rome, and marry her to a nobleman, she herself in mean garments, as St.

gratulated this devout lady on the good choice she made. Pelagius also wrote a letter to her, in which, while he praises He used these her, he endeavours to insinuate his poison.

te esse


In hie merito cceteris prceferenda es, quce nisi ex te, et in non possunt (16). St. Augustin at once recognised the

poison disseminated in this letter, and, explaining the words, Nisi ex te et in te, he says, as far as the second expression, Nisi

(14) Orsi,




2o, n. 44



3, n. 3.

(15) St. Hier. Ep. 8, ad Dcmetr. (16; Apud, St. Augus. Ep. 143.

in te (17),
it is


very well said ; but all the poison is in the first of Pelagius is, that all part, he says, Nisi ex te, for the error that man does of good he does altogether of himself, without the

At the same time, when St. Jerome got assistance of grace. the cognizance of this letter of Pelagius, he also wrote to and from that out (18), cautioning her against his doctrine, lady


his heresy in several books,


especially in

that of

The Dialogue

of Atticus and



to combat the errors gustin, likewise, never ceased for ten years De Natura et Gratia," De Gratia of Pelagius ; and his books,






&c., prove






in Pelagius saw that he was not cordially received he went to Palestine, where John, Bishop of Jerusalem, Africa,


received him

and, in a Council held with his clergy, instead of. condemning him, as he ought, he only imposed silence on both In the year 415, a council of fourteen bishops was parties (19).

held in Diospolis, a city of Palestine and here Pelagius, as Cardinal Baronius (20) tells us, induced the bishops to agree to

the following propositions,

all Catholic,


and opposed


Adam First the errors promulgated by him and Celestius would not have died had he not sinned. Second The sin of

transfused into the whole





are not such as

Fourth As in previous to his fault. Adam all die, according to the Apostle, so in Christ all will be Fifth vivified. Unbaptized infants cannot obtain eternal life.
gives us assistance to do good, according to St. Paul Seventh It is God that gives us grace to do vi, 17). (I. every good work, and this grace is not given to us according to our merits. Eighth Grace comes to us, given gratuitously by

Adam was




God, according to his mercy.



children of



who daily if we were say

say, forgive us our sins," which we could not Tenth Free-will exists, entirely without sin. must be assisted by Divine help. Eleventh The victory

over temptations does not come from our own will, but from the Twelfth The pardon of sins is not given grace of God.
(17) St.



(19) Orsi,


18) St. Hier.


ad Dcmetr.

23, n. 18,


25, n. Ill seq.




(20) Baron.


415, n. 23,



according to the merits of those who ask it, but according to the Divine Mercy. Pelagius confessed all these truths, and the council of bishops, deceived by his hypocrisy, admitted him to

the communion of the Church (21)

but in this they acted imprudently, for, although his errors were condemned, he was personally justified, which gave him a far greater facility of disseminating his errors, afterwards, and, on this account, St.

Jerome, speaking of this Synod, calls it a miserable one (22), and St. Innocent the Pope refused to admit him to his communion,
although he was informed of the retractation of his errors in
that Synod, for he truly suspected that his confession was only The subsequent conduct of Pelagius proved the pene feigned. tration of the holy Pontiff, for, as soon as he was freed from the

obedience of those bishops, he returned to his vomit, and rejected the truths he had then professed, and especially on the point of grace, as St. Augustin remarks (23) he said, that Divine grace was necessary to do what was right more easily, but the good

depended directly on our free will, and this grace he called the St. Augustin (24), writing against this false grace of possibility. God, by co-operating in novelty, indites this great sentence for we are worth us, perfects that which he began by operating



nothing for any pious work without him operating, that we Pelagius, may wish it, or co-operating, when we do wish hoping that the proceedings of the Council of Diospoh s would

be buried in darkness, wrote four books afterwards against the of St. Jerome, and entitled his work "De Libero "Dialogue"


affairs of Pelagius did not take such a favourable turn in Africa as they did in Palestine, for in the following year, 416, the Bishop Aurelius summoned another Council in Carthage, in which both he and Celestius were again condemned and it




was decided to send a Synodal letter to the Pope, St. Innocent, that he might confirm the decree of the Council by Pontifical and, about the same time, another Council of authority (26) sixty-one Numidian Bishops was held in Milevis, and a letter

(21) (22) (23) (24)

Fleury, I. 23, n. 20. St. Hier. Ep. 79. St. Aug. de Her. c. 88. St. Aug. de Grat. & lib. arb.



(25) Orsi, I. 25, n. 117, ex St. Aug. /. de Gest. Pel. c. 33. (26) Nat. Alex. t. 10, c. 3, ar. 4, s. 4 ; Fleury, ibid, n. 20: Orsi, t 11, /. 25, n. 121

was likewise written


to the Pope, calling on him to condemn the Innocent answered both Synodal letters in Pope heresy (27). 417 confirmed the Christian doctrine held by the councils con

and Celestius, with cerning grace (28) and condemned Pelagius all their adherents, and declared them separated from the com munion of the Church. He answered, at the same time, and in

the same strain, the letters of five
written to
says, that

him on the same



other bishops, who had and, among other remarks,

he found nothing in Pelagius s book which pleased him, and scarcely anything which did not displease him, and which was not deserving of universal reprobation (29). It was
then that


answer arrived, said this matter to the Apostolic See.

Augustin, as he himself mentions (30), when Pope Two Councils have referred

Rescripts have been sent in



the cause

is decided."


Innocent the Pope was the

should remark that St. Prosper (31) writes, that St. first to condemn the heresy of

Pestein subeuntcm prima recidit

Sedes Roma Petri, quae pastoralis honoris Facta caput mundi, quidquid non possidet armis,
Religione tenet.

But how can St. Prosper say that St. Innocent was the first to condemn this heresy, when it was already condemned in 412 by the first Council of Carthage, and by the second, in 416, and by Graveson (32) answers, that these the Council of Milevis ?
Councils considered
of Celestius


and Pelagius

duty to refer the condemnation the Apostolic See, and, on that

account, St. Prosper writes, that the first condemnation pro ceeded from the Pope. Garner (33) says that the Pelagian

heresy was condemned by twenty-four Councils, and, finally, by the General Council of Ephesus, in 431 (34), for up to that time the Pelagians had not ceased to disturb the Church.
(27) Nat. Alex, ibid, s. 5 ; Fleury, loc. cit. ; Orsi, n. 122. (28) St. Innoc. Ep. 181, n.8 &9, & (31) St. Prosp. In Carm. de Ingratis. (32) Graveson, t. 3, col. 2. (33) Garner, ap. Danes Temp. not. p. 240.
(34) Act. 5 & 7, can. 1 & 4, ap. ibid, p. 241, & vide Fleury,
n. 53.

Ep. 182,
11, (30) St.

n. 6.

(29) Fleury,

t. 4, /. 23, n. 34 ; Orsi, 25, n. 129. Aug. Serin. 131, n. 10.





When Pelagius and Celestius heard of the sentence pro 12. nounced against them by St. Innocent, they wrote him a letter filled with lies and equivocations, appealing to his supreme tribunal from the sentence passed on them by the bishops of Africa and, as St. Innocent had died, and St. Zozymus was




endeavour to

place, Celestius gain his favour.










how he ought

to act in the matter;

but the African

bishops suggested to him that he ought not to interfere with a sentence passed by his predecessor, and when the holy Pontiff
deceits of Pelagius and Celestius, and especially of the flight of the latter from Rome, when he heard that the Pope was about to examine the cause more narrowly,

was better informed of the

he was convinced of their bad
trine (35).


and condemned their doc


The author
after his


of the Portable Dictionary (36), writes that condemnation by Pope Zozymus, and the

proclamation subsequent, issued against him by the Emperor Honorious from Rome, went to his beloved Palestine, where he

was before so well received but as his impiety and hypocrisy were now well known, he was driven out of that province. We do not know afterwards what became of him, but it is probable that he returned to England to disseminate his doctrines, and that it was this which induced the bishops of Gaul to send St. Germain The Pelagian heresy was de Auxerre there to refute him. in a short time, and no one was bold enough finally extinguished

openly to declare himself its protector, with the exception of He Julian, son and successor to Memorius, in the See of Capua. was a man of talent, but of no steadiness, and the great liveliness
of his understanding served to ruin him, by inducing him to declare himself an avowed professor of the heresy of Pelagius.

His name


celebrated on account of his famous disputes with

Augustin, who at first was his friend, but afterwards, in defence of religion, was obliged to declare himself his adversary,

and pursued him as a heretic. He was afterwards banished out of Italy, and went to the East, and after wandering in poverty

(35) Horinant, t. 26, n. 16 & 17.



J24; Orsi,


(36) Diz. Tort. verb. Pelagio.

for a long time


through various regions, he at

It is to support himself by teaching school. in the reign of the Emperor Valentinian (37). Sicily

was obliged said he died in



of the Pelagian

heresy will be found in the

volume of


Several years had rolled by since St. Augustin had in the very successfully combatted the Pelagian heresy, when, bosom of the Church, a sort of conspiracy was formed against
the Saint, including

and piety



persons remarkable for their learning happened about the year 428, and they were


called Semi-Pelagians. The chief of this party was John Cassianus, who was born, as Genadius informs us, in the Lesser Scythia, and From of his time in the monastery of Bethlehem.

spent part that he came

where he founded two monasteries, one of women, and the rules he had took the government of them according to monasteries of Palestine and practised, or seen observed, in the


Rome, and then

to Marseilles,

men and one




these rules he wrote in the


four books of twelve

he published under the

of Monastic Instructions.



to the purpose we treat of, he endeavoured to bring into notice and estabh sh his erroneous sentiments on the necessity

and to give of Grace, in his thirteenth Collation or Conference more weight to his errors, he puts them into the mouth of Cheremon, one of the solitaries of Panefisum, a place in Egypt, who, he said, was well instructed in all the disputes about Grace, but which, as Orsi says (38), were never spoken of at all when nor could any one, in any human Cassianus was in Egypt
; ;

probability, ever imagine that such a dispute would be raised in the Church. Nevertheless, he, as it were, constituted that

as a sort of judge between Pelagius and St. Augustin, and puts into his mouth a condemnation, more or less of both, as if St. Augustin had erred in attributing too much to Grace, by



attributing to it even the first movements of the will to do what Freeis right, and that Pelagius erred in attributing too much to

by denying the necessity of Grace to carry out good works. Cassianus thought, in the meanwhile, that he had found out a means of reconciling both parties, Catholics and heretics but it

(37) Hermant,


1, c.


(38) Orsi,




17, n. 59.



was only by combatting one error by another, and his erroneous doctrine was followed by many persons of the greatest piety in Gaul, and especially in Marseilles, who willingly imbibed the poison, because mixed with many Catholic truths in his works.
the necessity of Grace, but of a most pernicious error, in saying, that they were guilty the beginning of salvation often comes to us from ourselves

The Semi-Pelagians then admitted

without it. They added other errors to this, by saying that perseverance and election to glory could be acquired by our own natural strength and merits. They said, likewise, that some
children die before baptism, and others after, on account of the foreknowledge God possesses of the good or evil they would do

they lived


Cassianus died in 433, and was considered a Saint (40) but the Semi-Pelagians were condemned in the year 432, at the
request of St. Prosper, and St. Hilary, by Pope Celestine L, in a letter written by him to the Bishops of Italy. They were


in 529,

by Pope

Felix IV., in the




and, immediately





and both these Councils, as Noel Alexander testifies (41), were confirmed by Pope Boniface II. At the end of the work will be
found the refutation of this heresy. 16. In the year 417, according to Prosper of Tyre, or in
the year 415, according to Sigisbert, arose the heresy of the Predestinarians (42) these said that good works were of

no use to those, for salvation, whom God .foreknows will be lost and that if the wicked are predestined to glory, their sins are of no harm to them. Asserebunt Sigisbert s words are (43) nee pie viventibus prodesse bonorum operum laborem, si a Deo


ad damnationem




nee impiis



Noel Alexander says that a certain priest of the name of Lucidus (44), having fallen into the errors of the Predestinarians, and his opinions becoming notorious, he was to retract them by Faustus de Hies, on the obliged authority of
a Council held at Aries, in 475
(39) Nat. Alex.

he obeyed, and signed a




3, a.




Orsi, loc. cit. n. t. 4, /. 24, n. 56




& seq.


(40) Nat.


cit. ar. 7, s. 4.

(41) Nat. Al. /. cit. ar. 10, in fin. (42) Nat. Al. t. 10, c. 3, ar. 5. (43) Sigisbert in Cron. an. 415. (44) Nat. loco. cit.




The labour of human retractation of the following errors First is not to be joined to Divine Grace. Second He

should be condemned

the freedom of the will

says, that after the fall of the first man, Third Or who says entirely extinct. all men. Fourth Or who says that that Christ did not die for


God violently drives men to death, or that Fifth Or who says perish, perish by the will of God. that whoever sins, dies in Adam, after lawfully receiving baptism.
the foreknowledge of


Sixth Or who says that some are deputed to death eternal, and others predestined to life. This heresy, or these errors were condemned in the Council of Lyons, in the year 475. It is a question among the learned, whether the Predestinarians Cardinal Orsi and Berti (45), ever existed as a heretical body. with Contenson, Cabassutius and Jansenius deny it but with Baronius, Spondanus, and Sirmond, held Tournelly (46), the contrary opinion, and Graveson quotes Cardinal Norris (47) Noel Alexander thinks his opinion in their favour, and

probable (48). In the ninth century, Godeschalcus, a German Benedictine 17. monk lived, who is generally considered a real Predestinarian.

He was


man of a turbulent and troublesome disposition. He Rome through a motive of piety, without leave of his
and usurping the office of a preacher without lawful disseminated his maxims in several places, on which



account he was condemned in a Synod, held on his account, in Mayence, in 848, by the Archbishop Rabanus, and sent to

Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims, his superior.

Hincmar, in

another, held in Quiercy, again condemned him, deprived him of the sacerdotal dignity, and after obliging him to throw his
writings into the fire with his own hand, shut him up in close confinement in the monastery of Haut Villiers, in the diocese of
in 849, in

Councils were held in Quiercy on this affair, one which Godeschalcus was condemned, and the other in the year 853, in which four canons were established against his doctrine, and which we shall hereafter quote. Finally, Hincmar



being at Haut
(45) Orsi,




of the monastery told




35, n. 83; Berti

t. 1,

s. 5, c. 4.

(46) Tour.


4, p. 1,


3, concl. 3.

(47) Graves, Hist. t. 3, coll. 2, p. 19. 2, p. 144, (48) Nat. Alex. t. 10, c. 3, and Dis. Prop. p. 461


41 &49. (50) Tournelly. but he rejected it with Hincmar could then do no more. Third Christ died for the salvation all of the elect alone. Viet. and forces man to perish. Disp. 2. that Godeschalcus was near his end. but only of those who are saved. healed by means of Grace. that is to eternal life. and without sacraments. and not for the redemption of &quot. in his Synodical letter to Hincmar. telling them. made them incorrigible and deserving of punishment to go to destruction. that he might receive Absolution and the Viaticum. n. . Comp. &/. The four canons established in the Council of Quiercy against Godeschalcus. them saved.&quot. 153. Fourth Jesus Christ has suffered for all. 5. departure. but only those who are . 1. These three propositions of Godeschaleus are also contained in a letter He says. p. from the beginning. 41. men. that as God predestined some he predestined others to everlasting life. who forces to eternal to go to death. but only for those who are saved&quot. 2. Second He says that God does not wish all men to be saved. He died unchanged. Her. and he was deprived of Christian burial (49).He (Godeschalcus) taught that there are some in this world. . His errors. (50). they should treat him as he had given them verbal in his errors. he sent him a formula of Faith to sign. 3. n. written by Hincmar to Nicholas I. t. (49) Fleury.. says: &quot. cannot correct themselves from sin as if God. (52) Gotti. 7. were these following : 18. and anxious for his eternal welfare. 4. and Rabanus. or Ecclesiastical burial.&amp.gt. &quot. death&quot. Third God wishes all men to be saved. 84. Ranst. that the old Predestinarians so said. ar. t. writes Hincmar.110 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 1. loc. c. Van Ranst informs us. . Second God does not wish the salvation of all men. he wrote to the monks. adv. Theol. says that our Lord Jesus Christ was not all. but after his disdain. cit. as God has predestined some to eternal life. that in case of the conversion of Godeschalcus. who on account of the predestination of God. that directions to do but if he persevered they should not give him the Sacraments. 9. so he First predestines others to everlasting death. s. . t. Third He crucified and died for the salvation of were these following: First There is only one predestination by Second The free will of man is God. Van (51) Tourn. 48. (51). as Cardinal Gotti (52) writes. 50.

9. ad sec. As far as our judg rieres). 5. But on the other hand. all Catholic doctors previous the exception of some few. Gotti. and have fears for his eternal (53) Berti. De Prsedest. 142.AND THEIR REFUTATION. t. that God does not wish it the salvation of efficaciously. c. Mabillon. . Har. (54) Sirmund. Tournelly. he was ment on the matter but. in France. diss. and he showed so much obstinacy in refusing to accommodate himself to his superiors. he was not a heretic . 13. loc. 2. Cardinal de Norris. . as his defenders have afterwards explained his words. likewise. Contenson. Nat. IV. t. Berti. de Noris. are . N. but. punishment. 8. Lupus Not. Contens. Pandal. by thus ex As to the plaining his three propositions tination to death they say that : As it . we may reasonably doubt of his good salvation. . at all events. . Roncaglia. /. Animad. 14. as Christian Lupus. Theol. as they are laid before us. Abbot of Fer- reason condemned them as heretical. 4 . and Roncaglia (53). that if Godeschalcus intended to express himself. and JSTocl Alexander. prop. the predes can be understood of the predestination to prevision of sin. 84. 5. ap. sopra 2. p. as Prudentius. s. Theol. /. as to the third. cit. faith. Bishop of Troyes. As . Tournelly. that he did not die efficaciously. 3. Bishop of Lyons. Mabillon. as Sirmond. t. Pelag. that Jesus Christ all . As he did not explain himself according as his friends do who defend him. Tract. as Van culpable in not explaining himself more clearly Ranst very well remarks. we say. defend it. 1. de Praed. & Hist. Alex. ad cone. goes. to the first. and taking them in their plain obvious sense.s. and Loup. Theol. c. diss. and as he died so unhappily. 6. his propositions. are of the same opinion (54). cit. can be understood of his not wishing it had not it died for the salvation of can. be understood. 3. /. Ill of Godeschalcus. 15 . marked with heresy. which God makes after the to the second. judgment we should pass on the faith some modern writers. of the greatest weight. as we have already related. loc. Card. and. as Tour- to Jansenius (with nelly writes. Alex. all And. cit. s. 19. Bened. Hist. 1 Rom. app. with very good many modern authors. loo. 5. c. c. 13.

-He is St.-He is is admonished . to explain the faith to the (1) Nat. -Letters to St. Ann. Cyril contradicted. his Cruelty. quoted by Baronius. Euprepius. 54. God dwelled in Christ. and other acts of Cruelty.-Efforts of the Nestorians.-He is condemned. 31. when the Church had to assemble again to oppose the heresy of Nestorius. Nestorius was born in Germanicia. 1. 30. calling her the Mother. Celestine. by asserting that the Word was not hypostatically united with Christ.112 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 12. 37. Paul of Samosata. Cyril. 26. ex n. and Photinus. 3. cited to the Council. and his Answer. in the are condemned. & Floury. suburbs of Antioch monastery of St. . n. was a mere as. Letter to him. Baron. he blasphemously taught. and in was brought up dotus (2). THE NESTORIAN HERESY. not of God. -He is 23.-It condemned 40 as heretical to assert that Jesus Christ is the adopted Son of God. Ebion. who.-Errors of Nestorius. 428. as in his temple. 1. his Answer. had done before.-St. 32Confirmation of 33. n. a. in the He was ordained priest by Theo- and appointed t. who has unjustly undertaken the Defence of Nestorius. name of the Pope. 24. and 25. 4. 39. t. his catechist. t. 38The 36. informs us. and his elevation to the Episcopacy. and. . 28. -The Sentence of the Pope intimated to him.-Disagreeable Affair with the Emperor Theodosius. 1 . -Cabal of John of Antioch. s. (2) Evagr. of the Errors preached 21. but only extrinsically. 43. 24. where he dies. Orsi. a small city of Syria. Hist. as Suidas. 1. 27.-Laws against the Nestorians. and sends him is into Banishment. 35. 10. c. -The Pelagians the Council by the Legates. -He approves by his Priest. 20. who had the temerity to impugn the maternity of the Mother of God. was a nephew to Paul of Samosata. /. 7. the (1). -Answer to Basnage. is 29. /. same subject continued. Anathemas of 28. s 22. 34. Alex. & seq. c.-The Catholics separate from him.-The Sentence of the Council intimated to him.-Theodosius approves of the condemnation of Nestorius. but of Christ. Anastasius . so that man. 5. The heresy of Pelagius was scarcely condemned by the African Councils. 20. with a similar impiety. ARTICLE III. 12.

the Apollinarists. L 24. which induced the Emperor Theodosius the Younger to put an end to it all. and he. Nat. he was a most ardent persecutor of the Arians. ever. and the Quartodecimans but. he was combating the heretics who then disturbed the Eastern Church the Arians. I 28. 3. but highly creditable to him. t. t. John Chrysostom. Sissinnius. Nat. and. catechumens. and had him consecrated Bishop. or 428. for he was worn. because she was (5) (3) Orsi. (4) Fleury. 4. sermon he preached (4). and I will give you heaven exterminate the heretics with me. t. in fact. the earth purged from heretics. at the instigation of the Bishop. 21. of the name of Anastasius. he turned round to the Emperor. in place of Alexander. my Lord. also. he summoned Nestorius from Antioch. at the highly pleasing to the people (3). you. for after the death of the Patriarch Sisinnius. in the stantinople was split into factions about who should succeed him. and always poorly clad. preached one day the blasphemous doctrine that no one should call Mary the Mother of God. and defend in it . n. his own errors make way for &quot. and I will exterminate the Persians with first &quot. Chrysostom but he was deceived in his hopes. 113 against heretics and. to his own.. cit. 54. I Apud. He brought a priest from Antioch with him. Alex. that. c. according to His elevation. and thus addressed him Give me. the Church of Con JN&quot.AND THEIR REFUTATION. the Novatians. his chief aim in this was only to prepare the way for teaching . 12. that he was placed in the See of Constantinople. that no one should complain of his choice. Theodosius hoped that his new Patriarch would in . Vincent of Lerins tells us. was not only legitimate. n. : . and his apparent piety. He declared war against all heresies. art.&quot. In the beginning of his reign. it is true. all things follow in the steps of his predecessor. he concealed a great fund of pride. loc. how according to Hermant and Cardinal Orsi. and his choice was It is said.&quot. pale. (5). it was only of a vain and though popularity-hunting sort. by selecting a Bishop himself. 1. and the Origen- most zealous ists and professed himself a great admirer and imitator of St. 10. for. His virtue was altogether Pharasaical. year 427. under an exterior of mortification. 12. . as St. He was so distinguished for his eloquence.

Nestorius called them Arians and Apollinarists. the Compendium of blind ignorant. In that sermon. has always been the plan with heretics. and although these were but once. not alone true man. because they believed that there were two dis tinct natures in Christ so. error. . only a creature.&quot. they had. and it was impossible that a human creature could be the Mother of God. to sustain this Catholics of heresy. to their astonishment. when. like unto the Father. without generation no. loc. : forth a God. Arius called the Catholics Sabellians. More. without partisans. without mother. speaking the Divinity of Christ. when. The people were most anxiously waiting to hear what of God. few. He was not. ap. and throw him into the sea. because they professed that the Son was 22. and when the whole burthen of his sermons was nothing but a blasphemous attack on the doctrine of the Church. but unblushingly went into the pulpit himself. and Blasphemy. in like the Divine and the human nature and manner. It by accusing the God. and publicly defended the doctrine preached by Anastasius. the support of the Court very and the Ma- (6) Orsi. he says that he is without father. he called those Catholics who were scandalized by Anastasius the Bishop would say in the pulpit. to call on him to punish the temerity of the preacher . however. that. cit. How can God have a mother ? The Gentiles he cried out then ought to be excused. beholding their shepherd turned into a wolf. the people of Constantinople became so excited. that the Holy Virgin should not be called the Mother preaching. Eutyches called them Nestorians. What is born of the flesh is what is born of the spirit is spiritual. : mothers of their Gods of and the Apostle is a liar. but he not only approved of what was said.114 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. the instrument of the Divinity. true God and When Nestorius thus continued to preach. 8. for all that. 1. The nothing but flesh creature does not . who bring forward on the stage the &quot. but frequently. The people ran to Nestorius. . because they insisted on the necessity of Grace. bring forth the Creator. Cyril (6). n. because they confessed in Christ one Person. Mary has not brought . called afterwards by all St. they threatened to tear him in pieces. Sern. but only a man. Pelagius called them Manicheans.

gistracy. there was one person who. The sermons of Nestorius were scattered through all the provinces of the East and West. 10 . it. nevertheless .&quot. he discharged all the venom of his rage on some good Archimandrites of monks. it is the same Word. n. Cyril. at the same time. and. without giving them had them confined in the ecclesiastical prison. and one of the agents for the affairs of his Sovereign. Cyril. : It is so. and said to his face &quot. he was an advocate of great learning. Withal. and sought every means to be revenged on St. was thanked by several of the magistrates but Nestorius Cyril was highly indignant. 4. and lacerated their backs with the greatest cruelty. /. stretching them on the ground. Ep. 25. 14. wrote a letter to all the monks of Egypt (9). Fleury. and denying the two generations of the Word. and fearing lest the heresy should take root. and was afterwards born anew of a virgin. /. (8) Orsi. Bishop of Alexandria. /. Orsi. Fleury. hearing of this. 9. before all ages was born of the Father. though but then a layman (he was after wards made Bishop of Dorileum. Nestorius was irritated at the interruption. /. (7) Orsi. 4. and got a person named Photius to answer . who came to enquire of him whether what was said of his teaching was true that he preached that nothing could be that Mary brought forth only a man born of the flesh but flesh alone and suggested to him that such doctrine was opposed to Faith. 23. for. according to the flesh. myrmidons. and called the speaker a miserable ribald wretch but as he could not take vengeance as .AND THEIR REFUTATION. 3. Nestorius. while Nestorius was publicly preaching one day in the church (8). boldly stood forward. that there was frequently danger of blood being spilled there (7). . after stripping them of their habits. t. 25. tied them to a post. St. Cyril. and then. and was a most strenuous opponent of Eutyches. 115 and the contests even in the church became so violent.6. n. and through the monasteries of Egypt. This letter was taken to Constantinople. and kicking and beating them. adMon. t. 3 . and St. . likewise. beat them on the belly. gives them excellent instructions in the true Faith. and his any reply. where they excited great disputes. as we shall see in the next chapter). . in which he instructs them not to intermeddle in such questions at all. n. When apud. the Eternal and the Temporal. n. who. 28. (9) St. he wished on him. n. 28.

but on account of writings scattered abroad (whether they are yours or not is another thing). (12) St.&quot. they set up a people loud shout.&quot. ad Nest. that nothing more was to be &quot. When the heard this blasphemy so openly proclaimed. Cyril. but admitted him to the participation of the Sacred Mysteries. 6. account of my letter. he rose up and cried out is the Mother of God. his conjecture. expected from Nestorius. that I was obliged to to the &quot. I 25. but his reply was only a threatening tirade (11) : shew what fruit this will produce for my part.116 this THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. not to speak more harshly to you. ibid. Nestorius answered. who was such a sycophant to Nestorius. and all the departed Saints. (11) Fleury. I am prepared to suffer every thing. . said he. on the contrary. Experience. that prisonment and death. he says. provide a remedy. Ep. in the call the Holy Virgin the Mother of God. . and put an end to this universal scandal.&quot. and left the church (12). : communion with the proclaimers of such an impious heresy for. Fleury. c. though you have not practised either towards me. c. therefore. of me. Cyril. seated on his If any one says that Mary throne. and seeing that he still persisted in not calling the Holy Virgin the Mother of God. There is not the least doubt but that Nestorius approved of the excommunication announced by Dorotheus. came : rius (10) knowledge of the Saint. and Jesus (10) Epis. and which have been the cause of so many disorders. would be to excommunicate the whole Church all the Bishops. ap. after having publicly given him notice in the assembly. rather. in fact. . he wrote to Nestodid not commence on disturbance. amend your discourses. no reason to complain who have occasioned this disturbance. This &quot. Acac. even im meantime. excommunicate all those who said that Mary was the Mother of God. will . for the Faith of Jesus Christ. ad. c. and Be assured. Fleury.&quot. (13) St. that while the Patriarch was one day in full assembly. ibid. determined to hold no more &quot. &quot. I am full of patience and charity. ap. You have. for he not only held his peace on the occasion. who professed the Catholic doctrine. 10. let him be excommunicated. You. This letter proved to St. 22. Some of his priests. There 24. ad Nestor. Cyril. to (13) .&quot. and what followed proved the truth of was a Bishop of the name of Dorotheas in Constantinople.

3. in which he exaggerates his great labours against the heretics. that Grace is given to us by God. /. Nestorius himself. 14. . to the Pelagian opinion. by his nature. because he those Bishops in Constantinople. and to the Princesses. c. (18) Baron. to the Emperor Theodosius. An. 430. 3. Basil. Celestine his books . Celestine. and requires also to party were deprived had kindly received Pelagians were not he adhered of the Pelagian he thus wrote. (16) Con. &quot. n. A monk. 3. examination of the writings of Nestorius. Alex. and then sent him into exile (15). according to our own merits. 28. deprived of their usual instructions.&quot. concerning the true Faith (16). giving him an account of all that took place. St. 12. and thought to prevent him. t. rather. had the boldness to write a letter to St. t. n. he did not retract (14) Libell. Ephes. Orsi. but seeing obstinacy. his and that the heresy was spreading in Constantinople. at the same time. and the included in an edict he procured from of their Sees . likewise. he wrote several letters. but we have not a Bishop. now openly forsook his communion but he prohibited not only those. true God (14). /. and not only were his blasphemies condemned. (15) Nat. 30. his sisters. Ephcs. 7. 25. but the poor man was immediately knocked down. so that the people. summoned a Council in for the Rome. this letter is letters. ten days after the publication of his sentence. 25. c. when she should only be called the Mother of Christ. and given into the We hands of the Prefect. as Cardinal Orsi remarks.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 10. a. He also wrote that some called the Blessed Virgin the Mother of God. Fleury. but he was even deposed from his bishopric. stepped forward while Nestorius was going into the church. c. having read both quoted by Baronius (18). from preaching. if. 117 Christ. s. 430. I. n. 12. said : have an Emperor. likewise. and explaining to him the necessity there was that he should oppose the errors of Nestorius (17). 37. 6. p. n.p. through favour of the Court. (17) Cone. to Pope Celestine. 2. burning with zeal. and on that account he sent him some of St. c. 1. calling him a heretic. previously . or. but all who had preached against his opinion. in the month of August. know why some Bishops Theodosius against the heretics . for. n. He wrote. treatises. 2 . Cyril wrote again to Nestorius. who first caused him publicly to be flogged. and seq.

& & seq . 48. ar. 13. c. St. in case of the retractation (19) Flcury. (21) Apud. wrote a Synodical letter to Nestorius. Alex. induced to ask for favour of the Court. t. These. 4. Celestine. These Prelates arrived in Constantinople on the 7th of the following month of December. /. at the solicitation both of the it by the monks. p. 29. and another to the abbots of the monasteries. 26. 1. 4. Cyril with the execution of the sentence (19). are an anathema against those who deny that the Holy Virgin is Mother of the Incarnate Word. not alone according to his dignity. Cyril. cit. telling him that. to give them notice likewise of the letter having been expedited. and through Catholics. Cyril appointed four Egyptian Bishops to certify to 27. and two others one to the people of Constantinople. sec. who hoped to carry by his point by means of the Bishops of his party. and the Pope charged St. but through the hypostatic union of These the Person of the Word with his most Holy Humanity. (23) Celest. convoked a Council. therefore. St. but the Emperor Thcodosius. he did not retract what he had preached. /. in substance. those Fathers would have no more communication with him. 5. p. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 2. anathemas are fully and distinctly expressed in the letter. Nestorius the authenticity of this letter. c. 26. & Orsi. 1. if he did not retract in ten days . wrote anew to St. The Synodical letter also contained the profession of Faith and the anathemas decreed against the JSTestorian errors (21). t. Cyril. Ephes. if in the laymen deposed or excommunicated by him (20). 25. true God and true Man. asking him (23). n. and of Nestorius himself. 1. 161. n. as the third and last term of ten days after the receipt of that letter. and then. of all the Bishops of Egypt. in the name of the Council. and intimated to JSTestorius the sentence of deposition passed by the Pope. 12. (20) Cone. 430 (22). 10. /. . St. previous to their arrival.118 his errors. t. t. (22) Orsi. Bernini. 452. Ep. had given orders for the convocation of a General Council. in Alexandria. and that they would hold communion with all clergymen and admonition . so cruelly treated Ncstorius. whether. n. or deny that Jesus Christ is the only Son of God. Nat. that they would no longer consider him as a Bishop. ar. 12 3. in discharge of the commission to which ho was appointed by the Pope. 28.

. were assembled. It appears. or put into execution St. 119 of Nestorius. in the Council of Ephesus . soon after. in fin. and before all the other Bishops. even from the opening act of the Council. he is entitled President. to give time to JSTestorius to change his Nestorius thus remained in possession of his See till conduct. he sent Arcadius and Projectus. the first to arrive. Graveson (26). . as delegate of his Holiness the Archbishop of (24) Orsi. according to his wishes. Cyril. the Bishops all hastened to Ephesus. Bishops. the sentence of deposition already published against him. (25) Celest Epis. 3. (26) Graveson. apud ibid. and pardon his past faults. He wrote to the and notified the directions he had and that he had no doubt but that the Fathers would adhere to the decision he had given. and was contrasted with the irreligious obstinacy of Nestorius (24). to in chief. even after the arrival of the Apostolic Legates. 2. This condescension of St. 17. 28. that. cit. the Council should receive him. As St. was one of Council to the same effect. 5. for. given to his Legates. everything turned out most happily. was praised in the Council afterwards. Orsi. before the arrival of the Legates. most of them Metropolitans and men of great learning. and Philip. into communion. Cyril. as Bishop. 1. accompanied by a great train. by the Legates. where the Council was convoked for the 7th of June. be kept in abeyance. Celestine answered. col 4. and. notwithstanding the prescribed time he was satisfied that the sentence of deposition should had passed. arrived. When the celebration of Easter was concluded.AND THEIR REFUTATION. appointed President He gave them positive orders that they should not allow his to sentence against JSTestorius to be debated in the Council (25). that he presided in place of Celestine. Cyril presiding as Vicar of Pope Celestine. loc. preside in his place. Celestine the decision of the Council. as we shall see. and not canvass what he already had decided. sec. Celestine could not personally attend the Council. There was no doubt about St. n. with St. Nestorius. a priest. t. in which the Legates are mentioned by name after St. in several acts of the Synod itself. St. and in a little time two hundred Bishops. Cyril. Rome. and. accompanied by fifty Egyptian Bishops. but endeavour to have it put into execution. n. as is manifest from the fourth act of the Council.

We anathema immediately. 28) Orsi. until the arrival St. c. 13. he Council. accord Before they began. 12. colleagues paid no attention to the remonstrance. and sent other Bishops to in the name of the Council. in the course of the same day. how ingly. made no further opposition.&quot. in to Nestorius which. wait on Nestorius. four Bishops were appointed to Ephesus. tize all Whoever Whoever communicates with Nestorius let him be The true faith anathematizes him. n. would have no objection to present himself. the second letter of to St. sent by Theodosius. loc. Cyril St. and cite him to appear next day at the He answered. on the day before. let him called out the letters and dogmas of Nestorius. 18. : and they &quot.120 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. of his 27) Orsi. The day appointed. against the opening of the Council. Ephes. Bernin. but they were insulted and him mal treated by the soldiers Fathers. as President (27). Celestine s was next read. Finally. the 22nd of June. therefore. justly says deny that Cyril presided at the Council of Ephesus. 4. Candidianus. with one does not anathematize Nestorius. of all. t ap. n. the sentence of the Council was pronounced against him : It begins. in which he fulminates a sentence of letter deposition against Nestorius. the Fathers having ascertained that he was sent by the Emperor. accord (29) be anathema. anathema. solely with authority to keep order and put down disturbance. by quoting the examination. determined at once to open the Session. but then. cit. and the Count. That they are far from the truth. . who therefore. 22nd of June. gave notice that the first Session of the Synod would be held on the in St. Mary s Church. but . p. and the answer of Nestorius all Cyril. On the appointed day the Council was opened the Count 29. (29) In actis Con. but assembled the next day.&quot. signed by sixtyeight Bishops. unless he retracts in ten days (30). &quot. sec. that if his presence was necessary. on the he had with him as a body-guard. St. 4. 12. 458. therefore. n. Cyril. they judged it better to cite Nestorius a second and third time. was read. according to the Canons. by the Fathers. 29. 29. the principal one of and. he forwarded a protest. (30) Orsi. St. t. as Vicar of : Pope Celestine. /. endeavoured to put it off. ever. I. held first the first Session. Cyril and his of other Bishops who were expected (28).

and a general illumination of the whole city manifested the universal joy (33). (34) Apud. through the streets by the The sentence was published the same day of Ephesus. and was . Nat. 5. and his doctrine pro hibited. 21 n. posted up in the public places but Candidianus ordered it to be taken down. impious doctrines. deprives him. sec. When the Bishops left the church.&quot. to Nestorius. . 3. Alex. loc. Bishop we have been necessarily driven. assembled in the Metropolis of Ephesus. they all. of the city were waiting from morning till night. cit. till seven o clock in the evening. 121 and sermons. 3. the foregoing sentence was intimated to Nestorius. the new Judas. bearing vases of lighted torches. c. 42. burning perfume. 4. /. : tears. c. who cast and of his Holy Mother. n. 1. and the then proceeds and Obliged by of Epistle of our Holy Father and Colleague. according to the Ecclesiastical Decrees sanctioned Holy Synod&quot. of all Ecclesiastical dignity. whom he has insulted by his of the blasphemies. He also wrote to the Emperor. Bcrnin.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and that the Holy Virgin was declared to be the Mother of God in reality. . Cyr. and the sun did not set The the latitude of Ephesus. extracted from his own writings the Sacred Canons. Council and praise God. began to bless the down the enemy of the Faith. to fore. (33) Floury and Orsi. not without the Roman Church. they were accompanied to their lodgings by the people with Women went before them. on account of your many discourses. Know that you. s. 25. through this Holy Council. on the 22nd of this month. . There our Lord Jesus Christ. and a letter sent to him as follows &quot. people expecting the decision of the Council. lasted from the morning till dark night (32). and declares him excluded Assembly and College of Priests (31). Celestine. (32) Epis. by sound of trumpet. 6. declaring the Session of the Council celebrated null and void. &quot. t. 10. t. This sentence was sub The Session scribed by one hundred and eighty-eight Bishops. err. though the days were in long at that season. and when they heard that Nestorius was condemned and deposed. from every Episcopal dignity. the 22nd of June. 30. (34). The following day. Fleury. : The Holy Synod. and your obstinate contumacy against the Sacred Canons. 4. pronounce this melancholy sentence against him. (31) Orsi. and published an edict. have been deprived. 12. with one voice. Cone.

Finally. 1. n. however. to his him 32. Bishop (37). complaining of the injustice done to him in the Council. and then to depose St. to not appearing. John. and St. n. and that. 29. he had the hardihood to summon a Cabal in the very city of Ephesus. and Orsi. and after being twice more cited. cit. as chief of the Cabal. 25. raised another down peaceably. 49. and fifth Session. because. and requiring that another General Council should be convened. /. not. or because went to his heart to see his friend and fellow-citizen (Nestorius was a native of Antioch) condemned. the Council put forth its authority. and the other Bishops of his party. Cyril. (39) Orsi. 7i. Con. joined the to be about to of Antioch. was decided on in the subsequent Sessions. Cyril received communion. and a great friend of Nestorius. (37) Cabassu. (36) Orsi. and and the perfidious Nestorius wrote another letter to violence Theodosius to the same effect. sec. t. and scq. 33. (38) Orsi. and all the Bishops inimical to him excluded (35). the Council. in conjunction with other schismatical Bishops. and according to the Canons. but. Cyril and the other Bishops took no notice of such rash attempts. 17. if they obstinately persevered. We will. on the contrary. sub scribed the condemnation of Nestorius. /. and St. and. in the year 433. and convinced of the justice of the sentence Council (36). as they said. to the number of forty . and. St. Several Bishops of the Nestorian party. n. 28. 5. and to excommu nister of the it nicate all the other Bishops of the Synod. till such time as they would repent of their fault. 13. the protest. either to please Chrisaphius. and thus peace was re-established between the Metropolitans of Alexandria and Antioch (39). declared John his colleagues suspended from Ecclesiastical Communion. return to the Council. and deputed three Bishops to cite John. in the account for his insolence. n.122 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. n. Mennon. to the last extremity (38). Bishop of Ephesus. 23. they trampled on and despised the orders of the Emperor. were even shocked at his impiety. . Prime Mi storm Emperor. that they would be proceeded against. who had signed 31. settle But when everything appeared passed against him. 30. by sedition that the decision of the Council was obtained . and see what which we have (35) Orsi. John.

all the acts of the Council. is the head of all the faithful. answered. whom The another shall receive his Bishopric.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Peter. who holds the place of St. that the holy Synod. confirm the Decree pronounced by the Synod against the impious and we declare him deposed from the and the communion of the Catholic Church and. postponed. St. Mennon. Philip then thanked the Council. 123 end of the Cabal of John of Antioch. You. and that he received : the keys of the kingdom from Jesus Christ. and his Holiness exercises. they wished that the letter of St. ( &quot. n. in his successor. The next day. name. Celestine Shortly arrived at Ephesus Philip. Cyril. Therefore. Projectus then moved and said &quot. Pope Celestine. 42. and Peter is the the foundation of the Catholic Church. had already put it into execution. let his part be with him. Arcadius. sent by them to the Council. priesthood as he has contemned correction. should be read. the three Legates of St. and the Legates took the First of first all. have united yourselves as holy members with your head. Bishop of the See. then the Priest Philip thus spoke chief of the Apostles. of Nestorius . and &quot. in his having sent us to this Council to supply his place. And Celestine. and have manifested that you well know that the Blessed Apostle. and the Bishops Council expressing a wish that all the acts of the two Sessions should be joined with those of the first preceding one. in Cappadocia. we. and the sentence of the deposition of Nestorius were read. all agreed to the sentiments when the Fathers heard it.No one doubts that St. they expressed in it by the Pope. that the it is written. . the column of the Faith. Bishop of Cesarea. Arcadius and Projectus then did the same. and pronounced a Canonical judgment against the contumacious Nestorius. to see the after the first Session. but also of all the Bishops of The second Session was then held in the palace of the West. Fermus. to St.&quot. . and Projectus and they came not alone hi the Pope s name. : that the Council would put into execution what was mentioned in the letter of the Pope. this He lives even judgment. and to-day. therefore. place (40). and chief of the Apostles. guided by the antecedent letters of the Pope. (40) Orsi. by these acclamations. Peter. and to the Churches of Constantinople and Antioch.

giving him an account of the sentence fulminated against Nestorius and his adherents. except that of the Council of Nice.124 assent of all THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. (46) Baron. but the & se&amp. and the name of the Council of the Western Bishops. 98 & 99. 431. subjoined Pope.l- (44) Baron. it the Fathers might be shown to all the acts of was done so. 61. (45) Orsi. n. and against John. 29. the Fathers of the Council wrote a Synodical Epistle to the Emperor. was prohibited (44). 42. the Fathers wrote to Theochap. The symbol composed by Theodore of Mopsuestia was also condemned in this Council and every other formula. besides. 3. held in Home (42). /. 101 . requesting leave to return to their (41) Orsi. condemned in this Council. They also notified to him the condemnation of the Pelagians and Celestians. Legates They then the confirmation of the sentence by the Papal Legates. tifical of the deposition of these Bishops. (42) Orsi. from ? making additions necessary for clearing up the truth. n. (43) Orsi. Orsi. /. and charged his with the execution of it in their name. When all was concluded. was anathematized at the same time (46). Celestine. Patriarch of Antioch. The heresy of the Messalians (Art. n. both against Nestorius. was Churches. 80). giving him an account had been done. . and explained to him how the Pelagians disturbed the East. the Council. that there is a great deal of confusion regarding the Synod of Ephesus. entitled The Ascetic. as the Celestine. This being done. cit. had already decided. n. (41). The Council. they considered that the Pon Decrees passed against them should retain all their force. by the assembled Bishops of the world. loc. as the Council of Constantinople had done already. looking for a General Council to examine their cause but that. 34. but there is no doubt but that the Pelagians were condemned in this Council as heretics. and the Legates subscribed the whole 33. n. however. when she condemns any heresy not formally condemned by the Council of Nice. n.lt. also dosius. St. 4. Cardinal Orsi justly remarks (45). as the Fathers had read in the Synod the Commentaries of the Acts wrote another letter to of all that . Here. Ann. 29. St. and a book. Cardinal Orsi (43) writes. both in their own name. and other Councils did since that of Ephesus. that that does not prohibit the Church. 52. n. 58.

said: Ca3sar. they went in a crowd along with the Monk St. that none of leave the city (48). &quot. (50) Orsi. Cabass. 17. Bishops of his party.&quot. with the Fathers of the Council. to address Theodosius gave them the Emperor in favour of the Catholics. as well as all the 125 former ones they Count Candinianus. v. and prevented from giving the Emperor a faithful the Fathers should be permitted to account of all that had been done in the case of Nestorius. n. Ann. sec. for. put an end. they. Fleury. revoked his (47) Baron. on the one side. and vexed. Dalmatius. 13. were to anew be considered invalid. stuffed with lies and calumnies regarding the proceedings of the Council. and all the Archimandrites. with copies of all the letters they had already written. poisoned. 6. and the the insolence of the schismatics. enclosed in a hollow cane. had never left his monastery (50). moved by reasons adduced. for forty-eight years previously. n. devised a plan to send a trusty messenger (49). to the miserable of heresy let the just cause of the Catholics prevail imposture He then proceeded to explain the rectitude of the for ever. acts of the Council. disguised as a beggar. was intercepted by who placed guards on the roads for that purpose (47) while. at length. commanded. Mocius. but which were intercepted. the bearer of the Emperor s . /. 105 & 107. the letters of John of Antioch. and thus it happened. in Constantinople. 28. as he believed. t.30. 451. and the Patriarch of Antioch. likewise to several other persons usually carried. and informed him of what they had done in the affair of Nestorius. (48) Baron. that the Emperor. (49) Baron. had already arrived some time at Constantinople. Dalmatius. who. n. and that everything should be examined and therefore. letter to Ephesus. n. 4. 104. Theodosius. such as poor pilgrims They wrote. ascending the pulpit. t. so that when the good people of that city discovered the intrigues of the enemies of the Council. audience in the Church of St. 26. letter containing this request. on his arrival. 451. singing hymns and psalms. n. at the same time. Ann. as done against his orders. by the false accounts furnished him. not having written to him. on the other.0 . wrote to them that all the acts of the Synod. /. . Palladius. and the schismatical . wrote to Constantinople.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and St. The Fathers were confounded when they discovered how they were calumniated. 108. therefore.

126 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. but the Catholic Cyril. Cyril and St. Bishop of Berea. Mennon to be liberated. the eyes of her brother to the impositions of the The Emperor. and soon after. joined the party of John of Antioch. (54) Fleury. orders (51). The Legates had now left the Council for Constantinople. to Ephesus. and informed the Emperor that Nestorius was no more a heretic than Cyril and Mennon. (53) Baron. n. likewise. Pulcheria. he said he wished to try the cause himself. 4. to pacify both parties. and protesting that nothing would induce them ever to communicate with the schismatics. and that the only way to pacify the Church of the East. n. but who. that each of them should send some of his Bishops to Constantinople. between Egypt and Lybia 126 431. and The clergy of the few survivors were reduced to slavery. as Ann. when matters were just settling down. instead of exhibiting any symptoms of sorrow for his past conduct. and Mennon. at length. should be put into prison . another storm arose. assisted were who opened wickedness of the schismatics. he was banished to the Oasis (51) Baron. assured of the Nestorians (53). clamoured in favour of the Catholics. concerning the dispute between St. wrote to the Emperor. Bishop of Emisenum. to Ephesus. a great patron of the schismatics. In the meanwhile. Cyril and St. the concerns of the Empire all went wrong. praying him to liberate the Catholic Bishops. so Theodosius thought it better to send (52) his Mennon . (52) Baron. and. t. and commanded. At the same time. only continued to infect the monks of the monastery with his heretical opinions. for the Count Ireneus. ordered St. and gave leave to the bishops to return home to their Sees he confirmed the . n. and the virtue of the Catholics. but as he. . and ordered him to shut himself up once more in his old monastery of St. 113. & 127. Euprepius. deceived by Paul. therefore. When the Count came to Ephesus. in Africa. the Count John. L 26. almoner. and there learn to repent . an honest and righteous man. Cyril and the Patriarch of Antioch. 159. n. Acacius. was to depose the whole three of them together. (54). against St. deposition of Nestorius. but. Bishops immediately wrote to the Emperor. he ordered that Nestorius. and they Constantinople in their zealous exertions by St. the Roman army was cut to pieces by the Goths. came 35. 34.

(55) Baron. The Nestorians endeavoured to turn the writings of those prelates to their own advantage. Herraant. and pretended to prove that Nestorius had taught nothing new. and that it was consumed by nopolis to Elephantina. 520. n. 10. and Theodosius deprived Count Ireneus of his dignity (56). made a most rigorous law against the Nestorians. 10.?. that the of Nestorius treating of Religion. he dashed his brains out others. When Bishops Theodore and Diodorus. and Rabbola of . who died in communion with the Church. Coll. 36. worn out place by years and infirmities. 148. worms engendered by the disease a fit punishment for that tongue which had uttered so many blasphemies against Jesus Christ and his Holy Mother (55). and left a great character after them in the East (58). Cabass. n. n. tyit. Orsi. Acacius of Meretina. sec. . n. c. there . 12. 30. n. where. 74 . Brev. c. a monk untainted in the Faith. year 435. which rotted his tongue. not.!. s. but only followed the teaching of the ancients. through desperation. Fleury informs us. 5. are whole congregations of Nestorians on the Malabar Coast. bestirred themselves against the writings of Theodore of Baron. that he died of a cancer. . all his should be confiscated. 10. Edessa. p. by Maximinian. t. Liberat. back again to another near Panopolis. at last. and. The Emperor next. Nestorius was succeeded in the See of Constantinople. 18. and.lt. ar. and others. and from Pafrom thence. city . 177 & 181. (56) (57) (58) (59) Sup. and he prohibited all the books property Dana?us (57) says. as various languages (59) Theodosia of Ancyra.lS. they set about disseminating the writings of the 37. 241. either within or without the in the He if any one gave them a place of meeting. in India. that heresy of Nestorius did not end with his life it was spread over various regions of the East. that the ground opened under him and swallowed him. even in our own days. Ann. Dan. and prohibited them from having any conventicle. 18. 127 was transferred to Panapolis. 67. the Nestorians saw their chief rejected by all the world. 1.&amp. c. 199. temp. again. and they translated those works into but many zealous Catholic Bishops. 3. t. and his works condemned by the Council of Ephesus and the Emperor. Some say that. ordered that they should be called Simonians.AND THEIR REFUTATION. he died in misery. *.

The most remarkable among the supporters . reinstated. The Three Chapters.128 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. on the same subject. ever since. in fact. and the letter of Ibas. subscribing the condemnation of Nestorius and of his errors and Ibas. and formed a numerous party. and Felex Elipandus preached this heresy in the Asturias and in Septimania. was not the natural. t. those books. both in the East and West. after . this impious heresy. of Braga. in which. 1. the second of Constantinople. (62) Hermant. t. the Nestorians made a handle of that. at a later period. progress of Nestorianism (62) but many. with great particularity and diifuseness. Cyril. sec. but only the adopted. a part of JNarbonic Gaul. Justinian. Galicia. or Son in name alone. and purposely composed a declaration of the against Symbol of Nice. n. We should also remark. Cyril heard of the matter. and approved of all that was decided in the fifth General Council. torianism were two Spanish Bishops Felix. still there were. Bishop of Cesarea. held in the year 533 (61). 26. c. after retracting the errors imputed to him. chapter. Elipandus brought over to his side Ascarieus. who prevailed on the Emperor Justinian to cause the writings of Theodore against St. to be condemned. called. 36. to who endeavoured uphold of Nes- 39. as we shall see in the next afterwards called The condemnation of these works. after re-established in his See. and Elipandus. Archbishop of Toledo these maintained that Jesus Christ. c. vi. 202. . however. and thus they seduced a great many persons. in the person of Theodore. he explains the doctrine of the Incarnation (60). likewise. being. t. 1. which he did. and requested Pope Vigilius to condemn them also. Son of God. 2. God sent them. a powerful opponent. the nuncupative. Bishop of Urgel. (61) Berti. 1. Languedoc. or. 4. put an effectual stop to the . soon by the Council of Chalcedon. When St. condemned the works of these Bishops. he also wrote Mopsuestia. This heresy had its origin about the year 780. according to his human nature. as they said. that Theodoret being 38. after mature examination in his Constitution. and some persons Archbishop (GO) Fleury. and anathematized Nestorius. to insinuate that their doctrines were approved of by the Council of Chalcedon. and of Theodore of Mopsuestia.

in 792 but it appears he was not sincere. loc. but its chief impugner was . he at length bowed to though the decision of the Roman Church. o. and in 794. This was not the case with Elipandus. under Adrian and Leo III (65). in a Synod held at Aix-la-Chapelle. as Noel Alexander tells us. 40. but some writings of his. who wrote seven books Felix was first &quot. Albertin. testify (66). the principal were Paulinus. in 1645. he confessed his error. in a Synod held at Frankfort. Who would believe that after seeing Nestorius condemned Alcuinus. (64) N. for he resisted the truth a long time. condemned him with this reservation (64) Reservato omnia juris privilegio Summi Pontificis Domini & Patris per nostri Adriani Primse Ssedis Beatissimi Papse. /. 3. who printed a work. and David de Roden. 44. c. in the year Elipandus. 55. and died in her communion. discovered after his death. 2. 2. quoted by Noel Alexander. 1 . and charge his condemnation as and unjust. as many authors. and of his eternal happiness. and afterwards accepted by the whole Catholic Church. John This band was joined by another Croye. and four against condemned in Narbonne. 788. as innocent. In the year 799. /. by a General Council. Giles Gaillard. in 792. and afterwards Bishop of Osma. and he was followed by his disciples. whose chief study has always been to reject the authority of Councils and the Pope. /. f. (66) Nat. n. Felix abjured his errors in the Council of Ratisbon. who. Patriarch of Aquilea. in Rome. and thus sustain their own errors. t.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 3. Alex. t 12. Alex. The history of Nestorianism would be incomplete without a knowledge of the invalid of the heresy. p. celebrated by such a multitude of Bishops. This error had many opponents. next in Ratisbon. c. This error was finally twice condemned in 799. conducted with such solemnity and accuracy. as he taught the same doctrine afterwards. leave us in doubt of the sincerity of his conversion. Calvinistic writer. Those who do this are surely heretics. from 129 Cordova (63). he was charged with relapsing by Alcuinus. 2. Calvin was the first to raise the standard. and the arguments made use by them. and gave every sign of having truly returned to the Church. 6. : . Colloq/3. but did not put modern defenders of (63) Fleury. by the Bishops of France. . . 8. 3. cit. that persons would be found to defend him. 50.&quot. a. against Felix. (65) Graves. Beatus. s. a priest and monk in the mountains of Asturias Etherius. his disciple.

subscribed to the Council. Hilary. in which he endeavours to show that Nestorius should not be ranked with the heretics. united themselves to the Fathers of the Council. was a particular. we see (No. Cyril. in his Annals (67). an. in the sixth Dogmas. in the very city of Ephesus. 13. . St. Gregory Thaumaturgus. and that they confirmed the Council. It . 41. when their eyes were opened to the truth. which then was who recognized then. . so that Theodoret. for eightynine Bishops seceded. with tears. ad. and formed a Cabal apart. the Council of Ephesus was not a General one. I. Cyril assisted at the Council. and venerated as a martyr. and St. and that the Fathers of the Council of Ephesus ought to be considered Eutychians. is it. St. book of his work on Theological Samuel Basnage. but with the doctors of the Church. in which they deposed St. (68) Basnage. among whom. together with Theodoret and the rest repented. from the beginning. 444. after. or for the other Bishops of the East. the other Legates arrived. We shall let Basnage speak for himself. As far as the Legates are concerned. that it is a (67) Basnage. Dionisius of as well as St. cjt. afterwards. were the Pelagian Bishops. and that he had been already nominated by the Pope as President that a few days after. it With what face. himself. This book was refuted by the learned Petavius. has joined with Calvin and the other authors above-named. ac sustinent pro pietate certamen but John &quot. wrote to Andrew Pars maxima Israelis consentit inimicis. name to it. and the rest. Cyril but a few true all the Bishops of the East did not attend . and several others already deposed . who at first adhered to the party of John of Antioch. that the Council of Ephesus had filled the world in the year 1646. days the eighty-nine were reduced to thirty-seven. He says. can Basnage say that Council ? 42. St. pauci vero of Samosata: valde sunt salvi. as the bishops refused to wait either for the Pope s Legates. but only a particular Synod.) that St. who give it such praise. ad an. John Chrysostom. as Ecumenical by the whole Church. and has taken up the defence of Nestorius he has even the hardihood to declare. Alexandria. n. :&quot. Finally. 430.130 his THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 28. and not a General false supposition of Basnage says next (68). first.

Basil.&quot. the Mother of the Word of God. suffered and died for the Redemption of mankind. stated that Nestorius (69) said. therefore flesh could be born of the a flesh. nemo enim antiquiorem se ipsa. the foundation of the Faith should be left intact. Spiritu Virgine. otherwise the Gentiles ought to be excused for adoring the mothers of their gods. only because he was not but how does he prove this as to the maternity well understood of the Blessed Virgin ? By saying that Nestorius. that Mary only brought forth a man. 4. Cone. Sancto de Maria Theotocon ferri potest :&quot. that in General that Council. . when he expressly declares more than once. 4. We have. cum Ss. hanc Virginem Christotochon ausi sunt cum modo quodam Theotocon dicere. Col. he says. that Nestorius taught that there were two Persons in Christ. or denied that Mary was the true Mother of God.aperte blasphemant. Virgine dixissent. thus. quoted by Basnage himself. he has no objection that the Virgin should be piously called the Mother of God. illi Patres per NicaBam nihil amplius de S. in a certain letter he wrote to John of Antioch.AND THEIR REFUTATION. but Virgin only allows her to be Christotocon. that the Blessed parit is Theotocon. tamquam complains that the clergy. admits. 131 Noel Alexander. that taken from Mary. is. God.Has a Mother ? therefore Paganism is excusable. a letter written by Nestorius to the Pope St. Deum Verbum Sed originis initium de Christotocho Virgine sumsisse. and that nothing but and. that Mary was not the Mother of God. in their petition to the Emperor Theodosius. that as far as the . Celestine (70).Verbum propter inseparabile Templum Dei Verbi ex non quia ipsa Mater sit Verbi Dei. Habetur. (70) Sess. he says. he denies in the plainest terms. in which he the Word with the flesh. &quot. &quot. Con.&quot. Mary brought not forth God. the instrument of the Divinity. but these words he afterwards interpreted in his own way. .&quot. nisi quia Jesus Christus incarnatus est ex and he adds. they required. in Sess. &quot. besides. words of the Gospel go. These are his own words. but she brought forth a man. But why should we lose time in trying to interpret these obscure and equivocal expressions of his. Col. the Mother of Christ but St. &quot. and he also relates that the monks of the Archimandrite. 1021. and he was condemned.

(72) Tom.132 Celestine THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. conjoined natures. or inhabitation he thus admits two united. and the people horrified with the blasphemy. 43.&quot. : never called Jesus Christ. it is not possible that God should be born of man. general. : &quot. and he. Let us now see what Nestorius says of Jesus Christ. Col. but not a true unity . and said God.&quot. 1023. in a union at all. When his that the two Natures were united in one Person.&quot. but only the temple or habitation It is proper. therefore. the only Son of God was born of Mary. or suffered. of person. Con. answers him (71): &quot. as he wrote to St.We have received your letters and he adds that this truth. or by the dignity or honour of Filiation given to the Person of Christ. and that it is joined by so sublime a connexion to his Divine self. and he therefore said that the Divine Word was united to Christ after he was formed a perfect man with appropriate human subsistence Si Christus perfectus Deus. No he says. to the Divine Word by reason of birth. Let no one priest. he said. Cyril. that containing open blasphemy. that we may say Col. 1004. his (71) Tom. In his letter to St. Divine and human. to ascribe or death. for he therefore gives two Persons to Christ. and he appropriation. is to follow the &quot. (72) ? He also said that the union of the two natures was according to grace. or died. to confess that the body of Christ is the temple of the Divinity. and con of God. or more properly speaking. 5. as he had two natures. &quot. I never would call him he went up into the pulpit. that God was born. and by two natures understands two personalities. who has been formed only two or three months. Cyril.&quot. : natura non subsistit&quot. si hominis perfectus &quot. he says My brother. . is the promise to us of life and salvation. said call Mary the Mother of God. quoted by Basnage. 4. : this Pagans or the insane These expressions prove that he did not believe Apollinares. and therefore could not bear to hear it said in speaking of Jesus Christ. formable to Ecclesiastical Tradition. this is the origin of his error. did not call the union of the two natures but propinquity. ubi nature est perfectio. called on Nestorius to remove the scandal given by Anastatius. can subsist without its proper subsistence. He says homo intelligitur. and nature. idemque and personality. preaching to the people. God. Con. Anastasius. or suffering.

to remove from our sight the immense love which our God has shown us. that there may be no power to condemn them. and how then can he say that he spoke in a pious and Catholic sense. the annotator of Mosheim. and the fifth General Council. 82. prefers following Calvin and his adherents. but to prevent us from thinking it even possible. It is the interest of all Cyril and the Council of Ephesus. the fifth Council. he has six very worthy excellent reflections. the Pope. Leo the Great. together with so many other doctors and learned writers received the Council of Ephesus as most certainly Ecumenical. filled the world with tears. Men do not love God .AND THEIR REFUTATION. and all the have called Selvaggi. and all and considered Nestorius a heretic. by his partisans. are the very words of Nestorius himself. that it might be said that the Divine nature appropriated the qualities proper to humanity. and that the Council of Ephesus. when Sixtus III. and nothing can be more clear than that he means to say that Christ is only the temple of God. 729. because they do not reflect that he has died for love of them. and makes several useful remarks about Catholic doctors. and the devil endeavours not only to remove this thought from our minds. n. Now. Basnage does not deny that these are the letters and expressions of Nestorius. however.. Luther and the other modern heretics. by his condemnation. and expose their errors to the world. heretics to weaken the authority of Councils. (73) Selvag. is well of being read on this question (73). by becoming man and dying for our love. but united to God in such a manner by Grace. instead of the Council of Ephesus. St. p. the credit of the Council of Ephesus. But I remark that the devil has made it a particular study to ruin. 133 Divine nature appropriates to itself something which otherwise would belong to the body alone. Here then. in Mosheim. Part II. Basnage. who seek to discredit St.

was principles (4). 55. c. 60-Dioscorus excommunicates St. 45.-Synod of 47Confession of Eutyches in the Synod. Hermant. 19. St. n. Pulcheria and Martian. and to St.-Beginning of Eutyches he Flavian receives the charge. Theodoret. Cyril. . Leo. of 57-Character 58 and 59. (4) Fleury.-The Errors of Theodore of Mopsuestia. monk and priest. he looked upon as infected with Nestorian Eusebius. THE COUNCIL CALLED THE LATROCINIUM. Brev. 1 . and accused him at the Council of Ephesus. THE HERESY OF EUTYCHES. -Writings of Theodoret against St. 6.-Reign of St. 19. 4. c. 27. THE SYNOD OF ST.-Eutyches writes to St. I. against the real Nestorians. /. An. 1. FLAVIAN. 155. Flavian is deposed. while he.-Death of Flavian.-Complaints of Eutyches. Bishop of Dorileum. is accused by Eusebius of Dorileum. Nestorius. in Phrygia. whom. 61. t. approving his zeal. Peter Chrysologus. (3) St. while (1) Nat. meant all the while the Catholics.-St. t. for. Cyril. t. eighteen years after the Council of Ephesus. 62.-Theodosius approved the Council or Cabal and dies. OR COUNCIL OF ROBBERS. . also one of the most zealous opponents of Nestorius. n.-St. 49. 44. c. 3. 51 .134 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and Eusebius of Dorileum. . informing him that Nestorianism was again raising its head (3). 23. Leo having received a letter from him. and encouraged him to defend the Church . ex. Baron. 52 & 53. Leo.-Sentence of the Synod against Eutyches. Fleury. Leo. (2) Liberat. f L . 44. containing violent opponent of his Archbishop. n. 50. -Cabal at Ephesus 54.&quot.&quot. 4. 46.-Character of Dioscorus. 13. imagining. answered him. 48. 448. ARTICLE IV. 56. he was also the abbot of a Eutyches was a monastery near three hundred monks he was a Constantinople. Flavian. &quot. his prevarications. St. 10. ar. 27. as one of the staunchest defenders of the Faith (2). 1. St. in that letter. where he went in person to testify to . Alex. that he was writing at the time. so that he was considered by the friends of St. I. 11. Defence of Theodoret. OR CABAL OF EPHESUS. s. Ep. The heresy of Eutyches sprung up(l) in the year 448.

ibid. he had the courage to stand up and reprove him publicly for his errors (5). The unfortunate man. 10.AND THEIR REFUTATION. would occasion a great deal of tumult. t. to charge with the profession of this false doctrine. advised Eusebius to act with the greatest caution. (8) Orsi. and had before defended JNestorius. and. to denounce him to the Church. Dalmatius. but when Eusebius of Dorileum. for he was venerated by the people. and respected by the Court. 135 yet only a layman. Archbishop of Constantinople (8). Cyril . 25. it wore a more serious aspect. t. 2. Alex. accordingly. as a man. and. 2. Fleury. Fleury. c. 9. n. Orientals (7) had already denounced the of Eutyches to the Emperor Theodosius. St. but. The Bishops of the East exclaimed. but he so adroitly turned aside the charge. considered himself now bound by the Gospel. having dedicated himself to God from his infancy. he. n. therefore. instead of being arraigned. /. but as it was an old trick. made him a friend of Eutyches. 32. or. that. /. had then nothing to fear from the charges of those bishops. . cit. having frequently admonished him privately. laid the matter before St.) The conformity of their opinions. ap. only. he gave up Even before that the errors his friendship and became his accuser. when he joined with St. (5) Snip. 23. . Flavian foresaw. especially all who as those same bishops. who. (7) Orsi. was also protected by the Eunuch Chrisaphius. that a judicial process and condem nation of Eutyches. Fleury. Eutyches. supra. perceived that he (Eutyches) went too far and fell into heretical propositions (6). 13. and. n. defended the anathemas of St. the adversaries of ISTestorius. for reasoning with him. at length. n. n. 45. He endeavoured then. 23. took up the matter. therefore. in the course of their intimacy. no one took any notice of their accusation of Eutyches on the present occasion. that Eutyches was infected with the errors of Apollinares. he became the accuser. ibid. by when he saw it was all in vain. (6) Orsi. cit. fc 16. . had now grown grey in monastic solitude and never went outside of his cloister for a day. in the year 429. even still upheld the doctrine of Theodore of Mopsuestia. Eusebius then. Flavian. 16. Z. (No. to bring him round but. 20. Nat. to defend the Council of Ephesus the Archbishop. 14. n. s. a long time. whose god-father he . and seeing that this had no effect on him.

but he refused. with being a heretic he demanded. at any cost. . that St. between Florens of Sardis. 17. n. and could bring many witnesses to prove it. . and in it Eusebius charged Eutyches with blaspheming Jesus Holy Fathers. received the charge against Eutyches. 46. again begged of the Council. nor anyother consideration. and he promised that he would be him of heresy. and opposing both the Court and Dioscorus. a great disturbance in the Church but neither this. and thus occasioning . n. that Christ. who were the first to accuse him of heresy it would appear then. was then held. and thus. had already perverted a great number. Flavian held a Synod for the adjustment of some disputes. cit. on (9) Orsi. the Bishop of Dorileum arose. as he had so often made the attempt already and could not succeed. and summon him to appear at the en to summon Eutyches. that he might not lead others astray. St. be read and inserted in the Acts. and with accusing himself.136 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. the two principal letters of St. 24. Eutyches should be cited to appear before the Council. could restrain the zeal of Eusebius. however. in intermeddling at all with the matter. Still. Cyril. in op posing the Oriental Bishops. Bishop of Alexandria. requiring that it should The document was read. Flavian wished that Eusebius should try once more the effect of a private remonstrance. and joined with Dioscorus. therefore. the paper was read through. those whom he had could see the evil of their ways and repent. The Synod. as he The second Session suing Session of the Council to clear himself. When perverted. and two bishops of the same province. and presented a document to the Council. While this was going on. When this case was concluded (9). so St. Flavian was obliged to receive the charge. in private. and try to bring him to a better Eusebius answered. but all in vain. St. St. Flavian and Eusebius were joining the enemy. whose whole study it was to make war with heresy. Flavian besought Eusebius to see prepared to convict Eutyches once more sense. he therefore. the Metropolitan of Lydia. Fleury. and its let justice take course. and in that. loc. with speaking with disrespect of the . was. A 27. and deputed a priest and deacon to wait on him. to give an account of his expressions. at length. that he had done so over and over already. and.

and other citations were sent to Eutyches. t. n. that his second letter to Nestorius. but teaches the contrary. hall. and all the other Bishops made the same profession.&quot. When these letters were read. n. Florentius came. but the Fathers were 47. according to his Divinity. Baron. that his is perfect God and perfect man. and read an order from the Emperor. approved by the Council of Ephesus. St. and alleged as an excuse that he never left his convent. Eutyches answered that 7. 14. but he refused. . Orsi. Eutyches. in one sole hypostasis or person. n. and the other to the Council of John. himself before the Council. (an officer so called among the Romans. should attend the Council for the conservation of the Faith. An. Towards the surprised to see him enter. there results but one Jesus Christ. St. 448. Hermant. the distinction of the was then read. that he was then sick (10). till the Fathers promised to send him back safe again. 1.AND THEIR REFUTATION. if you confess the . after the conclusion of the peace. whose duty it was to preserve the peace of the Imperial Palace). accompanied by a great troop of soldiers (11). and. was concluded. for he could no longer presented refuse the repeated citations he received. 18. consubstantial to his Father. 28. then. and consubstantial to his Mother. who would not allow him to enter the Council. . who presented. and then Eusebius of Dorileum the and Eutyches the accused. besides. t. that Jesus Christ Divine and human. accuser. union of the two Natures in Christ ? (10) Orsi. were placed both standing Council. Other Sessions were held. t I 32. calling on him to appear and justify himself. of Antioch. composed of body and soul. according to his humanity. 155. Cyril to the Orientals. in the midst of the The : letter of St. after the Incarnation of the Word. of monks. 23 27. c. and of officers of the Prefect of the Pretorium. Flavian said. 48 . close of the seventh Session. Eusebius then said two Natures is expressed Eutyches does not agree to When the reading of the Acts this. commanding that the Patrician &quot. Florentius. the Incarnation of the 137 is. in which. and that from the union of the two natures Faith was. were read. He came into the Council and he was followed by the Great Silenciary. (11) Fleury. Word. Flavian said to Eutyches: You have heard what your accuser has said declare. n.

: If he professed that there are two Natures in Christ. let it be read. Flavian aswered but to declare what my opinion is. I I confess his coming in the flesh. said Eutyches. that the Divinity itself in Christ had suffered and died. you admit a mixture or confusion. of two Natures.138 he is THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and do you believe that Jesus Christ did. that the sufferings and death of Christ were only a mere fable. 48. as Eutyches said. according to the flesh or not ? Eutyches I came not here to dispute. &quot. The human nature. that both his propositions were open heresy. before his Incarnation.&quot.I have read in Cyril and Athanasius. but after these were united. When &quot. said he. the Incarnation.&quot. and that Jesus Christ is consubstantial to us ? Eutyches answered : &quot. do you confess the two natures. and the Son with the Father. Then the Council exclaimed: Faith ought not : If &quot. that Christ. But. I have present. after consubstantial to us. would prove. here Hitherto. He then made this confession : adore the Father with the Son. now I confess Florentius asked him salvation. : &quot. He who does not admit two Natures in Christ. that Jesus Christ has two Natures ? not said so. it. Basil of Seleucia said to : him &quot. they do not say any longer that he had two Natures. that Christ was of two Natures. previous to his Incarnation. and. Natures.&quot. and I. and then.&quot. that he has been made perfect man for our Flavian again asked him Do you now confess. you do not say that there were two Natures after the Florentius replied union. was of only one Nature. had two natures for this could only be sustained by upholding the heresy of Origen. The first proposition was no less heretical than the second. being absorbed in and confounded with the Divine Nature. taken from the flesh of the Holy Virgin. . that is. replied Eusebius. I have written it in this : I St. therefore. confess that our Lord was. Leo well remarks in his letter The : second proposition. that Christ. turning to St. paper. after the union of the two Natures. and you will see that he does not say two . that the souls of men were all created before the beginning of the world. but only one let St.&quot. and the Holy Ghost with the Father and the Son. Athanasius be read. does not believe as he ought. as St. Flavian said. cannot read it. and. Eutyches spoke thus. Eutyches did not advert. sent to inhabit the bodies of men. read it yourself. from time to time.

8. 3. 02) t. 13. : both by his past acts. 4. et Apollinaris perversitatibus compertus est aegrotare. Here are the words &quot. Bishops. Epis. c. gave a handle to Eutyches afterwards to boast that he had appealed to ment. (14) St. /. whom he blasphemes. pronounced for the sentence in these terms Eutyches. and convenerint. Flavian from 49. Jesum Christum. and fully convicted. and of Thessalonica. decrevimus per Dominum N. 27. with consent of the Bishops. . Alex. that all those who hold any conversation or communication with him shall be excom sighing for his total loss. as he has had no regard to our admonitions therefore. municated&quot. art. the Pope. et consentire dogmatibus. Priest. sec. noluit qui nee nostram reveritus persuasionem. Unde illacrymati. 52. on the part of weeping and he is deprived of every Jesus Christ. et a nostra communione. monastery and we make known this.AND THEIR REFUTATION. of the decree. Eutyches said to the Patrician Florentius. et primatu scientibus hoc omnibus. to hold more so. 4. Orsi. Leo. as quoted by Noel Alexander (13) : Per omnia Eutiches quondam Pres byter. to 139 He will not submit. 14. St. quern blasphematus est. to publish a great many false charges against the t. &quot. quoniam rei erunt et ipsi poene This sentence was subscribed by thirty-two twenty-three Abbots. Flavian. gementes perfectam ejus perditionem. n. (12). drite. publishing the sentence of excommunication. but Eutyches made use of it. 28. of our communion. what do you exhort him Flavian then. 23. n. and four laymen. as we shall soon see. This pretended appeal did not prevent St.&quot. that he appealed to the Council of the Most Holy Bishop of Rome. extraneum eum esse ab omni officio Sacerdotali. in a low voice. and Archiman be forced. When the Council was terminated. aut eum excommunationis. that and of the government of his priestly grade. Priests. and his present the errors of Valentine and Apollinares. atque doctrinam. and confessions. : declare. et Archimandrita. as of the Bishops of Alexandria. et eorum blasphemias incommutabiliter sequi rectis . and and Florentius immediately communicated it to he was leaving the hall to go to his own apart This expression. Valentini. to whom he wrote. 20. (13) Nat. qui cum eo exinde colloMonasterii . we . al. of whom eighteen were one a Deacon. St. quentur. thus privately dropped (14). Fleury. I. of Jerusalem. t. ?&quot. 10.

which he accused of trampling on in his regard. t. 20. Both Eutyches and St. Leo. Leo Eutyches. 33. instead of separating themselves from his communion. 25. 1. ibid. sec. Flavian. ileury.140 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. all Synod. 6. and St. ap. 31. master. St. (17) St. and subscribed by their Archimandrites but the Monks of the Monastery Eutyches governed. died without the Viaticum. &quot. since St. Flavian. in general. He also complained that St. on the other hand. and disseminating his . he Leo having (15) Orsi. and his mother. : to those Pope. 30. cit. and which were a tissue of abuse and calumny. or to defend his pretended innocence by St. in all the Monasteries. of Constantinople. pestilent errors in the Monasteries. Bishop of Kavenna. Peter who. . art. that. honourable brother. would write to him Above all things. Flavian. and some of them even The sentence of the Council . and he exhorts him to read and obey whatever the Pontiff. Orsi. p. to explain the just cause had to depose and excommunicate Eutyches. answered him. libels (15). who had great influence with the Emperor Valentinian. He next wrote to Peter Chrysologus. preferred to remain without Sacraments. Petr. nor heard what that Bishop had to say in the matter. with the intention of gaining the favour of this holy Bishop. the rules of justice was published. (16) Bernin. Flavian had removed his protests. Ap. Peter.&quot. to complain of the grievances he asserted were inflicted on him by the Council St. n. for his calling on the heads of the other Monasteries to subscribe sentence. 32. Flavian. 5. posted up in Constantinople. not even against heretics find but. 510. de Script. calumnious 50. we advise you. as Council if now he had any right to stir up the people against a closed. I. who lives and presides in his See. obediently to attend to whatever is written by his Holiness the Placida. n. Epis. Flavian wrote afterwards to St. as he had not received any letter from Flavian. Eccl. Leo. it was a new thing to an Abbot chief of a heretical Sect. 24. sooner than forsake their impious Eutyches complained very much of St. n. 4. affords who seek it the truth of Faith. against the Council. c. Anat. by order of St. he could give no opinion on the controversy. resided at Ravenna. This letter is found in Bernini and Peter Annatus (16). par ad Theol. St. as a novelty never before used in the Church. complaining of the judgment of St.

1. was only endeavouring to disturb the Church of Con stantinople. he threw aside all restraint . in which he declares. and peace restored. in which. by wicked libels and petitions to the Emperor. by order of the Emperor. . 51. (19) Fleury. that Eutyches. 31 Alex. for his misfortune. as the Emperor wished. the reason of his excommunication. if the words incarnate and humanized were also used. 13. on the 8th of April. 11. to obtain the Bishopric of Alexandria (20). t. among the rest.AND THEIR REFUTATION. that. especially as Eutyches professed his willingness to be corrected. St. 97. In the meantime. c. his protector. c. and he obtained an order for the influence of Chrysaphius. wondering that he had not already written to him what he thought of the matter. and that he did not also refuse to say one nature of the Divine Word. in place of repenting. 141 received the letter of Eutyches before that of St. He. 4. ordered him to inform him immediately of the whole and especially of the erroneous doctrine for which he was condemned. own he was avaricious. In fact. 7. he was successful . that it was necessary to con it. an end might be put to this discord. art. t. and he excommunicated Nestorius and all who divided Jesus Christ into two persons (19). and. /. 3. (20) Hermant. and When placed on the Episcopal throne of furiously violent. wrote to him (17). however. giving him a full account transaction. Brevia. in one Person. if it was proved he had erred. 449. of every thing. and St. wrote to the Emperor. Flavian answered the Pope. that he recognizes in Jesus Christ two Natures after the Incarnation. sec. 156. and urged on by Chrysaphius. another assembly was held in Constantinople. He concealed his vices under an exterior of virtue. treated most cruelly Alexandria. as we shall have to speak frequently of his wickedness voke a General Council. n. c. for a revision of the Acts of the Synod at which he was condemned. therefore. through Before we proceed. Nat. Flavian. and making charges to the effect that the Acts were falsified. it will be necessary to give an insight into the character of Dioscorus. for he could not make out. Patriarch of Alexandria. hereafter. No other matter of importance was decided in that meeting. . (18) Liberat. from the letter of Eutyches. Flavian (18) was obliged to present his profession of Faith. immoral. at the instigation of Eutyches. Dioscorus. 6.

while he made a show with their property. : him actors and prostitutes of Alexandria. to represent him at the Council. Deacon of the Roman Church. they judged it better to take the last place. 12. depriving them of all their property. he said. used horrible violence towards the Catholic Bishops. them in prison . Hermant asserts (22) that he followed the errors of the Origenists and the Arians such was the protector of Eutyches. till the 8th). and sent his diploma to Dioscorus. charged Dioscorus with this after. by Ecclesiastical writers. distributing it among the bakers and tavern-keepers of the city. for he. (23) Liberat. the Latrocinium Epliesinium. with power to assemble whatever bishops he pleased to try the case of Eutyches. Brevia. Cyril. Hilary. nor has ever been done and he . Ann. in holding a Synod in Ephesus. 444. appointing him President. . 21) Baron. and even burned their houses. which has been justly called. and tortured He kept others he sent into banishment. and to appear no longer as Legates of the Pope. cit. when they saw his authority slighted. Cyril. n. however. without the authority of the Apostolic See. has been lawful. 33. Leo. abandoning himself to his innate ferocity. sent by St. some he reduced to beggary. and with causing a famine in told of Egypt by his insatiable avarice. He so persecuted the to the insufferable scandal of the people. improper women nephews of St. who were honoured by St. Theodosius convoked the Council. before was the world disgraced by such acts of injustice as were committed by Dioscorus in that Synod. loc. ex Lib. that he drove them as wanderers through the world. perhaps. 22) Hermant. Lucretius. and even towards the two Legates. the Pope s Legate in the Council of Chalcedon. in his palace. and Julius.142 those Ecclesiastics THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. which never. for Dioscorus. in Ephesus. and publicly bathed with them. that they might sell better bread and wine (21). 449 (it was not held. Never. and called him to answer for his audacity. Now to the subject. It is even a lady having left her property to the hospitals and the monasteries. Bishop of Pozzuoli. who usurped the first place. When these saw the Holy See excluded from the presidency of the Council. He was charged with many homicides. or meeting of robbers at Ephesus . for the 1st of August. in their persons. 52. he ordered it to be distributed among the that. c.

read. Flavian said that it was but just that his accuser. according to his own pleasure . but St. neither would he allow any examination of Articles of Faith. and asked him to explain the manner in which he believed the Word had taken human flesh ? but he gave him no answer. but not only this was refused. held by St. Flavian. he said. the notary was ordered to proceed with the reading of the document of Eutyches. n. should be heard likewise. Synod (27). as they ought to have done. fulminating anathemas against any one who would allude to it. 41. and. Dioscorus now called on Eutyches to read his profession of Faith and the impious heresiarch anathematized Apollinares and Nestorius. When he came to this passage. since they had decided that. /. as the Eutychians asserted. could not have 143 made this charge.ANP THEIR REFUTATION. The Acts of the Synod. no novelty should now be introduced to interfere with their decisions (25). (24) Orsi. how could it be said that the Word of God took human flesh ? However. Flavian himself. or the human nature was confounded with the Divine Nature. n. oblige him to explain himself. 14. and concluded by requiring that his persecutors should be punished (26). n. or any one that would assert that the flesh of Jesus Christ came down from heaven. were then and also the two letters of St. Eusebius of Dorileum. several times requested that the letter of Pope Leo theless. . was told that he was not allowed to speak. without waiting for the answer to the question of Basil. 54. calling for other documents to be read. 53. nor did the heads of the Synod. n. if Hilary and Julius had been Never received in the Council as Legates of the Pope (23). 53. 52. (27) Orsi. (25) Orsi. n. When this statement of Eutyches was read. 32. St. in which he complained of the sentence passed on him. . Cyril to Nestorius and John (26) Orsi. to hold by what was decided in the Councils of Nice and Ephesus. if the Divine Nature destroyed the human nature in the Incarnation. for this was the principal point of the whole question . It was quite enough. they should he read (24) but Dioscorus would never allow it. as the Emperor had given orders that none of those who had passed judgment on positive Eutyches before should be allowed to say a word without leave of the 54. for. Basil of Seleucia interrupted him.

a partizan of Eutyches. who were excommunicated by St. for the saint in a thousand passages of his writings had expressly spoken of the two Natures of Christ. cried out two who speaks of two natures in Christ. did not use the words. and the monks. the one nature it this only meant the union in Christ of two And this was most distinct Natures. 448. Flavian. then remarked to the Council that St. n 56. 55. used first by St. &quot. Eutyches was approved of. himself&quot. Cyril approved of the expression of the Eustatius of Beyrooth. in two other letters written to Acacius of Melitis and Valerian of Iconium. and given when the vote of Basil of Seleucia. followers of Barsuma. ad 93. in of the Incarnate it was laid down that these words. for some adhered to him through liking. and when the same party heard this. Flavian. in the Council of Chalcedon. n. were only used in that sense. but the one Nature of the Divine Word Incarnate. clearly expressed soon after. and an anathema was pronounced against any one using the the one nature. let him be burned alive as he has divided Jesus Christ. Baron. let him be cut in two halves Word which &quot. Cyril. Cyril. with the intention of denying expression. but was all a calumny against St. he is a Nestorian heretic. Cyril. Cyril held the same faith as Eutyches. . and he was re-established in his dignity. and thus this Eutychian bishop wished to make appear that St. communion (29). (28) Orsi. Dioscorus being now assured of the suffrages of (28). The votes that the flesh of Christ was consubstantial with ours.&quot. they cried out with all their force To the pile with Eusebius. the bishops. of Antioch. it. . two Natures. however. that two Natures should be required in Christ. were again received thus the faith of into 55. all the Egyptians and the Let him be cut in monks. : : &quot. (29) Orsi. Flavian were next read. two Natures. his adherents. and afterwards by St. in which St. 91. the Divine and human. was read out. and besides the expression. in the Council held by St. Ann. The great object which Dioscorus had in view. called on every one to give his sentence and . It was then read out that Eusebius of Dorileum had pressed Eutyches to confess two Natures in Christ.144 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.&quot. and more through terror.

denied Original Sin. contra & 3. Z. intent on the condemnation of St. when Julian and his fellow Pelagians were banished out of Italy by the Pope St. Third That Jesus Christ ought to be adored but only as the image of God. as was also Theodore and his writings . n. and on that account. prohibiting. de Incar. 2 /. 36. but through good will. and they meant to prove by that proposition that it was possible for a man to be without Original Sin. . impugned by some new clearly heresy not taken into consideration of the Council of Nice. and without any form of trial. when Dioscorus. The was to reject the malignant in which. that is. as Rabbula.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 26. Theodore. as he was so. relates. and hence they deduced as an inference. besides. That man was not united to the Word according to the substance. (31) Cassian. the Three Chapters were condemned. or giving St. Flavian and Eusebius. who. t. Bishop of Edessa (30). Symbol of Theodore of Mopsuestia. likewise. Celestine. 1. and then immediately called on the notaries. they went to Theodore. and it was professed Second the Holy Virgin was not the real Mother of God. ordered that the Decree of the Council of Ephesus should be read. as it was afterwards declared in the fifth Ecumenical Council. 145 was the deposition of St. and he therefore ordered the decree of the Synod antecedent to that of Ephesus to be read. that taught Christ was but a mere man. men might be to the point . without sin. Nestor. received Cassianus (31) also tells us that the Pelagians them kindly. that other so. the same errors as Nestorius and Theodore. Nice. Fourth That the flesh of Jesus Christ availeth nothing. Flavian any time to (30) Fleury. c. intention of the Council in passing this law. in fine. under pain of anathema and deposition. Still. besides those used in the Council of intention of the Council these expressions are only used to express more the sense of any Catholic dogma. but it was not the of Ephesus. 4. nor did it ever prohibit the use of other words. if they wished to be But the intention of the Council then was to reject the Symbol of the impious Theodore. the : Nestorian First That blasphemy was introduced. in which. Flavian and of Eusebius of Dorileum. as Marius Mercator informs us. as we shall see in the following chapter. any other Symbol but that of Nice to be used.

(56). some to one part of confusion. horrified at . Several Bishops. that it was not they. &quot. stroke to this villany. and had not adhered to the words of the Symbol of Nice (32). should through fear. but said when the Synod was dissolved. an instantly put into the hands appeal against the sentence (33). continued to implore him to change his mind. or betray so The wretch Dioscorus was enraged at the appeal of & 60. in the most pressing manner. such a glaring act of injustice. 33. : say there are two Natures. The Counts of soldiers. . banishment. as partisans of the Nestorian On all sides shouts arose Cut them in pieces if they heresy. defend himself. 449. n. St.&quot. for Bishop. that they might subscribe the sentence. and even with death. and embracing his knees. were threatened with deposition. were all bolted. 41. so that the church was sprinkled with their blood. beat them with clubs. Flavian but this excuse went . and guarded. (33) Orsi. The Bishops thus constrained. he stood up on the Are you then determined to steps of the throne and cried out : create a sedition at once . /. and if they refused. on the false charge that they had introduced novelties in Faith. and even wounded some of them. the truth (34). but the soldiers. The soldiers obliged them to sign their names. who deposed St. Dioscorus then.146 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 92. presented a blank paper to the Bishops. 58. L 27. let alone a condemn an innocent man. but a little way to justify them. n. came into the church with a strong body and were joined by the partisans of Diodorus and of Barsumas. no Christian. endeavoured to soothe Dioscorus some of them even throwing themselves at his feet. &quot. ordered one of the notaries to read the sentence of deposition against these two bishops. where then are the Counts ?&quot. so that the church became a scene of The Bishops all fled. Baron. besought him to revoke the sentence. Flavian of the Legates of the Pope. (32) Fleury. some to another. threatened them with drawn swords. . but all to no avail. to give a finishing so that no one could escape. but the doors the monks tumult and the edifice. for than revoke he told them he would sooner cut out his own tongue it and when they still. (34) Orsi. finally all signed the sentence of deposition. n. 59 Ann. n. and those who showed any disposition to refuse.

and the impious Kill him. vide . and then gave up his holy soul into the hands This is the account Cardinal Orsi gives of his of his Maker. : . 4. disgraced the Episcopal throne of Alexandria. in order to explain the injustice of condemning Theodoret as a heretic. t. (37) Orsi. that. /. Leo and retained him with him communion. p. Dioscorus continued to publish anathemas and sus pensions against these Bishops whom he any ways suspected were opposed to the doctrines of Eutyches Theodoret. executioner. who afterwards &quot.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and given in the hands of the guards the next day to be conveyed to the place of his banish spot. n. 62.&quot. 28. kill him. 32. a city of Lydia. ment. It is necessary. and became his holy Bishop. to give some account of this learned and remarkable man. 1. his absence. death (35). where St. at all events. 49. he arrived at Epipa. 41. Ber. 27. in .&quot. Fleury. his belly. Barsumas. St. 12. 1. t. for he was so blinded with passion. if Theo some time St. Hermant. In the meanwhile. I. 1 . he condemned and proscribed his works. and Fleury and Hermant agree with him in the and it is on this account the Fathers of the Council particulars . who cried out in the Synod : were also parties to his death. Cyril (37). Fleury. 14. or. kicked him in the stomach.c. t. the cause of his death. /.4. n. 41 /. trampled on Timothy Eleurus. t. 1. (38) Orsi. 62. doret never was so unfortunate as to oppose for (35) Orsi. to impious meeting but escaped to received him into his was deposed and Rome. . 68. Flavian did not die on the cast the murderer to the beasts. and it is on that account. . . he till his departure for the Council of Chalcedon. not satisfied 147 this with having deposed and banished he laid violent hands on him. 157. that 57. t. 14. Cardinal Orsi (38) very justly remarks. 67. after three days weary travelling. f. n. that when Barsumas presented himself afterwards in the Council of &quot. and throwing him on the ground. Bishop of Cyrus. n. &quot. they cried out St. Flavian. 33. n. Turn out the murderer Barsumas Chalcedon. 552. that he struck him on the face. but being dragged to prison. n. on account of his having written against the anathemas of St. Eusebius of Dorileum escaped. of Chalcedon did not scruple to give him the title of Martyr (36). as a heretic. and Peter Mongus. (36) Orsi. because he was not allowed admission into this exile. condemned self.

who were both rich and noble. and called the his mode of expressing himself was rash. about the end of the fourth century. his name. 28 . cap. who laboured to convince him of his mistake. whose He was equal. his so he gave . n. Chrystostom. (41) St. and appeared rather to favour Nestorius than St. overcame his attach will made Bishop eight hundred churches. was Theodore of Mopsuestia. in the study of literature. but he did not infect his disciple with them. withal. great defender of the Faith. he therefore writes (41). and gave Mary the title of Mother of God. Cyril. he sold all his property. Orsi. with The desire of assisting the many poor souls in his diocese. 48).148 Cyril. that he did not fall out with Theodoret. St. /. nourishing the piety of his people. and his repugnance to accept of any dignity. c. and St. would be venerated like the venerable names of St. against Nestorius. 10. Gregory. St. he was both in virtue and learning. justified him. as long as he confessed that wish to God was not separated from human nature. in the sense of Nestorius. still. that they agreed in Faith. . of whose errors we have already spoken (n. (39) Nat. and for himself. and the remainder His master. After the death of his parents. n. and against his of Cyrus. 50. mother of him who was the temple of God. a small. and said. Cyril. He was forced from his solitude. t. Although he appeared to recognize only one Christ Holy Virgin the Mother of God. Alex. Apol. Basil. 62. and combatting the heresies which infected part of his diocese and he succeeded in ment to his solitude. and in no measured terms. he wrote 58. at the present day. cit. that is. loc. Cyril (40). 4. whole soul to the discharge of his pastoral up duties. and that Christ was not On separated from the Divinity. infected with heresy. spent the greater part of the day in prayer. but very populous See. rescuing eight villages from Marcion. 28. that he divided Christ into two persons. the darkness of the heresy of On reading the Anathematisms of St. Cyril. against them. but was both God and man. that though alone. both sacred and profane. reserving nothing He retired to the solitude of a monastery. (40) Orsi. the THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. n. born in Antioch (39). and. perhaps. and gave it to the poor. unfortunately. his arguments would lead us to believe.

n. . (42) Orsi. in the Cabal of Ephesus. because. Cyril were received. 30. one Son alone. and wrote letter. Cyril was an upholder of the doctrines of Apollinares. n. and one Christ . n. Celestine and St. 85.&seq. said he. and wrote to Nestorius. against the Eutychians (46). n. neap He was afterwards recalled from exile. and said. on that account. that in that St. Cyril cordially answered him. joined with John. Theodoret (42). because. (43) Orsi. and the Cabal of Ephesus. that the body of Christ was animated by a reasoning soul. (47) Orsi. ad. 32. (45) Orsi. 12. /. 13. that cannot be denied without corrupting the truth of the Incarnation of the Word. with the distinction of the two Natures St. Cyril had now forsaken the of Apollinares (44). Cyril. but St. alone. Cyril s letter. Theodoret next wrote his work Eranistes (the Beggar). 13. n.68. that he erred. and those productions were condemned in the second Council of Constantinople but we should not forget. t. so when he read (43) St. against the Anathematisms of St. (44) Orsi. 14. /. he appealed from this sentence to Apamea Leo. which the Saint clears himself from the imputation of being a favourer of the doctrines of Apollinares. to Acacius of Berea. J. but in believing . his Diocese of Cyrus. that he should not disturb the Church. being in Antioch when the letters of Pope St. 10 & 11. but that Theodoret was somewhat repre hensible in his writings. 13. and in his defence of Theodore and Nestorius. 67. by (47). n. 149 the other hand. and this was the commencement of a friendly correspondence between them (45). as he said. that St. t. /. he was first confined by the Emperor to 59. 66 30. doctrine Cyril now him a loving followed the pure doctrine of the Fathers. but that Christ suffered according to the flesh he at once. and declares that he holds the nature of the Word to be impassable. M4. t. and no longer believed in the confusion of the two Natures. t. that he firmly believes. felt quite happy. by denying to Mary the title of the Mother of God. not in holding the doctrines of Nestorius. 30. . (46) Orsi. thinking that St. and. Patriarch of Antioch. 13. It cannot be doubted. and expresses his detestation of the confusion of the two Natures. 1.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and subsequently retired to his old monastery.32. & seq. and was afterwards deposed by Dioscorus. through the calumnies of Eutyches. and professes. he now recognized in the Incarnation of the Word.

t. i&amp. Leo declared him innocent. set. to subscribe to it. instead of punishing the efforts the (48. (54) Orsi. t. but all in vain. towards the end of 60. and Hilary. t. for the Emperor. Fleury. were the only members who had the courage to protest. in the meanwhile. Leo. on the authority of the statement made to the Council of Chalcedon. obliged about ten Bishops. and reinstated him (49). he composed the treatise on Heretical Fables to the impious (51).. I 32. that he solemnly published a sentence of excommunication against St.gt. and partly by terror. 70. 157. give up the Faith they Dioscorus. the Pope s Legate. n. and lamenting the horrible impiety weeping. explaining to him the deplorable state to which Religion was reduced by Dioscorus. /. 13.150 Marcian (48). 14. c. and all who did cedon. who refused to lend of Ephesus. n. a Deacon of Alexandria. 97. ibid. /. and St. gained over by his courtiers. having now closed professed (52). 27. he wrote to Theodosius. and regardless of the prayer of the Pope. (55) Libel. Orsi (54) says. on to perform (53). Leo heard of these atrocious proceedings. n. undermined the Apostles Creed. When St. ibid. that Dioscorus was guilty Tof this act of madness in Nice. n. Orsi. not call the Virgin Mary the Mother of God. and declared worthy of being restored to his See (50). 3. n. (53) Hermant. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. t. /. 33. 20. were sent into banishment by Dioscorus. Orsi. and to such a pitch did his arrogance then arrive. in favour of Eutyches. as it they never would. 20. who returned with him it though they did they were called to Egypt. subscribed the con Synod them selves to this iniquity. n. and partly by cajolery. he was received by all the Fathers. Orsi. by \ Theodore. and declared that a Cabal like that would never be approved of by the Pope. Theo. the few. and that through terror. We now come back St. returned in joy and triumph to Alexandria. beyond the bounds of Egypt (55). 14. . These few confessors alone. and divided Jesus in the See of Cyrus Christ into two Sons. and the sage advices of the Princess Pulcheria. his life. Orsi. 4. 1. It is supposed that he lived to the year 458. in the Council of Chalafter publicly anathematizing Nestorius. and that. 61. Finally. 14. t. 41. Con. cit. (49) (50) (51) (52) Orsi. the meeting. ibid. The majority demnation of of the Bishops having now Flavian. Chal. /. 61. n. or be received. Fleury.

now advanced in years. wrote to Leo. t. and besides. (58) Orsi. c. the beginning of his career. . this great soldier. listened to the remonstrances of his holy sister. as Orsi remarks (58). 1. he disorders caused by the piety and weakness of her brother. n. remain faithful . Eutychians were making. 90. and as those unworthy of the dignity of the priesthood were deprived of in the it. and give them a new Emperor. he gave several As he died without issue. before Such was the answer age . personally. there fore. (57) Orsi. of whose probity and regard for herself. that her opinion of his goodness was not unfounded. had made a vow of perpetual virginity anxious. loc. therefore. all condemned the memory of that was done in Ephesus (56). St. She was. 157. so those who were worthy were held (57). to please her subjects. who always watches over his flock. was better qualified than any other to govern the Empire and his subsequent conduct In proved. soon after removed though this Prince out of the world.AND THEIR REFUTATION. re-established Eutyches himself in his honors. that as the Council of Ephesus had examined every thing according to the rules of justice and of the Faith. n. I. . and approved He. re-established grade they but God. she gave her hand to the Senator Marcian. Though no one could be found more worthy to govern the Empire alone than she was. 158. to her promises to God. however. Flavian. c. (56) Hermant. and at the same time. he sometimes appears to sleep. and who. in allowing himself to be governed by his courtiers. however. 151 all of St. whose were anxious that she should marry. the 59th of his of Theodosius. cit. 101. St. previous to his death. but his wisdom man was only a private and prudence elevated him to the senatorial rank (59). t. she well knew. Pulcheria. in the year 450. (59) Hermant. 32. and proofs of his sorrow for having favoured Eutyches. /. still her subjects the Empire to his wisdom soon healed the left sister. she was perfectly convinced.

62.-Peter the Stammerer . 72.-Zeno is 77. according of St. made Emperor he puts Basiliscus to death. 65.-His Cruelty. t.-Leo succeeds Marcian in the Empire. praying him to convoke a Council. 48.152 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. St. 4. -Articles of Faith defined in opposition to the to the Letter Eutychian Heresy. had sent to St.-His happy Death. 27. Proterius. Leo. to send his Legates. the Pope. or. . the of that city. and try every means to banish heresy from his With that intention. in fin. overran Italy. under Attila. St.-Theodosius.-Privileges granted by the Council to the Patriarch of Constantinople. and Timothy Salofacialus is elected. 76.-Eleurus is expelled from the See of Alexandria. 64. 63. was in his power. 67Refused by St. he wrote two letters to Pope Leo. at once.-The cause of Dioscorus is tried in the first Session.-Eutyches and Dioscorus die in their obstinacy.-He is Condemned. recognizing in his elevation the work of God.-St. and strive to give peace to likewise. Leo. to do what was in his power to have the Council The Pope was highly delighted that what he (1). and the Pope St. and. 66. 69. and she celebrated prayed him. Pulcheria wrote to St. also. 79.-Martyrdom of St. against the heresy of Eutyches . Leo. the Church. THE COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON. Simon Stilites.-Timothy Eleurus intruded 73. 70. but he requested that the Council should be put off for a time. intruded into the See of Alexandria. Eleurus commits suicide. the true Bishop. 71 . that Anatolius. at all events. 11. and now (1) Fleury. -A Council is assembled in Chalcedon. 74. began to advance His glory. during the reign of Theodosius. n. /. for the Huns. into the See of Alexandria. 62. 68. head of the Eutychians in Jerusalem. had already subscribed the letter he. Leo. that all who had been banished were now recalled. sought for so anxiously. 7o. Marcian was proclaimed Emperor on the 24th of August. in the year 450. and preside at it in person. Pulcheria and of Martian.-Death of St. under the Emperor Martian. and informed him of the translation of the body of Patriarch Flavian to Constantinople. he. and on assuming the Imperial power. Flavian. 78. dominions.

brated in the year 451. 153 the Bishops could not. but. Leo (3) says. and at St. in Sicily. on account of the sentence pronounced against himself and against St. and. (6) Acta. but (2) Orsi.AND THEIR REFUTATION. proceed to the place of The barbarians were soon after defeated by the meeting. and then Lucentius. and seeing him then seated among the Bishops. Leo. & Mar.4. for just reasons. it was attended by Virgin. and he demanded that the Acts of the Council of Ephesus should be read. without the authority of the Apostolic See. once. Emperor for the convocation of the Council The was letter of the first read. Julian of Cos. 14. but Pascasinus standing up. 35. s. in the great Church of St. 451. Priests of the Roman Church (2). and Basil. but should present himself as a criminal. Brev. Epis. said that Dioscorus should not take his seat in the Council. Leo now his set about convening the Council. 13. and Theodoret. Lucentius of Ascoli. Euphemia. The was desirous that the Council should be held in Nice. . he was satisfied afterwards that This Council was cele it should be transferred to Chalcedon. the number was six hundred and thirty and Nicephorus (5) raises it to six hundred and thirty-six. otherwise he and his colleagues would leave the Council. t. the Bishops who subscribed the acts of the Cabal of Ephesus. likewise. with safety. c. . c. . 17. 63. and St. Constantinople. 28 & 29. was the examination of the conduct of the impious Dioscorus. The first matter the Council deliberated on in the first Session. /. (4) Lib. he called on the Judges and the Senate to have him expelled. nor ever before done (6). Nat. and Eusebius of Dorileum. 13. Cyril. as his accuser. another of the Legates. in the middle of the church. a. (5) Vide. on account of his writings against St. held on the 8th of October. He went to the Synod with the hope that his party would be still all-powerful through Emperor. at first. and Boniface. n. 52. 10. (3) St. to be judged. in Chron. Chal. . Alex. which never was Dioscorus then took his seat lawful. Con. answered that he had dared to summon a Synod. was at first prevented from taking his place among the Fathers. Pascasinus. The Imperial ministers demanded from the Legate his reasons for calling for the expulsion of Dioscorus. and Martyr six hundred Bishops but Liberatus and Marcellinus (4) tell us. Franks. Flavian. sent as Legates to Bishop of Lilibeum. t.

Leo and the Emperor Marcian. had re-established him His See. anathema to him who does not believe likewise. 50 & 55. /. in the name of the Pope. decide on the Faith that should be held the two creeds of Nice and Constantinople. t. . then. Orsi. : all believe Peter has spoken by the mouth of Leo . he was introduced as one of the members. Leo (7). Flavian and Eusebius of was fully established. 3. against the injustice practised by Dioscorus. as only a few Egyptian Bishops held on to him. but he. and the Profession of Faith of St. by Marcian and St. was then read.lt. and subscribing the definition of Faith.the humanity of Christ. ar. 47 (8) Orsi. and the Epistle of the Pope. and in his See by the Council itself. both verbally and in writing. and that those Bishops who had caused them to be deposed. and the Imperial Judges asked the Council if it was Catholic. 10. 23. but on various false pretences he refused to appear. St. but only one in the Incarnate Word. n. we should not say those were two Natures. s. still persevered in maintaining the Eutychian errors. and the two letters of St. presented the same. 17 .&quot. of the Latrodnium of Ephesus were next read. after anathematizing the errors of Nestorius. c. ibid. immediately began tumultuously to oppose his admission. &quot. (9) Nat. the Imperial Minister declared that the innocence of St. When the reading of the Acts was finished. 49. Flavian. as it coincided with the letter of St. Leo. A petition. The second Synod was held on the 10th of October. to 64. declared him excommunicated and deposed from his Bishopric. but without prejudice to his rights. by Eusebius. Three Bishops were sent to summon him before the Council. in his enemies. which was sanctioned. likewise. ibid. and the Bishops then exclaimed We Dorileurn. however. but he had left the church. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and thus the first Synod was concluded (8). the letter of St. /. & 70. though cited three times. The Legates answered in The Acts the affirmative. though left alone almost. (7) Orsi. who sat with Dioscorus s party. . 45. .154 as St. Leo. Many of the Bishops then. and asserting that after the union of the Divinity with&amp. Pulcheria (9). Cyril. 13. confirmed the sentence. went over to the other side. and all the Bishops. were read. The Legates. should undergo the same sentence themselves. so the Imperial Officers ordered him to sit also in he was afterwards re-established the middle as an accuser. Alex.

was read. that there are in Christ two Natures united. t. 14. united without confusion or division. 4. who did not say that he was of two Natures. clamours were finally stopped. is satisfied that it should be declared that Christ is in two Natures. without confusion or divisibility . Leo believes .So Thus the Natures. according to the of our Holy Father. 28. Synod Dorotheus. pertinaciously declared that nothing should be added to the ancient Symbols. that in that case they would be deposed.&quot. of St. by the power. a formula composed by Anatolius. /. and a formula adopted (12). Orsi. at the expiration of which they would be punished as they deserved (10). : We believe as . from the communion of the Council. but as they pertinaciously persevered. Dioscorus. 21 . but will not allow that he is of two Natures . 65. cit. then added judgment you agree to the definition. should be admitted as members of the assembly. the church (and among them was Barsumas. When these and their party entered Some monks of the Eutychian party . in which it was declared. they would be punished. St.33. They received for answer.A^ D THEIR REFUTATION. and in case this demand was rejected. but was not received by the Pope s Legates (11). /. but it The Bishops.). (12) Fleury t. After this. 14. and set the Bishops subscribed the Dogmatical Epistle. at whose appearance Out with the murderer of St. whom then will you follow. and Maximus. and that if they persevered in disturbing the secular Church. on the other hand. 1. the Council gave them thirty days to consider themselves. Patriarch of Constantinople. n. n. 59. . they would separate themselves. n. loc. and some other Bishops. Leo or Dioscorus ? Then all cried out &quot. that there are in Christ two &quot. t. for it said that Christ was in two Natures. 33. n. about definitively arranging the articles of Faith in opposition to the heresy of Eutyches. were thus reasoned with by the Judges. said they. 7 155 before the now presented themselves the principal among them were Carosus. Faith whosoever contradicts : it he has properly expounded the is an The judges Eutychian.&quot. as creators of sedition. Leo says. 62. 60. the Bishops all cried out : Flavian&quot. (11) Orsi. 61. they said. that the Fathers took for the rule of (10) Orsi. Leo. they impudently demanded that Dioscorus and the other Bishops who came with him from Egypt. &quot.

doctrine regarding the Holy Ghost. in two Natures. the THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Council of Ephesus. and in one substance. without division. that before the union there were two Natures in Christ. both one and the other con curring in one person alone. that the nature of the Divinity and of the humanity were one and the same. only Son. The Council. make one Nature alone and those. the letter of St. against the errors of Eutyches. and say. as the inventors of expressions. Leo. . in which these are condemned. presided in continuation it was said. into two Sons &quot. The Council . that one Nature alone was born of the Virgin. some of them denied to the Virgin the title of the Mother of God.156 their definition. or of any other substance than flesh and those. not because it was deficient in anything essential. and only-begotten Word. Divinity who say the flesh of Christ is celestial. new heresies had adopted new and corrupting the doctrine of the Mystery of the Incarnation. Flavian. thus. who blasphemously teach. to those with a similar intention. the Council of Chalcedon. union. without change. in which Pope Celestine and St. which corresponds divide with the letter of St. that although the forementioned Symbols were sufficient for the full knowledge of the Faith. of the and the humanity. . Cyril . each remains properly the same. who who Nature and those who. . God. the and those Only-begotten&quot. and. and without confusion that the difference of the two Natures was never removed on account of the union. and lastly. but that . therefore the holy Council confirmed both the Faith of the three hundred and eighteen Fathers of Nice. as the Council of Constantinople has added some words to the Creed of Nice. in opposition who wish to corrupt the doctrine of the Incarnation. and others taught. but only one after the attribute the Passion to his Divine . or deny two Natures to Christ. teaches that there is only one Lord Jesus Christ. so that Jesus Christ is not divided into two persons. Symbols of the two Councils of Nice and which were also the rule for that adopted in the Constantinople. but more clearly to explain the . that the Divine Nature was passible in Christ. Fathers of Constantinople and. therefore. besides the two forenamed Symbols admits the Synodical letter of the Blessed Cyril. but is always the same. in opposition to those who denied the Divinity of the third Person of the Trinity. and of the one hundred and fifty nevertheless.

and next inform him of the sentence fulminated against Dioscorus. held in that city. contrary to the ancient Canons of the Church. and the re-union of the repentant Bishops. already granted to the Bishop of Constantinople. Patriarch Patriarch of Antioch. he said. the Fathers remained firm to the arrangement they decreed (14). they said. or finally prohibited the teaching 157 holding of any other Faith. the privilege of ordaining the Metropolitans of Pontus. Antioch. it was only proper that it should be decorated with the Primacy of honour. it (13). They first praise his Epistle. were effected with the assistance of the (13) Orsi. 33. in which it was recognized that the Church of Alexandria. 14. /. . and Jerusalem. . opposed this Canon. 66. in the time of Theodosius the Great. any renewing after this manner the order of the Council of Ephesus. was confirmed to This privilege was of Constantinople.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and acknowledge that he presided at the Synod as the head over the members. put their signatures to 66. Leo. notwithstanding the opposition. and especially to the sixth Canon of the Council of Nice. (14) Orsi. by a Council of one hundred and fifty Bishops. especially as it was already in possession of the honour for sixty or seventy years past. it was uniformly received by all the Fathers. which always enjoyed the Primacy but . who were. they recognize the Pope as the faithful interpreter of St. that as Constantinople had become the seat of Empire. t. of Asia. In the Synodical Epistle. or other Symbol to be composed for the use of the Catechumens. on account of his obstinacy. and next all the Metropolitans. Bishop of Lilibeum. 14. on the plea. 33. It was. 78 & 79. him a state and asking for his confirmation of their proceedings. When all these matters had been defined. subject to the Anatolius. n. and first the Legates. notwithstanding the abuse Dioscorus made of it. and the second Rome in the East. t. not to speak of the Church of Rome. made before. second only to Rome itself. the Council other regulations. and all these things. The Bishops then wrote all to St. giving ment of that was done in the Council. took precedence of Constantinople. by the twenty-eighth Canon. especially in the sixteenth and last Session. Peter. When the definitive decree was read. The Legate Pascasinus. and. and of Thrace. I. 67.

we shall relate the fate of Eutyches and Dioscorus. 6. n. who refused submission 84. and Anatolius. (17) Fleury. in Paphlagonia. (18) Orsi. notwithstanding the opposition of the Legate. and he answered them. and soon after died without repentance. followers of Eutyches and Dioscorus continued for to disturb the Church. (20) Orsi. n. Leo. they confirmed the Primacy bishop of Constantinople. but being confined in the vicinity of the city of Constantinople. that he heard from Julian of Cos. on the 4th of September. therefore. ibid. c. he continued to infect the people with his pestilent doctrines. leaving some impious writings. 14. cit. 33. 86. 107). in favour of the Eutychian heresy. and caused a The great deal of harm. . and afterwards to Marcian (Epis. edit. that the prerogatives of the See of Antioch should be preserved (17). 55. 454. t. Fleury. (19) Berni. 33. 82 & 63. 4. . n. /. t. (16) Orsi. and continued to disseminate his errors .) wrote to St. Orsi. that even in his exile. 75. the Emperor Marcian. obliging Marcian and to the violation St. and. he. 1. composed by him. /. in favour of the See of but. /. in 450. they said. Pulcheria. although he was extremly desirous of Constantinople (16) . and there were several many ages among these leaders of perdition. (20). The Council of Chalcedon was scarcely when some monks from Palestine. he never would agree of the Canons of the Council of Nice. /. n. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Emperor to The Emperor Dioscorus was banished to Gangres. of honour to the Arch especially. n. Before we go any further. 534. who excited others. Pulcheria. on the presumption that his Holiness would confirm them. over. p. 28.158 Pontifical Vicars. 28. to confirm the twenty-eighth Canon of the Council. t. Besides this Synodical letter. cit. 14. besought the banish him to some deserted neighbourhood. St. /. Rom. Eutyches was banished by order of the 68. /. Emperor. St. (15) Orsi. t. which were afterwards condemned to be burnt by the Emperor Marcian 69. complied with this request of the Pope Eutyches was banished to a distant place. 33. in fin. n. wrote without the least delay to St. Leo (Ep. 133. for the reasons already stated (15). and there died as he lived. begging him. Pulcheria (18). in sinful obstinacy (19). still. 14. n. 55. They made some other regulations.

as Evagrius (23) relates. who escaped to Con stantinople. for. they not only did not repent. killed a number of persons. /. usurped See. he put to death a Deacon of the name of Athanasius. he endeavoured to have Juvenal assassinated. 90. and some of He next set about establishing himself in his . therefore.AND THEIR REFUTATION. who after his death retired to that country. and closed the gates of the city. n. Saverianus. gaining over to his side a great many monks in Palestine. collected a mob of the most depraved characters. but this he could not come at Juvenal. but not all of them. (24) Orsi. he burned the houses of others. as they had decided on two Natures. had his body Athanasius is (23) Evag. as and employed a wretch for that purpose. to prevent the escape of Juvenal. with his murder. c. Roman Martyrology. cit. c. excited several other 159 monks of that country to join them. 91. Leo. and. and took possession of Jerusalem . Episcopal throne of Jerusalem. of the The chief of these was a expelled vices. When Theodosius was thus so iniquitously placed in the 70. Orsi. 2. obliging the faithful to adore two Persons in Christ. 1. to the decree of the Council. and killed St. assassin. he strove in vain to bring these blinded reason. 1. and cast to the dogs. and not satisfied dragged through the city. there were very many among those solitaries. who was by his but still Bishop from his monastery. /. n. the widow of the Emperor Theo dosius. to spend the remainder of her days (22). believe that all followed the When Juvenal returned from the Council. and then proceeded to elect the wretch Theodosius Bishop of the See (24). joined some other wretches along with him. who led a most holy life. to his and we cannot. through favour of Eudoxia. 31. by persecuting all who opposed his tyranny some he caused to be cruelly tormented. monk name of Theodosius (21). I have said he gained over a great many monks. 5. on the 21st of February). (21) Evag. but had the audacity to attempt to force him to anathe men to matize the Council and St. proclaiming that the Council had taken the part of Nestorius. on account of his He succeeded in retained the monastic habit. . opened the prisons. t. in particular. See of Jerusalem. Bishop of Schytopolis. and on his refusal. 14. (22) Ap. (commemorated in the his adherents. but instead of succeeding. they burned several houses. impious Theodosius. L 35.

the zeal of this holy Empress he ascribed the stability of the Faith against the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches. and. Four years (25) Orsi. in the Martyrology. and he even had some of them killed. St. and the Church soon venerated her as a Saint (28). St. 33. (26) Orsi. with which she offered to God a perpetual sacrifice of praise and to . celebrate her festival on the 10th of September. . n. says in her praise. and insolence of Theodosius and his monks. 33. he partisans in their Sees of Joppa. so he fled on to Arabia. 12 & 13. and many commemorated He of dissipated characters. he privately fled. others his one of these. and erected a great number of churches. n. and when he saw himself abandoned of Majuma. 452. Pulcheria 71. who spread desolation and He drove several Bishops from destruction wherever they went. Leo. own was from one of these afterwards. 94. in the year 453. and by her example. that the impious Eleurus. next set out on a visitation through the Dioceses of the Patri archate. till though the learned have agreed as to the year. Menelogues. and the Latins in their Martyrologies. n. that is. on the 5th of July (25). in one of his Epistles (Ep. t. and begged the monks to receive him. and put their churches. t. again About this time. She preserved her virginity in marriage. by proclaiming a pardon to all who would return to the obedience of the Church. 90). especially in honour of the Divine Mother. After various wanderings. 453. the usurper of the See of Alexandria. founded several monasteries. he came to the Convent of Sinai. they have but the Greeks in their not as to the day of her death died . cit. he appeased the sedition. that she was possessed of the Royal power. . 111. Peter of Iberia. (28) Orsi. from the beginning of the year only August. and the Sacerdotal learning and spirit. and concealed His usurpation lasted himself in the solitudes of that region.]/)() THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. (27) Orsi. Bishop ordained Bishop . it by his followers. and another. loc. 131. and took possession of his See (27). n. but they refused. /. She built many hospitals. received When Marcian was informed of the tyranny consecration (26). 15. 14. a year and eight months. when Juvenal returned to Jerusalem. accompanied by the monks of his party. Theodotus. 34. /. induced her sisters also to consecrate themselves to God.

infected. he sent them into Alexandria to excite the people When all of Chalcedon. and condemned Eleurus. 12 by 13. returned to Egypt. Peter Mongos his companion. and these few Bishops and Monks who adhered to him. 105. Bishops and some monks. after. he came forth into the city. Proterius assembled a Synod of all Egypt. U. and the Greeks celebrate his We have already seen how festival on the 17th of February. he was with rage. his schismatical Bishops. of iniquity was Timothy Eleurus. St. but could not succeed. 1. Proterius was elected in place of Dioscorus. Proterius and the Council was prepared. I M . Peter 33. this schism he endeavoured to extinguish it. telling them in a feigned voice that he was an angel sent from heaven to admonish them to se Eleurus for parate themselves from Proterius. t. though merely He was of a most ambitious character. wore the monastic habit. With all that. t. in the 161 year 457. and to induce the Monks to join his party he used to go about their cells in the night time. and with what fervour of the Faith (29). n. Having by these schemes gained over many Monks to his side. against St. and the people sufficiently excited. and only with dif his life during the reign of the Emperor Marcian (30). ficulty saved At the Emperor s death he renewed his pretensions. set at nought the decree of banishment he laboured under. & (30) Orsi. with the errors of Apollinares. before his ordination. shall We now speak of the The second hero that scarcely had he heard of the deposition of Dioscorus when he considered he had pretensions to the Diocese of Alexandria. accompanied 34. (29) Orsi. dria. the Emperor Marcian died. but when filled St. n. Leo calls him a Prince of blessed memory. Proterius was obliged to be constantly on his guard against him.AND THEIR REFUTATION. although he was sent into banishment by the Emperor. St. so as a mask of piety. enemy principal followers of Etityches. and elect Timothy their Bishop. and thus had the boldness to separate himself from When Marcian was informed of the communion of Proterius. and began to declaim against the Council of He succeeded in gaining over to his side four or five Chalcedon. a priest. he opposed every great was his piety. but who. so St. Proterius from the Church of He concealed himself in a Monastery of Alexan Alexandria. 72. and endeavoured to drive St. like himself. 15.

His partisans were outrageous at hearing this. n. They were not even satisfied with his death . his Monks. took measures to prevent his return. unless they attached themselves to his party (31). Baron. He immediately got himself consecrated by two Bishops of his party. n. 2&quot. Proterius. the 29th terius. . and exposed all it in the street before the people. (32) Orsi. and caused himself to be proclaimed Bishop in the church. now more proud than ever. Eleurus now began . among t. 15. /. proclaiming that that was the the body through the whole city. 15. 34. n. Fleury. and sought St. and the remainder of the body they burned and body of Proterius. and tore it in pieces. Count Dionisius. and several other Monks.162 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and sub stituted his own name and that of Dioscorus. the military commander of the Province. the Martyrs on the 28th of February. and at once began to ordain Deacons. &c. 73. and gave orders that all those or dained by St. he took refuge in the Baptistery of the church. and prohibited the Sacrifice of the Mass to be offered up for him and even to manifest more strongly the hatred he had for the holy Bishop. and finding that Timothy had left the city. An. Mongos. . who in all probability was the mover of this tragic occurrence. on hearing this came to Alexandria. he persecuted all his family and relations. and even seized on his paternal property he took his name out of the Dyptichs of the Church. and killed him with a blow of a sword. broke into the Baptistery. Proterius should be expelled. and Bishops for the Egyptian Churches. accomplices of his schism. and all the altars on which he had celebrated to be washed with sea-water. but the schis matics. in the year 457. . Priests. but with all that he could not prevent the entire Church from venerating Proterius as The Greek Church has enrolled him a Saint and Martyr (32). t. then tore out the entrails and devoured them. they tied a rope to his body. gave a public festival in rejoicing for the death of St. They next dragged cast the ashes to the wind. 1. Proterius there in prayer. (31) Orsi. and finding St. 457. to take away his life When Proterius saw the outbreak of March. Eleurus. he caused all the Episcopal chairs in which he had sat to be broken and burned. Pro this was on Good Friday. 28.. regardless both of the sanctity of the day and the age of this sainted pastor. n. . 16. gave him several wounds. 29. 4.

but he (n. if the Decrees of the Council of a final stop to all Chalcedon were re-examined (34). he any Synod. Bishops partisans. . 163 he distributed the property Church just as his fancy led him. 17. 15. St. and besought him in the Leo. he wrote again to the Pope that a great many Eutychians were desirous of being instructed in the truth of the Faith. 33. to exercise all the Episcopal functions . acting on the advice of some of his councillors. 29. lished. as we shall see hereafter 74. together with all those who received it. him on the Church not point. in the Empire by Leo. t. and sent them abroad to drive the Catholic Bishops out of their churches (33). (34) Orsi. t. 2. and especially of the the Pope St. and the other Catholic Bishops.gt. he considered. persecuted the Monasteries of monks and nuns who adhered to In the commencement of his career he had but few the Council. n. to cavil at the decisions of there never would be wanting persons. who the laws passed by his predecessors. that he considered it would be advantageous to the Church and satisfactory to the recusants. however. 76). n. Anatolius. enlightened name of the whole to allow the authority of the Council to be called in doubt. 15. Leo. with the intention of obscuring the truth. 34.AND THEIR REFUTATION. &amp. with such exactitude said. : in the followed his predecessor s example in vigorous to the heretics. 453. 18 & W. or that to be re-examined which had already been decided . (33) Orsi. especially the opposition Eutychians he there fore promulgated an edict through all the East. 4. and were disposed to retract their errors as soon as they would be convinced of their falsehood. He also declaring that this Council had favoured Nestorius. convinced of the truth of the Pontiffs reasons. In the following year. and he even had the temerity to anathematize the Sacred Council of Chalcedon./. and especially the law of Marcian in defence of the Council of Chalcedon. thought no more of a new Council. among his partisans. of it. t. /. & Fleury. As he found that the followers of Eutyches were the most troublesome to the Church. for it is always the practice of heretics to re-examine dogmas of Faith already estab The Emperor. /. /. but he quickly ordained others. that it would be well to convoke a new Synod to put He therefore wrote to the Pope controversy. confirming all year 459. made an unhappy end committing Marcian was succeeded suicide.

Leo was he wrote to the Emperor (36) that although the profession of Faith made by Eleurus might be sincere. 61 & G2. . to drive him out of the city and banish him to Gangres in Paphlagonia. and by common consent of the clergy and people. n. . The Emperor then gave orders that no matter what took place. 137. 75. Leo in his answer promised to send his Legates for the good of Religion. obtained pardon. commander of the troops in Egypt. he should be banished out of This order Alexandria. in fact. but dying soon after. and totally different from his predecessor. The Emperor Leo died in 474. and was succeeded by his nephew Leo the Younger. 48. He was crowned. for him that the only intention the doubt on what was already definitively throw explained to Leo. and informed of See of Alexandria. to which the Pope s own Legates might come. but he besought the totally to set his face against the conference. where he impiously persevered in persecuting the Church. and feigning himself a Catholic. and ended his days. a man of sound faith and virtuous life. al. /. Timothy Salofacialus was chosen. a relation of Leo Augustus. through some of his friends. was succeeded by his father Zeno but during Zeno s reign Basiliscus. When St. where Dioscorus had been banished before. yet the horrible crimes he committed would render him eternally un was restored to the this worthy of the Bishopric (37). Leo. cit. and gave orders to Stila. in which he had now spent eighteen years. Eleurus remained there for some time. but as he continued to excite disturbances schismatical meetings. 76. loc. t. and he therefore recalled Eleurus from exile. seized on the Empire in the year 476. 13 . Epis. for the Emperor published an edict against Eleurus.164 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. He was a follower of the Arian heresy. and another Bishop elected in his place. and they therefore prayed that at least a conference might be held between them and the Catholics. where he was kept till the year 476. when Basiliscus usurped the Empire. the Emperor confined him in the Crimea. 4. was executed. Legates to urge on the Emperor to banish Elcurus from Alexandria. to come to Constanti nople. (37) Fleury. Orsi. and he succeeded at last. and a Roman General. 99. Before he was sent to exile he obtained by holding permission. n. sent heretics he again had was to settled (35). (36) St. 29. Emperor St. . and sent him back to (35) Orsi.

Theodosius. 29. who held the Empire a year and a half. cen. died that great Saint Simon 77. the wonder of the world. but it prived of the government of the Church. they assert. t. Liberat. Philoch c. n. 12. whom Simon I is There can be no doubt not nonsense. c. Simon was a great defender of the . 45. Brcviar. Simon Stilites. it is proved (Note 75). n. n. 15. and that Salofacialus should be re-instated (39). however. built his column . when he died by his own hand (41). In this same year. but there is nothing wonderful in that. 12. As St. but before these commands were received in Egypt. 66 & 68. of this great Saint. under the dread of being again banished from Alexandria. St. and of Eutinius. into Cappadocia. the erudite Canon. t. 14. 27. ibid. before lauded. Hist. /. t. 1. They say that St.gt. so he allowed him to die in his native place. 5. 459. in Com. at the same time. Fleury. He gave orders. Fleury. 33. in the erudite works of the learned priest. 585. (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) Orsi. Zenonida. Church against the errors of the Eutychians. Alexandria. regained his throne by means of the Generals 165 Zeno. /&amp. Theodoret Mazzocchi (45). however. in Cal. that the life of St.. (42) Mosheim. 2. Ausentius. t. to take possession of that See (38). and starved him to death. even in the flesh. . /. Eleurus had ceased to live. for he cut short his days by poison. 4. 26. n. (47). Eeelesias. of the authenticity of his history. but a prodigy of holiness. Lain. that he should be de banished . The Innovators deride the life Stilites. 35. 29. But. 49. Archibald M Lain(42). and sent orders. n. Orsi. /. His followers said that he had foretold the day of his death (40). v. especially the Protestant Mosheim and his annotator. rashness to doubt and several others so that it would be mere it. 29. that the whole story of his life is nothing but a romance invented by certain ecclesiastical writers. /. as Evagrius (44). c. n. 80. 1.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and there shut him up in a tower with his wife. and to get nearer to heaven. eumGonnad. Theod. it will not be irre- (38) (39) (40) (41) Fleury. as Cardinal Orsi (43) proves by many authorities. 4. Alexandria. p. Neap. Julius Selvaggi. and banished Basiliscus. Evagrius. n. that Eleurus should be again was told him that the unfortunate man was now decrepit with years. Eeelesias. the ancient writers of the lives of St. 3. both ancient and modern. c. /. 16. t. M Mazzocelii. de Scrip. 1. before be who trayed him. and his child. Fleury (46). .

t. but the messenger then said. n. and this caused a great ulcer on his belly. and that he had scarcely room on it. sent to him a command to come down from his pillar. but the most wonderful thing of all was to see the thousands of con versions this unlettered Saint wrought from this pillar. 2. 17. He was born in levant to give here a short account of his life. for his fame had extended through the world. but even of the pagans themselves. as he had been in structed Stop where you are. and wishing to test by his obedience. which bled a great deal. but after that he gave himself entirely up to God. the foot of his column. 14. others he led from the ruin of their sins to a holy life many he saved from the pestilence of heresy especially of that of Eutyches. 20 Thcod.166 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. piety. and see by that whether it was pleasing to God. (49). His only he made a thousand inclinations every day. spent several Lents in the year without any food at employment was prayer. exc. which then infested the Church to a great extent. Some he brought out of the darkness of infidelity to the light of faith. life of such penance might be some extravagant notions. Simon. 2. of Arabia. . lived in several monasteries . on the frontiers of Syria. infra ex (49) Evagrius. /. wrote a most powerful letter to the Emperor Theodosius (48) Orsi. he immediately prepared himself to descend. When the Saint heard the word obedience. This pillar was so narrow at the top. many wonderful things in his holy and penitential I pass life. /. but the last one was forty cubits high. c. He only ate once a-week. 12. so he accustomed himself to live alone on the top of a column he had built. dreading lest a dictated only : is the will of over God that you should live on this pillar (48). and sheep. as Theodoret Up to the age of thirteen. exposed to the sun of summer and the snows of winter. and on that he lived for thirty years till his death. Besides other exercises of all. for we now know that it monks of Egypt. so performed that he touched his feet with his head. and three of the vertebras of his spine were displaced. or. Moved by a particular divine instinct. and lie had The holy painful ulcers in his thighs. not alone of sinners and heretics. People from the most remote regions came to. /. but even the austere lives of the monks did not satisfy him. the village of Sisan. he kept his father s says. he several times changed from one pillar to another. He .

he recommended to God all his disciples then present. and several other Bishops. A magnificent church. praying him to labour with Council of Chalcedon.. He had purposely collected so many persons together. raised his eyes to heaven. Daniel. 35. described by Evagrius. Plants of this sort cannot \rnly take root in (50) Orsi. t. grow in a soil cursed by God. they can professed. twenty-one counts. (51) Orsi. and blessed them. (52) Orsi. 78. that Church where the true Faith is & 57. The immense multitude. /. who surrounded him and came to witness his happy transit. all cried out with a loud voice for his benediction. cit. that they might be witnesses of his holy death. were in the procession. and his was the first body laid there. who also lived on a pillar. Martirius. on the day of his death. 34 57. and the time of his death was revealed to him forty years previously. Bishop of Antioch. n. raised up his He hands. Simon had a perfect imitator in St.AND THEIR REFUTATION. The General Ardaburius. . which was expired. laid his and innumerable torches blazed and censors burned around. The coffin was borne by Bishops and Priests. 167 all his force for the defence of the The death of St. again head on the shoulder of one of his disciples. These are miracles which the Catholic faith alone produces. and raised his eyes in ecstasy three times to heaven. Just before his so the death. and was a powerful defender of the Church against the partisans of Eutyches (52).000 soldiers. into the city. He then made three genuflections. struck his breast three times. four miles distant. also attended. 15. His last sickness lasted five days and. The Saint then looked round to the four parts of the world. Simon was just as stupendous as his died in the year 449. St. and calmly His sacred body was brought to Antioch. and many tribunes. n. the 2nd of September. a dreadful earthquake took place at Antioch all crowded round the pillar of the servant of God to beg people his prayers in that awful calamity. and which are never seen among heretics. and honour his remains. and the magis When the sacred remains were tracy of the city. 62. was afterwards built near his pillar (51). . life (50). recommended them to God. at the head of 6. /. and it would appear as if God . they were buried in the great church brought commenced by Constantine and finished by Constans. t. 15.

80. This was and the Emperor s orders were immediately executed (54). /. . chose in his place Peter Stammerer&quot.168 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Duke of Egypt. The Emperor was very angry at this refusal. to drive John out of the See of Alexandria. 49. and place Mongos once more in the See of Alex succeeded in his plans. 68. by their own authority. and to drive Mongos himself out of Alexan dria. Eccles. He was Mongos. (54) Fleury. n. the before Archdeacon. (53). The Emperor Zeno. We will now revert to the impious heroes of the Euty79. 15. matical Bishop alone. he therefore wrote to Antemius. chian heresy. difficult to He unite in one Faith all the people of that Patriarchate. Salofacialus having died in the elected in his place but as he was not on terms with Acacius. (53) Orsi. 35. which he held at the time. determined not to let it pass unpunished . by representing to the Emperor that Mongos was a favourite with the people of Alex andria. t. and to restore Timothy Salofacialus to his See. Governor of Egypt. and to replace him by Peter Mongos (55). and to Apollonius. /. n. and he was consecrated at night by one schis&quot. Bishop of Constantinople. n. . when informed of this. it would not be andria. 66. to punish the Bishop who ordained Mongos. that Prelate worked on the Emperor to banish him. and wrote to the Pope Simplicius to re-establish Mongos in the Alexandrian See but the Pope told him he never would put his hand to such an arrangement. n. 49. the heretical Bishops of the Province. or Moggos. de Scrip. in 477. that is. 29. The Emperor was taken with the suggestion. ex Gennad. When Timothy Eleurus died. John Thalaia was . and wrote I to Pergamius. (55) Fleury. year 482. ad cit. and that by placing him in that See. the Governor.

. his Henoticon. -Peter the Fuller intrusted with the See of Antioch.AND THEIR REFUTATION. This decree was afterwards sent to of all the Bishops and people. 81. of Ephesus. /. dies excommunicated. and is one Son alone. as in the first Council of Constanti Mother de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine chap. which Peter was to sign as agreed on in resuming pos session of the See of Alexandria. On this account we make known to you that we receive no other Creed but that of the three hundred and eighteen Fathers of Nice. n. by which many have remained deprived of Baptism and the Holy Communion. and not two Sons. and voluntarily suffered in the flesh (1. who condemned Nestorius and Twelve Articles of Cyril. and Death of the Fuller. the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary (Noel Alexander thus ex Spiritu Sancto de Maria Virgine transcribes it but it : . have asked for the re-union of the Christians. and numberless other disorders have taken place. of God. is consubstantial to the Father. it We say that is the same Son of God who wrought . Lybia. confirmed by the one hundred and fifty Fathers of Constantinople. induced the Emperor to publish his famous Henoticon. iv. would be better nople. and many other venerable per sonages. 14. 80. 80. Acacius. This is the substance all &quot. Evagr. c.-Mongos anathematizes Pope 84. or Decree of Union. and we receive not those who 3. We likewise receive the and we confess that our Lord Jesus Christ is God. 83. and consubstantial to us according to his humanity he descended and is incarnate from .-The Emperor Zeno publishes St. to have said. Leo and the Council of Chalcedon. and Pentapolis (1). Patriarch of Constantinople. to put an end to the sad effects of division. 169 HITHE HENOTICON OF THE EMPEROR ZENO. with the assistance of the protectors of Mongos.-Acacius. the only Son of God. 74). miracles. of the edict : The Abbots. and followed by the Fathers Eutyches. -Ad ventures 82. who has become incarnate in truth. according to his Divinity. not only of Alexandria. but Egypt.

54. t. Baron. as heretical (4) but N. Alex. does not deserve to be stamped as heretical. a. and substituted those of Dioscorus and Eleurus (6). 29. s. (6) Fleury. about the year 469. He then went to Constantinople. While he was acting thus. in Bythinia. art. n. the Henoticon. 3. 5 . which heresy 81. Alexander corres any other Council. for it does not establish the Eutychian heresy. s. 4. . and the one adduced by N. Fleury. I. who. this faithful companion and imitator of Eleurus. opposite Constantinople. however. our Spiritual Mother. t. /. Fleury. Proterius and of Timothy Salofacialus. the Fuller. Let us now return to Peter Mongos. 10. on the contrary. /. but by the friends of St. (7) Nat. inasmuch as it said nothing about St. c. Ak-x. t. pugns and condemns it but he wisely adds. /. eit. have now to speak of another perfidious Eutychian We Priest. We especially Nestorius. n. Eutyches. not to give cause to suspect his bad faith . either in Chalcedon.170 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. he spoke to the people in the church in favour of it. but. 10. Nat. 15. Ann. that it injured the cause of the Faith. appearance of Incarnation. is the touchstone against the perfidy of the Eutychian (5). . t. from which he took (2) (3) (4) (o) his name. with whom he did not refuse to communi cate. At first he was a Monk in the Monastery of Acemeti. This is the copy Fleury (2) gives. caused a This was Peter great deal of harm to the Church of Antioch. and ponds with that it it in Cardinal Baronius rejects every respect (3). Alexander justly remarks. or at any other time has believed differently. 14. 30. who was placed on the throne of Alexandria. or in their followers. for she holds the same sentiments. and favoured the Eutychian heresy. or who only admit a simple excommunicate whoever believes. Protcrius likewise. 4. and on the cele bration of a festival in Alexandria. divide or confound the two Natures. 428. Leo s Epistle or the definition of the Council of Chalcedon on the words of two and in tiuo Natures. he removed from the Dyptichs the names of St. in the same century. received the Henoticon. 3. 20. ended his days in the year 490 (7). 82. Leo. 4. and caused it to be publicly read.&quot. 21. c. after persecuting the Catholics in various ways. loc. Nut. and Unite yourself to the Church. im . Finally. Alex. 5. n 53. and was by trade a fuller. and caused it to be received not only by his own party. he excommunicated the Council of Chalcedon and the Epistle of St.

Alex. and he See. and On his arrival in sent Martyrius back with honour to his See. 171 and. On the death of the Emperor Leo. Zeno to look on him with a favourable eye. he (9) informed the Emperor. Holy. saw the See again vacated. Holy. (9) Liberat. 64 & 69. 4. of friends of his. loc. t. crucified for us. n. Zeno recovered his dominions. by adding &quot. (8) Fleury. set his eye on that He commenced by and accused him of calumniating Martyrius. Martyrius . Martyrius went to and appealed to the Emperor. . and. t. was was Con and brought with him a bill of calumnious charges against the Bishop but Leo condemned the usurpation of the Fuller. : When the Fuller thus bedient people and a rebellious Clergy. began him with himself to Antioch. was elected in his place (11). Brcviar. to show that he believed that the Divinity crucified in the person of Christ (8). in particular. Eutych.AND THEIR REFUTATION. . t. (11) Orsi. and had him deposed in a Council of the East. . 477. but as Basiliscus had seized on the sovereign power in 476. and John. as we have already seen (he was brother to the Empress Verina). art. Nat. to drive place. he could not bring them to terms he therefore resolved to withdraw. got up a disturbance in the city. n. 10. and Antioch. When this was told to St. /. Orsi. and Peter did the same. In the following year. Appollinarists. Bishop of Apamca. (10) Orsi. His. he persuaded Zeno that the only way to re-establish peace was. n. Martyrius out of the city. and saved . the words. the son-in-law of the Emperor great. 17. to the who Trisagion of the Mass. ibid.&quot. and was recognized as Patriarch of Antioch. the Fuller was reinstated by him in the See of Antioch. but I renounce a diso though he tried. by being a Nestorian. 15. stantinople. under the appearance of piety. 3. means of a great number Having thus. and induced Zeno to protect him. gained the favour of the of Zeno. L 29. 35. Zeno was declared his successor in the year 474. and he at once gave orders that Peter should be sent in exile to the Oasis but he had knowledge of the sentence beforehand.himself by flight (10). Gennadius. he took possession of it once more. who Leo. 18. found a large party opposed to him. 30 . and said publicly in the church I reserve to myself the dignity of the Priesthood. c. Holy. Bishop of Antioch. 83. and then he stepped into his The first way he showed himself was. . cit.

with the consent of Acacius. injustice length. in his place . 16. on the frontiers of the empire. after committing a great many against several churches. /. which was not extin guished till thirty years or more after his death (15). and in the year 484 was a third time re-established in the See of Antioch. and especially of communicating with the impious Mongos. notice of his remonstrances. ex Eva^r. /. and fled to another place (13). n. would be well if those who are ambitious for a Bishopric would reflect on the miserable end of this unhappy Prelate. in 472 but he did an immensity of injury to the Church. 27. it Speaking of Acacius. 15. little more than three cipal supporters of the 488. taking no St. heresy of the Eutychians. n. and Zeno in 491. 3. we are horrified at reading of the ruin of religion all over the East. He was accused to the Pontiff. cit. (14) Fleury. /. n. 17. 5. but he had the heretics rose up against him. 30. in the end of usurpation years. (15) Orsi. 84. Nat. by his bad practices. was chosen governed only a year when stabbed him to reeds. he was their great protector. or of those who communicated . t. John only held the See three months and Stephen. in fin. t. loc. for the Fuller died in Mongos in 490. ibid. Another Bishop of the name of was now ordained. c. for. At his death. loc. and afterwards dragged it death in his own church with sharp-pointed his body through the streets. Gennadius. Eutychian heresy. in Pontus but he deceived his guards. (13) Fleury. He succeeded a Saint. and into the river (12). on the throne of Constantinople. vide ibid. n. Alex. 36.172 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and stained with At having retained his See since his last Thus. n. . 10. St. and Peter the Fuller was sent in Stephen banishment to Pitiontum. of many negligences of duty. who had himself so often condemned him acts of (14). he deposed and excommunicated him. kept alive a great schism. he died in 488. Acacius in 489. for the churches were either in possession of heretics. and died so (16). Flcury. he was driven out also. 27. although not infected with the . t. eit. and in that state he lived for the remainder of his life. threw . 35. a pious man. /. and. 50. (12) Orsi. 49. Leo. the fifth century the Divine Justice overtook the chiefs and prin cruelty. 28. (16) Orsi. . who had anathematized the Council of Chalcedon and the Epistle of The Pope admonished him to repent but. St. in fine. Felix.

2. I abstract altogether from the would be more easily saved. the Church. n. with heretics. 9. and he commenced a long and fierce persecution against the Church (1).-Justinian falls into this error. on account of being their souls lost many. I. 3. (1) Orsi. and their Chief. Anastasius. HERESIES OF THE SIXTH CENTURY. 1. heretics.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 1. -Regulation made by the new Emperor. . and thus voluntarily expose dangers of losing their souls. 5. OF THE ACEPHALI. When Zeno died. 11. the Church. . and how many. whether he who looks for a mitre is in a state of mortal question. and saw all the Churches of the world split into different factions. persecutes the Catholics his awful Death. by communicating with were separated from the Communion of Rome. of those who. and considering exalted to that dignity. Anastasius was elected Emperor.~The Incorruptibilists. 173 or. anxious to secure his salvation. 4.-The Corruptibilists. 36.-Good and bad actions of the Emperor. and almost originated in the protection given by Acacius While I write this I tremble. 16.-The Sect of the Jacobites. I say. J. 8. but I cannot understand how any one. 67. -The Acemetic Monks. sin.-The Tritheists. In his private life he appeared a pious man but when he was raised to the Empire. the Catholics hoped for peace. in 491. AND THE DIFFERENT SECTS THEY SPLIT INTO. their obstinacy.-The Acephali. to which Bishops are subject.-The Agnoites. to the enemies of all this evil A Bishop myself. Severus. lO. t. 6. CHAPTER ARTICLE VI. -Anastasius to the great detriment of . who if they had remained in a private condition. 12. but. 7. have prevaricated. at least. can wish to himself to the many be a Bishop.

w. 68. he gave orders (2) that all the Churches should remain in the same state he found them. loc. he was rather one of the sect of Existants or Tolerators. that no Church should change its ancient usage. /. having constantly per secuted the Church during the twenty-seven years he reigned. and this was precisely the effect it produced. n. be called an Eutychian himself. Western Bishops would not communicate with the among themselves. Nothing could be better than this. he said. 19. 3. He died at last. con Theodoret. Although Anastasius had shown some signs of piety. t. /. or. t. on the 9th of July. whom he succeeded in deposing (5). n. Floury. 35. All this Anastasius did . He could not. besides. the worthy of faith by He Eutychians. binding him to defend the Council of Chalcedon. 70. who principally infested the Church at that time. and in the ninetieth. 17. Bishop of Scythopolis. 33. nor even the Easterns banished from their Sees any Bishops who introduced novelties. n 37. who had narrowly watched his sentiments in regard of the Faith. and signed. who permitted every religion except the Catholic (6). and Eastern. to make a law. especially the Patriarch Euphemius. he had an (2) Orsi. if all the Churches were but as there were united in the profession of the true Faith which did not adhere to the Council of several at that time . 34 /. at all events. He favoured. Chalcedon. which was kept in the treasury of the Church for the retention of such a document. (3) Evagr. 112. as he said. with his own hand. Saba. (6) Orsi. c. n. (5) Orsi. still Euphemius. and perse cuted the Catholics. cit. but he not only broke all his promise afterwards. /. in the life of St. 38. t. by requiring the restoration of the paper destroy he had signed and sworn to. promise. till he had from him a sworn heretic. (7) Orsi. but endeavoured (4) to it. and wishing to see no novelty introduced. According to the account of Cyril. considered him a and opposed his exaltation with all his might (3) he never even would consent to it. n. was the best possible means of perpetuating dis cord. in the year 518. . . if the word of a Prince was not favoured the heretics.174 so that the THE HISTORY OK HERESIES. as itself. Orsi. above all others. quoted by Orsi and Fleury (7). however. (4) Orsi. 21. . an insult to the Empire. Patriarch of Constantinople. the eighty-eighth year of his age. 5. was proof of . 32. 2. /. M. /. 16. 31. 37.

Elias. he imagined that God was now about to and he fled wandering from chamber by lightning. at last. (10) Orsi. whether from the effects of terror. Flavian. in fact. Justin was invested with the Imperial dignity he was a Prince (9) always obsequious to the Apostolic See. : On on account of his chastise sins. and died. II. Justin . and zealous in combatting heresies. Patriarch of Jerusalem. to he. cit. him chamber for his iniquities. of June. do you St. 39. on the 20th of July. hour. was banished. and St. St. n. n. who began his reign well. in 565. and was succeeded by Justinian. to meet him at the bar of Divine Justice.AND THEIR REFUTATION. of whom we shall speak years. came to Aila. lost though he never the Faith. and was there found dead. and He reigned nine establishing unity and peace in the Church. at the hour of noon every day but. or struck . 3. authors are undecided. 43. but much more. Elias. On the day of Anastasius s death. retired into a private cabinet. n. the Patriarch did not make his appearance till and. he says. (11) Orsi. 42. 19. 19. 67. n. L t. having taken no food for eight days pre St. 19. and. as they but as they separated . Emperor s death were remarkable Roman Marof the The circumstances the night of the 9th and 10th of July a dreadful thunder-storm raged over his palace. are commemorated in the tyrology. but soon fell into dreadful excesses. at that very Emperor was dead. after twenty-seven years persecution of the Church of God. 175 Saba. for I will midnight. . unhappy end. on the 9th . t. /. called Monophysites. eat. /. that. banished by Anastasius for defending the Council of Chalcedon. Terrified with the frequent flashes of lightning. 68. (9) Orsi. who all offshoots also Eutychians. loc. he slept in the Lord. he said. where St. viously. Patriarch of Constantinople. 89. Those the Catholics suffered most were the Acephali. who also died in exile. 37. at last. with sentiments of Christian piety (10). by-and-by. in the eightyeighth year of his age. They used to take their meals together. The heresies which disturbed the were almost from were whom Church in this century from the stock of Eutychianism. /. This was the end of this bad man. when he entered. by his nephew. not nor can not eat any more. in fin. and he was succeeded. the He then told Saba. and that he should follow him before ten days. They were believed only one Nature in Christ (11) (8) Orsi.. on the 4th of July (8).

he pretended to embrace Christianity. He preached the Eutychian heresy in Armenia and Mesopotamia. 33. com Peter the Fuller. got Severus elected Bishop of Antioch. and he rejected from that out both the Council of was baptized in Tripoli. to gain credit with the Monks. but he was there discovered to be a heretic. he went to Beyrooth to study law. cum Evagr. and Flavian banished (15) and he. He was a man of cor rupt morals. to favour the Eutychian doctrines. and he then went to Constantinople. to escape the punishment his He infamies deserved. either to the Catholic party. and was convicted there of idolatry and magical practices. a disciple of Severus. n. committed many excesses. days. Mongos. They city of a Pagan in the beginning of his and it is thought. found himself at the head of two hundred Monks. 3. in Pisidia. in Egypt . Timothy. (15) Orsi. /. The Jacobites among the most remarkable these took their name from a Syrian Monk of the name of James. the pretended Bishop of Alexandria. (13) Orsi. and expelled. winked at his crimes. who then reigned. they were called Acephali. 4. . posed by be publicly sung in the Church (14). anathematized the Council of Chalcedon and the Epistle of St. are . The Acephali were split into several sects. and thus. n. 71 72 63. (14) Orsi. without regard to either the laws or the judges. to who had session of his See. and of many other heretics (13). but. likewise. treasurer of the city. n. some time after. under favour of that impious Sovereign. from the Sozopolis. t. he professed the monastic life in the Monastery of the Abbot Nefarius. or Headless. in Phenicia (12). and. 16. /. on the very day he took pos . desirous of upsetting the Council of Chalcedon. Leo. to adhere. where he. 62. and refused themselves from Mongos. Macedonius. and substituting Timothy. n. when he forsook the Catholic Communion. with them. but Chalcedon and the Henoticon of Zeno. he succeeded in driving out of Constantinople the Bishop of the See. and threw himself into the arms of the party who had separated from Mongos. or to their Bishop. . through favour of the Emperor. in his place. were not without a chief. He was he was not eight days a Christian. Anastasius.176 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 37. he never sincerely renounced his errors . withal one Severus. (12) Orsi. so. the hardihood to cause the Trisagion.



and from that time the Syrian Catholics, who received the Council of Chalcedon, were called Melchites, or Royalists, from
Syrian word, Melk, a King, because they followed the that is of the Emperors who received religion of the Emperors, The Jacobites professed the error of the Council of Chalcedon.

Eutyches, that Christ suffered in the flesh, and they added other errors to this, especially in Armenia, for there they denied that the Word had taken flesh from the Virgin, but taught that the
the Virgin

was changed into flesh and merely passed through they do not mix water with the wine in the celebra celebrate Easter the same time as the Jews ; do tion of Mass not venerate the cross until it is baptized the same as a human being when they make the sign of the cross, they do it with one




finger alone, to signify that they believe in one nature ; they observe singular fasts, and during the lent they cannot eat eggs

or cheese unless on holy Saturday. 5. The Agnoites or Ignorants were founded

by Themistius, a Deacon of Alexandria. This Eutychian taught that Christ, being of one Nature alone, composed out of, or confounded, rather, be tween the Divinity and humanity, was, even according to the
Divinity, ignorant of many things, as he, in particular, himself alludes to his ignorance of the day of judgment But of that


day or hour no man knoweth, neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father" (Mark, xiii, 32) and this ignorance, he said, was just as natural to him as the other inconveniences, St. hunger, thirst, and pain, which he suffered in this life (16).




however, explains the text by saying that Christ did as far his humanity was concerned, but that he knew the union of the humanity with the Divinity. God made

man, he says, know the day and the hour by the power of



chief of the Tritheists

was John, a grammarian of

Alexandria; he was

known by the name

Philoponos the

He objected to the Catholics, that if they recognized two Natures in Christ, they should admit two Persons but he was answered that Nature was one thing and Person another for, if

(16) Fleury,




33, n. 2; Nat.

(17) St. Greg.



Ep. 39,

a. 42,

Alex, t.ll,

c. 3, a,

3; Gotti,





Nature and Personality were one and the same thing, we should admit three Natures in the Trinity as there are three Persons. This reasoning was so convincing to Philoponos, that he at once admitted its force, but it led him into a much greater error, for
he recognized three

Natures in the Trinity, and therefore,

admitted three distinct Gods, and hence his followers were called He wrote, likewise, against the resurrection Tritheists (18).
of the flesh (19).

With these

and defended

exceptions, he believed in Chris against Proclus of Licia, a Platonic
at the time.


who attacked

hot-bed of error two other sects sprung up, the and the Incorruptibilists. Theodosius, a Monk, Corruptibilists founded the Corruptibilists, who believed that Christ had a


Word had

These erred, not because they said that the corruptible body. in Christ taken a corruptible body by its nature, and subject to hunger and thirst and sufferings, but because they

asserted that Christ
in the


same manner as


should undergo them
Catholic doctrine

necessity was subject to these sufferings, of us were subject to them, so that he whether he willed or not (20). The

that the



sufferings of

Word in the body of Christ put on mankind, hunger, weariness, pain and

death, not through necessity, as they are of necessity with us the punishment of Original Sin, but of his own free will on account of his unbounded charity which induced him to come in the









condemn and

the same manner, says St. punish Thomas (21), our Saviour wished to assume the passions of the mind, sorrow, fear, weariness, not in the same way as they are
in the flesh. in in us,


opposed to reason, for all the motions of the sensitive appetites in Christ were ordered according to reason, and were,

on that account, called in him propassions


says the Angelic Doctor, reason, but it is propassion when beyond the sensitive appetite.


so called


for passion in it rules over

remains in and does not extend


Julian of Halicarnassus was the head of the Phantasiasts

or Incorruptibilists.

These taught that the body of Christ was

08) Fleury &
Brev. His.
(19) Niceph.

Nat. Alex.


1, s. 6, c. 3.

(20) Gotti, /. cit. c. 76, s. 6, n. 7. (21) St. Thomas, p. 2, q. 15, a. 4.


18, c. 47, 48.



its nature incorruptible and free from all passions, so that he suffered neither hunger nor thirst, nor weariness nor pain, but



had "Fatigued from his journey, he sat down" (John, iv, 6). The Eutychians were favourable to this doctrine, for it corresponded with their own, that there was only one, an impassible, nature in Christ (22). Julian wrote in favour of the Incorruptibilists and Themistius of the Corruptibilists, and they both stirred up such a commotion among the people of Alexandria, that they burned each other s houses, and murdered each other on account of their difference of
opinion (23). should here remark that 9.

directly opposed to the words of the Gospel he was hungry" (Matt, iv, 2); fasted







Emperor Justinian


into the error of the Incorruptibilists.


could have

himself so zealous against heretics, and above all, against the Eutychians, should have died, as many suppose he did, a heretic himself, and infected with the

imagined that this Prince,

who showed

Fleury and Orsi (24) both at pestilential dogmas of Eutyches. tribute his fall to his overweening desire of meddling by his Edicts in matters of Faith which God has committed to the heads of his

He had

the misfortune to have as a most intimate

confident, Theodore, Bishop of Cesarea, a concealed


of the

Council of Chalcedon, and a friend of the Acephali, and at his instigation he promulgated an Edict in the year 564, in which he declared that the body of Christ was incorruptible, so that after it was formed in the Virgin s womb, it was no longer capable of any change or natural passion, no matter how innocent, as hunger and thirst, so that although he ate before his death, he only did so in the same manner as after his Resurrection, without having any
If the body of Christ, therefore, was not necessity of food. of any natural passion, he suffered nothing in the flesh, capable neither in life nor death, and his Passion was merely an appear

ance without any reality. Isaias therefore uttered a falsehood when he said, Surely he hath borne our infirmities, and carried






So did

St. Peter,

c. 20.








where he says, body upon the

(22) Gotti



ex Liberal,

m Brev.

(24) Fleury,





8, 19,


n. 78.


4, n.



(23) Gotti ibid.







Christ himself stated what was


when he



sorrowful unto



xxvi, 38)

and then exclaiming on the


My God, my God,
All this would


hast thou forsaken

(Matt, xxvii, 46).

and external suffer of mankind. Christ died of pain on a cross ings. ingratitude for the love of man, and men say that he suffered nothing in
false if Christ


insensible to internal

Justinian required that this doctrine should be approved of by all the Bishops, and he was particularly anxious to induce six learned African Bishops to give it their approbation, but they resisted, and were accordingly separated,
reality, only in appearance.

and shut up

in six different

Churches in Constantinople


of Constantinople, opposed it likewise, and laboured in vain to undeceive the Emperor. He was driven

St. Eutychius, Patriarch

from his See and another put in his place, and all the Patriarchs and many other Bishops refused to sign their approbation (26).


the Oriental Bishops were required to subscribe, they said they would follow the example of Anastasius, Patriarch of Antioch, and Justinian therefore, used every effort to induce him to agree to it, but he sent the Emperor an answer in which he learnedly

proved that the body of Christ, as to the natural and innocent passions was corruptible, and when informed that it was the


s intention to banish him, he prepared a sermon to take leave of his people, but he never published it, as Justinian died at mid-night, the 13th of November, 566, the eighty-fourth year of

his age, after a reign of thirty-nine years and eight months (27). 10. Cardinal Baronius (28) says that the Emperor s death

was sudden and unexpected, but it was most serviceable to the empire, which was daily falling from bad to worse, God revenging the injuries inflicted on the Bishops of his Church, and preventing by his death, that fire from spreading, which he enkindled. Evagrius and Nicephorus (29) remark, that he died just at the time he had decreed the exile of St. Anastasius and other Catholic priests, although the order had not been yet promul

This Evagrius, a contemporaneous author, as Orsi (30)

(25) (26) (27) (28)

Fleury, /. cit. Evagr, I. 4, n. 33. Fleury, I. c. n. 11. Baron. Ann. 565, n.

(29) Evagr. c. 31.


4, c.




(30) Orsi,



42, n. 84.



remarks, gave it as his deliberate opinion that Justinian, having filled the world and the Church with tumult and confusion, only
received from God, in the end, that condign punishment his crimes deserved. Baronius adds (31), that although the name of Justinian

was not removed from the Ecclesiastical Registers, like that of other heretics, and though the sixth Council and several Pontiffs had entitled him Pious and Catholic, we should not be sur in any prised, if his falling off from the Faith was not published
However, his other crimes, the banishment of public decree. so many Bishops, his cruelties to so many innocent persons,
his acts of injustice in depriving so many of their properties, prove that he was, at all events, unjust and sacrilegious, if not

a heretic.

Acemetic * monks sprung up in

Besides these sects of the Acephali, another sect of the This was another this century.

During the sprout of ISTestorianism, and it was thus discovered. of Pope Hormisdas, the Scythian monks took on themselves reign
to sustain, as a necessary article of Faith, that one of the Trinity was made flesh, and they sent a deputation to Rome to get a


decree from the Pope to that effect he, however (32), refused accede to their wishes, dreading that some leaven of

Eutychianism might be concealed in the proposition, and that they wished besides to throw discredit on the Council of
Chalcedon and the Epistle of
of the


Eutychian heresy. embraced by all the Oriental Churches, as a touchstone against the Nestorian heresy, and was impugned by the Acemetic monks
alone, who,
it is

St. Leo, as deficient in the definition necessary to condemn the Nestorian and On the other hand, that proposition was

true, in the time of

Zeno and Anastasius, had

fought strenuously against the heresy of Eutyches, but be coming too warm against the Eutychians, began to agree with
the Nestorians, not alone denying that one of the Trinity was made flesh, but also that the Son of God suffered in his
(31) Baron,
cit. n. 3.

(32) Orsi,




39, n. 123.

were a celebrated order in the East. They were and day they kept up Divine psalmody without intermission the community was divided into three sections, and each spent hours out of the twenty-four singing the praises of God. TRANS. eight
Acemetic, or sleepless monks, called the sleepless, because night




and that the Blessed Virgin was Mother of God (33).

and truly the

The Emperor Justinian undertook the defence of the proposition upheld hy the monks of Scythia, and wrote to Pope
John, II., for his approbation, and gave his letter in charge to two Bishops, Ignatius, Archbishop of Ephesus, and Demetrius of When the Acemetic monks got a knowledge of this Philippi. proceeding, they sent two of their body to Rome, Cyrus and so Pope John had the Eulogius, to defend their cause (34)

matter most particularly examined. We know, for certain, that Anatolius, Deacon of the Roman Church, wrote to Ferrandus,

man of most profound learning, and of who, having previously expressed a doubt as great sanctity, to whether this proposition was admissible or not, now, after a
a Deacon in Africa, a
rigorous examination, answered that there should be no hesitation in admitting it. Among other proofs, he adduces the words of




Take heed

to yourselves


to the

whole flock

wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you Bishops, to rule the Church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood" Now when the Apostle says that God hath shed (Acts, xx, 28).
his blood, every one

must understand that he shed the blood of

the flesh he had taken from the Virgin, and that it is not God the Father, nor God the Holy Ghost, but God the Son, who has
as the Scripture declares in several places so loved the world as to give his only - begotten




For God



hath spared not even his own Son, but delivered him up for us (Rom. viii, 32) if, therefore, we can say that God has shed his blood for us, we can also say that one of the




Persons of the Trinity shed his blood, and suffered in the flesh. After a rigorous examination, therefore, Pope John answered the Emperor, and authentically gave his approbation to the

He proposition, that one of the Trinity suffered in the flesh. then strove to get the Acemetic monks who had come to Rome,
to accept his definition, but they obstinately refused, and he to separate them from the communion of the Church obliged



We should remark that the
(33) Orsi, loc. cit. (34) Fleury, t. 5,
ibid, n. 24.

letter of

Pope John did not contradict
t. 5, 1. 32, n. 39 ; Gotti. 2, loc. cit. c, 77. /. t. 3; Orsi, loc.

(35) Fleury,
32, n.





cit. n.




the letter of Pope Hormisdas, for this Pope did not condemn the proposition, but only withheld his approbation for just causes,

as Roncaglia

says, a hasty definition at the time,



some from the unity of the Church



13. -Condemnation of the 14, 15. -Defended

Three Chapters of Theodore, Ibas, and Theodorct. by Vigilius. 16.-Answer to the objection of a Heretic,


asserts that one Council contradicts another.

13. It was during this sixth century that the controversy about the Three Chapters was carried on. These were First The books of Theodore of Mopsuestia, in which it was clear he

taught the heresy of Nestorius (supra, cap. v. n. 48) Second The Letter of Ibas to Maris of Persia, in which he condemned

alike St. Cyril and Nestorius, and praised Theodore of Mopsuestia ; The writings of Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus, and, Thirdly This controversy the twelve Anathematizms of St. Cyril. against

grieviously disturbed the Church, but it was put at rest by the condemnation of these Three Chapters, in the year 553, in the

The General Council, the second of Constantinople. Justinian hurried on the condemnation of Theodore Emperor


his writings, the Letter of Ibas to

Maris the Persian, and

the writings of Theodoret against St. Cyril, and, finally, the sentence received the approbation of Pope Vigilius, in his famous
celebration of


says that Vigilius was opposed to the Council, but as he had not the power to


and foresaw that a ruinous schism would spring from objection, he gave his assent, and, confirmed by the assent of

the Holy See,


now ranks among the Ecumenical


Vigilius was blamed for his conduct in regard to Council, and for so frequently changing his judgment








p. 255,


Not. (36) Eoncaglia, Alex. t. 11, c. 3, ar.


(1) Danes.


Cardinal Norris

(2), after

as does Peter of


relating all his changes, defends him and says, that his inconstancy was not
" "

weakness, but prudence.

he says, was a most tena cious upholder of Pontifical authority, even setting at defiance the Sovereign himself, as appears from his actions. He is reproached

with inconstancy of mind, and too great a
opinions, for in the case of the

facility in

changing his

Three Chapters, he was often incon and more than once was opposed to his previous opinions. sistent, In the beginning, while he was yet in Sicily, he defended the Three Chapters but, if we are to believe Victor, he had already promised to Theodora Augusta, that he would condemn them. When he came to Constantinople, he suspended Menna for con demning the Three Chapters but he was soon after reconciled to him, and juridically condemned them himself. Three years after, he revoked his judgment, published a new Constitution, and denied that they could be condemned but he held this opinion for only a few months, for he forwarded an Epistle to Eutyches, declaring the Constitution of no effect, and coming to the Synod, he proscribed the Three Chapters." That most learned man, Peter of Marca (lib. iii, De Concordia Sacerdotii & Imperii,
; ;

13), testifies that this inconstancy of Vigilius has been considered prudence by the learned ; he calls it dispensation, for at one time he acted up to the rigour of Law and Canons, and


then again dispensed with


for the


of Faith


public tranquillity. 15. Peter of Marca, therefore, says, that the Popes, at all in questions times, relating to discipline, have acted according to

the rules of prudence, sometimes, when necessary, using all the rigour of the Canon, at other times the Dispensing Power, called

by the Greeks, Economy, by the Latins, Dispensation, to preserve the union of the faithful and the peace of the Church. Cardinal


Orsi (3) remarks, besides, that it was the last Constitution or alone, that was proposed to the Church by Vigilius, as a peremptory decree, and as Theologians say, pronounced ex Cathedra. He was unwilling at first to condemn the Three
Chapters, because he feared to give a handle to the Nestorians to throw discredit on the Council of Chalcedon, which, it was




Diss. Hist


de Syn.

(3) Orsi,







v. c. d.

as it was approved of by Yigilius. on one hand he perceived that the Eutychians more vigorously attacked the Council of Chalcedon. 2. Centur. two Councils were opposed to each other. and Photius. opposed to that of Chalcedon. considered one of the Ecumenical Councils. indeed. on teaches the authority of St. they were neither approved nor rejected they were altogether passed over in that Council. Leo II. (4) Tournelly. he endeavours to prove the of General Councils of the Catholic Church. Theol. the decision of the Council of Constantinople then is. and on the other. according to Orsi. 839 (6) Mos. the Council of Constantinople condemns their writings . for him that the Council of Ephesus acted in the Synod. 6. he says.AND THEIR REFUTATION. that rigorous rules must sometimes be tempered by dispensation. But as Selvaggi. 3. said. Hist. a. says Maclain. &c. de Con. p. boasted that this Council was favourable to the doctrine of Nestorius. he says. . this is altogether false. that in the Council of Chalcedon the writings of Ibas and Theodoret were not condemned. lest by condemning them. the Nestorians laying hold of that. . How does it happen though. cit. Comp. as Tournelly says (4). in his sixteenth note. and differ among fallibility a proof that both the Councils and the Doctors Thus. 2. Constan. already distracted by the Nestorians. par. as people at sea frequently throw some of their merchandise overboard to preserve the rest . 3 . therefore. as Pelagius II. more disturbance would be . as these is themselves. mentions the same thing in his writings. t. for all that. 185 approved of the Three Chapters but when. . Peter of Marca explains the omission of the condemnation. in unison with the Fathers of the Council of Constantinople.. append. c. Eccles. he was it convinced that was necessary he accordingly gave a decree to condemn them absolutely. and. and they themselves were praised for the purity of their Faith. which is. prudently raised in the Church. then indeed. loc. and to that effect. as Tournelly also remarks. 16. 998. p. Cyril (6). and in his Epistle to Proclus of Constantinople. Cyril. he this manner. very fairly remarks. for the Three Chapters were not approved of by the Council of Chalcedon in fact.. which they said (though it was not the case) had approved of these Chapters.. and also by some of his successors. 2. condemned the heretical tells (5) Mosheim. the annotator of Mosheim (5).

2. ar. body as a place of punishment. lest abstained from their mentioning the name many. but that Cardinal Norris clearly shows that they were condemned there. : demned spirits who are in heaven will inflict this suffering on him. led away by respect for his person. but in this condemnation prudently of Theodorus. Juenin (7) tells us that the books of Origen were con 17. Theol. our bodies will arise all in a round form. though Garner maintains that it was not in this Council they were condemned at all. the sun. QuintOi . Juenin also remarks that the condemnation of these erroneous doctrines does not appear clearly. 5. from the original Acts of the second Council of Constantinople. Third That in the General are animated and reasoning powers. Constantinopolitan (7) Juenin. celebrated under Menna. I. but in the Council. t. and that the wicked in this Council. and that the pains of the damned and of the devils will have an end some time or other. the moon. as in the edition of L Abbe. and the* waters above the heavens. Resurrection. and that they are joined to the Second That the heavens. s. Fourth That in some future ages Jesus Christ will be again crucified for the devils. and the following errors of his especially were noted First That the souls of men are created before they are united to their bodies. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. would forsake the Church itself. the stars. ver.186 impiety.

/. (1). sect of Mahometanism sprung up in this have already written the history of Mahomet in my century. as he old. and to teach them. and domestics of this first. nota a.AND THEIR REFUTATION. called Cadijah(3). the ancient grew religion of Adam. and he persuaded his relatives to preach in Mecca. in 568. who. of his father. His uncle put him to trade on the death and when twenty-eight years of age. 12. being then forty years of age (4). Fede. married. he became. which has spread over the greater perhaps. in the cave of Hera. 38. he began to give out that he was a Prophet inspired by God.-The Alcoran with Blasphemy and Nonsense. part 3. three miles from Mecca. and. a rich and noble widow. and asked him to prove his (1) Ver. and his family was among the most illus destroying sect. as he said. THE HERESIES OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY. for the greater part. trious of that Peninsula. (4) Fleury. the founder of this 1. of Noah. was born in Arabia. a. At first. at first. work on the Truth of the Faith&quot. del. 12. (2) Fleury. soon after. Alex. but I consider it necessary to give a short sketch of it here. 7. I. not alone to change his own but that of his countrymen. and then began publicly and attack idolatry. c. 2. and of the Prophets. the factor of. he determined. n. and Beginning of filled his False Religion. He pretended to have long conversations with the Archangel Gabriel. were idolaters also. 1. but. 187 CHAPTER ARTICLE VII. the greatest part of the Christian world. Mahomet. (3) Nat. In the year 608. -Birth of Mahomet. The impious I &quot. . religion. loco cit. 1. He was brought up an idolater. t. among whom of Abraham. 4. OF MAHOMETANISM. the people did not very willingly listen to him. t. 2. according to Fleury (2). c. he reckoned Jesus Christ. where he frequently retired.

though. but he told them that God sent him to preach the truth. in fact. and it is trivialities unworthy of the &quot. Jews or Christians. how ever. The Mahometans shave the head. it fell off . the Koran (Al Koran He recognizes the Divine Mission of Moses and revelations. and before his death he saw almost all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula sub ject to his spiritual 2. in the &quot. treated the more fully. or Paradise. pre cepts. however. that God commanded him not to force any one to embrace his religion. boasts of having wrought one. . he then declared that God commanded him to pursue the infidels with arms. and driven him from their city.188 mission THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. but hell will be for ever the portion of the infidels .&quot. He gave out. is only for filthy sensual pleasure is all the believer has to expect there. Jesus Christ. he made it the Metropolis of the Faithful. and he fixed on again and it is reason for the Mahometans adopting the half-moon as the device of their Empire. and from that till his death he was always at war. and leave only a lock of Koran. filled with contradictions. he says.&quot. as I have shown in my book on the Truth of the Faith. but in his Alcoran he relates many Supreme Being. for beasts Truth of the Faith. I pass over all the other extravagancies of the . is the perfection of the Jewish and Christian law. subject 3. though ridiculous in the ex treme : a piece. and interspersed with fables and ridiculous as some think. and then Peace. assisted. He professes that but one God . in the commencement of his career. in truth. and not to work miracles. . at most. from the moon once into said. having already. that this is the his sleeve. by a miracle. indifferent if they exchange one for the other . The impostor. It is a collection of Sergius. and admits many parts of the Scriptures but his law. a Monk. and the whole work is. and he there is is totally different the reformer of these codes. he says. but the people of Mecca having risen up against him. and thus propagate the Faith . He composed by and temporal sway. it is from both one and the other. the book). taken from the Mosaic and Christian Law. fit alone will be sent there for a period not exceeding. all will be received into the House of The Mahometan Paradise. together with many of his own. may be saved by the observance of their respective laws. Lord of Now Mecca. he says. those who believe in one God a thousand years.

Alex. 6. the Monothelite Heresy sprung up and this was its Some Bishops who had received the Council origin 4. 15.Commencement of the Monothelites . Nat. a. 4. 4.-The Type of the Emperor Constaris. (2) Fleury. I 37. he keeps them in darkness. one of his earliest disciples. n. -Dispute of St. his Answer. 6. in the sixty-third year of he was recognized as Sovereign of Arabia. and nine years after in 631. sec. or 630. in that Council. long of Caliphs united in their own persons the Spiritual and Royal power of the Arabian Empire. his violent Death. and they ought. n. 12. /. but for his negligence in repressing In the year 622. Sergius and Cyrus.~Con13.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to have . Ann. 2. by keeping those poor Mahomet died people in ignorance. n. hair on the crown. according to Fleury (2).. c.~Cruelty of Constans demnation of the Monothelites in the Sixth Council. . with Pyrrhus. their Chiefs. 38. 11. He saw almost the whole Peninsula subject to his sway. by which they hope Mahomet will take them itself. even out of hell have four . according to Noel Alexander (1). He was succeeded by Aboubeker. 8. Maximus . 4. and 5. 1. on the Alcoran and the Scriptures and the devil appears dispute have dictated this precept himself.-Honorius Con demned Heresy. 6. : (5) Fleury.-Honorius erred. -Condemnation of Paul and Pyrrhus. not for Heresy. 5. 189 up one to to heaven. ARTICLE II. -The Ecthesis of Heraclius afterwards condemned by Pope John IV. and for four hundred leagues to the North and South of Medina no other Sovereign was known. fall into any Error against Faith. t.-Opposed by Sophronius. They destroyed the Empire of line A Persia and Egypt. 14. 163. t. 9. HERESY OF THE MONOTHELITES. t. . and the rich provinces and king doms of the East yielded to their arms (5).-Letter of Sergius to Pope Honorius. for. 2.-Defence of Honorius. . 12. They are permitted to wives by their law. 41. and a great conqueror likewise. lO. (1) Baron. his age. but did not 7. at least. and Syria. It is prohibited to they may divorce each wife twice.



of Chalcedon, recognizing two Natures in Christ, as both Natures were but one Person,

asserted that

we should

only recognize

him one operation


N. Alexander

(loco cit.) says that the

founder of this error was Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople ; he communicated his opinions to Theodore, Bishop of Pharan, in Arabia, and he answered him that his sentiments were the same.


also about this time that the

Emperor Heraclius was

in Gerapolis in Upper Syria, when he was visited by Athanasius, Patriarch of the Jacobites, a crafty and wicked man ; he gained the Emperor s confidence, who promised to make him Patriarch

of Antioch,


he would receive





the two pretended Natures; he then asked the Emperor, if, having received the two Natures, it was necessary to recognize in the person of



and confessed

This question Christ two wills and two operations, or one alone. and he wrote to Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, posed him, and asked also the opinion of Cyrus, Bishop of Phasis, and both

persuaded him, that he should confess in Christ one will alone, and only one operation, as he was only one Person. The

Eutychian Athanasius was quite


with this false doctrine,

we recognize

in Christ only one operation,



according to the Eutychian system, only recognize one Nature also. Thus Sergius, Theodore, Bishop of Pharan, Athanasius, and Cyrus joined together, and as, on the death of George,
Patriarch of Alexandria, Cyrus was raised to that dignity, and Athanasius was immediately appointed Patriarch of Antioch, three of the Eastern Patriarchs embraced the heretical doctrine,
and, on that account, from the two Greek terms composing the word, and signifying one will (4). Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, remained faithful to the Church, and never could be induced to embrace the heresy.

that there was but one will in Jesus Christ
this sect


called the Monothelites,

5. Cyrus, being now Patriarch of Alexandria, formed a union there of all the Theodosians, a very numerous Eutychian sect.


This Act of Union was concluded in 633, and contains nine but the seventh is the one that contains all the poison






(4) Fleury, loc.
6, p.




1, c.







of heresy.


This asserts that Christ


the Son himself,


operations by means of one that is, we may say, a human-Divine and human at the same time so that the operation, both Divine distinction exists not in reality, but is only drawn by our under Cyrus gave these articles to be examined by the standings (5). Monk Sophronius; but when he read them, he threw himself at the Bishop s feet, and, with tears, implored of him not to promulgate them, as they were contrary to Faith, and con formable to the doctrine of Apollinares. Cyrus, however, would not listen to him, but published the Act of Union, and Sophronius, seeing he could make no impression in Alexandria, betook himself but he being to Constantinople, to lay the affair before Sergius

produces the Divine and Theandric operation alone



one of the firmest supporters of the error, refused to see him, and, under pretext of re-uniting all the heretics of Egypt, ap

proved the doctrine of Cyrus (6). 6. Sophronius returned again to the East, and was elected this same year, 633, Patriarch of Jerusalem, much to the dis
pleasure of Sergius, who endeavoured to blacken him in the estimation of Pope Honorius, to whom he wrote a long letter, He pretends to have been ignorant filled with deceit and lies.
altogether of the question of two wills, until Cyrus of Phasis wrote to him, and lays great stress on a pretended work of

Menas, formerly Bishop of Constantinople, written to support Monothelism. Some of the Fathers, he says, teach one operation in Christ, but not one of them ever speaks of two, and he then
falsely reports that St. Sophronius, when he was of Jerusalem, entered into an agreement with

made Patriarch him not to say

anything about the controversy at all. The Pope, ignorant of the artifices of Sergius, answered him, and commended him for putting a stop to this novel doctrine (the two operations in Christ,
maintained by Sophronius), as only calculated to scandalize the We confess one will alone in Jesus simple, and he then adds



assume our sin, but our nature, was created before it was corrupted by sin. We do not see that either the Sacred Scriptures or the Councils teach one or
Christ, for the Divinity did not

(5) Epist. Cyri, p. 952, ap. Fleury,
loc. cit. n. 42.

(6) Fleury,

cit. n.




two operations. That Jesus Christ is one alone, operating by the Divinity and humanity, the Scriptures prove in many places but it is of no consequence to know whether by the operation of the

Divinity or of the humanity we should admit one or two opera tions. should leave this dispute to the grammarians.



ought to reject these new expressions, lest the simple, hearing of two operations, might consider us Nestorians, or perhaps might count us Eutychians, if we recognize one operation alone in



Not alone the

heretical, but

even some Catholic writers,

have judged, from these expressions of Pope Honorius, that he

into the Monothelite heresy



when he says

that there

but they are certainly deceived; is only one will in Christ, he

intends to speak of Christ as man alone, and in that sense, as a Catholic, he properly denies that there are two wills in Christ

opposed to each other, as in us the flesh is opposed to the spirit and if we consider the very words of his letter, we will see that



his meaning.


We confess


will alone in

Jesus Christ,

sin, but our nature, as it was created before it was corrupted by sin." This is what Pope John IV., writes to the Emperor Constantino II., in his apology

for the Divinity did not

assume our

in Jesus Christ,

admitted two contrary wills and Honorious answers that, by saying that Christ perfect God and perfect man having come to heal human nature, was conceived and born without sin, and, there fore, never had two opposite wills, nor in him the will of the flesh ever combatted the will of the Spirit, as it does in us, on account of the sin contracted from Adam." He, therefore, con
for Honorius



said he,


cludes that those

who imagine

that Honorius taught that there

in Christ but one will alone of the Divinity and of the huma St. Maximus, in his nity, are at fault (8). dialogue with


Pyrrhus (9), and Anastasius Bibliothicarius
defence for Honorius.

Graveson, very properly remarks, that as St. Cyril, in his dispute with Nestorius, said, in a Catholic sense, that the Nature of the Incar

(10), make a similar in confirmation of this (11),


Word was


and the Eutychians seized on the expression
(10) Anasta. Praef. ad Joan. Diacon (11) Graveson, Hist. Ecclesi. t. 2,
p. 48, c. 3.

(7) Fleury, t. 6, /. 37, n. 43, 44. (8) Fleury, loc. cit. /. 28, n. 25. (9) Nat. Alex. t. 12, dis. 2, p. 3.

as favourable to them.


In the same manner, Honor ius saying

that Christ had one will (that is, that he had not, like us, two one defective, the will of the flesh and one cor opposite wills
rect, the will of the Spirit), the

Monothelites availed themselves



to defend their errors.

do not, by any means, deny that Honorius was in error, when he imposed silence on those who discussed the question of one or two wills in Christ, because when the matter


in dispute is erroneous,



Wherever there


only favouring error to impose error it ought to be exposed and

combated, and it was here that Honorius was wrong but it is a fact beyond contradiction, that Honorius never fell into the

notwithstanding what heretical writers William Cave (12), who says it is labour in especially The learned Noel vain to try and defend him from this charge. Alexander clearly proves that it cannot be laid to his charge (13),


and, in answer to the great argument adduced by our adver saries, that in the Thirteenth Act of the Sixth Council it was

declared that he was anathematized




Honorium eo quad invenimus per

Anathematizari prsevidiscripta, qua3 ab eo facto

sunt ad Sergium, quia in omnibus ejus mentem secutus est, et impia dogmata confirmavit" replies that the Synod condemned

Honorius, not because he formally embraced the heresy, but on account of the favour he showed the heretics, as Leo II. (Optimo
Concilii Interprete, as N. Alex, calls him) writes to Constantino Pogonatus in his Epistle, requesting the confirmation of the Synod. In this letter Leo enumerates the heretics condemned,

andria, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul

the fathers of the heresy, Theodore of Pharan, Cyrus of Alex and Peter, successors in the See of

Constantinople; he also anathematizes Honorius, not for em bracing the error, but for permitting it to go on unmolested Qui hanc Apostolicam Ecclesiam non Apostolica3 Traditionis


doctrina lustravit, sed profana proditione immaculatam maculari He also writes to the Spanish Bishops, and tells them permisit." that Theodore, Cyrus, and the others are condemned, together

with Honorius, who did not, as befitted his Apostolical authority, extinguish the flame of heretical doctrine in the beginning, but
(12) Cave Hist. St. Leo, Monoth.
(13) Nat. Alex. t. 11, Hist. Ecclesias. Diss. II. Prop. 3.


his negligence.


these and several other

sources, then, Noel Alexander proves that Honorius was not con demned by the Sixth Council as a heretic, but as a favourer of heretics, and for his negligence in putting them down, and that

he was very properly condemned, for the favourers of heresy and the authors of it are both equally culpable. He adds that


in his letters,

opinion of the Sorbonne was, that although Honorius, may have written some erroneous opinions, still he

only wrote them as a private Doctor, and in no wise stained the purity of the faith of the Apostolic See; and his letters to
Sergius, which

we quoted

different his opinions

in the last paragraph, prove how were from those of the Monothelites.


the death of Honorius, in 638, the Monothelite heresy

was very much extended by the publication of the Ecthesis of This was an Edict drawn up by Sergius the Emperor Heraclius. and published in the name of Heraclius. It was called himself, Ecthesis, the Greek word for exposition, as it contained an exposition of the Faith regarding the question of one or two It commences by an exposition of operations in Jesus Christ. the Faith regarding the Trinity, speaks of the Incarnation, and distinguishes two Natures in the single person of Christ, and it

We attribute all the operations of Christ, then proceeds Divine and human, to the Incarnate Word, and we do not permit it to be said or taught that there are one or two operations,



but rather, according to the doctrines of the Ecumenical Councils, declare that there is one Jesus Christ alone, who operates
things Divine and human, and that both one and the other operations proceed from the same Incarnate Word, without
for although the expression of one or two Natures has been made use of by some of the Fathers, still
division or confusion

others look on


as strange,

and dread


themselves of


to destroy the doctrine of the the other hand, the expression of

some may avail two Natures in two operations


many, as


was never made use of by any of the

principal Doctors of the Church, and because it appears to be the same thing to admit two contrary wills in Christ, as to admit two Persons. And if the impious Nestorius, although he admitted

two Sons, did not dare to say that there were two wills nay, more, he declared that in the two Persons supposed by him, there



was only one will how then can Catholics, who recognize one Jesus Christ alone, admit in him two wills, and even one will
contrary to the other ? We, therefore, following in all things, the Holy Fathers, confess in Christ one will alone, and we believe that his flesh, animated with a rational soul, never of itself made

any movement contrary
united in

to the



Spirit of the Word which was Such was the famous Ecthesis of

Heraclius, confirmed afterwards by its author, Sergius, in a Cabal or Council held by him in Constantinople we perceive that in the commencement it prohibits the expression of one or two

operations, to deceive the people, but afterwards the dogma of one will, the formal heresy of the Monothelites, is maintained (14).

This Ecthesis was sent to Pope Severinus, but, either because it did not come to hand, or that he died before it reached Rome,

we hear nothing of its condemnation then, but it was subsequently condemned by Pope John IV. (15). 10. Noih withstanding the condemnation of the Ecthesis, the
Monothelite heresy
of Pyrrhus
still continued to flourish, through the malice and Paul, the successors of Sergius in the See of

Constantinople. Paul pretended, for a long time, to be a Catholic, but at length, he threw off the mask, and induced the Emperor Constans to publish, in 648, an edict called the "Type," or In this formula there formula, imposing silence on both parties.


summary review

of the reasons on both sides,





Wherefore, for the future, we forbid all our Catholic subjects to dispute about one or two wills or operations, without prejudice, however, to what was decided by the approved



to the Incarnation of the




therefore, that they should hold

by the


Scriptures, the

General Councils, and the simple expressions of the Fathers, which doctrine is the rule of the Church, without either adding
or diminishing, anything, nor explaining anything by the of others, but let private opinions everything be in the same

state as
if it

it was before this controversy sprung up had never taken place. Those who will dare



and as

to contravene





they are Bishops or clergymen, they shall be Monks, excommunicated and banished from their

(14) Nat. Alex. t. 12, c. 2, Fleury, t. 6, /. 38, n. 21.

2, n.


(15) Fleury, loc.

cit. n.



if in

public employments, cashiered



private in

dividuals, their property shall be confiscated ; and all others shall Such is the suffer corporal punishment, and be transported."


of Constans (16).

should here remark, that on the death of Sergius, he was succeeded by Pyrrhus, and he resigned the See, of his own free-will, afterwards, on account of disputes he had with his people, and Paul, the Econome of the Cathedral Church, was elected in his place (17), and he followed the heretical doctrines of both his predecessors. Pope Theodore laboured hard, both by writing to him and through his Legates, to bring


him back

to the

Catholic Faith, but finding



in vain, at

It is sup length, by a formal sentence, deposed him (18). that this took place in the same Council in which Theodore posed

condemned Pyrrhus, for after he had made his retractation in Rome at the Pope s own feet, as he had promised St. Maximus he would do, when he disputed with him in Africa (as we shall see hereafter), he went to Ravenna, and again relapsed into Monothelitism. It is probable he was induced by the Exarch, was a heretic himself, to take this step, hoping to regain who his See of Constantinople, and in fact he again got possession of When Pope Theodore heard of his relapse, it in the year 655. he convoked a partial Synod of Bishops and the Roman clergy, and pronounced an anathema and sentence of deposition against him, and not only that, but he had the chalice with the Con

secrated Blood of the Redeemer, brought to him, dipped the pen and thus signed the awful sentence with the precious it,

Blood of Christ (19). 12. We have spoken of the dispute of Pyrrhus with St. Maximus the Abbot, in Africa. The controversy was about the
one or two

and operations, and

it is

worthy of remark how

If Christ is one, forcibly the learned St. Maximus refuted him. said Pyrrhus, he should only will as one person, and, con Tell me, Pyrrhus, said St. sequently, he has but one will.

Maximus, Christ is certainly only one, but he is, at the same If, then, he is true God and true man, time, both God and man.
(16) Nat. Alex.loc. loc. cit. n- 45. (17) Fleury,

cit. n.

6; Fleury,



38, n. 24, in fine.

(18) Anast. in Thed. Con. Lat. p. 116. (19) Fleury, loc. cit,

s. 2,

he must
will as

197 though

God and





different manners,

but one person

the time, for, as he

of two natures, he must

certainly will and operate according to the two natures, for neither of these natures is devoid of will, nor devoid of operation. Now, if Jesus Christ willed and operated according to the two

Natures, he had, as they were, two, we must admit that he had two natural wills and two essential operations, and as the two Natures did not divide him, so the two wills and operations essentially attached to the two natures did not actually divide him, and being united in Christ did not prevent him from being

one alone. But, Pyrrhus replied, it is not possible, for as there are several wills there should be several persons. Then you
assert, said St.


Maximus, that as there are many wills there must many persons to wish but if you go by this rule, you must

also admit, reciprocally, that as

in the


must there be




persons as there are, so admit this, you must grant you


that there

but one Person, as Sabellius teaches, for in God and is but one will alone, or, you must grant that as there are in God Three Persons, so there are three wills, and consequently three Natures, as Arius taught, if according to the doctrine of the Fathers the number of wills

Three Divine Persons there

must correspond to the number of Persons. It is, therefore (con cludes St. Maximus), not true that wherever there are many wills,
there are


persons, but the real truth





Natures are united in the same Person, as in Jesus Christ, there are several wills and operations, though only one person.

Pyrrhus raised more difficulties, but St. Maximus answered them all so clearly that he was at last convinced, and promised him
that he would go to Rome, and retract his errors at the feet of the Pope, which he soon after did, and presented to his Holiness

the instrument of his retractation (20)
seen, relapsed. 13. But to return to the


but again, as we have

Type of Constans; that together with the Monothelite doctrine, was condemned in Rome in a Synod held by Pope Martin ; and in consequence, the holy Pontiff was

bitterly persecuted

Crimea, in 654,
(20) Fleury,

by Constans, and ended his days in the where he was banished (21). Constans himself, after


38, n.




(21) Danaeus.


Natio. p. 158,

appeii. c. He first got him is the murder of his brother Theodosius. he also put St. Constaritine Pogonatus. n. while Photius only counts one hundred and seventy. / s. Herm. 41. &quot. by the Patriarch Paul. 3. Vic. inflicted with the vessel his used for pouring out water. and met an unhappy killed He went into the bath along with an attendant. Cardinal Gotti (23) says. practising so many cruelties against the Pope was called away by God. t. . on the authority of Theophanes. or. 6. definition was subscribed by all the Fathers (26). 2. inseparably. filled and holding a chalice with blood in his hand. 6. Alexander. and crying out to him. . and instantly took to flight end. who him with a blow on the head. 39. 1. for he frequently dreamed he saw his brother clad in the Diaconal robes. the zeal of the Prelates was seconded by the approbation and authority of the Emperor. sec. c. 42. Drink. Com. 4. invisibly. (25) Nat. c. son to he was a lover of Faith Constans. Thus was natural concluded the Sixth General Council. drink. and This unconfusedly. Paul the Deacon. /. presided over by the Legates of Pope Agatho. n. 4. (23) Gotti. . of the Faith. in 680 (25). 11 t. &c. brother. attendants. 3. t. 4 . Cedrenus. Maximus to death and among his other acts of cruelty related by. a. adver. (26) Tournely. Her.198 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 7. Noel Alexander (24). t. Berti. 68. according to the doctrine of the Fathers. the definition .. especially in Syracuse. Theol. Fleury. This Council was happily brought to a conclusion in eighteen Sessions. and on the 18th of October. 304. . a. (24) Nat. and the faithful. t. inconvertibly. 5. 14. 240 t. (22) Fleury. mounted the Imperial throne and Justice.&quot. astonished at his long delay in the bath. at last went in to see what was the matter. p. two operations. and found him dead (22). The scene was changed. the twenty-seventh year of his reign.We proclaim that there are in Christ. in the year 668. and lost no time in procuring the assembly of the Sixth General Council in Constantinople. 1. but he never after enjoyed peace of mind.&quot. n. 12. c. ordained a Deacon through envy. Noel Alexander informs us that authors are not agreed as to the number of Bishops who attended Theophanes and Cedrenus reckoned two hundred and nineteen. in . /. 12. which was . Alexander. in opposition to the heresy of the Monothelites was thus worded: &quot. c.

by every but still was justly right.. The II. not borne out by the learned men of our age. t. he adds. and endeavour to clear Honorius. but were corrupted through the artifice of Theodore. this Sixth Council. Combesis and Garner. loc. as Graveson (27) says. . error. says. Collog. Graveson (29). confirmed by his Apostolic authority. p. 5. that Honorius was con because he allowed himself to be imposed on by the demned. that the Acts wipe of this Council have not been handed down to us fairly.) Christian Lupus. Anthony Pagi. as a favourer of in heretics. then. It is dreadful to see the blindness and obstinacy of so many Prelates of the Church poisoned by this heresy.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 4. the Bishop of Constan But Graveson properly remarks. that Cardinal Baronius (28). be cleared from the Monothelite heresy. cit. We should here remark. besides. (30) Danams Temp. it is very hard to believe that all the Fathers. confirmed its decisions and decrees. (31) Hermant. to keep on the highway. because (as he says. were in . 3. Among the rest. Noel Alex(27) Graveson. off other General Councils. remarks that several follow Cardinal Bellarmine s opinion. 259. Grav. on terms nimity in using ambiguous words to please and keep with heretics. Ecclesias. by saying. not alone of this Council. p. . the successor of Agatho. when condemning his doctrine. Leo and. t. and ordained that it should be numbered among the 15. and did not maintain the interests of the Church with the constancy he should have done. who died during the Pope. Not. p. that the Fathers of the Council were in error in the examination and judgment of Honorius but. 60 . celebration of the Council. (29) Grav. c. artifices of Sergius. to the stain of heresy from Pope Honorius. condemned by the Council. and conclude. Noel Alexander. and for his Dana3us (30) says the same negligence there is no open heresy in the private letter of Honorius thing to Sergius. ap. and he was decorated with the title of the Pious Restorer of Religion. that this conjecture is tinople. but he is worthy of condemnation for his pusilla repressing error. who also condemned Honorius. that Honorius can. clearly prove the authenticity of the Acts. whose Faith was lauded by the assembled Fathers. I think it better. when it was his duty to oppose them strenuously in the beginning. but also of the Seventh and Eighth General Councils. Hist. St. 242. Hermant says (31). 27. (28) Baron.

and thrown into the sea . Alexander. Before I conclude this among . Alexander. denied that Mary was the Mother of God. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.)? and among the Maronites. that the heresy continued to flourish the Chaldeans. and return him love for love . of JSestorius. in fine. others again of his humanity. 2. chapter. ar. that mankind should be grateful to our Redeemer. who. loc. and two natural to be torn limb operations in Christ. 12. from one Paul of Samosata. was Macarias. t.4. a. Such were the of Sabellius. who. to diminish Man. and of the Monothelites some of these have made of Christ an imaginary personage. (33) Nat. and excommunicated by the Synod. has heresies our love for Jesus Christ. The same author informs us (33). 2. by the assumption of the flesh of constituted himself our Saviour. called Paulicians. t. and. . for the devil is con stantly labouring to sow amongst Christians. when the Emperor and the Fathers asked him if he confessed two natural wills. of Eutyches. (32) Nat. They admitted the two Principles of the Manicheans. 1. of Photinus. s. in consequence. who was pre sent at the Council (32). cit. and Armenians. c 12. . we see how it displeases the powers of hell. I wish to make one reflection . of Arius. but the Church has always been victorious against them. took root in 653. he was very properly deposed. some deprived him of the Divinity. so many heresies. even since the Council (but they aban doned it in the Pontificate of Paul V. Patriarch of Antioch. all tending to destroy the belief of the Incarnation of the Son of God. likewise among these last another sect. VI. (34) Nat. or. and taught several other extravagances enumerated by Noel Alexander (34). by means of wicked men. 3. Alexander. answered that he would sooner allow himself from limb.200 ancler tells us. s.

-The Empress Irene. had previously declared war against Sacred Images.. -A Council is held in Rome in support of the Sacred of the Pope. the Jews. a greater Persecutor . . Bishop of Nacolia.-He resigns the See of Constantinople. in the year 723. in Phrygia. and the Manicheans. John of Damascus. and the Veneration of Images cution again renewed 19Erroneous opinion of the Council of Frankfort. 12. this Constantius. and is succeeded by Constantine Copronymus. but Leo continues his Persecution. Germanus opposes the Emperor 5.-Leo IV.-0ther tyrannical Acts of Constantine. 10. way.AND THEIR REFUTATION. commanding the removal of all Images but the Christians refused to obey him. and his horrible Death.-Letter 9. 13. 11. THE HERESY OF THE ICONOCLASTS. and it again hroke out. 1. succeeds to the Empire. -Council held by Constantine. Death of the impious Patriarch Anastasius.-Martyrs in honour of the Images.-Anastasius is Leo.-Perse- by the Iconoclasts. regarding the Eighth General Council. induced the Caliph Jezzid to Sarantapechis (or commence a destructive war against the Sacred Images in the Isaurus. 15. in the reign of Leo attest that period. 17. demands a Council. established. place . 201 CHAPTER VIII. called four cubits).-St. published an edict. in her Son s name. 3. -Beginning of the Iconoclasts. in expelled from punishment of his perfidy. put iu 7 Resistance of the Women. 18. a Captain of the Jews. The first and fifth Acts of the Eighth General Council the Gentiles. his Son. and six months afterwards God removed him out of the Christian Churches. and is succeeded by 16. 14. Jewish doctrine among Christians. -His hand is miraculously Images. 8.-Seditions against the Council. 2. 6. the Marcionites.-The Council is held. -Leo dies. accordingly. Leo endeavours to pnt the Pope to death opposition of the Romans. and promising as his reward.Cruelty of Leo. and He was . 1. . restored to St. his 4. this About him a long and happy reign He. by his own Diocesans. HEEESIES OF THE EIGHTH CENTURY. introduced his See. 20. Constantine.

3. 1. St. n. t. (4) Fleury. It was manifest his intention was to do away with them altogether . 6. (3) Fleury. 3.. that they should not be soiled by the people kissing them. which he was contending for 3. and one Cosimus was elected as their Emperor. which were always venerated in the Church. . n. when. . 2. Fleury. Leo was emboldened by this victory to persecute the Catholics with greater violence. but that they should be placed high up. 17. 8. and stating what was the doctrine in the veneration of the Sacred Images (3). Baron. 2. and that such doctrine had a tendency to upset the Mystery of the Incarnation. but were totally defeated so Agallianus threw him self into the sea. he did not mean (2) to say that Images should be done away with altogether. to turn them from II. 42. They fought a battle near under the leadership of Cosimus. Hermant. and strove to bring him over to his way of Germanus. a. s opinion. proclaimed his willingness to lay Germanus. Zeal The Emperor continued for religion was the motive assigned for this outbreak. 42. /. Agallianus. and he in a long of the Catholic Church zeal. Alex. sec. ex Theophil. that it was not right to ingratiated himself into the . and induced him war against Images (1). Alex. who down his life for the Sacred Images. 283. 6. 1 . 723. & p. thinking (4) the Saint told him openly. t. and they marched to Constantinople to have him crowned. Fleury. but (1) Nat. out of the reach. in the year 727. 4. Ann. loc. and the of the people of Continental Greece and the Islands displeasure of the Cyclades at length broke out into open rebellion. n. n. He sent for the Patriarch. The Holy Pontiff wrote many letters to those Bishops who held on to the Emperor also letter. that whoever would strive to abolish the veneration of Images was a precursor of Antichrist. wrote to Pope Gregory approving of his who answered him their evil ways. and Constantinople. he declared publicly to the people. his rage against Images. Patriarch of Constantinople. (2) Nat. n. vide Ann. t.202 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. him The people. cit. 1 . Leo had already reigned ten years. and he reminded him of his coronation oath. . loc. however. all cried out against venerate Images. Git. but he met the most determined resistance from St. Stephanus. c. t. to declare Emperor s favour. cit. and he then said. 7. 12. and Stephanus and Cosimus were taken and beheaded. . 726. loc.

not even respecting his venerable age of eighty years. and persecuted. &quot. because he was The Emperor. for all that. the difference between supreme worship. 340. . which they did. (the public circus). on the The Saint. Hyppodrome&quot. All had no effect on the Emperor he continued to press the Patriarch. ass. Fleury. 42. (5) Fleury. and lived there as a monk. p. tasius. in the mean the Sacred Images. him many friendly admonitions.&quot. f6) Theoph. ap. . who placed him in the See of Constantinople. The Emperor convoked a Council in the early part of the year 730 (6). gave in particular. not knowing. which he might consider seditious. n. . 10. and preferred resigning his dignity It is impossible. and left . and thus have a reason for deposing him. Ann. Germanus. riding on an to the tail . and wanted the Patriarch to subscribe it. and said .Do not be in a hurry. said the Saint you will be soon enough in the &quot. but he firmly he threw off his refused. continued a bitter enemy of the Patriarch St. and Anastasius followed him so closely that he trod on his robe &quot. Baron. n. 42. and conducted round the Hyppodrome. 4. : any novelty against the Faith. cit. but who joined the Emperor s party. 4. had his eyes plucked out. a disciple of the Patriarch. which we Catholics pay to God.AND THEIR REFUTATION. t. He went to the house of his family. not to this 203 make any change in the Traditions of the Church. 6. perhaps. : One day. or. not wishing to learn. /. of Anastasius. that I can sanction Pallium. and was promised the See of Constantinople. and strove to entrap him into some unguarded expres sion. and invoked their intercession. and that veneration which we pay to Relics and Holy Images (5). I can do nothing without a General Council and he left the meeting.&quot. he was going in to see the Emperor. The Emperor was and he sent some armed officials to eject him from the enraged. when the Emperor Constantine. Germanus. but those also who honoured the Relics of the Saints. alluding to his disgrace fifteen years afterwards. 754. with his face but. He was urged on to adopt this course by Anas. knowing the evil designs deposition of St. Ann. with blows and outrages. not alone the Catholics who venerated the Sacred Images. while. kept an enemy to him in the See. in which he made a decree against Sacred Images. my Lord. Archiepiscopal Palace. loc.

204 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. held in extraordinary veneration by the people. once to the Emperor. . mounted on a ladder. image. and poured out all sorts of abuse on Anastasius Wretch that you for the Iconoclasts venerated the cross. began In vigorously to enforce his decree against the Holy Images. killed him. (7). the 12th of May 5. the See of Constantinople. 5. they dragged back the ladder. after killing images representing Jovinus. which he had governed for fourteen He then died a holyyears. and the Greek Church honours . and tore him in pieces. in a state of the greatest desolation. I. and. gave up all power over the churches to the usurper. bitter persecutor of learned sacred literature. with an inscription. ran off to the Bishop s palace. Emperor. was put in possession of the See. and he ordered Jovinus. in memory of the Cross that appeared to him in Leo intended to begin with this most sacred the heavens. telling that the image was removed. one of his guards. by The impious force of arms. The Emperor Leo. you have usurped the priesthood. and he having now no one to contradict him. said they. only to destroy everything sacred. a man of no learning himself. was a men. and the Church venerates the his memory on of St. 42. the vestibule of the imperial palace. by the ancient Emperors. as martyrs on the 9th of August (8). n. near the (8) Fleury. : are. The women. at once. as it was believed to have been erected by Constantine. When the women saw this. and only did away with the human figure. to throw it down. hurled stones against it. and abolished the schools of which flourished from the time of Constantine. cit. endeavoured to dissuade him from the sacriligious attempt. t. went at more them 6. and gave three blows with an axe on the face of it. A few days after banishment Germanus. death. 6. but he despised their supplications. the holy image was cast to the earth and burned. Anastasius was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople. a number of women who were present. Anastasius. outrageous at the insult. loc. there was an image of our Redeemer crucified. threw him on the ground. Withal. and the Emperor put in its place a plain cross. There was a library founded (7) Fleury. at Constantinople. and had the womeji all put to death ten suffered along with them.

The people of the Pentapolis. in Greg. con. and him as an enemy to the Church. and conduct him to but the Pope having still some hopes of the Constantinople . the him his orders. who sent Pope. tyrdom 7. so that many (9). conversion of Loo. An. . both threats and promises. cit. &c. 205 Imperial palace of Constantino. and Thcopcil.. to Rome. and partly by seduction. resolved to elect another Emperor. and when he sent his impious decree against holy images. to depose him. he surrounded the library with faggots and dry wood. and the paintings in the churches were all destroyed. error. in a general agree ment. and he superintended the labours of twelve professors. n. and mutilated others. All Italy. and covered over with whitewash. was a man of great merit. loc. Fleury. 37. the Emperor. When the news of this the images of the Emperor were thrown down and trampled (10). who taught gratuitously both the sacred and the profane sciences. and proclaimed that they would fight in defence of the Paul the Exarch of Ravenna. monks. used all his influence to prevent this plan (9) Baron. Partly by threat. at last. Lecumenicus. and wrote to the faithful in all parts. prepared to resist the Pontiff rejected the impious command. n. and Chiefs were elected. if he resisted its execution. clergy. Leo used every means in his power.?. 15. all the images of the Redeemer. Many refused obedience. . to put them on their guard against this new in and the army quartered Venetian territory. 754. 6.AND THEIR REFUTATION. loc. This learned corporation had so high a character. and he beheaded some. 5. w. and even lay people suffered Mar persecution reached Italy. to induce these professors to give their sanction to his proceedings but when he found it was all in vain. cit. and all who would obey them were anathematized. The librarian. (10) Fleury. refused obedience to the Imperial decree. and burn them. Anas. the Blessed Virgin. containing over three thousand volumes. II. and threatened Pope Gregory II. 543. and burned both the professors and the literary treasures together. that even the Emperor himself could not make any unusual ordinance without consulting them. and the Saints. he got all the inhabitants of Constantinople to bring together into the middle of the city.

the newly-elected Patriarch of Constantinople. but they. The people of Ravenna were divided into two factions. Duke While things were in this state. and as it was reported that Peter. (11). then in Venice. Auxumum. . in the beginning of his reign. p. swore that they would die before they would The allow the Pope. the defender of the Faith. or rather of the Province of Ravenna. and offered them the most tempting bribes if they would desert the Pope. the people wanted to kill the to Naples. and gave him notice that if he did not return to the Catholic Faith. II. rich and poor.206 being put into Exilaratus. wrote to the Emperor an answer to a letter sent to his predecessor. to be injured. and took the same oath as they did to defend the Pope 8. refused to as a brother. Duke of Venice. apud Ficur. s . rather than to him. execution. and sent the Patrician Eutychius. or. the Duke of Rome. joined with the Romans. /. In this 11) Fleury. 6. persuaded the people and kill the Pope. n. and therefore. and killed by them. he would be degraded from to the priesthood (12). and the Patrician Paul. already acquainted with his perfidy.. but the Pope knowing him recognise him be a supporter of the Iconoclasts. strong places of Emilia and finally took Ravenna itself. had written to the Emperor against the Pope. 7. of Naples. Gregory in the Pentapolis. a eunuch* sent one of his creatures to Rome. Anastasius. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and But the Emperor was only recover the city for the Emperor. Exarch of Ravenna. and was succeeded by Gregory III. loc. was killed. who. . one party for the Pope. but both father and son were taken peror. letter to sent his Synodical Pope Gregory II. called Venice. 343. Lord of Cam of that province to obey the pania. more outrageous. to procure the and the death of the chief people of the city like Pope death. 42. and his son Adrian. . n. to unite with the Exarch. 6 (12) Theoph. Gregory did not long survive this he died in the February of 731.. 13. cit. another for the Emperor they broke out at last into open warfare. wrote to Ursus. The whole people then.. Em by the Romans. While all this was going on. the Lombards conquered several . ungrateful Patrician sent messengers to the Lombard Dukes. t. he was driven out of the city by the people. who Patrician. but the Pope saved his life. wise when this was discovered.

in 732 (15). The Pope was highly indignant and that his letters were despised. to whom they were entrusted. and thus you refuse We concludes &quot. there fore. as Constans did Martin. n. n. and sent him again with the same letters. and this decree was solemnly subscribed by all who attended. our masters. George. not alone the faithful. The handed down as a Fathers. 9. Why have you not. t. & 9 . as Emperor and chief of the Christian people. n. (14) Fleury. and will break the statue of Peter. that all those who showed disrespect to Holy Images should be excluded from the communion of the Church. the nobility.&quot. 207 : You confess an holy Faith your letters. the veneration of Holy Images. Floury. but the . and do not you dread the scandalizing. What. and that those who venerate them are idolaters. /. 9. induces you to turn back. III. you say that they are the same as the idols. and to receive their testimony. detained. and I will drag away Pope Gregory in chains. was afraid to present them. the and people of Rome. and banished the priest for a year. we fear them not&quot. 1C). -He wrote a second letter to Leo soon after. 6. in all its purity. 42. saying : I will send to Rome. n. implore of you to aside this presumption. able production he thus speaks in &quot. and as to your threats. and in this assembly it was ordained clergy. Know then that the Popes are the arbiters of peace between the East and the West.lt. and declare accursed all who dare to contradict the decisions of the Fathers.. his Legate. cit. The Pope again ninety-three (13) Fleury. (13). which was attended by Bishops. He then speaks of the doctrine lay of the Church regarding the veneration of Images.AND THEIR REFUTATION. after having walked in the right road for ten years ? During all you never spoke of the Holy Images. and the six Councils. and by the Consuls. for a priest of the name of George. loo. sought the advice of learned men ? they would have taught you why God prohibited the adoration of idols made by men. &amp. /. 42. (15) Anast. : You think to terrify me by St. and would not allow him to come to Constantinople (14). 1 & 8. 8 apud. in Greg. so he felt himself called on to summon a Council in Rome. have tradition. now. You that time. but the Emperor had the the letters detained in Sicily. so the Pope put him under penance for his negligence. but neither first or second reached him.md judgment of God very infidels? are endeavouring to destroy them.

and sentenced to have his hand cut off as a traitor. the wonderful things 42. (18) Natal. and the Saint was condemned. put them to death. c. that he might be able to write again in her defence his prayer was Noel Alexander heard. 16. 15. again wrote to the Emperor. at the termination of which. s. 1. Anastasius. 187. but it was This increased his fury. whose honour he constantly defended. however. so Leo endeavoured to ruin him by an infamous calumny he had him accused as a traitor to the Saracen Caliph Hiokam. prayed to the Holy Mother that his hand might be again united to his body. however. t. Peter. 17. The Pope. His innocence was. but his letters were detained a second and the messengers kept in prison for a year. n. third higher the capitation tax in Calabria and and obliged a strict registry to be kept of all the male children that were born. the estates belonging to Sicily. of & 17. and sent back to Rome. t.208 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. but all in vain. t. This Saint defended. and confiscated in all the countries where his power reached in the East. About this time the cruel persecution of St. were sent back. 2. wrote to the Emperor. he went before an image of the Blessed Virgin. and tortured them first. and to the Patriarch. and he was threatened and maltreated. the honour due to the sacred Images. t. the letters were forcibly taken from him. 1. in Syria. 12. Gotti. enraged with the Pope and his rebellious subjects in Italy. time. miraculously proved. raised to a the Patrimony of St. . (17) Hcrmant. All Italy joined in a petition to the Emperor to re-establish the veneration of the holy Images. n. soned them. but he impri . John of Damascus took place. and they. says (18). and then banished them (16). He continued to persecute all who still venerated the Holy Images he no longer. 2. and Leo. and he was miraculously healed (17). the Caliph called his Council together. that (16) Fleury. placed his amputated hand in connexion with the stump of his arm. and the false charge proved by a forged . indeed. c. s. 80. . after a detention of eight months. after having received cruel treatment. . sent a great fleet against them. but even this petition was taken from the messengers by the Patrician Sergius. Governor of Sicily. lest they should be honoured as Martyrs. a lively faith. animated with letter . related of St. 16 c. 1. 6. so he shipwrecked in the Adriatic. 10. John 1. /.

n. nature were disgustingly reversed. and Religion began but hope once more for happy Constantine recovered the Empire. tinople. and he deprived all three of The justice of God now overtook to be led the false Patriarch. c. He became were most debased. Bishop of Perga. Pretor of Armenia. raging more furiously against Sacred Images every day. so rose up against him. he prohibited all from invoking their inter His subjects could no longer bear with his vices. Baron. but the Legates of the Apostolic See. at first presided. in he accordingly convoked a General Council. 763. in the Catholic Faith. and pestilence the fairest provinces of Asia were laid waste by the Saracens.AND THEIR REFUTATION. John of The Almighty. r . Damascus. Danaeus tells us. his morals . 1. of the Emperor. upon him and famine ravaged both the city and country. and died miserably in 741. as 754. and Artavesdes fell into his hands with his two Nicephorus and Nicetus. as he ordered him through the we have already remarked. l. and proclaimed his relative. He surpassed his father in wicked ness. 19. are proved from the book of the Jerusalem. in Constantinople. and evils from sides fell thick a prey to the most direful and tormenting maladies himself. Artathey This Prince. in the end. or Pastilla. and he left the world without any signs of repentance (19). 11. Anastasius city. re-established the veneration of Sacred Images days. took Constan to sons. and he had no principle of Religion not alone satisfied with destroying the Images and relics of the Saints. life 209 of St. and to be severely flogged but as he could find no one wicked enough . Theodore. . he continued him in the Patriarchate he enjoyed the dignity but a short time after this disgrace he was attacked by a horrible cholic. wished to have the sanction of Ecclesiastical authority for his impiety . 12. . with his face to the tail. in which the functions of to carry out his designs. or the Bishops of the other Patriarchates were not present. leaving the Empire to his son Constantine Copronimus. Bishop of Ephesus. sight. Emperor. took all vengeance on the crimes . but the Emperor afterwards appointed (19) Hermant. and Palla. and three hundred and thirty-eight Bishops assembled. . mounted on an ass. brought up vesdes. 289. cession. Constantine. .

cit. 43. and (20) Flewy. . and bored all his limbs with iron nails he was then suspended by his feet. cells to defend these. a THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.&quot. The third was St. banished from his See. to as a par ticular characteristic of heresy. The second was the Abbot Paul . In the Cabal which they had the hardihood to call the Seventh General Council. . : of October (20). &quot. which they held in great veneration. the spirit of contradiction. and throwing himself on the ground. and the rack on the . /. having been a Bishop. (21 J Fleury. or you Jesus Christ. on account of his scandalous vices. 46. and he was ordered to be flogged to death he suffered in 761. . he was taken by Lardotirus. a man whose only law was the and who. Among three holy Abbots are particularly remembered the first was St. other. or against the Cross. in that posture. for they obliged every one to swear on the Cross to receive the Decree of their Council. t. and commanded that he should be may God stripped . said the Saint. he called him another Valens. Andrew Calabita he had the courage to charge the Empe . n. choose whichever you like on the rack. said he.&quot. Thus. 6. near the Helles . Paul. &quot. This wretch placed on the ground an image of Jesus Christ on one side. were anathematized. never permit me to trample on your holy image. who forsook their the Faith. and the Church honours his memory on the 17th .210 Constantine. ror to his face with impiety a second Julian. President. n. and all who approved of recurring to the find intercession of the Blessed Virgin. with a great fire (21). pont. trample on that image. loc. Abbot of Mount Auxentium. was degraded and Emperor s will. Stephen. he was stretched on the rack . and to do away with the veneration of Images. &quot. we always remark. &quot. redoubled persecutions the Catholics. was con as idolatry. the executioners squeezed him from head to heels.&quot. demned We no decision against relics. Governor of the Island of Theophanos. shall be put my Lord. his head down. 13. and roasted alive. The Governor was furious.Now. all honour shown to the images and saints. for two years afterwards brought to Constantinople. When his this Council was brought against a close. received the crown of Martyrdom. Monk. he most devoutly kissed it. 32.&quot. he was first of all exiled to the Island of Proconesus. the Emperor Several Bishops and several Solitaries.

and his limbs were torn from his body. 43. the scoundrel wishes to said Philomatus. If any one refused to insult the sacred remains. The churches themselves did not escape the fury of Con. The murderer immediately fell to heavy club. 211 stocks. When they dragged him as far as the Oratory of St. he raised up his head. and the Saint s sister was one of the commu nity they thought to make her come out and throw a stone at Martyr. some were covered all over with scars. After being detained forty days in prison. one of his tormentors. he was looked on as an enemy to the Emperor. . 14. with chains There he had the consolation to meet three hundred and forty-two Monks from different countries some had their noses cut off some their eyes pulled out. and took possession of him. stantine numberless sacrileges were committed in them by his (22) Fleury. See. and his feet in the put into prison. Theodore the Martyr. the remains of her brother. Stephen the ground was covered with his blood.I . but she con cealed herself in a tomb. a number of the imperial satellites came there one day. just outside the first gate of the Pretorium. kicking and trampling him on the head and body. t. They still withal con tinued dragging along the body of St. .&quot. furiously against on the guards to bring out Stephen of Auxentium. Finally.&quot.AND THEIR REFUTATION. . The am he whom you Saint came boldly forward. and re commended himself die a to the intercession of the Martyr. 36. calling : &quot. This Saint was martyred in the year 767 (22). on his hands. with her own hand . and . and said seek immediately threw him on the ground. where the Emperor com manded that the bodies of malefactors and Pagans should be buried. n. and he at once struck him on the head with a and killed him. from the flog were afterwards put to gings they had received. they threw the body of the Saint into a pit at the Church of the Martyr St. and dragged him through the streets. /. or their hands or ears cut off. and they were foiled in this savage intent. &quot. the ground. &quot. Holy Images. 6. and striking him with clubs and stones all the way. Pelagia. tied a rope they to the irons on his legs. the devil entered into him.&quot. They came at last to a Convent of Nuns. and many all this because they would not subscribe the Decree death. and he died a death of torment.

/. 16. 7. the Governor of Ana by order of the Emperor. both male and female. 147. in the year 770. 299. Such was the furious persecution by Constantino of the venerators of all his cruelty. 12. more barbarity exercised in the name of a Christian Emperor than under predecessors. n. p. and that he died in the most excruciating agony. (26) Fleury. collected together. next year the Governor sold out all the Monasteries. /. 1. t. stock. and tortured. pictures. into execution. 44. 1. cast his Floury says (26). and then set on fire and more he banished. his death was like that of Antiochus. on. n. . and then addressed them &quot. and sent the proceeds to the Emperor. sec. c. (27) Van Ranst. all the religious men of the province of Thrace in a Whosoever plain near Ephesus. 8. n. : wishes to obey the Emperor. and sculptural ornaments the painted the images were burned or broken. t. was any of his Pagan Michael. and entire pro perty. that Constantino on a crown of gems presented to the Patri having eye archal Church by the Emperor Heraclius. art. with a violent fever. the heretics at once all pictorial the Decree of the Council was promulgated in commenced the destruction of . When the provinces. 300. underwent the punishment (though put Many some The apostatized). s. multitude of sight. but with Religion. tolia (24). (25) Herman!. after subjecting them to various tortures. he could not destroy end God destroyed him by an extraordinary sickness in the year 775. c. 2. 6. . Van Ranst adds (27). and were numbered among the Martyrs. seized it but he had . when he was covered with carbuncles. According to Danseus. the frames of the paintings were burned (23) in a word. he ordered the beards of others to be anointed with oil and melted wax. and in the that of his prototype (25). 44. 8. on his head. and take a wife immediately but those who refuse it shall lose their The order was immediately eyes. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Fleury. that he scarcely put it (23) Fleury. with all the sacred vessels. Alex. sword and punished those who had them in their Some he put to death by the more expired under the lash he deprived an immense . let him dress himself in white. and his repentance of the same sort as Holy Images .212 soldiers. . he burned all their books and could lay hands . besides. walls whitewashed. 2. and be banished to Cyprus. (24) Nat. burned also whatever reliquaries he possession as guilty of idolatry. t.

Religious scattered in the late persecution to inhabit their monas teries once more. but when he fury : felt himself firmly established on the throne. His reign. and nothing would induce him to see her again. he threw off the mask. . he pretended to be a Catholic in the commencement of his reign. 304. his mother. Withal. took the reins of government. and said he would spend the remainder of his days to his sins (28). 1. because . that against his conscience he condemned the vene ration of Images to please the he was a virtuous man. Constantino Copronimus was succeeded by his son. and assisted them to do so. then Patriarch of Con Religion flourished once more. This condition was agreed to by all. was attacked with a severe sickness. and immediately sent his profes(28) Hermant. and who had been Secretary of State.AND THEIR REFUTATION. c. however. and he was consecrated Patriarch. and the Emperor Copronimus. but as the See was separated from the communion of the other Patriarchates. as yet a layman. he accepted it solely on condition that as soon as possible a General Council should be convoked. t. and took the sudden resolution of retiring into a Monastery. Tarasius. and crying out that he was burning alive as a penalty for the irreverence he showed to the Images of the Mother of God. was short he was attacked his wife. 15. Leo IV. and he appointed Catholic Bishops to the Sees . 305. by a strange disorder like his father s. he suspected that in private she venerated the Holy Images. to re-unite all the Churches in one faith. was. weeping for 16. but he was firm in refusal. and under her pious care the Christian Paul. with the intention of cementing his authority. . appointed to succeed Paul . Empress Irene. and renewed the persecution with all his father s he even banished the Empress Irene. but as his father s he was only ten years old at the death. in the empire with him. and died. with the good will of all. and more especially he expressed his wishes that the Mother of God should be treated with the greatest respect he permitted the . stantinople. Empress endeavoured to force him his resume the government of his Church. having only He had associated his son Constantino reigned about five years. 213 died consumed by an internal fire. and declared to the Empress.

and supported by a great number of the laity. Pope Adrian. imploring him to consent to the convocation of a General Council. Constantinople. sent two Legates to Constantinople Peter.214 sion of faith to also THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. not withstanding the disturbance. and insisted that it was necessary to maintain the condemnation of Images. The Patriarch notified this to the Empress . Abbot of the Monastery of St. but. The evening before. the first thing re-establish this point of all to be done should be. of the Patriarch. required that the Emperor should send a declaration sworn in his own name. Emperor and Empress were in Thrace. and of the whole Senate. 44. The Iconoclast who were more numerous. to declare the nullity of the false of the Fathers . and to assist at it himself in person to re-establish the ancient tradition in regard to the veneration of Holy Images. 25. /. The Pope answered this letter of the to use all her influence to get the ration to Holy Images as did the Empress. and the 1st of August of the year 786 was appointed for opening the Council in the Church of the Apostles. came round the church. Saba. 6. and should it He besides Council. and they arrived at their destination while the Bishops. he says. held in the reign of the Emperor Leo. at least to send his Legates. and it was opened the following day. and while the Synodical letters were being read. t. and besought her Greeks to pay the same vene following the tradition Romans be found impossible. both in her own and her son s name. urged on by the schismatical Bishops. When the Bishops were assembled. and not The Emperor and Empress returned to allow a new Council. and Peter. and at the same time the Empress wrote to the Holy Father. and they then (29) Fleury. the soldiers went to the Bap tistery of the church. the soldiers. and thundering at the doors. it was determined not to postpone the Council. told the assembled Prelates that they would never allow what was decreed under the Emperor Constantine to be revoked. however. Archpriest of the Roman Church. and if he could not attend himself. and in the names of the Empress his mother. . n. crying out that they would have no Council. that the Council should enjoy 17. full and perfect The Pope then liberty (29). took courage from this. to without a General Council.

who had served under her father-in-law. at the same time. the same year. on the 24th of September (31). 4. and re-established them in their dignity but deferred the ad mission of those Bishops who had lived for a long period in. condemning the heresy of the Iconoclasts. but they could not succeed. d. in which they are named before the Patriarch Tarasius. and before the Legates of the Graveson remarks. and were tainted with his errors (30). 3. 18. and the intrigues of the chiefs of the sedition. In the first Session the petition of a great many Bishops was read. Sophia. without showing any of fear but the Empress sent him word to retire for that signs time. 3 Graves.AND THEIR REFUTATION. t. 44. in the mean and celebrated the Holy Mysteries. and of the three Patriarchal Sees. in Bythynia. the Bishops were again called on to hold the Council in Nice. and a great number of Monks and Archiman The Legates of Pope Adrian presided in this drites. Nat. attended. admitted them to mercy. Constantino. in the year 787. The Council having examined their case. 39. Seven Sessions were held in this Council. the Legates of the Apostolic See. that the statement other Patriarchal Sees. (30) Fleury. /. the first Session was held in the Church of St. in the ensuing month. t. 28. as we gather from the Acts. 6. false as of Photius. 3. and avoid the extremity the schismatics might be led to. c. and asking pardon. that the Patriarchs of Constantinople presided at all the former General Councils. Three hundred and fifty Bishops. 215 burst into the church with drawn swords. 11. in that city. together with their families. col. . The Emperor sent his own to restrain them. (31) Fleury. Alex. The Empress then. and. n. that Tarasius presided in the Seventh Council. . and sent out of the city all those. and threatened the Patriarch and Bishops with death. . brought in a reinforcement of new troops from Thrace. is as what he asserts in another place. and the disturbance was quelled. Being thus secured against the violence of the soldiery. Council. and body-guards the schismatical Bishops sung the song of victory. for having subscribed the false Council of Copronimus. and the Catholic Bishops went into the Sanctuary. t. on the May following. . The Patriarch time. Every one then went to his own lodging.

Mosh. the Manicheans. In the Second Session. When the Acts of this Council were brought to France. his composed by him. t. as was caused by an error of the Frankfort Fathers believed that the Fathers of Nice decided that images should be absolutely worshipped. col. year 790. so should be likewise venerated. several Holy Images were read from the In the Fifth. c. and the Saracens. . in the &quot. it was Scriptures. for the honour paid to the image is referred to the principal. remarks (35). and. of the those Holy Mother of God. and give them an honorary adoration. the Bishops of that nation (34). was read. (35) Selvag. : that. nota. Crosses. 4. Cardinal Gotti (33) gives the Decree in full this is the substance of it Following the tradition of the Catholic Church. But as Selvaggi. indeed. we define &quot. 10. 2. on walls in houses. Pictures. 4. Rel. the veneration of Sacred Images . 65. and several other Bishops were re-established in their Sees. and to Tarasius. and streets. but do not. (34) Graves. in the same manner as the image of the precious Cross. (33) Gotti. Four absolutely rejected them and so did Charlemagne. are more deeply impressed with the memory of those they represent. in the was defined. had drawn their erroneous doctrines proved that the Iconoclasts from the Gentiles. which the Church Bishops. all this either in the fact.&quot. t. Ver. of the Angels. and of all the Saints. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. For who frequently have before their eyes. the letter of Pope Adrian to the Emperor. . chapter by chapter of every thing that was defined in the late Cabal of Constantinople was refuted (32) Seventh Session. proofs of the veneration of In the Fourth Session. in Frankfort. ad p.216 heresy. 44. Hist. the images of our Lord Jesus Christ. . 3. or more properly published in name. In the Sixth. It then anathematizes all those who profess or teach otherwise. 6. Eccl. assembled in Synod. Books. and he who venerates an image venerates the person it represents. 7. n. or Relics. and contemplate those Sacred Images. 29.&quot. This Decree was subscribed by all the 19. and placed in churches. in his notes on Mosheim. 1. and from the Holy Fathers. 1063. offer them that real adoration which Faith teaches should be given to God alone. t. honours. and who reject the Images. and this he proves from the Second Canon of the (32) Flemy. s. 80. and called the Four Caroline Books. the Jews.

several Emperors. though against Luther s and by the disciples of Zuinglius and Calvin. &quot. in Constantinople. on account of the un faithful version of the Acts of the Council of Nice received in . Two hundred years after. Graveson informs us. This doctrine we totally reject Allata est in medium quaestio de nova Gra3corum Synodo. that the French Bishops did not consider this Council of Nice as a General one at all. in Bohemia. as Danasus says. and espe Iconoclasts. and translated from the Greek whereas the Council of Nice itself. so that the Icono never after disturbed the peace of the Eastern Church.&quot. . quam :&quot. and. in Wittemburg.&quot. have been decided. it concerning the new Synod the Greeks have holden which it is reported to &quot. as Dan^us says. who surpassed all the rest in cruelty. Still. Qui supra sanctissimi Patres nostri omnimodis adorationem renuentes contempserunt atque consentientes condemnaverunt. Leo the Armenian. A question has been submitted to says. as we have already seen. that those should be anathematized who would not worship them. relative to the worship of images. makes the distinction between honorary reverence and absolute adoration very clearly. This erroneous doctrine began to spring up in the West. Michael. and they did not see the customary letter of confirmation from the Pope to the Emperor. administered the Empire for her son. Michael the Stammerer. .AND THEIR REFUTATION. who boast of following the above-named masters. there was no longer any disagreement. and then the Henricians clasts and Albigenses followed it. and the Empress Theodora. he : adherents of the says. the faithful will imitators of Leo and Copronimus and those. should add to . Council of Frankfort &quot. by Carlostad. however. 20. in the ninth century. . above all. the persecution of the Catholics. France. his wife. and restored peace to the Church. in qua scriptum habebatur. in us. in the twelfth century the Petrobrussian first. de adorandis Imaginibus Constantinopoli fecerunt. and to the whole Church but. aut adorationem non impenderent. as Danaeus says. since it was almost altogether composed of Eastern Bishops. He died. but merely a Greek National Synod. renewed cially Nicephorus. in 842. as soon as the matter was cleared up. Besides. the same error was preached by the followers of Wickliffe by the Hussites. ut qui Imaginibus Sanctorum. Theophilus. a pious and Catholic lady. anathema judicarentur. ita ut Deifies Trinitatis servitium. 217 itself. This mistake occurred.

sec. the Church of Con This stantinople was governed by the Patriarch. and Basil is elected. is expelled by Photius. -Bardas is put to death by the Emperor. and afterwards promulgates his Error concerning the Holy 12. l.-The Pope defends St. 11. by means of Bardas. 1. and the Saints. and 25. CHAPTER IX. is -He replaced Emperor Michael. Ignatius in his See. to the is from the See of Constantinople. whom we have already spoken (chap. Uncle 2.. was charged with Predestinarianism in this cen tury but.-The Pope deposes the Legates and Photius. -Photius condemns and deposes Pope Ignatius. . ARTICLE I. 35). 4. the doctrine of the Veneration of Holy Images in dogmatic my work on the Council this of Trent matter is discussed.-The Pope sends Legates to investigate the affair. 6. of the Cross of Jesus Christ. Divine Mother.-St. II.218 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and the objections made by heretics are there answered likewise. I have explained their patrons both the Jews and the Saracens. of his is proved from tradition. THE GREEK SCHISM COMMENCED BY PHOTIUS. Godeschalcus. consecrated.-The Emperor Michael is killed. Ignatius. we now pass on to the great Greek Schism. and he associates Basil in the Empire.-St. HERESIES OF THE NINTH CENTURY. 4. Nicholas Ghost. and from the authority of Fathers. and confirms St. and banishes Photius. 3. 5. 10. Images of the Trinity. and ancient history. of art. 7He 9. is deposed in a False Council. Ignatius appeals from the Judgment of the Legates to the Pope himself. n. Ignatius. -Wrongs inflicted him. as we have already heard his history. Ignatius. St. 8. In the reign of the Emperor Michael. . 2. in which the veneration due to the Holy (sess. n.-Photius who defended on St. 17). and on the Bishops 5.

. that he pre sented himself one day in the church to partake of the Holy Bardas Mysteries. because he refused to give her the veil (1). life. and there brought up in all the penitential austerities of monastic His virtues were so great. Bishop of Syra to Bardas wishing to be sole master in the Empire of his cuse. 344. who were unceasing nephew. and among them. he was giving but he took so little note of this. Photius. and these unfortunate Prelates lent themselves to the nefarious scheme. promised to each of the Bishops the See of Constantinople. and his appointment gave universal satisfaction . his wife. that. . 219 when to the Emperor Michael Curopalates and great Prelate was son his father was dethroned. he was placed in the vacant See. persuaded them that it would be most grateful to the (1) Hermant. that he would not vote for the Patriarch fault . to induce him to renounce the and Bardas then Their journey was all in vain Bishopric. 162. uncle the Emperor. he had repudiated . Bishop of Constantinople. Monastery his own sister. p. (2) Van Ranst. Ignatius. Ignatius.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and lived publicly with his step St. and of the rights of his Church. a widow. and the Saint then excommunicated him. and some of the most esteemed judges. raised up for him many powerful enemies. the Empress Theodora. c. but his fortitude in defence of the Faith. on the death of Methodius. above all. in the year 858. unless all he was convicted of a Canonical but they were deceived in the end. Michael. three wretches in their persecution of him Bardas. Patricians. and exiled to the Island of Terebin- tum and sent after him several Bishops. and Gregory Asbestas. What irritated him. Ignatius admonished him of the scandal daughter. against the Saint was. t. threatened to run him through with his sword. 1. and at last. after promising that the Emperor would give the Bishopric to each of them. (2). got him banished out of the Patriarchal Palace. if they deposed St. and from that out never ceased misrepresenting him to the Emperor. though every one of them had previously taken an oath. he was banished to a monastery. for Bardas. s deposition. . because he could not bend her in all things to his wishes. on the 23rd of November. had either procured the death or banishment of He even shut up in a all who stood in his way at Court. and then began a persecution against St.

t. sent for each of them.220 Emperor. highest offices in the Court . having again affair. sciences rhetoric. 1. n. a Eunuch of illustrious birth. so that the Saint was in the end obliged. but became a most profound theologian when he was made ing. in the year 854. would at first. He was poetry. as he joined Gregory. arduous study. if THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Ignatius when Alexander remarks. as Nicholas I. Emperor every one declined at that their villany was of no use to and was not asked a second time. n. who. refuse it. (4) Fleury. each one. 2. and they took his advice. 3. through The humility. confirmed what was decided. telling him that he entered into the Church not as a shepherd but as a wolf. and held some of the Patriarch. he him to attend at his consecration. Bishop of Syracuse. and preferred the Bishopric . to Noel pass sentence of deposition against him in a Council (4). own or of any former age. was the impious 2. so them (3). he was Protospathaire and Protoand Chief Secretary. (3) Fleury. because the churches of that province were subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople. when called. as he was wealthy. he could procure whatever books he wanted he thus became one of the most learned men of his first. . Ignatius deposed Gregory from the See of Syracuse. and all the profane he had not paid much attention to ecclesiastical learn . and Gregory would not permit was so mortified at the insult. that he dashed to the ground the wax candle he held in his hand as an attendant at the consecra tion. 7. cit. and. He was only a mere layman.. The Patriarch chosen by the Court. cultivated by the most ambition. a perfect master of grammar. We cannot say much for his religious character. as Sicily then formed part of the Empire of the East but in order to confirm the sentence. he examined the appealed to Benedict III. but of the most inordinate He was a man of great talent. and formed a schism against the Patriarch. . that St. Photius. loc. for he was already a schismatic. St. and publicly abused Ignatius. medicine. philosophy. 50. or Captain of the Guards. and whose character was so bad. that was elected Bishop of Constantinople. secretes. He got others to join with him. a man convicted of several crimes. in which he frequently spent the whole night long. as it were.

for they shut him up in a confined were fastened to the stocks by two iron bars. t. where St. but at length went with the stream. and all the Ecclesiastics who adhered to him . . Magistrates and soldiers privately conspiring against were immediately sent to the island of Terebintum. to induce him to sign a renuncia tion of his See. Alex. that of his own free will he (5&quot. . but as nothing came out to inculpate him. and took possession of the See (6). and he had broken Ignatius. with the assistance of Bardas. loc. but Bardas by degrees gained them over. same Gregory. t. out. with whom Photius was leagued. n. 13. Dis. and. Five days. Baron. by all by the authority of Bardas. promising to renounce the schism of Gregory. and joined the still receive Ignatius into his communion. as this Jast was elected Bishop of Constantinople. he persecuted St. that the Emperor should send persons to take informations. where and put him he underwent cruel prison. but solely first common rejected consent. attests in his sixth epistle to Photius. honouring him as a father. and the captain of his guard struck him so brutally with his clenched fist. /. brought him to Prometum. Fleury. 2 (6) Nat. that he knocked two of his teeth out. a plot. and his feet sufferings. and by promises and threats. 3 . intended for the ruin of his sainted Not being able to accomplish his design. Alex. to make it appear. n. he even got some of them flogged. Photius promised and was accordingly consecrated.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and 5. and to rest. 858. 221 his tenth epistle to and the clergy of Constantinople (5). he laid predecessors. s. 7. Six months had not yet passed over. in a little time after. 25. to prove the charge. induced several to sign documents. even resorting to torture. and to do nothing contrary to his opinion. s. 50. 4. Ignatius was the state. An. and another was elected by to their resolutions for They adhered many held but on condition that Photius would swear to. and sign a only paper. He was treated in this brutal manner. in a place where goats were kept. to prove that St. and endeavoured by every means. all his oaths and promises . Such was Gregory. Ignatius dwelt. but by the very every thing. 2. he was at the Bishops. cat. they conveyed him to another island called Jerium. not according to the Canons. since his consecration. 4.) Nat. near Constantinople.

had his tongue cut out (7). and arrange the affairs of the a Council. and the Emperor wrote to the Pope on the When the Imperial same subject. 54. at the same time (8). Ambassador and the Legates of Photius arrived in Rome. and all his adherents were banished from Constantinople. and anathematized him and all his adherents . in which he deposed and anathematized St. St. with any one. to sanction the expulsion of St. Alex. 3 (7) Bar. t. except those appointed to visit them. n. called together a Council in the Church of the Apostles. so he sent some of his partisans to Rome. Ignatius. Ignatius. cit. 859. (9) Nat. Epis. who complained against this act of injustice. (8) Fleury. Bishop of Porto. 4. Bishop of Anagna. Diss. Bishops complained loudly of this he deposed them likewise. many of them severely beaten. and forward them to him. s. Ignatius month of August. and regarding the affair of Photius himself. to request that he would send his Legates to the East. supported by Bardas. as several injustice. .222 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. loc. and deciding any supple Iconoclasts. & 4 . lest they might be informed of the true state of things regarding the depo sition of St. but he. of the year 859. Photius could not but see that he was very much censured 5. When the Bishops of the province of Constantinople were informed of this barbarous proceeding. in the island of Lesbos. Fleury. to Seventh Council. by holding mentary matters necessary to carry out the provisions of the Zacchary. and. under the pretext of extinguishing the remains of the Iconoclastic heresy. loc. declared Photius deposed. n. 4. Ignatius by their presence. and put them in prison along Finally. loc. was banished to Mytilene. ex. and one. n. 6. to Pope Nicholas. Legates in Constantinople (9). and even not permitted to speak See). Nat. they held a meeting in the Church of Peace. they were kept three months by the Emperor and Photius. for all this. Ignatius (for his enemies deprived him of all intercourse with the Holy he directed his Legates to take juridical informations on On the arrival of the the spot. gave up the Patriarchate. cit. 3. Alex. but in reality. Nichol. the Pope deputed two Legates. cum Anas. as he received neither a letter or messenger from St. cit. in the with Ignatius. They were made to understand that if An. in Nic. 4. in that city. 13. Rodaldus.

under pain of death. and went on from appearing in the Pontifical robes. as Noel Alexander remarks (11). Photius called together a Council in Constantinople. but the Saint &quot. The Emperor said they. &quot. and defend his cause he at once put . for sided. If a Bishop be deposed. and appealed to the Pope. but. Pope s leave to speak. 4. as he was no longer considered as Patriarch. for that meeting did not even preserve the forms of a General Council.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and then asked the Legates what brought They answered. on the authority of the fourth Canon of the Council of Sardis. they were merely the nominal Legates of the Pope. and brought alone into the Ignatius asked presence. to the Council was assembled. foot. at the instigation of Photius. prohibited him. who loaded him with abuse. &quot. cit. The Saint asked them if they brought letters for him his case. (10) Nichol. which decrees. Alex. but finally. it was the Emperor himself who pre and everything was done according as he wished. wishes us to be judges. having been deposed by a Council of his province. you are no longer judges. to the Emperor will (10). When St. and presented himself in this of a simple Monk. Ep. accompanied by Bishops and Priests. 223 spending^ s they did not bend. .&quot. you cannot do that. after there eight months. (11) Nat. and soon after. and three hundred and eighteen Bishops. Ignatius. that. a message was sent to appear. 6.&quot. which was attended by them. yielded. said St. from the Pope. 9. be elected in decides his and he declares that he has a defence to make. John. and a great number of the Monks and the laity. they where nothing but a miserable would be banished to a place death awaited them. who. but on his way he was met by the Patrician. garb in the Church of the Apostles he was there separated from . loc. s. in all things. the friends Emperor them to s who accompanied him. and that therefore they were there to judge him. first of all. Ignatius. Then banish the and if adulterer Photius. no one must his place till the Pontiff of the Roman Church case. At first they resisted.&quot. and was told they had not. that they came to try Constantinople. on the part of the Emperor. on his Pontifical ornaments. peremptorily refused to recognise them as such. but merely in the habit He obeyed.

For forty days. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. unworthy (12). & . a bravo employed by Photius. side to side.If any Bishop obtain his See by secular powers. n. himself : the throne of the Church. 18. s. univortliy. let him be deposed.224 7. 14. cit. Alex. Ignatius was deposed (12) Baron. Ignatius. Alex. 13. and his blood. Ignatius. Constantinople was shaken by earth and so Bardas and the Emperor gave him leave to retire quakes. cit. one Theodore. Nat.&quot. 53. (13) Nat. 1. I. be deposed : &quot. deposition they first nearly starved him for a and afterwards hung him up by the feet over a deep which was the tomb of Copronimus. c. the handed over sign his Ignatius. seventy-two false and bribed wit nesses were examined. s. Ig. and merely told the Pope verbally that 8. and that he was intruded into the See by the secular power. ex. and the Legates. and deposed that the Saint had been guilty of tyranny in the government of his Church. he should. But even after this act of villany. and dashed him from pit. who. Niceta in Vit. Diss. deposed St. and that. 801. Bishops of the Council. Nat. which I have tyrannically governed. though he was again banished. to the executioners. 4. 4 . who hated the injustice). unworthy Bishop confess that I have not been lawfully appointed. by the Council. but have usurped &quot. but God delivered him out of their hands. t. so he laid a plot with Bardas. but he escaped in the disguise of a poor man. and live in peace (13). 9. with directions to kill him wherever he was found. 7. took hold of his hand. Fleury. Photius did not consider himself safe. and forcibly made him sign a cross on a sheet of paper. n. own scarcely breathing. . St. all crying out. In the meantime the Legates returned to Rome loaded with presents by Photius. therefore. after his liberation from prison. t 14 . Notwithstanding this. and Photius confirmed. 19. carrying two baskets slung on a pole over his shoulder. to his monastery. Ann. 6. and Bernin. according to the Apostolical Canon. 12.&quot. to be tormented He was till then he would fortnight. s. which he brought to Photius. s. if it could be called such (with the exception of Theodulus of Ancira. Six light horsemen were sent after him. Alex. . till the marble lining of the tomb was stained with When he was thus reduced to the last extremity. c. lived at home with his mother. On this testimony. who then wrote on it of Constantinople. 14. 9. Nat. loc. and sent soldiers to take St.

and so he immediately summoned together all the Bishops then present in Rome. The Pope convoked a Council of several provinces. these two letters to the to Bar das but when the was discovered that it was all a scheme got up by Photius. possible publicity to this letter of his. pretending that he had been sent to that a certain the Pope all by he had suffered Ignatius as the bearer of a letter. Nicholas began then to suspect that his Legates had betrayed him. was excommu by the Council. and to give all Photius. He nor ever would consent to either one or the other (14). which was held in the beginning of the year 863. containing a long defence of the acts of the Council. that he never had sent his Legates either to depose Ignatius or confirm Photius. and presented a letter to the Pope from the Emperor. Lateran Church. 4). & Nat. and that he never had. in another Council (U) Nichol. Peter s.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to try the Legates for betraying One alone of them. in which. n. first in St. 6. and of Photius. the Bishop Zacchary. 15. secretary to the Emperor. on his own confession. that he commanded that the Monk Eustrates should Emperor and it . cit. by his Apostolic authority. and he being convicted. sent a letter by him to Photius. complaining of but he said the Pope did not even deign to . Photius immediately brought assuring him of his friendship. wrote both to the Emperor and to Photius to the same effect (Epis. receive him. (15) Flcury. and Bardas felt so indignant at the imposition. but on the contrary. and wrote likewise another letter to all the faithful of the East (Epis. contrary to the orders of the Pope. t. Leo. without taking any notice of this letter of his Holiness. 14. whole matter was sifted. nicated and deposed of Ignatius. 9. and the following year the in same was decreed regard to Rodoaldus. s. of having signed the deposition in the and then the Roman Church. 9). and publicly declared in presence of the secretary Leo himself. made his appearance (Rodoaldus being in France). loo. 225 Two days after. in the meantime. arrived in Rome. 18. 13. Alex. Epis. planned Monk of the name of Eustrates should present himself in Constantinople. 19. diss. receive a severe flogging (15). he par ticularly commands the other Patriarchs of the East to hold the like sentiments regarding Ignatius and Photius. . 13.

threatening him with his displeasure if he did not revoke his judgment (17). besides. 10. that no one can revoke its judgment . unless at the hour of death Gregory. by Gregory. : Apostolic See. the Church. who would show him any oppo sition (16). appeals come to it from all parts of the world . or prevent Ignatius from governing it. . hope of communion. as temporal things were different from spiritual things. and continuing to It was then decreed that if Photius persecute. When the Emperor Michael heard of the decrees of the lloman Council. . nor is it lawful for any one to pass judgment on its judgments. for having bribed the Legates of the Holy See to contravene the orders of the Pope. on account of his many crimes. was finally decreed that Ignatius never was deposed from his See. but from it no one is permitted to appeal. Fleury. t. and de prived of alone. and every layman anathematized. finally. (17) Nichol.226 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. since. if he ever communicated with Photius. and he was threatened with anathema. for having banished the Bishops who refused to communicate with him. for having dared to exercise Ecclesiastical func and for consecrating Photius Bishop. or opposed St. and Noel Alexander particularly calls attention to these expressions in the Pope s It is plain that as there is no letter higher authority than the &quot. or should exercise any sacerdotal function. the schismatical Bishop of Syracuse. He then (16) Baron. n. in this all first Lateran Council. The Pope answered him (Epis. for having persecuted. and daring to depose and anathematize him in a Council. should continue to hold possession of the See of Constantinople. but that after the coming of Jesus Christ the two powers were divided. that he should be anathematized. and that for the future every cleric should be deposed. Photius was deprived of sacerdotal offices and honours. 8. 19.&quot. Epis. It tions after his deposition. according to the canons. Besides. Ignatius. 26. he wrote a most abusive letter to Pope Nicholas. held in the Lateran.7. was condemned in the all same manner. 3. he being a lay man. G63. and.1. Ann. and especially for having got himself ordained. Bishop of Syracuse. 50. and for having usurped the See of Ignatius. that the Pagan Emperors were Princes and Pontiffs. 70).

and burned their cells (20). (21) Nat. 11. and appointed Basil the to take him. cit. 13. and put an end to the On by Photius but they were arrested in Bulgaria by an Imperial officer. . a. Fleury. felt so that indignant at this interference. the 13th of November. imploring mercy. n. n. when both can state their causes of complaint. and he (18) Fleury. 86G. and cut in pieces. cit. 41. . (20) Fleury. 42. in Rome. Bardas. 4. to protest against the new mode of Unction introduced by him (21). to appease the Emperor. n. ingratiated himself with Basil. and a piece of his flesh was carried round the camp in mockery. and he banished prived . who was suspected of being a traitor. the Pope sent three Legates to Constantinople. in the year 886. the heraiits from Mount Olympus. 52. . the unfortunate Bardas closed his mortal career. empire. and thus. Prime Minister. loc. 227 says that the case of Ignatius and Photius can only be decided by appearing in person. The Emperor immediately returned to Constantinople. in the administration of the sacrament of Confirmation. Rome (Photius) among them. he soon after associated him in the and had him solemnly crowned (19). 1 \ (19) Fleury. and told them that the Emperor would have nothing to say to them so when they perceived the treatment they were likely to discord caused . who was one of the chief instigators of the death of Bardas. who treated them very disrespectfully. that he resolved to put him to He was in the Emperor s tent when he saw the soldiers death. . n. and in governing . they returned to It came to the knowledge of Photius at the same time that the Pope had sent other Legates to the Bulgarians. and he then bitterly persecuted them whenever he could some he de of their dignities some he imprisoned. come Macedonian. Alex. and defend themselves (18). or by deputy. his adherents after He was abandoned by many of he incurred the censures of the Pope. s. and he threw himself at his nephew s feet. but his prayer was in vain he was dragged out. 6. 41 . Some time after the Emperor took the field to conquer Crete. loc. 53. Alex. he did not lose heart he continued to retain the Emperor s friendship. fixed on a spear. diss.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and as he was aware of his incapacity by himself. t. Although Photius lost his protector. cit. receive if they proceeded to Constantinople. Nat. so strongly and was accompanied by his uncle.

while drunk. 7. the Emperor Michael was killecl. he summoned a Council. Alex. and tried the cause. n. . 49. Photius and made several charges against Pope Nicholas. Twenty-one Bishops were mad enough to approve of and subscribe this sacrilegious sentence. Photius to restore all the documents with the Emperor & s signa- (22) Baron. Alex. above all. 869. (25) Nat. t. on account of some disagreements they had. and his insolence arrived at such a pitch. (27) Fleury. n. Ann. and solemnly put him in He sent orders then to possession of his See once more (27). the doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Ghost. 92 Nieetas in Vita. Basil and Michael. but. 1. summon a second Council and having done and deposed the Pope (25). 2. and deposed and excommunicated him and all who would hold communion with him. to revenge himself on the Pope. Basil thus obtained the undivided sovereignty of the Empire. 13. to convey him back to Constantinople. 51. and Photius afterwards forged nearly a thousand other signatures to the same docu ment (22). Persons came forward there. . He had now lost all respect for the Pope. Ann. he again excommunicated In the year 867. received the accusations. Nat. and by many Bishops of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. 24) Baron. 4. which he called an Ecumenical one. co/7. and received him with the highest honours on his arrival. (26) Baron. cit. 7. p. the celibacy of the Clergy. Grav. n. Baronius (24) even says. s. 663. in which he got the two Emperors. in Constantinople. n. and the next day he sent the Impe rial galley to the island where the Patriarch St. and exiled him to a distant Monastery (26). as the fast on Saturdays. not from the Father alone. he banished Photius from the See of Constantinople. t. at the instigation of Basil.228 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. t. that he sent a circular letter of his composition to the Patriarch of Alexandria. 1226. but from the Father and Son (23). 9. He obtained the Emperor s permission to so. When 12. whose life he sought. s. and finally con demned the Pope for many supposed crimes. condemnatory of several practices and doctrines of the Roman Church. and had it attended by the Legates of the other Patriarchal Sees. 7. loc. by his own guards. Ignatius was confined. 1. Ignatii. St. (23) Fleury. cit. I 52. Ann. that he taught that every man had two souls. 3. n. to preside. 55. 367. 56.

and the book we mentioned was burned there. with leaden seals appended to them these were im mediately seized on. 38. beautifully written. (29) Fleury. the successor of Nicholas. & Fleury. n. and the same year he condemned the Council of Photius in a Council held at Rome. . cit. Nat. Alex. cit. loc. s. cit. in regard to Photius and Ignatius. loc. tius. being first thrown on the ground. : . that as he left the palace. whatever was decided by his predecessor (29). cit. in 868. 9. be again cursed at (28) Nat. (30) Baron. who died in 867. 9. and brought to the Emperor. Rome&quot. by the Emperor s command. 18. with calumnies and abuse (28).. 229 ture he had in his possession but he sent back word. one containing the acts of the imaginary Council condemning Igna . but this letter was delivered the re-establishment of Ignatius into the hands of Adrian II. that he left papers behind him but while he was making this excuse to the Prefect sent to him by Basil. Ann. 868. documents. his officers perceived the servants of Photius busy in hiding several bags filled with all his . Adrian answered the Emperor. (30). Basil then wrote to Pope Nicholas. 19. loc. loc. giving him an account of the expulsion of Photius and . s. two books.AND THEIR REFUTATION. . with this anathema Cursed at Constantinople &quot. Alex. & Fleury. n. cit. filled and the other the Synodical Letter against Pope Nicholas. n. were found. in a hurry. and among other papers. and said that he would put into execution.

ARTICLE II.~Photius again gets possession of the See. Jacobites. at the instance of the bled.230 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and the Emperor Basil.-Gregory X. They were then presented his palace. and he. and approved of by the Council. 28.-Of the Primacy 31 . 21. Alex. as well as all the Bishops of the were for two years waiting for the decision of the Roman East. 16. and Ethiopians . and were most honourably received by Legates to preside in his name : the Emperor he sent them at the gate of the . in the reign of the Emperor Basil he sent three .-The Council held by Photius. the Council of Lyons. 18. robes. and Marinus. THE ERRORS OF THE GREEKS CONDEMNED GENERAL COUNCILS. Ignatius dies. officers of the palace to meet and they were received there by city. and in the mean time St. of Nepi. Bishop of Ostia. -Profession of Faith written by Michael. of the Pope. 22. . Photius. revives and adds to the errors of Photius. kissed the Pope s letters when presented and told them that he. IN THREE 15.-Of the Glory of the Blessed.-Instructions given to the Armenians. rejected by the Pope unhappy death of 19.~The Greeks confess and swear to the Decisions of the Council. the clergy in their to the Emperor in to him.-Photius gains over Basil. 153. 13. 3. who was afterwards Pope. -They separate again. 29. . 14.-The Eighth General Council against Photius. likewise. The Legates pro ceeded to Constantinople. their mother.& Graveson. the Greeks relapse into schism. 24. 20. Emperor Michael it is assem 23. Pope Adrian (1) made arrangements to celebrate a General Council in Constantinople. Donatus. 13. 26. p.-The Patriarch. coll..-Council of Florence. therefore.-Of the Pains of Purgatory. Cerularius. most earnestly besought (1) Nat.-TJnhappy death of Cerularius. 30. .Of the consecration in leavened bread. 27-. s. 3. which was accomplished in the year 869. t. 25. 17. 11. convokes . Church. one of the seven deacons of the Stephen Roman Church. under Eugenius IV. and he received them with all all the honour and reverence. under Pope Adrian. the errors are again discussed and rejected definition of the Procession of the Holy Ghost.

you shall be again : recalled. Several other questions were put to him. . and were mercifully received again.&quot. (2)) Nat. Noel Alexander (2) remarks. not because of any authority he held in the Synod. Jesus Christ said he was and was condemned. He was pressed for a reply. 51. Photius also came forward. serve you from condemnation likewise.your silence will not pre silent.&quot. the Pope although in the eighth and tenth act. and eight others were held. They told him that if he wished to be reconciled to the Church. . (4) Baron.&quot. He made his appearance again in the seventh Session. asked if he was willing to retract his errors. go. and all their followers. 29. the inventor of perverse dogmas. so he was anathematized in these words &quot. n. : Diss. n. but when he was asked by the Legates whether he received the exposition of Pope Nicholas.But. he continued &quot. arc called Presidents.Ana thema to Photius the invader. with the crozier in his hand. The Bishops and priests who the last in the February of 870. for the Council said he was a wolf. t. the 5th of October. 4. but because he was honoured as the protector of the Church. Alex. the schismatical tyrant. &quot. 12. but he answered them in a haughty manner. n. so the Council gives you time to think on your salvation. then the Patrician Baanes. who persevered in their obstinacy (4). presented themselves in the fifth Session. 37. Basil and his two sons. 7. but he answered. but he only said speak. 13 (3) Baron. Constantine and Leo. in the year 869. that he did not recognize the Legates as his judges. The day for the opening of the Council was then appointed. addressed him. The Legates presided in this Council in the name of 14. still. as . though I do not &quot. 28. Ann. . 869.AND THEIR REFUTATION. together with him. and not a shepherd he was again . I mean. Ann. 869. and on Ignatius. him as his pastor for the future. all the wrongs he had inflicted he should confess his crimes. : God understands what said the Legates. and of his successor Pope Adrian. &quot. & seq.&quot. Gregory of Syra cuse. but it was taken from him. and promise to still recognise silent. t. he refused to answer (3). the new In these and such like Judas. & Fleury. /. 231 them to make every endeavour to re-establish union and peace. and said My Lord Photius. the Emperor is called the President. and. terms was he condemned. had joined the schism. but not as the The first Session was held on judge of Ecclesiastical affairs.&quot. your mind is now confused. s.

to a and one.232 15. Alex. that Eighth all the orders conferred by Photius were invalid. never ceased to asperse the He wrote several letters to that effect to his friends. 49. 7. t. the works of Photius were burned in the midst of the Assembly . cit. (10) Fleury. 870. 374. at the request of the Fathers (6). and. dipped in that the Fathers signed the Decree with a pen The Emperor the Sacred Blood of Jesus Christ. n. who wished to be subjected. sec. and robbed of all they had. (8) Hermant. and all who held with him that man had two souls were It was prohibited. especially. Basil did not look sufficiently to the safety of the Legates on their return to Rome . Twenty-seven Canons were promulgated in this the General Council. in Constantinople. to anathematized. closed. It is worthy of remembrance what Nicetas tells us of this Council (7). of the name of Theodosius (10). 41. cit. and the Legates of the other Oriental Patriarchates seconded this request (9). The Pope received seized through another channel the authentic copy of the Synodical The cause of the Emperor s Acts. t. 44. with the autograph signatures of the Fathers. 51. who besought him to confirm the Decrees of this General Synod as his own. the definitions of the other seven General Councils were received. 16. 46. (5) N. displeasure with the Legates was. at the command of the Sovereign (5). cit. (6) N. on the 22nd of December. (9) Fleury. . They were freed from captivity by the joint exertions of the Pope and the Emperor. c. 22. the Original Acts of the Council among the rest. 55. but to the See of Constantinople. and confirmed the Council (8). n. & Fleury. in the meantime. that the words of truth and the decrees of justice should be and the Council was received through the whole world confirmed by his authority. loc. loc. 31. ap. It was afterwards confirmed by Pope Adrian. Monk /. Council. Photius. All consecrate Bishops. and the consequence was. arrived in Rome. and that the All Bishops and Clerks churches and altars he consecrated should be consecrate dagain. Fleury. that they were by the Sclavonians. who continued to hold by his party were deposed. (7) Nicep. Alex. /. 1. under pain of deposition. not to the Roman Church. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. loc. n. because they refused to accede to the wishes of the Ambassadors of the King of Bulgaria. Among the rest it was decreed.

and recalled him. 4. and exercised . 25. 1. to exercise Episcopal functions . He then alludes to the examples of St. but the Saint never would permit him. Alex. &quot. 154. King of Armenia. 1.&quot. and Van Ranst. Ann.&quot. and there are strong suspicions. & seq. Beclas. 52. that the Metropolitan of Neocesarea. wrote a genealogy arid prophecy on a piece of old parchment. 53. St. 233 which he says Why do you wonder that those who have been themselves condemned presume to judge the innocent? Have you not examples? Caiphas and Pilate were judges. He got this bound up in an old cover. Ignatius. t. Fleury says (13). cit. to ingratiate himself into the Emperor s favour : He particular. 878. diss. that there was not a man in the Empire who could interpret that but The Emperor took the bait. 7. influence. t. Fleury. according to Noel Alexander. t. sec. and so many Martyrs. great a schemer as himself. (13) Fleury. Basil. n. that. sec. &quot. n. Ignatius. for. The Holy Patriarch.AND THEIR REFUTATION. disposes of Noel Alexander and Fleury tell us. he never ceased plotting and scheming to injure the holy Patriarch. died other Episcopal duties (12). in the year 878. means untried and &quot. Baron. and privately conveyed He then got one of his friends. 1. He laid one plan. Fleury. Stephen. Paul. w. Stilianus. to suggest to the Emperor. he said he could not be re-habilited. 8. Alex.&quot. /. and he soon ingratiated himself into his good graces. he administered Orders. and to get back to the See himself. ex Nicet. but. said the impious Photius. and endeavoured to obtain permission from St. and he left no every thing for our advantage. God. St. was in the descended from Tiridates. Van Ranst. p. rc. This was called antique Alexandrian character. the eightieth year of his age. Ignatius. St. though his father was but a man of low birth. as he was excommunicated by a Council. 53. unless by another Council notwithstanding. that Photius was the author of his death. in to accomplish his purpose. who had to appear before judges worthy of being put to death a thousand times. 53. wrote to Pope Stephen. as into the Imperial library. In this he pretended that the name of Basil s father. 53 .&quot. during the whole ten years of his exile. my : God Jesus was the accused. through the Sovereign s Photius. . (12) Nat. and that his reign would be longer and happier than that of any of his predecessors. /. James. 25. in &quot. 8. (11) Nat. .

he was willing to good dispense with the Decrees of the Eighth Council. Three days had not elapsed since the death of St. and tried number relative. cit. to be held in presence of his Legates. Ignatius. and incarcerate He restored some of the the servants of his holy predecessor. 14. loc. Leo Catacalus. When the Pope received those letters. Sac. in the year 879 desirous of not dis he answered. 4. sent Peter. sec. in Rome. and receive Photius into his communion. flog. Cardinal Baronius. Noel Alexander. accordingly. Fleury. and he sent along with those. for. and he surreptitiously obtained the signatures of the other Oriental Patriarchs to this. by pretending it was a contract for a purchase to be secretly made. and several . 26. which he obtained in his favour (15). N. 25. a Cardinal. /. sec.. 25. Alex. 879. cit. for the pleasing the Emperor. but only on condition of giving public proofs of penance. t. (15) Fleury. c. and those who rejected his communion. . Ignatius (then dead). 3. . 17. and several other Bishops. then in Constantinople. de Concordia. 53. t. Among the rest he sent a letter Pope then reigning. especially of the Church. He sent another letter. who gained over many of the weak by and punished the constancy of many more with death (14). n. n. and Photius managed to mount the Patriarchal throne once more. N. letters from the Emperor. telling him that he was forced to resume the See. & Imp. 7. Fleury (16). 3. t. 10 . Both the Greek and Latin Churches honour the memory of St. to preside at a Council in his name. 13. severely censure this condescen sion of the solicited Pope but Peter de la Marca excuses him (17). that. and at once began to banish. (14) Nat. he delivered into the hands of his torments. adhered to the Council. begging of the Pope to receive that Photius. 4. forged in the name of St. and deposed Bishops Ignatius. Alex. /. as he was by the Emperor. (17) De Marc. others. and having the authority of (16) Baron. on the 23rd of October. loc. take and openly charged Photius with employing some wretches to away the Holy Patriarch s life.234 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. as his Legate. diss. in a Council. John VIII. Ann. eod. and of his predecessors. Alex. sec. He was most desirous of having the sanction of Pontifical authority for his re-establishment. less to the schemes to accomplish it. and he. and for peace sake. 8.

put into execution by his son and successor. and again solemnly Cardinal Gotti (19) adds. as Noel Alexander (18) to relates. sec. 19) Gotti. and when he got to suit his it into his hands. (20) Fleury. Fleury tell us (20) that the Emperor sent two of his principal officers to the church of Sancta Sophia. withal. n. Nicholas I. into prison. that this excommunicated him. 28. the condemnation of Photius. t. Alex. called the Eighth General Council. though it was attended by Bishops. sec. in the See of When Pope John learned what passed in Con Constantinople. 1. that he cast the Legate . Photius put the finishing stroke to 18. he liked. 18) Nat. and thus. This Council was closed after five Acts. and the impious for was nothing more than a Cabal. stantinople. and confirmed. 235 and Felix. he had sent anew his Legate. c. 51. Belig. cit. t. arrival of the Legate s in asking for the Pope it his plans on the he deceived him. the philosopher. with the consent of the other Patriarchs. Greek. Maximus. 53. the confirmed the decrees passed against Photius by his pre Pope decessors.. by the schismatic Greeks. Legate proceeded with courage. and then banished him from the Metropolitan See. decided by the General Council this so displeased the Emperor. all Photius should retain possession of the See. his predecessors. sentence of John VIII. and interpolated and on the strength of this deception. but. he consented that Africa. in opposition to the sentiments of the Legate and the Pope. authority all Constantinople to annul by Apostolical that had been done in that wicked Council and the . which took place in 886.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Leo. a Council was held. Ver. four hundred and eighty Photius was re-established in the Pope s name. Gelasius. he naturally considered that the good of the Church required he should yield the point. 85. loc. and publicly read all the crimes of Photius. Leo VI.. was. they were all adherents of and he presided himself and carried everything just as Photius. and kept him there for thirty days. and Adrian II. by Constantinople letter that he might translate it into . in the Pope s name. and of the Council of which teach that the rigour of the law must be dis pensed with in time of necessity. . though it own pupose. 2.. as Cardinal Baronius shows. after the death of Basil. he curtailed it. and they went into the gallery.

but proud and intriguing by the and he was imprisoned in a monastery. Noel Alexander (22) says that the schism was extin guished on the death of Photius. how ever. (22) Nat. in 981. cit. was. of Sisinnius. that. on the contrary. and was not released till Emperor . more than all. an Armenian Monastery. It new strength in the eleventh century. p. net. charging See with holding erroneous doctrines regarding the letter to . says that the Emperor ordered his eyes to be put out. in his annals. in 995. he laboured to bring to maturity the seeds of division. according to the precept of God Exodus. the reign of the He commenced the attack. loc. In making a charge of this sort against the Roman Church. in the reign of Sergius. by consecrating the Eucharist in unleavened bread. This Prelate was of noble birth. Michael Pophlaganius. in his own name. without having any authority to do so. and.23G THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and Noel Alexander says he died obstinately in his schism. also Patriarch. Alex. for our Lord celebrated the Pasch on the first day of the feast of the unleavened bread himself. s. naturally fearing the censures of the Pope for this act of violence. and more. that the Latins. in and then. to and sent him do not know how or when. in Apulia. in the year he uncanonically seized on the See of Constantinople. previously sown between the two Churches. that the Pope usurped the authority of Universal Pastor. Patriarch. followed the Jewish practice of celebrating the Pasch in unleavened bread. but that it broke out again but Dan&us (23) says. 29. who sent. his death left it as it . 271 . the Encyclical letter written by Photius against the Pope. it was unlawful to have even in the house. his suc cessor. but we Cedrenus (21 ). under the Patri gained arch Michael Cerularius. he was most surely astray. Bishop of Trani. 19. by writing a the Roman John. and separated from the communion of the Church. Gotti. to the Bishop of the East. (23) Danasus tern. as suspected of rebellion . and that it broke out with more violence in the time of Nicholas Chrisobergus. Emperor Constantine Monomachus. (21) Apud. procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son that the soul after leaving Purgatory. . went directly to enjoy beati tude before the General Resurrection. but 1043. where he died.

but spread more widely and though several Greek Churches in the eleventh and following centuries continued in communion with the Roman : . during the first indubitably the universal centuries in the West. sec. St. the Cardinal Archdeacon of Rome. 171 . . Archbishop of Amalphi they brought letters from the Pope to the Emperor Constantine. he ex communicated them. 3. every opposition in his power. c.AND THEIR REFUTATION. xii. 21. threatening to ex communicate Cerularius. for one Church has never reprobated . and Peter. lest the Christians should be scandalized. leavened bread &quot. (Exod. The question then was discussed in Constan but Cerularius tinople itself. besides. 11. but Certilarius was altogether astray in for using unleavened Pope Leo. who deposed him from the Patriarchate. . and sent letters through all Asia and Italy. Lupus. and continued to give them . when the discipline was changed. to extinguish the fire of schism which was every day spreading more widely. Sophia. The Legates. Bishop of Silva Candida. the Greeks have always made use of leavened bread and by doing so. never offended against Faith. despairing of any change in him. the custom of another . 3. filled with calumnies and abuse of the Roman Church. 10. de Act. accusing the Latin bread. 2. sec. 3. He lived and died obstinately in schism he was banished to Proconesus by the Emperor. The schism was not extinguished at his death. altar. 237 be found any leaven in your houses&quot. 20. as if they were Judaizing. that Christ offered up the Sacrifice in unleavened bread. and he removed the Pope s name from the Diptychs. Church of heresy. on the This only exasperated him more. after celebrating Mass one publicly laid the letter of excommunication day in St. and he there ended his days (25). there was a most ancient tradition handed down direct from St. Isaac Comnemus. t. for a short such was time. It is true. Ranst. Diss. c. shall not Christian Lupus (24) says. Umbert. unless. (25) Bernin. xi. unless he desisted from censuring the Roman Church. Van t. sent as his Legates to the East. Peter himself. sec. on account of the custom of celebrating with unleavened bread. 6 . Leo VII. and the Latin practice was justified refused all along to meet the Legates. and practice. Cone. and following the Legates example. as : Seven days there . p.) and. p. (24) Chris. Bask.

t. till Con Union was again was conquered by the Latins. to con This happened in 1272. by his The Pope had Holiness. summoned St. 4. desirous to accede to his wishes. and he convoked a clude a peace. he sent a formula of Faith to the Emperor by the four religious delegates. but principally to re-unite the Greek and Latin Churches . . seventy Abbots. Pantaleon.. and Opizio. the breach was every day becoming wider. in 1204. and to facilitate this object. two of the Fran ciscan and two of the Dominican Order. which the Greek Bishops were called on to sanction. 116. . the first 1261 . to concert with the Christian Sovereigns for the conquest of the Holy Land. diss. Alex. to send and he also invited the Patriarch of Constantinople and the other Greek Bishops to the Council. General Council at the same time to meet in two years after in Lyons. Michael Paleologus (26) sent a Franciscan Doctor to Gregory X. the bearer of letters requesting an union between the Greek and Roman Churches once more. but Latin Emperor of Constantinople. 1. and to him was committed. de Con. also. from the reign of Bald win. and several other Greek Bishops. Thomas of Aquin. Louis. of Constantinople. p. the whole arrangement of the Council. Bonaventure was also present. were assembled. 22. t. and took the first place after the Pope. the Greeks renewed the schism. till when Constantinople was re-taken by Michael Paleologus. and besides the Latin Prelates. St. to reform some matters of discipline. stantinople restored under the Frankish Monarchy. At the appointed time the Council assembled in Lyons. 17. o. 7.238 Church. but he died on his way Emperor to coll. which to all appear ance they had eternally forsaken.) as his Legates. at all events. He prayed the his Legates. of Antioch. two of the Greek Patriarchs. King of France. likewise. and he wrote to St. Francis (or according to others. and he sent four Friars of the Order of St. or. Five hundred Bishops alto gether. to The Pope was most induce him to co-operate to the same end. (26) Nat. so dear to his heart. 11. attended. still THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. come to the Council himself. and about one thousand inferior Prelates. Graveson. till the chastisement of God bore heavily on the sinful Empire. 4. and for the four subsequent centuries the Churches were disunited. Lug.

giving up its prerogatives. which he assuredly would not have done. he professes that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. through Christ himself. and it honours others. In this. Faith. had he been present in person. Roman Pontiff is. faithfully explained of our own free will. He then begs of the Pope. assenting to the union. the letter of the Emperor Michael Paleologus. as it is received the plentitude of power in the Apostle St. Alex. sent to him by the Pope. cit. 14. the primacy of the Pope. England. 28) Nat. it is on that account. assert. : that it whose successor. and Raynaldus (29). both in General Councils and elsewhere. in all controversies regarding Faith. to allow the Symbol or Creed to be sung in the Greek Church. wrote to him an account of all that had taken place there. confess and receive the Primacy of the &quot. n. thither. Noel Alexander (28). the and. Ann.&quot. words &quot. however.&quot.&quot. the validity of Consecration with unleavened bread. but above all the Patriarchal Churches. in the 239 of the Convent of Fossa Nova. but always keeping the purity of the Faith. besides.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and. cit. 1274. above all others. were also in attendance. that Emperor Michael was present but Noel Alexander proves (27) indubitably. (29) Kaynal. professing the Faith taught by the Roman Church. quote his That the Holy Roman Church has full and plenary and principality over the whole Catholic Church. The plentitude of power consist in this. Alex. n. and Sicily. among others Trithemius and Platina. 2. that it admits the other Church to a part of its solicitudes. 2. n. as and then he adds We. and that it can examine and judge all Ecclesiastical cases. : . that he was not. was read. immediately on the conclusion of the Council. as laid down in the formula. a. and. never. 25. with divers privileges. to defend the truth of the judgment should be definitive. In the fourth Session. but only his Ambassadors. can appeal to it. and primacy. in his name. because the Ambassadors. and the . so its bound. Holy Roman Church. approved of. as it was (27) Nat. 1. took an oath Pope Gregory. the existence of Purgatory. Peter. that his letter was read in the Council. and finally. Several authors. That all persons having any Ecclesiastical business. . The Ambassadors Kings of France. and all other Churches owe it reverential obedience.

and. the great Logothete. and professing in all things the same Episcopal obe dience. but. as Joseph. but one spiration. submitting themselves to the power of the Roman Church. these letters were read. professed the Faith of the 24. The Holy Roman Church. and wrote to the and Gregory sent back the Greeks to their own Emperor Michael. the Emperor s Ambassador. to the Apostolic See as their fathers did before the schism. on account of not knowing this we. loaded with presents. country. condemn and hand over to reprobation. The Legates of the Greek Bishops did the same. the Patriarch of Constan- . When Roman Pontiff . to the Doctrines laid down by General Councils or Holy Fathers. The letters of the several Greek Bishops were then read. not as from two principles. Church. or High Chancellor. to the Old or New Testament. and received by the Councils. and. all who presume to deny. The Council closed at last.240 before THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. as from one principle. has always professed. with the approbation of the Sacred Council. and firmly holds and teaches this Doctrine. and to permit the Greeks to observe the when not opposed to Faith. But as some. The Emperor was so highly pleased that all was iso happily concluded. renounced the schism in his name. wishing to prevent undoubted truth. said the Fathers. this is also the true and unchange able opinion of the orthodox Fathers and Doctors. that the Holy Ghost pro ceeds eternally from the Father and the Son. promising that the Emperor never would depart from his Faith and obedience. the schism. with a faithful and devout profession. George Acropolita.We confess. that the Holy Ghost eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son. the Synodical Constitution was promulgated: &quot. have fallen into various errors. not from two spirations. or who dare to assert that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son as from two principles.&quot. Commandments. and not from one. and now the Council having approved and accepted the profession of Faith. to the Divine same rites as before. any from going the same false way in future. the Father and Mistress of all Churches. both of the Latin and Greek Churches. and recognized the Primacy of the Roman he also took an oath. congratulating them on the completion of the Synod. Andronicus. and to his son. celebrated under the spiritual power of the Roman Church.

(31) Nat. 2. banished. 1276. the authorities of all cities King of Sicily. cit. and and towns. a. as long as he was under ban of excommunication. Alex. and forbade all Princes. 2. from having any connexion with him. that all that the Roman Church believes and teaches was confirmed by these Synods. N. a. and the other Greek Bishops. as a supporter of the Greek schism and heresy. and place his son-in-law on it but Roncaglia. that the Greeks. loc. every day more and more separated them selves from the union they had sworn to. 8). the Council (30). 25. that he feared he would be deposed if he tried any further. and even put Ecclesiastics and Nobles. The end of the matter was. Lords.. had sworn to maintain (31). The Emperor wrote another letter. says that the Pope excommunicated the Emperor at the instigation of Charles. and gave up the union he . ex Nicephor. on the authority of two authors. /. Noel Alexander. the successor of John. Ann* 1281. and had John Veccus elected in his to death. according to the rule laid down by the Roman Church and the Emperor Michael and his son Andronicus wrote to the Pope. but that so many outbreaks occurred. . Two Synods were held in Constantinople in the year under Pope John XXL. . who was always opposed give his consent to it. Michael Paleologus. and retire to a Monastery. Alex. (as Raynaldus relates. to Nicholas III. & aliis. in which the Patriarch Veccus. and so many plots were laid against him. (30) Nat. digs. 17. per totum. that he could easily banish him from the throne. professed the Faith. 5. proves that the only reason he could have for doing it was. 6. and he begged of his Holiness not to be angry if he appeared to yield a little in so delicate an affair. under pain of personal excommunication and local interdict. tinople. who hoped that when Michael was by this measure deprived of assistance. he obliged 241 would not now him to renounce his dignity. in his notes on Alexander. in 1278. who refused to receive the decrees of to the union. n.. in 1281. that the Emperor broke faith.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and he imprisoned. with few exceptions.. excommunicated the Emperor. 7. t. and at last Martin IV. and Universities. the successor of Nicholas III. some place. shows that Martin having renewed the excommunication the following year. informing him that he used every means in his power to consolidate the union.

that the promise made by Jesus Christ debated. also. to explain that the Holy Ghost proceeds both from the Father and the Son. and in all things equal Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. till was not confined &quot. and explain that the to. to add anything to the ancient Symbols of the Church. Filioque. several other Greek Bishops. This schism continued for about a hundred and twenty years longer. made lie as. and. he said. Basil Bessarion. and Roman Church desirous of acceding to their wishes. (Matt. they their total destruction.&quot. to explain the two Natures of the same substance The of Christ. and Mark. and from the Son. tures for a re-union with the now threatened now made over once more. Divine and was a mere man . The word. to put an end to the subterfuges of the Arians. seven hundred other distinguished personages. 20). the end of time : Consubstantial. afterwards in Florence. was again &quot. in the Creed at first . and when the plague broke out in that city.. and invited the Emperor. till the year 1439. convoked a Council. who was extremely Ferrara. I am with you all days. the invitation. the Greek Archbishop of Ephesus. for the Almighty permitted the Turks to punish them. and for all that the Council of Nice thought it necessary to add it. other Greek Bishops to attend. and the Patriarch of Constantinople. (32) Spondan. but lasts Behold. n. Mark. Word was the Father. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. The word. was the most strenuous opposer of this addition. it was unlawful. assembled in Florence. were again examined. and the The Emperor John Paleologus. as from one principle. who asserted that the Ann. . 28. ad. against Nestorius. who taught that and against Eutyches. The points of disagreement. human. xxviii. 1438. which was added to the Creed by the Latin Church. the accepted two chief Metropolitans. was not. principally for this object. even to the consummation of the world&quot. in Pope Eugenius IV. an addition to the Nicene Creed. said they. In their distress. from the Council of Lyons. but our Theologians replied. which were the same as those decided on in the Council of Lyons (32). to any period. to assist his Church. Archbishop of Nice. and a hundred and sixty Latin Bishops.242 26. the Patriarchs. Archbishop of Ephesus. after conquering the greater part of their empire. when the Greeks were reduced almost to the last extremity.

ac rationabiliter Symbolo fuisse appositam. therefore. denned rather an explanation. it was then denned that each Priest should follow the custom of his was no doubt that wheaten bread Sarcament. Filium quoque esse secunduni gra3cos quidem causam. quod id quod SS. principle. quod Spiritus Sanctus ex Patre. Patres dicunt ex Patre per Filium procedente Spiritum Sanctum. and the . state of beatitude the just enjoy. : .&quot. suumque esse subsistens habet ex Patre simul et Filio et ex utroque a3ternaliter tanquam ab uno prin. : Diffinimus. Purgatory. Pater ipse unigenito Filio suo gignendo dedit. ipse Filius a Patre a3ternaliter habet. and the Son. that the words. the Divine Nature. Holy words together with the Father. own Church. but That The Council. but the parties soon agreed on this. Son. Diffinimus insuper. et unica spiratione procedit. et imminente tune necessitate. whether 28. declarantes. was the essential matter of the matter of discipline . sicut et Patrem. as from one principle. . not to prove that the ancient Symbols were imperfect. and it was but a whether it was leavened or unleavened and as there of the East or the West. veritatis declaranda} gratia. and that his essence and being is both from the Father and the Son. ut ha3c fidei veritas ab omnibus Christianis credatur. but to declare more clearly the truth of the Faith.&quot. Et quoniam omnia quad Patris sunt. they both mean the same thing. Eucharist in unleavened bread was then discussed. and by one spiration and that this is what the Holy Fathers mean by saying that he proceeds from the Father by the Son and when the Greeks speak of the Son. and from the declaration of the truth ought not to be called an addition. The question of the validity of the consecration of the 27. explicationem verborum illorum Filioque. secundum latinos vero principium subsistentiae Spiritus Sancti. and that he proceeds eternally from both.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 243 Hence they argued were added to the Symbol. and the Latins the Ghost is eternally from the Father . &quot. as the cause. a quo etiam seternalitur genitus est.&quot. . prseter esse Patrem. ut per hoc significetur. the Holy that this truth should be believed by all Christians &quot. of the subsistence of the Here are the Ghost. ad hanc intelligentiam tendit. and that the human was absorbed by &quot. cipio. et Filio seternaliter est et essentiam suam. hoc ipsum quod Spiritus Sanctus procedit ex Filio.

Bernard & 27. the General Resurrection. for as to Purga parties tory. Augustin. and they found their opinion iii. . vel in suis corporibus. (34). (33) Incit. Fidelium vivorum suffragia. in the next life. et omissis. et intueri clare mox in infernum descendere. soon agreed on these points. 1. by punish and that they are relieved by the suffrages of the faithful. Ambrose. Gregory. St. and not of fire . instituta. 3. &quot. the blessed will not have the fulness of beatitude. but does not specify either the penalty of sorrow or of fire and the Council of Trent. but they taught that the stains of sin are there purged away by the penalty Both of sorrow. SS. Serm. . at once which decided that the purged from the stain of sin. om. in on the text of in opposition to the Innovators (33) St. accordingly. though St. 1033. 12). ment. mox recipi. Paul (I. n 1. speaking of the two stoles of (34) S. q. and the Angelic Doctor St. et ut a poenis hujusmodi releventur. . be united with their This. n. Cor. alium alio pro illorum autem animas.&quot.244 previous to THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 29. sunt purgatse. many of the Holy Fathers. and they. St. secundum Ecclsesia The Greeks also accepted the definition of the Council. Thomas. : quae post contractam peccati maculam. in the Twenty-fifth Session. in the Decree on Purgatory. Sogg. vel eisdem exuta3 corporibus (prout superius dictum est). 25. posnitentia? fructibus eorum animas poems pur- mortem prodesse ficia. agreed to the definition of the Council. as I have remarked in my Dogmatic Work on the Council of Trent. et alia pietatis officia.&quot. Illas (Animas} etiam. particulary mention the penalty of fire. 1. Sacri- orationes. that the just enjoy the beatific vision previous to the General This is the Decree Resurrection. &quot. when their souls bodies. t. the same. and especially by the Sacrifice of the Mass. Theologians commonly teach that till after the will General Judgment. Bernard. meritorum tamen diversitate. as St. poems tamen disparibus puniendas. Bede. perfectius vel solo original! decedunt ipsum Deum trinum. the Greeks never denied its existence. was tlien discussed. missarum scil. decided souls are . antequam dignis satis fecerint. qui in actuali mortali peccato. The si following is the Decree of the Council de commissis gatoriis post eis : Item (definimus) vere pcenitentes Dei charitate decesserint. in Ca3lum et unum sicuti est. et eleemosynas. purgari.

but the second immortality and the glory of the body. as is contained in the Acts of the Universal Councils.We define. says the Council. suggested a mode of reconciling both parties. We also renew the order laid down by the Sacred Canons. that the Patriarch of Constantinople should have the second place after the Holy Roman Pontiff. as we The again perverting the Greeks. and that the Pope is the suc cessor of St. this the . admitted that the Pope was the head of the Church. and before the Council was dismissed.AND THEIR REFUTATION. &quot. . has the primacy over the whole world. in St. especially. 245 itself. succeeded in or convoke a General Council without their assent. Jesus Christ. from a superior power. indeed. had not Basil Bassarion. in regard to the other venerable Patriarchs. and govern the Universal Church. by putting in the and to Saving the rights and privileges of the Greeks Greeks at last consented. The Pope. the Patriarch of Alexandria. that the Holy Apostolic See. rule. The first stole is is the happiness and . who were most kindly received by the Pope. and at the same time confessed their subjection to the Roman Church for the very word privilege implies a concession clause: &quot. the Armenians arrived in Florence. and the Roman Pontiff. They were so firm on this point. and shall see. and thus the power of the Pope over all Christian Churches is confirmed.&quot. and the Sacred Canons. the Prince of the Apostles. . the fifth and privileges. his . all their rights Holiness judged it proper to cause a compendium of the whole Christian doctrine to be drawn up. the third and of Jerusalem. the Archbishop of Nice. Greeks. but would not allow that he could receive appeals from sentences passed by the Four Patriarchal Sees of the East. and that full power has been given him by our Lord &quot. Mark greatest dispute was concerning the Primacy of the of Ephesus not only obstinately opposed this its doctrine to the end of the Council. the blessed.&quot. saving 31. says the rest of the soul : &quot. The Armenian Patriarch sent four delegates. Peter. and as they were extremely ignorant. 30. but after conclusion. that there would be no hope of agreement. which they should swear to . for they then maintained their privilege. as their provinces were infected with errors. on the invitation of the Pope. Peter. When all this was concluded. to feed.&quot. and our Father and Doctor. of Antioch. the fourth .

16. the Mother of many Saints and Doctors of the Church. into their wicked Mark of Ephesus. s. and a book of instructions were given them by the Pope. in the chair (35) Card. Berti 5. 134. fallen into a state of deplorable barbarity and wretched slavery (37). Anthony. n. in Concil. of a glorious existence. on the invitation of the Pope. t 4. 2. in 1453. Athanasius. p. the Prester John. was but of short duration. The Greek Church. now lies trampled usurping the place of virtue. Justin. on their return home. sent by the Armenian Patriarch. soldiery slew who profaned the monasteries. This Instruction or Decree was accepted and sworn to. after property. however. Mahomet and gave all it to . obstinately attached to their errors they are of all their . were represented in the Council by the Abbot of St. Bernin. 6. Floren. likewise. by the Armenians. That noble Church that gave to the world. in a word. . H. (36) Kainal. and promised obedience to the Roman Church. also. . and take with them as a rule for their countrymen. again fell back former errors. took Constantinople by sack and slaughter the infuriated up came in their way. and ignorance seated of learning. 2.246 profess. The Jacobites. 263. of that age. pre sented themselves at the Council. t. when he transferred the Council from Florence to Rome (36). and despoiled the wretched inhabitants Thus fell the empire of the East. & ap. that fickle people. assault. 201 . p. cast down the altars. (37) Hermant. for the Greeks. 3. The Ambassadors of the Sovereign of Ethiopia. 1 &2. This peace. and so many under foot. vice other learned and holy Doctors. 5. t. s. and is quoted at length by Cardinal Justinian and Berninus (35). to the present day. Basil. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. par. on account of its separation from the Roman See. c. the slaves of the Turks in their ancient capital. c. 1442. Gregory. has. eleven centuries The Greeks continue. Ann. principally at the instigation of the The chastisement of God soon overtook II.

Manicheism. Ecclesias. They taught. and says. who were considered both holy and learned men. t. They denied the Incarnation and the Passion of Christ. because in that age no new heresy sprung up in the Church but Danseus (1) says. THE HERESIES WHICH SPRUNG UP FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. that all that the Scriptures say about the Trinity and the Creation of the World is mere nonsense. gen. the value of Baptism. pass over the Tenth Century. as the heavens and the earth are from all eternity. so that even the Apostolic See was not exempt from intrusions and expulsions. and the principles of his Heresy. (I) Danes. 10. that. rather. 4. HERESIES OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. coll 2. The first heresy of this century was an offshoot of 1.-The new Nicholites and the Incestuosists. consequently. p. 247 CHAPTER X. a schism did not arise in the Church. not. and was embraced by many persons. 3.-His Condemnation and Relapse. Graveson (2) states the same. tern.-Berengarius. His. 5. which may be called Atheism itself. sec. that . amid so many evils. and.-His Conversion and Death. of the name of Stephen and Lisosius. ARTICLE I. (2) Graveson. We there was both great ignorance and great disunion in the West. and never had a beginning. but especially by two Ecclesiastics. 275. a collection of errors. 1. 3. where it was introduced by an Italian lady.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in France. It was first discovered in Orleans. . or. that it was a great mark of Divine Protection. 2. -Stephen and Lisosius burned for their Errors.

in the next old. p. frequently advised him to follow in every thing the doctrine of the Fathers. Fulbert. and then . They used to burn an infant eight days and preserved his ashes for the Viaticum of the Sick. ver. A haughtiness. and deposed and degraded them. 11. 8. (1) Fleury. 86. who century. shut up in a cabin with several of their followers and burned Nieholites also made their appearance in this These were some clergymen in Holy Orders. and they were then. His master. coll 3 . brought outside the city. s orders. however. 11. and it is one of the prodigies of Divine Mercy. p. Van Ranst.248 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. but took great pride in quibbles. 58. Brev. 2. after so many relapses. went to Orleans himself. well aware of his petulant genius. and a number of Bishops. at once. Van Banst. deeply . c. grounded in the abstruse questions of philosophy. 2. 173. n. sec. by the King alive (1). His. The sect called These taught that Incestuosists also then disturbed the Church. I. 3 . in the end died a true penitent. called Arefastus. to it see that this heretic. The remarkable heresy of Berengarius also sprung up in this century. and his desire of novelty. that good works were life. that while only a scholar he cared but very little for his master s opinions. f. They condemned Matrimony. These Prelates finding Stephen and Lisosius obstinate in their errors. the certain author (3). and strange interpretations of plain words. t. 1. preached that it was lawful for them to marry. and despised altogether anything coming from his fellow-students he was not. sec. Martin. under Fulbert. de Corp. and he. c. or evil ones punished. The new was lawful to contract marriage within the four prohibited degrees of consanguinity (2). Gotti. 1 . sec. 11. was born in the early part of this century. accompanied by the Queen. says. went to prosecute his studies at Chartres. 11. sec. Berti. Berenger. Berti. A Norman gentleman. Graves. 3. & (2) t. 167 . and in communion with the Church. 11. or Berengarius. informed Robert. xti. in Euch. of the practices and doctrines of those wretches. Relig. and denied rewarded. sec. King of France. speaking of his Bishop of that city. Ver. 3. in Tours he first studied in the school of St. (3) Quidmond. & seq. and was received among the trines. 53 3. sec. and to reject all new doc He returned to Tours. t. held a Synod. 55 . c. .

convoked a Council in Rome of 113 Bishops. 3. Fleury. c. the Master of the School. c. and was appointed a He next dignitary. . condemned him in a Synod. accord ing to the form prescribed to him. Leo. sec. At first. Martin. one of own scholars. diss. in the Council of Vercelli. Scotus. In the year 1059. therefore. as the cils to Church was obliged as to summon several Coun condemn it.. and Baronius says. that he first began. the successor of St. t. not sincere in this recantation. 11. he attacked the Sacrament of Matrimony. t. Graves. though Noel Alexander acquits him (5). and was appointed Archdeacon by the Bishop Eusebius Bruno. 87. and swore again never to (4) Nat. held in Florence. 14. likewise. held the same year. Cardinal Gotti. Nicholas II. we shall see hereafter (6). according to Noel Alexander and Graveson (4). about the year 1047. 249 hapter of the Church of St. Alex. Leo IX. 1. and is believed to have been the first who attacked the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist. held under Pope St. Pope and then Berengarius again made his profession of Faith. became Treasurer of the Church. but he took so notice of this. He was condemned. and other dogmas of the Faith but he soon gave up all other questions. 1 2. 2.AND THEIR REFUTATION. . & art. and swore never again to separate himself from the Faith of the Catholic Church but his subsequent conduct proved that he was . sec. It was in Angers. 4. to disseminate his errors. (5) Nat. Eucharist. the Baptism of infants. as it was called. n. and that Council also condemned the book of John He was again condemned in a Council held in Paris. in the year 1055. /. however. that the Bishop Eusebius connived at it. in a Council. who flourished in the ninth century. Roman little Berengarius was first condemned in the year 1050. coll. 4. art.. and confined himself to one alone the denial of the Real Presence of the Body and Blood of Christ in the his . Rel. cit. and then went to Angers. 11. 14. under the reign of King Henry I. In this same year he abjured his errors convinced by Lanfranc that he was wrong in a Council held at Tours. (6) Gotti. 4. 3. sec. wrote a learned treatise on the Eucharist. who. He attacked Paschasius Radbert. 59. in 831. Graves. remarks that Berenger is looked on as the founder of this heresy. Alex. Ver. that he called it the Council of Vanity. t. t. and Victor II. 2. 8. and held up to admiration John Scotus Erigena. loc. t. 65.

the and in defiance of the Church of Rome. t. : appear to me either to show me mercy To-day Jesus Christ shall on account of my repentance. I fear. convoked a Council. 1080.250 deviate from it. and in a Council. loc. considered himself obliged to adopt extreme measures. (10) Villel. when Berengarius returned to France. 9. /. and threw his own works. 31. cit. Angl. 63. into a great fire. William of Malmesbury (10) says. of one hundred and fifty Bishops. . held at Bordeaux. 3. t. Alexander II. St. near Tours.. Mercy the grace of a true conversion. which was lighted in the midst of the on his return to France. at the age of nearly ninety years. Alex. but even sent him a dis . sec. (8) Mabillon. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. excommunicated him and all his followers. therefore. paternally admonished him by letter but he not only obstinately held out. he again retracted his confession by another writing (8) but in the year following.&quot. not alone by the sign and virtue of a Sacrament. successor of Nicholas. loc. retractation for nearly eight years. pref. Maurilius. 6. art. by the mystery of Sacred Prayer and the words of our Redeemer. Finally. 5. (7) Fleury. was confirmed. in 1079. 60 . &c. and in the year 1088. and the Decres of this Council were confirmed by another. N. for having led 62. de rebus. 3. but by the truth of sub trine &quot. Cosmas. took an oath to the following effect bread and wine placed on the altar are substantially converted into the true Flesh and Blood of Jesus Christ. after spending these eight years in retirement in the island of St. 9. /. 40. in 1075. (7). retracted this last work of his. doing penance for his sins (9). and even wrote a book in defence of his heresy. Still he was unchanged again relapsed. to put an end to the scandal altogether. he died a true penitent. Gregory VII. confessing himself con I confess that the vinced. in Rome. Notwithstanding all this. held in 1063. in com munion with the Church. or. he obtained from the Divine .. Archbishop of Rouen. /. Gotti. cit. 17 (9) Fleury. and in a Council. n. and Berengarius. to punish me. n. Berengarius exclaimed. that when about to die. perhaps. and : those of John Scotus. he Council. held respectful answer. s. . and confirmed the and he survived this last profession of faith he made at Rome . Malmesb. in which the Catholic doc in Poictiers. 2. remembering all the just perversions his heresy had caused &quot. n. : stance.

may tells be reduced to First He rejected the baptism of infants till He rejected altars they came to the use of reason. Cum.. Fifth He rejected prayers and suf stroyed. 7. lO. and said they should be de prohibited the veneration of the Cross. apostatized. -The Petrobrussians. The Petrobrussians made their appearance at this time . different 17. &c. 6. 18. Poor Men of Lyons. Second and churches. Anthony Pagi. p. under Innocent II. (2) Graves.~Folmar. and his Errors concerning the Trinity. and. demnation.&quot. Mabillon. These Peter. Abbot of Cluny (1). these errors were condemned in the Third Canon of the Council of Toulouse.-Causes a 15. others astray.-Peter Abelard. at which Pope Celestine II. who died in their sins. that frages for the dead. who. -Gilbert and is burned alive. t. Noel Alexander. and the sacra rejected ment of the Eucharist. Third He Fourth He It is very likely. 1120.-Their particular Errors. presided.-Their condemnation.-His particular Errors. assert that his repentance was sincere. sec. HERESIES OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. and several other authors. 12. 2. Antoninus. 251 St. and that he never relapsed during the many a remarkable exception to so last years of his life other heresiarchs. and fled to the province of Aries. and the Conversion. his Errors . . they were followers of a Monk.Arnold of Brescia.AND THEIR REFUTATION.-His con 9. about the year 1118. 14. -Peter Waldo and his Followers under denominations Waldenses. and the Abbot Joachim Apostolicals and the Bogomiles. Tanquelinus. Graveson. his Errors and condemnation. coll. Peter of Bruis. in the year 1119. 12. the sacrifice of the Mass. 3. -His Conversion and Death. and condemnation. -Henry. de la Force . tired of the restraint of the cloister. 6. 13. 8. and that they were again condemned in the Second Council of Lateran. ARTICLE II. Sedition. It is the opinion of (1) Bibli. began us : to preach his errors in five heads. and his Disciples. 11. Hist. as that neighbourhood. 16. De Bellay. Graveson says (2).

that Peter of Bruis was a follower of the Manichean doctrine . s. art. Alex. Fleury. and abandoned him (6). the Priests. his eloquence soon drew crowds after him. 79. some say an his place. c. he sent two of his disciples. Alex. esteemed for his learning and piety. Giles. made use of flesh-meat. roasted at it. He had a horrible death. 24. . 4 Gotti. and they obtained leave for him to preach in that city. if the principal people of the The Bishop city had not opposed these violent proceedings. the churches. and he so excited the fury of the populace against the priests. cit. but the Arch bishop of Aries got him into his power some time after. and making a great fire with them. so he banished him from his Diocese. a Provenceal (5). . After the death of this unfortunate man. a cane with an iron cross on the top. and venerated both the Old and New Testaments. in the Diocese of Nismes. Bernard describes (Epis. cit. . 7. 12. 2. and next to Toulouse. and received two of his disciples. c. where he St. the Sacra- (3) Nat. cit. N. 69. t. Rel. that they looked on them as excommunicated. (5) Gotti. especially in the Diocese of Mans but before he proceeded to that city himself. took and about the year 1142. art. the Festivals. loc. t. c. n. principally added to his followers. Graves. collected together a great number of crosses on Good Friday. When he began to preach. and sentenced him to be burned alive (4). n. others named Henry. and would have burned down their dwellings. (6) Nat. whose eyes were opened to his errors. Ildebert himself. Ver. he first went to Poictiers. sec. Alex. the ruinous consequences that ensued from his preaching 241) . some. another Monk. /.252 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 7. was not allowed to pass free by Henry s followers. in that city. from the Bishop Ildebert. and on that account highly disseminated his errors most extensively in several places. because he baptized with water. in the town of St. which the Manicheans rejected. cit. sec. 89. (4) Gotti. 4. and added new errors to those of his master. bearing. 14. n. but Noel Alexander and Cardinal Gotti (3) are of the contrary opinion. he caused a great quantity of meat to be all He and distributed it to his followers. After his banishment from Mans. Italian. like himself. and even stoned them to death. 10. loc. loc. cit. 1. increased the numbers of the He was sect. 2. robbed them of their property. 24.

10. not have any longer an opportunity of preaching his heresy (8). I. spent the night in houses of ill fame. he sent thither. 242). (8) Nat. 22. went after him and preached likewise. . The Saint still continued to follow his traces. still idle one. as Legate. 253 ments. he says &quot. St. who. Alberic. 67. unprofitable. that he fre quently. and St. Bernard. in 1147 (Ep. the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia. : thank God that our sojourn among you was not an although we tarried but a short time with you. and it is supposed that he was by him. by his sermons. in case it was his wish to retire and do penance (7) but the unfortunate man always shunned him. He even adds. cit. as Noel Alexander. and all holy things. and our presence was not 8. t. that he might that he would receive . condemned to perpetual imprisonment. and that so great was his depravity. The Legate. Alex. con verted many from their evil ways.. Godfrey. n. three leagues from Nantes. and put in chains into the fallen by him. loc. the niece of Fulbert. and accordingly. in his Epistle We to the people of Toulouse. to bury his shame and regret in the Abbey of St. but the disastrous consequences of an theology intrigue with Heloise. people died without confession. He soon got tired of the life of the cloister. and he took along with him. tells us. published a sentence of excommuni cation against all holding or with their protectors. n. and Baptism was refused to children. and without the Viaticum. drove him from the world. were treated with supreme contempt. and he retired. and took the monastic habit at the age of forty years (9). Eugene III. conferences. Bernard promised Henry himself him as a Monk into Clairvaux. and generally re-converted those who had He was taken at last. a Canon of Paris. and he. Bishop of Chartres. Alberic. hands of the Bishop. (7) Fleury. learned that the number of the heretics was daily increasing in Toulouse. and wherever he went and preached. and went to the territories of the Count of Champagne. 25. 9. Denis. after preaching in the day. When the Pope. (9) Fleury. At first he taught philosophy and with great credit.&quot. and miracles. any communication with the Henricians. delivered him up to the Legate Apostolic.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in the village of Palais. that Henry himself shamelessly spent what he got at his sermons at the gaming-table. Peter Abelard was born in 1079.

out of respect for the Pope. instead of answering. loc. but Abelard. requesting him to confirm their condemnatory sentence by his authority. Medard of Soissons. but though Abelard promised amendment. they did not condemn Abelard in person but St. 1140. St.254 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and begged the Archbishop to summon the Saint to the Council. 1. (12) Fleury. and was there he published his book. book into the fire with his own hands. (11) Floury. book were false and heretical. travene it (11). 7. He produced Abelard s book in the assembly. cit. and was then given into the keeping of the Abbot of St. n. appealed to the Pope previous to the delivery of the sentence. 21. Sin fine. 15. when this came to his knowledge. 61. Alex. there was no change. the 2nd of June. and to punish all who would presume to con St. cit. repugnance. and the Pope not only condemned the writings of Abelard. without giving him any pain Palestrina. filled with several errors concerning His work was condemned by Conon. it and opened a school which soon became celebrated. St. /. Alex. Alex. t. t. Nat. and excommunicating all who would attempt to defend him (12). n. and obliged to cast the 1121. and then forwarded an account of the whole proceedings to Inno cent II. and knowing that there was soon to be a Council at Sens. 68. 67. in a Council held in Soissons in and Abelard was summoned there. judging that the Council would be opposed to him. they condemned these. Abelard continued for eighteen years teaching theology and works tainted with various errors. Bernard was privately speaking against his works. who received orders to keep him in close custody in a Monastery (10). 10. and left the meeting. Bernard. imposing perpetual silence on him as a heretic. Bernard having proved that many propositions Though . 10. 1. in the (10) Fleury. c. Bishop of the Trinity. loc. promising publicly to defend called his writings. Nat. Nat. still. Bernard wrote to the same effect to Innocent. but his person likewise. . n. endeavoured to get him to change his sentiments. he on the Archbishop.. diss. a. . and quoted the errors he marked in it. and complained that St. the Bishops did not consider his appeal canonical. art. 62. attended on the appointed day. his Bernard at first refused but finally conquered and although not prepared for the dispute. Notwithstanding all this. Pope s Legate. the .

and returned to Clugni. St. ex: Ep. Abbey receive for the remainder of his all his life. Fleury. art. and leading a life of edification. Second That the describe the plenitude of the Supreme Good. The following errors were attributed to Peter Abelard 12. Ber nard. eternal happiness (13). 3. Graveson (15) says that Abelard asserted in his Apology that these errors were falsely attributed to (13) Nat. cit. and he died there on the 21st of April. and to remain in that . Marcellus. but Third That the Son that the Holy Ghost has not any power. and Holy are improperly attributed to God. & (1) Fleury. he had a meeting with Peter the Venerable. became reconciled to St. and went to enjoy. (15) Graveson. wearing the habit of the Convent. coll. if two years. others. Alex. and that they only Ghost.. sec. Abelard wrote to the Pope. but not the fault of original sin. Son. to go of air to the Priory of St. Ber The Abbot of Clugni joined his entreaties to those of his nard. Father has a plenary power. he resolved to abandon his appeal. and retract the errors this holy Doctor charged him with. and even gave lessons to the Monks but he was .AND THEIR REFUTATION. Alex. said that the is He Holy Ghost is not Fourth That we of the substance of the Father and the Son. n. 255 Abelard was on his way to Rome to prosecute his appeal. in Burgundy. Seventh That no sin is committed with of the substance of the Father. Fifth That Jesus Christ. Bernar. 5. but that the desire or with delectation. First : names of the Father. The Abbot offered to the Pope had no objection. 11. cit. on account of a heavy fit of sickness. 61. him by the ignorance or malice of art. He lived there for him with heart. we hope. is not a third person of the Trinity. . and being there informed that the condemnation of the Council was confirmed by the Pope. loc. but happening to pass by Clugni. the Son a certain power. t. and then became an inmate of the Abbey of Clugni. Sixth That mankind derives from Adam the penalty alone. for change obliged. brother of Citeaux. loc. the 63rd of his age. the Abbot of that Monastery. and persuaded him to go and see St. who came on purpose to reconcile him with St. as God and man. 12. or with ignorance (14). and obtained his consent. and with the Abbot of Citeaux. 3. 12. Bernard. in the year 1142. can do good without the assistance of grace. Abelard yielded at last he went to Citeaux.

68. Rel. 55. Pelagian. charged by his Bishop and others. Graveson and Alexander justly remark. art. Bishop of Poictiers. t. would be damned who possessed estated property the Priests who held property also and the Bishops who were in possession of lordships or feudalties would share the same fate the Clergy. When Arnold heard of this sentence. says &quot. 3. and the Council condemned and imposed perpetual silence on him (18). Bishops. c. he fled to Zurich. /. as he repented and abjured them. 2. 90. but his principal declamations were against Monks. Alex. held in 1139. therefore. (16) Gotti. He then returned to and to gain an opinion of sanctity. Baron. Gotti. . before the Second Council of Lateran. But then the autho rity of St. His sentiments profound. He was more flippant than and always attached to new opinions. took the monastic Brescia. c. Priests. the Decrees of the Council. so that at one time he seems an Arian. s. Nat. and he was. Arnold. cit. 14. and Berenger. There is no doubt but that he rendered speaking of him. 12. and the Pope.. (18) Fleury. 17) Nat. next a Mace donian. also wrote an Apology in defence of his master. one of his disciples. now a heresy altogether retractation. Alex. Ver. 10. cit.&quot. cum seq. 1. began to preach and dogma tize against the truth of the Faith. Those Monks. regarding Baptism and the Eucharist were not Catholic. that although Abelard may undoubtedly have been the author of those heretical propositions. t. 11. 8. The effect of his sermons of this nature was to cause the Clergy of Brescia and the neigh bouring cities to be despised and contemned by the people. then a Sabellian. he said. about the year 1138 (17). this century. of the city of Brescia. by Pope Innocent II.256 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. habit. in the Diocese of Constance. should have more weight with us than these Apologies. s. and frequently a founder of a new but he finally wiped away all stains by his . s. n. . : himself suspected in explaining the Articles of the Faith. Bernard. and was infected with his master s errors. loc. that he cannot be called a Cardinal Gotti (16) heretic. Ann. and did a great deal of . . in Italy. still. & loc. and. lived also in He went to study in Paris under Abelard. he said. t. 1140. 13. and the con demnation of Innocent II. should live on the tithes and oblations of the people alone. 3.

He went about saying that the dignity of the Senate and the Order of Knights should be re-established. and blew up the year of the Pontificate of Eugenius III. the world. 146). 148 . tore down some of the houses of the nobility and Cardinals. Nicholas. In the first Arnold went to Rome. and maltreated. cit. was at first a Canon of that city. 10. and when he went to Rome he was met by three Cardinals. and afterwards its Bishop. in the into the pagna. in 1155 (20). and they. . & . and even wounded. Gotti. cit. loc. as his power was spiritual alone. then King of the Romans. loc. Bernard heard this. Fleury. he was so taken with logical subtleties. Cardinal of St. supported by the nobles of the When St. and that the Pope had no right to the government of Rome. he would be allowing the plague to infect some other place. demanded that Arnold should be delivered up to Frederic gave him up at once. and his ashes cast into Pope s them. n. he was taken prisoner by Gerard. besides that. as (19) Nat.AND THEIR REFUTATION. coals of a sedition already enkindled. loc. 15. While Arnold was stirring up this sedition. and to put him in prison. he wrote to the Bishop country. His. the Tiber. putting him on his guard in like manner. He also wrote to Guido.. 1145. 195). (20) t. in 1141. a native of Poictiers. Alex. he was burned to death in public. and name.. of Zurich (Epis. that when he afterwards applied himself to scholastic theology. as the Pope had commanded. 257 harm there. as the austerity of his life gave authority to his words. Such was the end of this disturber of Rome and of Van Ranst calls him. some of them (19). 69. with whom it was said Arnold had taken refuge (Epis. cit. Gotti. 70. exhorting him to be on his guard against so dangerous a character. t. sent to him by Adrian IV. because if lie rested satisfied with only banishing him out of his own Diocese. p. which was then just beginning to be developed. Fleury. 14. and according to the sentence passed on him by his judges. the Pope s Legate. and he was. Gilbert de la Poree. rose up against the authority of the Prefect of Rome. I Nat. excited by these discourses. but was rescued fell by the Viscounts of the Cam- hands of Frederic Barbarossa. The Romans. From the very first day he began to study philosophy. /. and he was brought back to Rome. Alex. 10. Van Ranst 10. n. /. .

Norbert. c. He. and condemned Gilbert s doctrine. 4. Man under the appearance of bread. the blood alone of Jesus Christ was received under the appearance of wine. 12. and that Baptism is He was charged received alone by those predestined to glory. Other heretics disturbed the peace of the Church in this One of these was Folmar. lived also he fell into some errors regarding the Trinity. Alex. The Synod was accordingly held.258 he wished to THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 4. c. not the bones or the members. and he also said that in the mystery of the Trinity. judge every thing by the rules of philosophy. . and the flesh alone. 14. and returned with honour to his Diocese (21). and St. incarnate. He said that the Divine Essence was not God. ordered his accusers to have the whole affair investigated in a Council in Paris. 3 . but the flesh alone of the Son of Man. an Abbot in Calabria. and and to use them as a standard for the articles of the Faith . with these errors in the year 1145. t. in this century he denied that in a treatise he wrote against Peter Lombard the three Divine Persons are one and the same as the Divine Nature. Graveson His. in which a Council was held in Rheims. and was not instituted by Christ. 12. Tanquelinus taught that the reception of the Holy Eucharist was of no avail for salvation. to whom the complaint was made. 12. and that the proprietors of the Persons are not the Persons themselves that the Divine Nature did not become . (23) Nat. Eccles. loc. s. and that it was not the Son of that was received. (21) Nat. sec. at which the Pope . soon retracted. however. t. but it was afterwards purged from this heresy by St. and strenuously combated his errors but nothing was decided till the following year. Fleury. t. he said that in the Eucharist. ar. I 69. and abjured his errors in a letter he wrote to the Bishops of Bavaria and Austria (22). was who were two of his own Archdeacons.. 12. . but only the Person of the Son. founder of the Premonstratensians and Archbishop of Magdeburg (23). cit. and Pope Eugenius III. (22) Nat. 16. 10. Principal of the Church of century. and that the ministry of Priests and Bishops was of no value. t 3. in Franconia . ar. s. Trieffenstein. 9. Joachim. . reconciled to his accusers. He at himself attended. coll. once bowed to the decision of the Pontiff. a. abjured his errors. 14. 6. hence the origin of his errors. 23. Bernard attended. n. Alex. He infected the city of Antwerp.

the successor of would not have him considered as a heretic (24). essence generates essence. Alex. t. and began to explain the New Testament to his The Clergy immediately followers. Tritheism of John Philiponus. 81). 14. t. Fleury. l. however. cit. that Peter Waldo. Alex. who dropped dead in the presence of a great many people. o treatise the three Persons with the in three Natures. and give the . insinuating 259 by that. 3 Van. s. 13. iv. 55. persuaded himself that he was called on to (24) Graves. Joachim. and became his followers. 214. . This was condemned the in celebrated by Innocent III. according to learning. so Honorius Innocent. who taught that there are three Natures in the Trinity. 11. Coll. to investigate the history of the Waldenses.3. We have now -ZV. Fourth Council of Lateran. *. /. c t. (25) N. 12. and that they were envious of his exemplary life and Such is the origin of the Waldenses. /. on the occasion of the sudden death of a great personage in Lyons. (26) Floury. 73. 77. and even bound . his writings to the III. though the licentiousness of showed what little regard they had for that angelic We have already spoken of the Bogomiles (Chap. price to the poor. 93. in which our Lord tells us that we should sell our goods. f. that sum of money to the poor. con founding. themselves by a their lives vow of chastity. 11. telling his followers that they (the Clergy) were both ignorant and corrupt. began to preach his heresy in the year 1160. and Gotti (26) but Graveson gives another Fleury. they condemned marriage. c. but he set them at defiance. Peter Waldo. s. or. account (27) he says. treating of the heresy of the Messalians. had all previously died in 1201. 12. took up arms against him. 3. fied at the occurrence. . p. n. Gotti.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Alexander. Nat. Ranst. 1. (27) Graves. He was a man of some learning. He was so terri he immediately distributed a large and a great many people joined him out of devotion. that each Divine This was a renewal of the Person has a particular essence. Coll. 4. Matthew. 3. having either heard or read the 19th chapter of the Gospel of St. 2. infected with the Eutychian heresy.. 46. art. and submitted judgment of the Church. the founder of the sect of the Waldenses. The Apostolicals also infested the Church about this time among other errors. 12. . loc. 3. Berti. c. and taught several errors. . 17. t. 11. n. 1215. virtue (25)..

which they wore. . or good men. 2. Bulgarians. with a cross cut on the top. enumerated by Rainer from the parent stock.260 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. that in the diocese of Poictiers alone. they had forty. tion the principal ones here. or Insabatists. as they were not paid in the primitive Church. either sanctity and regularity of life from the peculiar shoe or sandal. Bons Cathari. festivals (29). ought not to be paid. & Nat. Alex. renew the Apostolic life. Lombards. Arnaldists. densian. they said. ar. the Bishops. and in a little time the sect became so numerous. was of no use to infants. sold his patrimony. and Lollards. fell very many errors. as they followed the Apostles and the Gospel in The Pope. they said. and. They only believed in two Sacraments. on the contrary. from the city whence they originated Picards. loc. they said. quoted by Noel Alexander. from the purity of heart they Hommes. from the different sects that sprouted out . We will only men The Roman Church. Josepeists. from Peter Waldo Lionists. From these seats of iniquity sprung several sects. cit. s. Alex. and joined him many others followed their example. They rejected (30) Nat. according to them. which Ranier. and led a life of poverty himself. Sabbatists. Dominick. (29) Graves. or because they rejected the celebration of the . various names . and Baptism. Sylvester. Tithes errors. cit. loc. Pharisees. failed in the time of Pope St. cit. and became a The distinguished member of the Order of St. the name of John. enumerates (30). Opuse cle Hoeret. and accordingly sold his property. provinces they overran from Doctors of the sect . Sabbath and other 18. loc. likewise. joined the Catholic Church. (28) Rainer. he forsook them. Bohemians. who for seventeen years was a Walbut his eyes at length being opened to their impiety. (28). or Poor Men of Lyons. Baptism and the Eucharist. and the Religious. terrified at the sudden death already spoken of. took they were called Waldenses. was the head of all holding no possessions. A priest falling into mortal sin. seq. a good power of giving absolution. gave A person of all to the poor. and that they alone were the true Church. from their apparent . one schools. when it entered into the into The Waldenses possession of temporal property. boasted of. & . 13. Scribes. lost the power of absolving and layman has the consecrating.

c.. Anti-Pope. sprung from the 19. Cross even the dispensations of the Church. Indulgences..-The Albigenses and their Errors. 1. The heretics called the Albigenses.-Sentence of the Fourth Council of Lateran.&quot. by Peter.AND THEIR REFUTATION.St. (3. they are condemned.. Cardinal and Legate of the Pope in the Third General Council of Lateran. 3. says. 7. a contemporaneous author. Coll. in 1178 . t. in the Synod of Tours. 20. because they first spread themselves in the territory of the city of Albi. -Conferences held with them. and all the ceremonies of the Roman They abhorred Holy Images and the sign of the to . the Constitution of Gregory IX. 19. HERESIES OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. and were so called. . or that part of Narbonic Gaul called Albigensum. in which the Dogma . in which all the heretics of all excommunicamus. 3. Waldenses. (2) Graves. denned in opposition to their Tenets. (1) Nat. 1. in the Fourth General Council of Lateran. 2. denied the distinction between mortal and venial and said it was unlawful to take an oath. that almost all (31) Nat. and subsequently in the province of Toulouse (1). in which he victorious. 22. ment. Amour and his Errors. 5. Dial. made their appearance in this century. in &quot. 29. and 261 commanded Church. .-Glorious death of the Count. even in judg These heretics were first condemned by Alexander III. is 23. Caesar Heistcrb. Synod of Lombes. -They create an 21. Mirac. loc.-Glorious Labours of St. 26. Alex. the above-named sects are anathematized (31). ARTICLE III. and Destruction of the Albigenses. ar. that Cesar ius (3). 1215 and finally. in 1179 . and his stupendous 24. s.-The Fratricelli and their Errors. c. -The Flagellants and their 30. Cap.~The Corruption of their Morals. the reign of Innocent III. but it was so strong in the year 1198. 28. 16. s. is Heresy William de Errors. cit. 27 Amalric and his the Errors added by his Disciples . . Alex. and their Obstinacy. Graveson (2) says that the impurities of all other heresies was This sect was in existence previous to joined in this one sect. in one held in Toulouse . 12. 3. Diss. 25. in 1175 or 1176 in the in 1163 sin. the fasts be observed. condemned by John XXII. in .-Crusade under the command of Count Montfort. Miracles. Dominick. 15 de Herat.

(5) Nat. the author of the Old Testament. enumerates several others. and that Penance was of no use. Second They taught that there were two Gods. rejecting the Old. Third Fourth have the qualities required by the Apostles and that they have no power in the Sacraments or in Divine things. Seventh That churches should not be dedicated to God or the Saints. . unless they of all visible things. stitions . and that no one could be saved nothing in that state. . /. ad. Epit. likewise. with They : quoted by our Lord. and the Mass are nothing more than super that the Fathers of the Old Testament were all . and still their morals were most corrupt. Ann. That matrimony was more than concubinage. that the souls of fell men . sis(6) horrifies us (4) Spondan. and spirits to the Virgin Mother of God. 1181. besides these errors. Noel Alex (5). a term they blasphemously applied we dread to make use of. First Spondanus gives the following list of their errors (4) received the New Testament alone. should pay tithes to them. at all. loc. the author of the the exception of the passages . as . s. and that . the pure grain of the Faith of the people was turned into tares. Alex. and his renounced all Catholic Doctors. theft. are no other than the rebellious that there was no purgatory. Sixth That no one should obey either Bishops or Priests. 2. Orders. and that it was quite sufficient to confess to any one ander St. 3. therefore. They said that Baptism was useless That an unworthy Priest had not power Fifth to consecrate the Eucharist. and usury were quite common among 20. they. cheating. the creator of man. and joined the Catholic Church. They led most horribly immoral lives. who from heaven Lucas Tudenwhat he heard from some of by recounting them who forsook the sect. when asked for an account of their Faith. and the Creator of all invisible things the bad one. Baron. and . Confirmation. and that no one. Murder. damned that John the Baptist was a demon that the Roman Church is the harlot of the Apocalypse that the resurrection of the body is all a lie that the Sacraments are all false. Adv. cit. and Apostles. a good and a bad one the good one. (6) Lucas Tuden.262 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. either to the poor or to churches. Albig. the faithful are not bound to pray or to give alms. New Testament. . to infants. and that the Eucharist. they said they were not bound to answer.

necessary to have recourse not alone to preach ing. .AND THEIR REFUTATION. The Bishop of Osma and some other Prelates held another conference with the Albi genses in Pamiers. and threw it from the walls into the ranks of the besiegers. 94. Eel. The Holy Bishop joined them.&quot.. their neighbours. . Ver. they indecently defiled a book of the Gospels. and the heretics were so confounded that the judge of the conference. they proceeded on foot to preach to the heretics. in the Diocese of fifteen days in presence o They disputed chosen for the purpose. are depraved from their childhood and the infants imbibe the most pernicious errors with their mothers . to no father in particular. go about making others as bad as themselves. preaching and disputing with the heretics. among Among the other proofs of their impiety. Cesarius (7) tells us. the Bishop of Osma. judges but the judges being favourable to the heretical party. suppressed the sentence. 263 them. from the universal depravity. and more followed his example every day (8). the women. t. amidst a shower of arrows. : 21. . and without attendance or money. appointed Apostolic Legates by Innocent III. wretches. The old people. of the most horrible description the nearest relatives had no regard to the decencies . to it therefore. persuasion. but The Albigenses laboured to gain proselytes not alone by by force of arms likewise and the Catholics. &quot. belonging of life. milk . found gether with their Abbot. Cistercian monks. 3. are blasphemous and cruel . / 5. c. crying out Behold your law. wickedness . for The preachers remained in the city to instruct the and supported themselves by begging from door to door. Peter of Castlenau and Rodulph. the young ripe for every says. the children. without shame or modesty. and of their first conference Osma was held in Montreal. together with. abjured his The errors. above all. a nobleman of the city. Arnold. de Demon. that when they were besieged by the Catholics in Bessiers. people. were the first to oppose them. but their impurities were. and the heretics were convinced. and would not even give up the acts of the dispu Carcasonne. like the Apostles. spread themselves through the country. tation.. 2. (7) Caesar. The Abbot of Citeax and twelve of his Monks. but were obliged to summon the power of the Prince to their aid. he or the very laws of nature itself. (8) Gotti.

Vicar. (9^ Fleury. 2. and was the chief adviser of the He appointed another person of the same name as his heretics. One of them. Peter de Valle Sernai. and excommunicated his murderers and all their accom orders to the Bishops of the Provinces of Aries plices. according to Van Ranst. /. to bring back the strayed sheep to the fold of the Catholic Church. Nat. and says he had it from the man himself heretics. 60. cit. but the Almighty soon put Bishops. he instituted the Order of Preachers. while the Legate was passing the Rhone. He resided on the borders of Dalmatia and Bulgaria. and sent two of his servants to accompany him. pardon me. nothing was decided on in the interview . 76. n. .&quot.&quot. cit. 1223. &quot. and. but Cistercian. t. 11. an. and he took up his residence in the territory of Toulouse. the Count even uttered threats against him when he was about to take his departure. a stop to all by the death of the anti-Pope (11). both writing. of his death. Gotti. Gotti. Count of Toulouse. when informed as I pardon you. headed. Servant of the Servants of the Holy This Vicar pretended to consecrate health. ters. son. &quot. having found excommunicate Raymond. . Peter at once felt that the wound was mortal. (10) Parisius. 36 . 78. Nat. Albig. Anglic. &quot. Ser. Alex. and gave and Narbonne and the neighbouring territories again to excom municate the Count of Toulouse (9). the necessary to . n. according to GraveAlbigenses. and God confirmed his exertions by miracles. 11. of the He was engaged nine years.&quot. ran him through with God a lance. loc. It is of St. now time to speak of the glorious labours who may justly be called the exterminator Dominick. /. and regulate the Church (10).264 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Peter of Castlenau. Alex.. or seven. Pope Innocent.7. said he. (11) Fleury. He attended the Bishop of Osma at the conference he held with the by preaching and and was a most strenuous opponent of their errors. loc. it Pope s Legate. (12) Pat. 23. N. cit. Vallis. Hist. and died shortly after. A few years after the Albigenses elected a person of the 22. Faith. the chief favourer of the heretics. relates the following miracle. c. s. t. loc. declared him a martyr. name of Bartholomew. was summoned before him to clear himself from charges laid against him he went accordingly. His. cit. a Cistercian Monk (12). an anti-Pope. loc. in battling with them. finally. . to N. and sent round to all the neighbouring cities his Principal s let Bartholomew.

therefore. inspired into the flames . Three times it was cast into the fire. and the result was the same. that is a proof that our faith is the true one. . . we must believe the Catholic Faith. Do. con it necessary at last to call on the Catholic princes to free the Church from these enemies. immediately cast his paper the heretics also threw in theirs. But for all that they agreed to keep the whole affair a secret. Gotti. minick. to the Con ference their profession of Faith. somewhat inclined to the Catholic Faith. to the other princes of that kingdom. St. said he. cit. Ver Kel. and gave his leisure. (14) Gotti. and with the same effect.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in Fois. and he told it to a great many persons (13). All were surprised them suggested that the experiment should be tried again among it was done so. who every day became more powerful. cap. . and each party agreed to bring. while the Saint s remained intact on the top of the burning coals. and especially of Ray 24. wrote to Philip. 94. sidered Pope Innocent III. by the Almighty. however. it to one of the heretics to peruse them at round a fire The next evening several Albigenses were seated considering it. Count of Toulouse. after lying there . to a formal dispu tation. in 265 whose possession the paper was. however. under the protection of several princes.. which was im mediately burned to ashes. St. mond. it leaped out but one of the most incredulous All agreed . and. the paper was cast some time. c. 3. and leave the judgment to God. said the heretic a third time it was tried. and. when one of them proposed to throw the paper into the fire. 16. and remained as obstinate as before. therefore. challenged the heretics. Neither miracles nor missions had any effect on the Albigenses. into the flames. in writing. and Alex. Try it a third. t. t. and the principal arguments in The Saint laid down his document the heretics support of it. 3. c. and (13) Nat. did the same they then proposed that each paper should be thrown into the fire. loc. Dominick wrote down the texts he cited on a sheet of paper. After the conference of Montreal. King of France. and if it burn. God wrought another more he public miracle through his servant. and always came forth untouched by the flames (14). near Carcasonne . 2. unscorched. but should that not be the case. There was a soldier pre sent. in one of his sermons.

He was told that the enemy were but he armed. t. sec. The Count broke through the ranks. died gloriously. The Albigenses numbered a hundred thousand. like Judas Maccabeus. feint. the Crusaders only twelve hundred. Count Montfort. are still extant (16). Alex. 4. among whom was the King of Arragon. 25. and recommend himself and his cause to God. The letters written by the French Bishops to all the Churches of Christendom. 4. sec. concealed in the trenches . and without loss of time. and singled out the King he charged him with his lance. on the occasion of this glorious and stupendous victory. that at first they wavered. cit. at the second siege of Toulouse. encouraged by this success. loc. and granting them the seme indulgences as were granted to those who put on the cross for the liberation of the Holy Land. 3. 4. This bull was published and immediately a great number of soldiers not only from France but elsewhere. but turned on the vanguard of the enemy. and Count Montfort was advised not to risk an engage We are numerous enough. cit c. Gotti. and his Esquire immediately dispatched the fallen Monarch. s. as if God. 33 : Coll. . s. and finally took to flight.&quot. bodies. . Bernin.266 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 3. and went to the church to hear Mass. The enemy was panic-struck with the King s death. with only a loss of six or seven persons to the Catholics (15). and God for and made a us. and attacked them with such fury. &quot. Graveson. gonese twenty thousand fell that day. after so many glorious actions in de fence of the Faith. t. but Montfort. calling on them to take up arms for the extermination of these heretics. 1 . While he was hearing Mass. seized the King with the other. likewise to the Bishops and faithful. (16) Rainald Ann 1213. n 60. and unhorsed him. enrolled themselves in this Crusade under the command of Count Simon of Montfort. he was informed that the people of (15) Nat. loc. 13. gave orders to his three small divisions to unite. and fled in every direction. : about to march on Toulouse. attacked the main body of the enemy. . and the Crusaders cut them down almost without It is said that between the Albigenses and the Arraopposition. parrying the blow with one hand. He divided his small army into three Montfort. for we fight for ment but he said in 1210.

78. and having taken the city of Toulouse. as Peter de Valle Sernai (18) calls him. Vallises. prosecuted the war.. 26. St. let us proceed. dismissed him. &quot. (17) Fleury. after a siege of three months. cit. Paris. sec. that he would use all his power to extirpate the Albigensian heresy in his territory. heretics. to recommend himself to God and the when his spirit fled. at Montilly. and several other strong places besides. as he said. cit. cit. Gotti. (18) Pet. on the conditions prescribed to him by the King and the Pope s Legate. : Now salvation. loc. and in the year 1236 took Avignon from the enemy. 267 Toulouse were attacking the troops who had charge of the be but he refused to move until. 86. c. These heretics having been previously condemned in par Avignon. the principal one of which was. Louis VIII. visible and invisible. This was on the 25th of After the death of this great champion of the Lord. in that there was one universal prin opposition to these heretics. Montpelier. loc. saying After the Sacred Host.AND THEIR REFUTATION. L 11. dwindled away by degrees.. (20) Nat. said he. for us. Louis IX. as Graveson tells us (19). the young Count Ray mond for his wicked father met with a sudden death signed a treaty of peace.&quot. but he I want to see my Redeemer. and die. thus deprived of all assistance. but he approached too near to the engines. /. and seen came in haste to tell &quot. Another messenger him that his troops were giving way. him who died His soldiers rallied at once when he appeared among them. and totally disappeared. n. loc. if necessary. celebrated and presided over by Pope Innocent III. 4. ticular Synods. because mine eyes have seen thy thy word... Alex. & . Lord. he raised up his hands to heaven. &quot. Gotti. in 1215. were finally &quot. June. 1218 (17). though Noel Alexander and Cardinal Gotti say that The they were not totally put down (20). and he had barely time Blessed Virgin. 18. loc. His. and a stone from one of them struck him in the head. corporeal and ciple. he had sieging engines .&quot. accor in peace. prosecuted the war. by the advice of Pope Gregory IX. Narbonne. King of France. and condemned in the Fourth General Council of Lateran. & (19) Grav. cit. Albig. Nat. and adoring heard Mass. Now. * : exclaimed ding to for thou dost dismiss thy servant. In the first Chapter of this Council it was decreed. and Martyr of Christ. his God on the altar. the Creator of all.

spiritual things. common. descended into hell. and man sinned at the suggestion of the devil. and no one but a Priest rightly ordained according to the keys of the Church. Father. conceived by the co operation of the Holy Ghost. but he and immortal. and man likewise. to receive. were created by God good. . who. and other servants. eternal punishment with the devil the good. accor their deserts. shall and come shall arise in the ding to same bodies they now have. out of Christ. by the whole Trinity in . incarnate of Mary. no salvation. Son. either rewards or punishment the wicked. the bread being. by any person. which Jesus Christ himself granted to the Apostles. and which there is same time. according to the properly-ordained disposition of time and. by Moses and the Holy Prophets. by the Divine power. at length. as to its Trinity. arose in the flesh. spirit. and his body and blood is truly contained under the appearance of bread and wine. and ascended into heaven.268 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in which Jesus Christ is. undivided. eternal glory with There is one universal Church of all the faithful. and made true man. as consisting of body and The devil. and The to their successors. both to infants and adults. who by his Almighty power in the beginning ot time. according to his Divinity. and shall render to each both For all the reprobate and the elect according to their works. priest the wine into the blood. according to their nature. and all other evil spirits. ever Virgin. Sacrament of Baptism. The Holy divided. as to its common essence personal proprieties gave saving doctrine to mankind. the only-begotten Son of God. was made passible and humanity. transubstantiated into the body. consecrated to the invocation of the undi vided Trinity. created from nothing both spiritual and corporeal. one person in two Natures. according to his wood of the Cross for the salvation of mankind. angelic spirit. but became bad of themselves. arose from the dead. Jesus Christ. properly adminis tered in water. and in both ascended in the end of the world to judge both the living and the dead. and earthly beings. composed of a rational soul and a real body. that we might receive from him what he received from us to perfect the mystery of Unity . and suffered and died on the descended in the into heaven. can consecrate this Holy Sacrament. and Holy Ghost. being impassible mortal. at the and sacrifice. more clearly pointed out to us the way of life .

They was only in the Consecrated Host as in any other bread. and so great was his chagrin that he belied His disciples added new errors to those taught soon after died. twelve hundred years . and taught this then applied himself to the study of Sacred Scripture and he had Theology. 16. and as he was fond of new-fangled opinions. and every one could be saved by the Grace of the Holy Ghost alone. and was a He science with great applause. without any act The virtue of Charity. and thought those who fell into mortal sin had hell in their own bosoms (22). Not virgins alone. obliged him to make a public abjuration in the presence of the the Pope s orders in 1207. a priest. and appealed to Innocent III. faith and good works. for about God as they did had heaven in themselves. which before was sinful. and those who they denied the Resurrection. 2. 2. and that no one could be saved unless he so believed. 16. t /. t. A 67. lie studied in Paris. fall into sin. Alex. c. . a native of Bene. The power and then the Law of the Holy Ghost began. 13. of the Fathers. and went to Rome. they committed longer. great logician. according to the form of the Church. but . s. The University of Paris condemned this Amalric refused to submit to the sentence. but his heart University. Nat. and that God spoke as much through Ovid as through St. (21) Nat. and those who observe continence. Graveson. the New Law lasted from that till their own times that is. /. 27. t. 59. 11. they said.AND THEIR REFUTATION. And should any one. 269 is available to salvation. but married persons. under the pretext asserted that the body of Christ the most impure actions. if done through Charity was sinful no of Charity. 3. Alex. shall deservedly pleasing God by true obtain eternal happiness (21). near Chartres. heaven. lasted only during the period of the Mosaic Law . they said. what his lips uttered. c. when all Sacraments and all other assistances to salvation ceased. sec. He obeyed by their master. n. 4. and opinion in 1204. and hell. however. after receiving Baptism. to prosecute his appeal in person the Pope. a. or Amaury. confirmed the sentence. the rashness to teach that every Christian ought to believe him self a natural member of Christ. he can he always healed by true repentance. and thus. 3. 3. In this century also lived Amalric. caused that that of his own. 5. 94. Gotti. (22) Fleury.. likewise. c. coll. Augustin.

Thomas. should be burned and all persons were prohibited. and thrown on It was also ordered. cit. and burned. He wrote a work. likewise. and the following year the author was banished all the dominions of France. the sect of the Flagellants sprung up. or to hear the confessions of the laity. and a few years after died a miserable exile (25). in which he was not a work of perfection to follow Christ in poverty and mendicancy. lived in this century also. cap. and were. c. a Doctor of Sorbonne. which some of those unfortunate people retracted but others obstinately refused. in and the bones of Amalric burned outside the gates of Paris were exhumed at the same time. oppo sition to the Friars. . loc. condemned by Pope Alexander IV. in the year 1252. Nat. 9. and. r. or to enter into a monastery. Thomas wrote against him in 1215 (23). ii (24). and that. laboured assidiously to discover these heretics in several dioceses. not only many of the laity. but also some priests. this Council were. and another the Bishop they discovered them. . 3. to be enrolled as Masters in This work was Colleges. and that it was not lawful for . Berti. n. when Raul of Nemours. and put in A Council of Bishops and Doctors was held s prison. condemned the books of David of St. The heresy of Amalric was condemned in express terms. who asserted that God was the Materia Prima. that Aristotle s the dunghill. sics. had them conveyed to Paris. after giving up by manual labour. by begging. p. St. by orders of the King. (23) St. 16. sec. Metaphy .&quot. (24) Fleury. Nat. ar. t. Histor.270 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. ar. them to teach the laity. it was all we had. William de &quot. in 1209. 1. Alex. either to live necessary. 3. in order to be perfect. 28. Graveson. entitled. Alex. asserted that it who made a vow of poverty. 29. 8. 1. De periculis adversus Mendicantes Ordines. and were degraded. In the year 1274. likewise. 12. which would afford all the necessaries of life that the Mendicant Friars. which was the fountain of this heresy. 3.. Amour. 13. in the Fourth General Council of Lateran. to preach. from reading or keeping the work in their possession. Brev. and Canon in of Beauvais. priest. and from publicly burned. 30. l. and handed over to the Royal power. (25) Fleuiy. 84. 1 . Nantz. under pain of excom In munication. being infected with it. acted contrary to the Holy Scriptures.

it is said. by confession. and crosses. nearly naked. to imprison leaders (26). in honour of the thirty-three years of our Lord s life. secular princes. but even ladies terrified with the dread of Divine judg ments. A torrent of vice had overspread the about that time. and. t. Alex. From and other kingdoms approved of Italy this practice spread into Germany. A great change for the better in the morals of the people was the first fruit of this wonderful move ment enemies were reconciled. they used to hear the by confessions of each other. and all were reconciled to God. at old least. preceded by priests. went about the streets in procession. thieves restored their ill-gotten wealth. They used to scourge themselves twice a day. and first 271 made its appearance in Perugia. with bared shoulders. (26) Nat. Another sect the offspring of an ill-judged piety. and sung. could not subdue their enthusiasm. England. 16. sometimes even as many as twelve thou bodies of penitents sand marched in procession. and the Numerous rigors of winter. art. as neither the Pope nor the Bishops . and a violent spirit of re-action Italian Peninsula commenced. and France. All were seized on by a new sort of devotion. also This sect sprung up in this century. and villages. sec. some canticles in honour of his Sacred Passion. and thence spread on. 13. mally condemned this heresy. or. to their disperse their conventicles. for . originated with Peter of Macerata and Peter 5 84. but. with their cries for mercy. . and wrote to the Bishops of Germanyv Poland. and imploring mercy. 13. Pope Clement VI. above all. calling on them to scatter these hypocrites. at the same time. that of the Fratricelli. on the subject.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Even the darkness of the night. Poland. 30. and young. and ^give absolution. t. this public form of penance. which proves how widely it was spread he also wrote to all . 62. rich and poor. . I. beating themselves with scourges. Fleury. of Fossombrone. and banners and the towns. it speedily degenerated into superstition. n. nobles and plebians not alone men. Switzerland. and plains resounded . and even to Rome itself. though only lay people and they had the madness to pretend that even the damned were served by their penance. for thirty-three days. They said that no one could be saved unless adopting this practice for a month .

were justly the head. governed by the Roman Pontiff. totally lost was found. on account of their spiritual lives. Second That the venerable Churches.of St. . as all who did not join their apostacy were deprived of all spiritual power. errors adopted 1318. condemned it but . to which they alone. and stained with crime.272 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. found it necessary to publish a Bull against them in therefore. in express terms. friars. Alex. loc. soon saw that this institute was a source of error. belonged. numbers. and he. and his Prelates the other spiritual. which was spreading every day more widely... two apostate Franciscan Boniface VIIL. as with them alone holiness authority resided. that they could neither administer the Sacraments. as Noel Alexander relates. and other Ministers were so deprived both of the power of order and juris diction. got permission from him to lead an eremetical life. and of which they. cit. nor instruct the people. and. for (as they imagined). and those who held with them. condemned the following by them: First They taught that there were two Churches one carnal. Francis to the very letter. (27) Nat. of Christ fulfilled. Celestine s successor. abounding in delights. adorned with virtue. Priests. so with them alone That in them alone was the Gospel which hitherto was either thrown aside or of life Third among men (27). and openly preached their tenets. the Fratricelli every day increased John XXII. accordingly. playing on the simplicity of Pope Celestine V. clothed in poverty. notwithstanding in this sentence. and observe the rule . who.

in Flanders. their errors .-Marsilius of Padua. forty-five bury.AND THKIR REFUTATION. absurd as it was impious. even in the present life. 31. and also between the Beguines. 221. The origin of the name adopted by the heretics is uncertain but . Francis. and the heretics. His. -The Beghards and Beguines . 32. said they. who both were burned alive for The doctrines professed by the Beghards was as their errors. ladies. their writings condemned as by John XXII. a pious priest. Van Ranst (1) draws a distinction betweeen the good Beghards. might arrive at such a degree of perfection. ARTICLE IV. professed the third rule of the Order of St. Man can. and when he arrives at this state. and the beginning of his death of the Archbishop of Canter . HERESIES OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.-The Council of Constance condemns Articles of Wickliffe. for sensuality is then so entirely subjected to reason and to that anything the body desires may be freely granted Those who have arrived at that pitch of perfection are no longer subject to human obedience. 36. 34. and the heretical Beguines. who led a religious life.-Miraculous confirmation of the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist. or bound by the precepts of the Church. whose conduct was not remarkable for purity. who. by John Ball 33. Duchess of Brabant. though not bound by vows. or from Lambert le Begue. 37.-Is assisted heresy. being thus per- the spirit. and heretical John Jandunus condemned by Clement V. as were also the followers of Gerard Segarelli. The religious Beguines deduce their origin either from St. it.-Death of Wickliffe. T . Heres p. especially. and daughter of Pepin. the followers of the Fratricelli were called by that name in Germany and the Low Countries.-John Wicklifle. (1) Van Ranst. Begghe. The Beghards and Beguines sprung up in Germany in this century. 35. Mayor of the Palace to the King of Austrasia. and Dulcinus. Man. he should no longer fast or pray. who lived in 1170. as to become totally impeccable. 31. 38. and even incapable of advancing any more in grace. even in this life.

The dispensation for marriages. and refuted by several Theologians. Mulieris virtue altogether. to think on the Eucharist or on the humanity of Christ. he appointed no visible head in the Church. by Divine law. nor had St. and John Jandunus. held in Vienne. of Padua. unless the Emperor wishes that one should have more power than another. munication or interdict. have. It is the Emperor s right to appoint. that many of their opinions were adopted by the Quietists in a subsequent century. to the Prince. and not of right. . left no Vicar. Dauphiny. 32. and when the Papal See is vacant. of Peragia.&quot. as heretical. The whole united Church has not the power to punish any man..274 feet. Alex. who gives the When Christ paid tribute to following account of them (2). and the soul does not require the light of glory to see God. 3. and Jandunus contributed some errors scattered through the work were condemned by Pope John XXII. and no Bishop or meeting of Bishops can inflict a sentence of excom unless by authority of the Prince. 193. Marsilius Menandrinus. and punish Prelates. t. or individually can no more excommunicate Bishops collectively the Pope than he can them. All Priests. a perfect condemned these in heretics in a General Council. called &quot. by the institution of equal authority and jurisdiction. prohibited by human law alone. elevated. p. and when he ascended into heaven. actus autem carnalis (cum ad hoc natura inclinet). obtain final beatitude. To the Prince. for every intellectual nature is in itself blessed. 13. also lived in this century. Christ. It is remarkable. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.&quot. Pacis. especially by Noel Alexander.Defensorum it. for the It is only imperfect soul men who off perfect throws practise acts of virtue. by right. as well as he shall obtain it hereafter in the realms of the blessed. he did it as matter of obligation. and not of piety. osculum (cum ad hoc natura non inclinet) est mortale peccatum. c. Caesar. it belongs to 16. (2) Nat. ar. belongs. When the body of Christ is man should not show any reverence. Peter more authority than additions to The the rest of the Apostles. peccatum non est maxime cum tentatur exercens. remove. in 1311. he has the right of governing the Church. &quot. for it would be an imperfection to descend from the summit of his contemplation. Marsilius published a book. Clement V. not even excepting Bishops and the Pope.

n. and extended his protection to Wickliife. was meanly clothed. . and even people. the son of Edward the Black Prince. always followed by the 33. . c. Nat. and he wrote on the King and the University of Oxford (4). who then governed the Church. Grav. (5). to appear and account for himself he obeyed the summons. n. and the nobility and magistracy done away with. as well as he could. the so-called Reformers. who was then only eleven years of age . Alex. vol. (4) Gotti. & Grav. in regard to persons about to be or dained. and his uncle. died. cit. ibid. which he taught at Oxford. Gotti. cit. (5) Nat. the leader of all authority. who openly preached his heresy (3). 6. Edward III. Gotti. 6. and was a favourite preacher. loc. loc. Richard. 1 . subject of his discourses to the people (3) Nat.. and Bishops should not ordain any one without his will now speak of Wickliffc.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Synod of Bishops and Wickliffe was cited A forward 34. s. and was succeeded by his grandson. n. Alex. 275 give a definitive judgment. 5. * I believe the holy Author was misled in this fact . 6. 1 . and putting another meaning on it. some because he was disappointed in the Bishopric of Winchester. Wickliffe was assisted Ball. and he was joined by over an hundred thousand him for his crimes.* say He was learned in Scholastic Theology. He led an austere life. same subject to the and Doctors was accordingly summoned. cit. the obnoxious sense of his doctrine. s. complained to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London. Gregory IX. ceived him. John fined who escaped from The priest of the the prison where his Bishop by a wicked name of had con and joined the Reformers. was a man of very lax sentiments in regard to religion. 2. We John Wickliffe began to preach his heresy in 1374. Alex. 2. n. went barefooted. it is generally supposed that the primary cause of his rancour against the Monastic Orders and the Court of Rome were his expulsion from the Wardenship of Canterbury Hall. ib. 3 1 .. He was then only admonished to be more prudent for the future was absolved and commanded to be silent from thence . who gladly re was that all ranks should be levelled. n. IV. loc. into which he had illegally intruded himself See LINGARD. that they were not active enough in putting a stop to this plague. the Duke of Lancaster. and excused himself by explaining away. n.

boasting that he had killed the Arch bishop. and condemned twenty-four propositions of Wickliffe ten of them. quoting Walsingham (7). different from what he expected.. as Noel Alexander quotes them (8) stance of bread and wine remains in the Sacrament of the Altar. He addressed rage. . John Sterling. finally. influenced the Sovereign s mind against them .5. his head was not cut off received eight blows (6). therefore. but his told him to prepare for death. says that the executioner was immediately possessed by the devil. cit. : and the accidence of the bread n.276 levellers. loc. however. loc. especially as heretical. but could not obtain what they desired. in 1415. s. Berninus. ibid. and found soul to God. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. a good man in the main. for he was condemned to death. Bernin. is not without the substance in (6) Gotti. rash. and. and Ball was hanged and quartered. but whether it was that the sword was till blunt. c. con Richard. 14. stepped forward. art. him praying. . same time. in which forty-five articles of Wickliffe were condemned the greater part as heretical. Alex. 241 cit. Simon Sudbury. together with his accomplices. in a Council held at Rome. 22. Ranst. Gotti. n. /. 3. sec. and stretched forth his neck to receive the fatal stroke . the rest as erroneous. 3. 1381. but too weak a disposition to cope with the troubles of the times. Van Ranst. 16. These were afterwards condemned by the University and by John XXIII. They laid their demands before the Sovereign. (8) Nat. and stormed the Tower. and tried to calm their executioner. they considered that the Archbishop of Canterbury. at the William of Courtenay being appointed Archbishop. where he had taken refuge. in place of Sudbury. dicto. held a Synod in London. &c. or the executioner awkward. 35. 9. Van (7) Bernin. t. and entered the city of London to receive his reward . ex Walsingh. and that he ran through the streets with the sword he hanging round his neck. c. in the eighth Session of the Council of Constance. and among these the twenty-four condemned previously were The following are the errors condemned by the included. perhaps. 6 . 9. this was. and that he deserved that The good Bishop then confessed punishment for not being more vigorous in the discharge of his duties. they re solved on his death. Ann. and recommending his them mildly. The material sub Council. c. of Paris.

while he is in mortal sin. is. on account of the excommunication of man. a heretic. or to the Supreme Council of is. . Any by the fact. by the fact. The people Special prayers applied vidual. without any authority from the Holy See or a Catholic Bishop. by the act. and he who excommunicates otherwise. delinquent and the parishioners have the right. of keeping them from their Prelates on account of their sins. Temporal Lords can. Tithes are merely eleemosynary offerings. unless he Holy Scriptures that Ecclesiastics No Prelate should excommunicate any knows him to be already excommunicated by God. and less able to observe the by Prelates or Religious to any one indi no more value to him than general ones ceteris one giving charity to Friars is excommunicated commandments orders sinned of God. nor ordain. Any one entering a religious Order. and in the judgment of God are traitors to Christ. If a Bishop or Priest be in mortal sin he can There is nothing in not consecrate. take temporal goods from the Church. are excommunicated. he has no power over the faithful. so. and not by receiving the oblations of by doing the Faithful. The Saints who founded religious Religious living in Orders do not Friars are obliged to live by to the Christian Religion. Those who oblige themselves to pray for others. can. we should live under our own opposed to the should have possessions. Christ is 277 not identically and really there in his proper presence. or excommunicated himself. It is like the Greeks. or to listen to the Word of God. Possessionatis delin- habitualiter delinquentibus id est ex habitu non solum actu whenever they please. Those who appeals to the King. all external confes to obey the devil. punish their quentibus. laws. God ought to prove that Christ instituted the Mass. no other Pope should be elected. whenever they please. belong the labour of their hands. A Prelate excommunicating a Cler gyman who the Realm. a traitor to the King and the Realm.AND THEIR REFUTATION. sion is superfluous and useless. and. Every Deacon and Priest has the power of preaching the Word of God. nor baptize. No one is a Civil Lord no one a Prelate no one a Bishop. whenever they please. consequently. Lords. are of paribus. the Eucharist. cease to preach. Scripture If one be truly contrite. becomes weaker. If the Pope is foreknown and wicked. either mendi cant or endowed. After Urban VI. a member of the devil. but. one.

are heretics. and temporal Lords. It is the devil who intro of Christ. consequently. The oaths which arc taken to corroborate contracts and civil affairs are unlawful. are reserved to the Pope and Bishops. and those who Those who become mem give them alms are excommunicated. who provide them with the things of this life. and of instituting and entering into religious Orders . The Decretal Epistles (canon law) are apochryphal. and the Pope is not the proximate and immediate Vicar of Christ. youth. are only introduced from paganism. members of the mendicant orders are heretics. by . and the rest of holding these possessions the laity who consent to their holding them. It is against the law of Christ to endow a Clergyman. The Pope. duced the election of the Pope by the Cardinals. 36. I cannot help remarking that . arc guilty of Simony. All The confirmation of things happen through absolute necessity. Augustin. and are of no more utility to the Church than the Pope. The Emperor and secular Lords have been seduced by the devil to endow the Church with temporalities. vain things colleges. the those who enter them are servants of the devil. The excommunication of the any other Prelate. the ordination of Priests. All religious orders altogether Enumerating these errors. and so from the Pope to the lowest Religious they are all heretics. and censure of the devil. The prayer of the foreknown availeth nothing. are invented by the devil. unless they repented of having possessions. and Bernard. and. are heretics also. can never enter the kingdom of heaven till they apostatize from their institute. Benedict. degrees and masterships in them. are damned. because it is Those who found Convents sin. It is folly to believe in the Indulgences of the Pope and Bishops. The Roman Church is the synagogue of Satan. and the consecration of places. or of devil himself.278 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. is not to be feared. bers of any religious order are by the fact incapable of observing the Divine commandments. and all his Clergy having possessions. and seduce from the Faith and the Clergymen are fools who study them. It is not necessary for salvation to believe that the Roman Church is supreme among all other Churches. Pope Sylvester and All the Emperor Constantino erred by endowing the Church. on account of the temporal gain and honour they bring. Universities and the studies.

rerom. dated the 31st of March. but God. Eucharis. and sent an . but instead (10) Treter dc Mirac. at the same time. 1445. and remorse of conscience troubled him even more than the agony he it. did not wish that such a miracle The Priest was at the point of death. and God wrought other miracles to confirm its truth. that it might decay in some time. (9) Serar. All was found to be as he stated. called Henry Otho. /. and in this he was followed by all the modern heresiarchs . upset the chalice. inviting all the devout faithful to ornament and enlarge the church honoured by so stupendous a miracle. 279 heretics. and laid it under the altar-stone. should be concealed. through his caution. the Patriarch of all the modern attacks especially the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist. of being converted by the mediately began to bleed. . and he published a brief. authentic account of it to the Pope. they brought it into a cavern.AND THEIR REFUTATION. told where the corporal was concealed. Thomas Treter (10) relates the next miracle. and when they got it. that when the Wickliffites first began to attack dogma of the Faith in 1408. was suffering he could bear it no longer. and although some other persons had already noticed the acci dent. 37. firmed the faith of his people by extraordinary miracles and I will just mention three of them (among a great number). rius (9) this relates. as we see in his three first propositions. in the Diocese of Wurtzburg. Wickliffo. Crucifix. and the Sacred Blood was spilled Mass want of all over the corporal. 5. known about God. Moguntinar. however. It appeared at once of the real colour of and in the middle of the corporal was an image of the blood. he took up the corporal. in contempt of the Christian Faith. and cut it in little bits on a table with their The fragments im knives. on the Nicholas Serraauthority of authors of the first character. surrounded with several other images of the head of The Priest was terrified. was one day saying place : took A in Durn. and then died immediately. The Magistrates investigated the whole affair with the greatest caution and deliberation. but confessed all. crowned with thorns. and. Some Jews bribed an unfortunate Christian servant woman to procure a consecrated Host for them. con . and nothing more would be the Redeemer. the following miracle Priest.

when he seized the altar. and saw the consecrated par ticles elevated in the air. as if in adoration. and the oxen The Bishop and Clergy came at once in kneeling in adoration. came into the field. and told his father. He now. and shining as if made of fire. seeing the vengeance of wax to God overtaking him. . he went to in 1384. 38. very act the ground opened under and he had already sunk down to his knees. 35. the Host place tinged with blood. repented of his pride. and died with sentiments Priest all removed it. Crowds immediately followed him to the place. and covered with iron bars. fell sick soon after. placed the large . and see his unhappy Thomas of Canterbury. : of true penance. he says. now come back to Wickliffe. /. converted into a sumptuous church. as if to swallow him. Host on his tongue. and collecting the holy particles into the pixis. 1. and went home. which Wenceslaus. attests that he saw the sacred fragments procession. they buried them in a field near the city of Posen. now perfectly cured of his pride. if he denied him. the altar with the marks of Oswald s hands. in 1385. he (11) Bredembach in Collat. and when he found the fact to be as the child stated. Oswald himself. of the colour of blood. he says. where Stephen Damaleniski. and insisted on being communicated with a large Host. The Priest. and all saw the particles of the Sacred Host shining in the air. fearful of his power. a nobleman of the name of Oswald Mulfer his village church one Easter. A Christian child soon after. Arch bishop of Gnesen. and the oxen all on their knees. A little chapel was built on the brought spot soon after. He ran off at once. and prayed for mercy. . but that yielded like his hand.280 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. who was taking care of some oxen. and the ground into which he was sinking still hollow. miracle. to receive his Paschal Communion. stained with blood. and as he could not swallow the Host for God would not permit him the and replaced it in the Tabernacle but it was Tilman went on purpose to visit the where this miracle happened he saw. King of Poland. Tilman Bredembach (11) relates that there lived in England. c. We On the feast of St. they them to the church. he gave notice to the Magistrates and the people. but in the his feet.

p. c. 42. 3. on St. 9. and as Walsingham (12) informs us.& Gotti. Bernin.lt. but God would no longer permit him to ravage his Church. King of Bohemia. c. Several authors wrote in refutation of this contradictions are a sufficient refutation. 241 Varillas. obstinate./. and son of the Emperor Charles IV. 31 .-John Huss Errors. ARTICLE V.AND THEIR REFUTATION. False struck hood.. and endeavours to and continues 47. 281 prepared to preach a sermon. the pestilence of the heresy of Wickliffe in appearance in Bohemia. errors in the one hundred and forty-five articles of his it condemned.!. King Richard prohibited all his works. and his mouth. The University of Prague was then (12) Walsingham. HERESIES OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.-His 41. hundred and sixty propositions extracted from Wickliffe but the Council of Constance included all his s works . -He is condemned it. so that he could not speak even a word. about the beginning of the fifteenth 39. t. for work. and the commencement of in a Synod. loc. Van Ranst.-Jerome of escape. t. sec. /. and Phronesis Folly. THE HERESY OF JOHN HUS8. he was down by a dreadful palsy. . cit. 39. . but reprobating the Saint . with which he had preached so many blasphemies. is s character. was most frightfully distorted. but its own the general characteristics of heretical writers is to contradict The University of Oxford condemned two themselves (13). ap.-Wars of the Hussites they are conquered and converted. 4. 15. 45. (13) Graveson. p. 9. and burned. and ordered them to be burned. -He his Heresy. Prague is burned alive for his obstinacy. Sylvester s Day.-He also is condemned to death. C09. Bernin. not in honour of. first made its century. 48. which convulsed him all over.-Council of Constance he obliged to appear at comes to Constance. In the reign of Wenceslaus. and Wisdom. 43. t. &amp. He wrote a great deal. -He presents himself before the Council. but his principal work was the Trialogue between Alithia.!.. coll. AND JEROME OF PRAGUE. he died in despair. Pseudes. 3. 8. for a few days after. 40. 46. 44.

become almost supreme in his College. called Huss. p. by degrees. Silv. Alex. 15. sec. 75 c. Hist. the University. unfortunately. ^Eneas Silv. the vote of the Bohemian nation alone should count as much as the three others together. 2. c. Hussit. that one of Wickliffe s disciples. pleased him by the bold of their doctrines. 105. sec. Bernin. a little while before. The German pro fessors were so much offended at in a body. for the present. Having. Hist. c 3. we may say. became more (1) Coclaeus. 14. obtained a privilege from the King. and brought along with him These works fell into the hands of the works of his master. Saxons. Hist. &c. 3. where they contributed to establish that famous University. c. 4. I. it filled with blasphemy. Bohem. he. 35. who had to fly from England. Prague . ousted the German professors. c. Graves.282 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and unfortunately happened Peter Payne. (2) Nat. this ordinance. Such was the state of things when John IIuss. and not alone among the students of the vEneas 35. and from which he took his name. worked himself on. with merely making them but little by little he subjects of discussion with his pupils . . arrived in Prague. that at first the only means of learning he had. for he was one of the Doctors who. and he imagined that they were novelty well calculated to make an impression on the ardent minds of the IIuss. for want of due vigilance. and his parents were so poor. . until he became the chief professor of the Univer sity of Prague. and thus the government of the whole University of Prague. and Poles but mutual jealousies blinded them to the danger the Catholic faith was exposed to. with heresy. t. fell into the hands This remarkable man was born in a village of of John IIuss (1). one of the Bohemian professors. 4. so he contented himself. had subscribed the condemnation of Wickliffe s errors (2). that in all deliberations of . p. sec. Bohem. Bavarians. . 9 . that they left and settled in Leipsic. He could not at once begin to teach them. each of which enjoyed equal privileges in that seat of learning Bohemians. Bohemia. which he infected. Gotti. management They were of four nations. coll. as we have seen. 22. Ver. but the Professors who had the a most flourishing condition of it kept up a very lax system of discipline. was by accompanying a gentleman s son to school as attend ant but being a man of powerful mind. . 6. bold. and though youth of the University.

in refusing the people communion under both kinds. Huss was now joined by Jacobellus of Misnia. At length. Synod. and in the meantime. in Prague. but now turned round. Among the Doctors who him was Jerome of Prague. scarcely eradicate it. which was too often conferred on persons whose only qualification was nobility of birth. excommunicated him. summoned a demning them. He was joined at once by several Priests of relaxed morals. Huss under view of the most The Church. 15. if he were dying. who was badly informed. Alex. and proclaimed that all who received under one kind were damned. and sent a copy of the condemnation of his doctrine to Pope Alexander V. and also by several Doctors. who went about preaching to the people against the error the Church was guilty of. especially the Trialogue. and so deeply was the error implanted in the minds of the Bohe mian Hussites. as they said. important ones. Archbishop of Prague. accordingly. while humble virtue and learning was neglected. 2. John Huss and his followers took up this new doctrine. 40.. he disse minated the pestilence. was composed of the c. that he endeavoured to stir up the people to oppose it the Archbishop. We will only take a succinct said. he publicly lauded the works of Wickand said. and preaching one day in the Church of SS. Noel Alexander enumerates the errors of thirty heads (3). 283 University. all he would desire is to be assured of the same glory that WicklhTe was then enjoying in heaven. but Huss appealed to the Pope. the worst of them all. like joined Huss. and Peter of Dresden. and even accused the Council of Constance of injustice. he (3) Nat. had. 2. in the year 1408. He next translated some of Wickliffe s works into Bohe mian. discontented with the unjust distribution of church patronage. who. and con demned the propositions broached by Huss. for con Sbinko. but even among the people in the churches.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Matthias liffe. condemned the errors of Wickliffe. that even all the power of the Irrfperial arms could . and Matthew. and he was so enraged at this. 41. 1. he said. the Archbishop died. sec. a. he threw off the mask altogether. sec. . which was attended by the most famous Doctors. of the matter. and thus Bohemia became a prey to heresy.

that he always held the belief of the Real Presence. says the Calvinists condemn in the succession of their Churches. 4). The Papal dignity is derived from the power of the Emperor (Art. and he says the same of the Pope (Art. after the conse stance. 15). and when. with its three parts. 17. and Civil and Ecclesiastical Lords. is the head of the Catholic Church (Art.284 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Van Ranst (p. he He also denied that he ever either taught or believed so. the more especially as he had been cited to Rome. then. for the Apostles and other Priests governed it very well before the office These are. are one Christ (Art. in the Fifteenth Session of the Council. 20. the knowledge of Huss. 26). 28. . neither was nor . 10. and Ecclesias tical obedience is an invention of the Priests (Art. 18) and in preach. 25). and every thing the Priests ought to be excommunicated (Art. at which twenty-nine Cardinals. 275) remarks. and . appears from his own works. as we do Extreme Unction. There is no necessity of a head to rule the Church. but refused to come. How for the dead same author. do the Lutherans and Church of Rome these dogmas held by Huss himself. virtuous (Art. in sub of Pope was introduced (Art. the predestined alone (Art. and through whom they boast that they have derived the original unjustly. four Patriarchs. and all the other Sacraments prayers the invocation and intercession of Saints. so the Pope found himself obliged to suspend him from all Ecclesiastical functions. a General Council was held in the city of Constance. 24. whom they venerate as a witness of the truth. 5. 3. though they It was an act of Art. 30) . in 1413. 42. 29). 19. he reprobates Ecclesiastical censures. 11) are no longer so while in mortal sin (Art. 16). 1. 27. admitted Sacramental Confession. 22. the errors of it that cration. and the two Natures. 7. 9) . The Pope condemned Wickliffe and his When this came to errors. the substance of bread remained in the Eucharist. in a Synod held in Rome. . John Huss. Good iniquity to condem the forty-five Articles of Wickliffe (Art. Every thing the wicked virtuous man does man is does is wicked. he published several invectives against the Fathers composing the Synod. 6) Peter Divinity and the Humanity. In the year 1414. as Prelates and Bishops. he was accused of teaching that. We now come to speak of the sad end the obstinacy of Huss brought him to.

He ing. on the contrary. he used to say Mass in a chapel but when the Archbishop heard of this. that he would by his reason Fathers of the Council that he was right. never ceased to praise Wickliffe. 3. 105. although he was excommunicated by his Bishop. he refused to obey these conditions. The Emperor gave him the protection he demanded. and the Church . Gotti. s. teaches that faith must be observed with even infidels or Jews. and his subjects from hearing his Mass (6). that not to be kept with heretics. Our Church. His. 285 and the Emperor Sigismund attended there in person also (4). 43. and the Council of Basil faithfully observed the guarantee given to the Hussites. Bel. (5) Varillas. 11. and when he saw the charges that would be made against him. puffed up with the idea. .AND THEIR REFUTATION. and alleging that as their excuse for not coming to the Council of Trent. if he would obey the decisions of the Council. cit. cit. . two hundred and seven Prelates assisted. on account of the Imperial safeconduct but it is extraordinary that he never adverted to the clause inserted in it. that in case even the Council should condemn him. loc. Huss. n. The Lutherans. 1. he trembled for his safety. This frightened him. John Huss was summoned by the Emperor to present himself before the Council and defend his doctrine. His. t. accordingly. 12. . . see. . but not if he still But. he was quite safe. came to Constance. (4) Labbe. Gotti. he prohibited him from celebrating. there fore. 1. also. When Huss arrived in Constance. and received an order from the Council not to quit the city. I. t. charged with crimes. and disseminate his doctrines and. convince the ? was quite satisfied. but he refused to leave Prague until he was furnished by him with a safe conduct. . are unjust in faith is charging us with upholding that maxim.. though they remained obsti nately attached to their errors. granting him security as far as he was . &c. but not in regard to errors against tie Church (5) for it was stated that he would be exempt from all . (6) Coclseus. in Prague. after being heard in his defence. 2j Varillas. cone. 25. and he. Ver. penalty in regard to his faith. as we shall obstinately remained attached to his errors. before he presented himself to the Council he fixed his safe conduct to the door of and while he remained at his lodging. .

in which he declared that he could not conscientiously retract what he was asked to do. in that against him had been proved Huss then case. either retract or suffer death (7). (7) Gotti. Varillas. his cause not to be heretical. 32. and a form of abjuraerrors ration was drawn up by the Council for him to sign. He was now truly but seeing several Bohemians around him. n. He was summoned him to sign a general retractation. . disguised himself as a and concealed himself in a cart-load of hay. and if not able to do that. loc. but the Council refused to The Cardinal of Cambray endeavoured to induce receive it. cit. the Council would treat him most indulgently. and confined in the Dominican Convent. who was privately placed to watch him. (8) Gotti. 3. for it was decided by the Fathers. but attempt ing to escape from that. he was transferred to a more secure prison 45. 1415. from his prison to appear before the and defend himself. but was peasant. he trembled for Witnesses were formally examined to prove the his own fate. as . . he threw himself from the horse among them. charged with certain crimes. This took place on the third Sunday of Lent. and notice being given to the magistrates of the city. This he refused to do himself. who accom terrified panied him to the Council. that it was decided that h^should prove . He was put on a horse. . and hid himself in the hay ? He said it was because he was cold. he had both preached and written. He was asked. Ann. why he disguised himself in this way. and taken to prison. Rainaldus. ibid. he was taken. discovered by a spy. accordingly. and he then appealed to the safebut his attention was conduct given him by the Emperor directed to the clause giving him security only as far as he was attempted to escape .286 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Van Kanst. 279. Bernin. (8). t. but was immediately seized again. that he should not alone retract verbally. . 4 . and he was told. but also subscribe the abjuration of his heresy in the Bohemian but he presented a paper language. 3. every thing charged and he promised him. and as the Council had already Council. cit. sec. and thus thought to escape. p. but not for any erroneous doctrines concerning the Faith. he. condemned the forty -five articles of Wickliffe. loc. n.

appointed the 6th of July to give the final decision . inscribed: &quot. the upshot of which was that his conscience would not allow him to do so. and handed him over to the secular power. Son words inspired by the : them a It is not the is constancy. . The Duke then turned his back on fire who was put to light. obey God. if he would anathematize the errors of Wickliffe he made a long speech. it is The flames burned so fiercely. but he said that the handed bring round. and handed him over to the ministers of justice. the Duke of Bavaria again besought him but he answered.Behold the Louis. in presence of the Council. and asked. cut off his hair in the very place where the pile was pre pared to burn him. declared obstinately guilty of heresy. tried to bend his obstinacy. but before to the pile. made an humble answer Council. that the confession of the true Faith. The appointed day at last arrived. false : . but before they came to extremities. He was brought to the Council. have mercy on me vain-glorious desire of being considered to have died a martyr s death. that thought he was immediately suffocated. but he only commenced to speak. but they never could get a direct retractation from him.&quot. as was commanded in the beginning . and the executioner applied the torch was heard to exclaim .&quot. to sign his retractation in Bohe mian. accordingly. when he was ordered to be silent. and not man.&quot. he said. then took him. that the Scriptures tell us we should to retract. for he . but The Emperor all himself even in vain. Jesus Christ. Sentence was now pronounced on him he was . the pile began of the living God. accordingly. Duke of Bavaria. intending. Augustin says but the cause. He was now tied to the stake. 46. . Heresiarch. : 287 be taught by the he came. after the reading was finished. The Church. to its and that he was willing to obey decrees. to say what he intended. He was now clothed in the sacerdotal vestments. the Fathers deputed four and four Bohemian gentlemen to strive and him Bishops fear of signing a lie prevented him. and a paper cap was put on his head. A pen was to him. the hypocrite him. He made no remark while the sentence was read. when &quot. and as St.AND THEIR REFUTATION. but we should not forget that the devil has martyrs. which were immediately after stripped off him. that makes a martyr punishment. and the Council degraded him from the priesthood. and infuses into &quot.

He was a layman. to the civil magistrate. was his companion in a disgraceful joined death and perdition. who had him led to the then. Ranst. 13 & seq. that he was preached guilty of several excesses. The Fathers of the Council still charitably gave him time to repent. was tied to the stake. even according to the formula required by the Council. led astray himself. he was declared an obstinate heretic. We have now to speak of Jerome of Prague. several persons endeavoured to get him to pile. . and thus the scene closed on John Huss (9).288 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and had caused several seditious move He came him. in 1415. and that he was anxious to expiate at the stake. in the Twenty-fifth Session. not by conscience. and ments hi divers kingdoms and cities. having Huss in his errors. but was taken and obliged to appear before the Council. after the Bishop of Lodi endeavoured by every means in his power to induce him to retract. loc. who. He. cit. he spoke out plainly. 1415. n. When first brought before the Council in 1414. His ashes were cast into the lake. therefore. but because he was afraid of being condemned to be burned alive. cit. together with his patron. and next by the preaching of his master. retract. he was obliged to appear again before the Council. and said that he was satisfied to abjure his heresy. the fault of his former retractation. n. Gotti. (9) Varill. he confessed that he was wrong. that he the same errors as Wickliffe and Huss. got permission to speak with whom he pleased. Ann. as Raynaldus tells us (10). but he was not finally tried for a year after the death of Huss. *. . but that now he would defend his doctrines to the death. A lengthened process was instituted against it was proved. but he said that his conscience would not allow him . and when the Patriarch of Constantinople called on him to clear himself from the new charges laid against him. loe. but. and said that his former abjuration was extorted by the dread of being burned alive . he and handed over Even took off his clothes without any assistance. and joined Huss in all 47. that he now held as true all the articles of Wickliffe. 8 Van p. gave no other signs of life. 279. 48. first by Wickliffe s works. to Constance to try and be of some assistance to Huss. his endeavours to disseminate his errors. 3. (10) Rainal. and he then was so imprudent as to tell his friends that his retractation was extorted from him. When he was discovered. at last.

having previously ordered that his skin should be tanned. ruined the churches. life desisted at the time. seized on the properties of the monasteries. the Hussites. 382 . promised obedience to the Pope. and were absolved by him from all censures on the 5th of July. on the contrary. c. they forced him to quit his kingdom. 2. (13) cit. and attempted the after. Bernini. 48. who ab jured their heresy. 1436 (13). Gotti. The unhappy end John Huss and Jerome of Prague did not put a stop to the progress of their doctrines . They then elected Zisca as had Wenceslaus not Commander- and declared war against the Emperor Sigismund. . they sent delegates there to make peace with the Church. having previously obtained a safe conduct. and.p. His agony was much longer than that he died without any signs of of repentance (11). loc. a noble Bohemian. and the of pile 289 was fired. into Orphans. c. or cut him in two halves. like him. though disagreeing among themselves. and Thaborites. as Varillas writes (12). that even after his death he might After Zisca s death the sect was divided terrify his enemies. and though they were sorry they did not accomplish it so even then and they would have done died in the meantime. Although Zisca lost into the covering of a drum. irritated at the punishment of their leader. 51. 1 . they used to burn him alive. (12)Varil. having collected a powerful army. united together in Bohemia. but. Bern. and totally routed. 281. Wenceslaus . and. but was attacked by the plague and died. (11) Varil. both his eyes in battle. who. t. as on their return into Bohemia. the war raged with greater fury. Dis. but all to no purpose. 1 t. When those heretics got a Catholic priest into their power. but were encountered by Mainard. Van Ranst. they of their King. Sigismund then again got posession of his kingdom. Van Ranst. /. 105. they laid siege to the capital. c. When the Council of Basil was assembled. 4.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in-Chief. he still commanded his countrymen. who succeeded his brother Wenceslaus on the throne of Bohemia. Orebites. 4. all united against the Catholics. p. and made peace with the Hussites. John Huss. t. 105. Gotti. and converted having gained four victories. p.

Eras birth was illegitimate. his Litera it 2. to abolish Private Masses. 5. c.. 19. clears himself. 1516. which he afterwards changed baptized by to the Greek name Erasmus in Latin. and there that Erasmus (1) laid the egg. . Ann. and made his religious profession but weary of a Augustin. he left the religious life. 4. who burns the Bull and the Decretals. t. 108. Alex. 2. 26. The great heresiarch . called by some the Precursor of Luther. . We have now as in a sink. 6. and he was name of Gerard. Rel. -Publication Augustin. be called heretical.-Conference of Ecchius with the 12. sec. sec. (3) Nat.290 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.-Doctrines and Vices of Luther. his writers assert that Erasmus was a common saying in Germany and Luther hatched it (2).-His Doctrine was not sound. 9. art. 1. 7--He is called to Rome. and 1. 8.-Bull of Leo X. 255. and regretting having made his vows. nor could . i- THE BEGINNING AND PROGRESS OF THE LUTHERAN HERESY. 12.-Meeting between the Legate and Luther. ture. was mus was born in Holland . ARTICLE OF I. 4. Heretics. and his Theses on that Subject. -Erasmus of Rotterdam. 2. all the former heresies meet. p. the Order of the Hermits of 6. 1 1 . CHAPTER XL THE HERESIES OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. early age he was received (1) Rainald. 3. n. in which. arrived at the sixteenth century. 1. 15. the Pope sends Cardinal Cajetan as his Legate to Germany. At an the among the Regular Canons of St. 5. n. n. t.-Luther perse veres and appeals to the Pope. condemning forty-one Errors of Luther. Desiderius (3). 91 . 10. THE HERESIES OF LUTHER. (2) Gotti. c. sec.-Principles of Luther his familiarity with the Devil. c. -He joins who persuades of him St. Bernin. of this age was Luther but many his predecessor. Indulgences. Ver.

though he frequently the Fathers . interpreting the Scriptures. The Theologians. 291 supposed. often availed themselves of his authority. auricular Confession . . had he confined himself to litera ture alone . between the Rhetoricians and Theologians. friends of Erasmus. and a strenuous opponent of the errors of Erasmus. especially in a letter he wrote to Cardinal Campeggio (4). He would certainly have conferred a benefit on the age he lived in. having. . and condemned their vows and rules was opposed to the Celibacy of the Clergy. Hier. 2. and vitiated everything he explained. cit. it is a Papal dispensation. Mysteries. . (7) Alberto Pico. first. endeavoured to clear himself from the imputation of favouring them.AND THEIR REFUTATION. some of the Innovators. but he was not satisfied gical matters. abused the Rhetoricians for the impropriety and profaneness of the language they used in the explanation of the Divine Erasmus. the more errors he published. in Scholiis ad Epist. and. and ridiculed the Religious. Alex. the arguments of the Theologians. feasts and fasts. and was always honourably received. and even throws a doubt on the (6) Rainald. 4) Nat. A great contest at that time was going on in Germany. calling them actors and cheats. Faith alone man is justified (7). Prince of Carpi. and said that the proper understanding of Ecclesiastical science depended Many altogether on erudition and the knowledge of languages. 30. as Noel Alexander says of him. next. and turned into mockery Papal Indulgences. Cloister. on account of the obscure way he wrote concerning the dogmas of religion hence. /. He travelled to many Universities. the style. a : man of great learning (6). loc. . Blessed Virgin and the Saints idolatry condemned Monasteries. loc. Albert Pico. ep. on the other hand. began by deriding. on account of his learning but a great many doubted of his faith. and the barba rism of the terms they used. 20. assures us that he called the Invocation of the . without writing on Theolo and finding fault with hence. the more works he wrote. who took the lead among the Rhetoricians. The Rhetoricians upbraided the Theologians with their ignorance. & Bernin. he explained writers openly charge Erasmus with heresy everything just as it pleased himself. he called their Theology Judaism. relics asserts that by of Saints. 5) Victor. obtained and lived in the world. says Victorinus (5). cit.

3. . % (16) Gotti. wards acquired such a sad notoriety. notwith him standing all the endeavours of Luther and Zuinglius to draw by several Popes. &c. t. one of his works he says (9). Luther. n. c. Ml. it now fifteen would the consequence 12. n. Deum quod Noel Alexander informs us (10).292 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. with the character of an unsound Catholic. at the age of 70 (12). 1. Histor. n. &quot. n. and in his work or low Mass. that he had eaten a peck of salt (15) with the devil. He died in Basle in 1536.l. but not a heretic. His parents were poor. Hil. Audemus Spiritum sunt. to write against was even reported that Paul III. loc. in introduce Luther. sec. (10) Nat. 1. loc. c. and when he after Saxony. and to their side. 5. and Varillas (11) says he always remained firm in the Faith. cit. (14) Gotti. 2. appellare. who invited him to Rome. Rel. what years that you are saying private Masses be. 1517. to report on the abuses which needed reformation. intended him for it We may conclude with Bernini. 227.p. cit . Varillas Istor. Alex. in 1483. 3. cit. . loc. arrived there in 1613 and here we must Martin Luther (13) was born in Eisleben. esteemed that lead the ignorant to impiety. as he submitted his writings to the judgment of the Church. . some were not satisfied without tracing his birth to the agency of the devil (14). tl. a report to which his own extraordinary assertions gave some colour at the time. L 3. Gotti. (16). since he said in one of his sermons to the people. called on him to prohibit in the schools the reading of the Colloquies of Erasmus.&quot.&quot. t. (9) Erasm. De Missa Privata. if on the altar you were adoring (13) Gotti. it is rash to call the Holy Ghost God. 56 . sec. that he died the Cardinalship. 12. t. . cit. 12. however. (. in which are many things He was. Concili. 2. 108. 322. non Sanctum. advers. Alex. (8) Alberto. Masses should be abolished is &quot. n. the famous brief of Leo X. 129 2 . art. 2. in &quot. cit. Hermant.7. that 1527 the Faculty of Paris condemned several propositions taken from his works. sec. he says he disputed with the devil on this subject. p. Bernin. (15) Nat Alex. said the devil. and was convinced by him that private &quot. 2. Luther. and that at the Council of Trent the Car dinals appointed by Paul III.&quot. Ice. In the preface to authority of the Scripture and Councils (8). sec. cit.11) Varill. While Germany was thus agitated with this dispute. veteres ausi. 2. Ann. 10. Baron. Ver. (12) Nat.

and not vow to enter into religion. Gotti. Under moved by devotion. cit. both by the door and window. sec.&quot. Luther at one time. ?&quot. 1. ibid. he says. &quot. Smidelin.AND THEIR REFUTATION. loc. contra Jac. student. While pursuing his legal and philosophical studies in that Univer sity. he went to Erfurt. But.&quot. loc. &quot. 404. as an exercise of humility. p. he changed it to Luther. This took place in 1504. door with a hatchet. which. . his superiors.&quot. but terrified by a sudden death. and at the age of twenty years graduated as a Master of Philosophy. n. and was a matter of great suprise to his father and friends. however. (19) Luther Praefat. Turks and Gentiles also sacrifice through obedience. in which he was employed. bread and wine ? would you not be guilty of idolatry ordained by my Bishop. de Vot. the influence of terror. (17) Staphil. After his profession and ordination he was commanded by city. in Thuringia. to piety (20). possessed say you if your ordination be false ?&quot. he happened to take a walk in the country with a fellowwho was struck dead by lightning at his side. few laboured so strenuously in his service. His name originally was Luder . 1 . done everything through obedience. he made a and became an Augustinian Friar. see. I 14. by my own free will I became a Monk. Applying himself at an early age to literature. endeavoured to exorcise a girl in Wittemberg. (18) Varillas. in the year 1508 left the Convent and through the He refused.&quot. 2.&quot. greatly leagues in that University. Mon . said Luther. who previously never perceived in him any I tendency 5. to the satisfaction of his col who could not bear his violent temper. reasons which convinced Luther. &quot. to his great consternation. If Luther was not the child of Satan. and Academy of Erfurt. in the 22nd year of his age. he says. (20) Nat. &quot. cit. but was so terrified that he tried to escape. 4. &quot. was not. 293 I am I have added the devil. and what &quot. were both made fast finally. Resp. Alex. and a Priest. p. but as the vulgar meaning of that word was not the most elegant. by an evil spirit. Such are the powerful Frederick Staphil (17) relates a curious anecdote concerning this matter.It made a vow to that effect. to beg as was the custom of the Order at that period. ad lib. one of his companions broke open the . in the Convent of Erfurt (19). and they escaped (18). 31.

therefore. Elector of Saxony. (22) Nat. petulant. 3 Hermant. n. cit. t. who conceived a very great liking for him (21). This was John Staupitz. p. loc. Bernino. The Archbishop committed the publica Tetzel. cit. . (24) Nat. Histor. He was certainly a man of fine read in the Schoolmen and genius. . 6. &c. John who had already discharged a similar commission in aid of the Teutonic Knights. tion of these Indulgences to a Dominican Doctor. to raise a fund according to the more to finish the building of St. n. 227. . committed to Cardinal Peter . ambitious. both that in all his works we scarcely find a polished period . . to settle some dispute raised in his Order. t. the promulgation of a Brief. Leo X. or. with the Duke s permission. and went to Wittemberg. writers he was so vain of himself. and having he returned to Wittemberg. granting many Indulgences to those who contributed alms for this purpose. Thomas. Rome. when they were attacked by the Duke. loc. and who was reputed an eloquent preacher. Nat. art. where Duke Frederick. Gotti. sec. (23) Hermant. rugged.of Muscovy. and truth compels us (21) Hermant. 228. 1. a subtle reasoner. Van Ranst. Haer. deeply taking his Holy Fathers. 6. commenced by Julius II. He immediately began to attack these abuses. even then. cit. s Church. duty of preaching against the abuse of these Indulgences. filled with proud. Alex. so much esteemed by the tells Council of Trent. Alex. seditious. as Hermant for the recovery of the Holy Land. in speaking and writing. 1 . 298 Gotti Ver. generally received opinion (24). 19. evil-tongued and he was a man of even his moral character was tainted (22) . that he despised the most learned of the Church. Vicar-General of the Augushighly displeasing to and a great favourite of the Duke of Saxony he. charged Luther with the tinians. n. Cone. sec. satisfactorily arranged every thing. 1. loc. sec. vices but. Van Ranst. . in which he He was soon after sent to obtained the chair of Philosophy. The entire expense of degree was borne by the Elector. and he especially attacked the doc trines of St. c. as Cochleus tells us. but so rude and great eloquence. and received from Andrew Carlostad.294 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Albert. 108. Alex. 1. Archbishop and Elector of Mayence. us (23). c. 11. Van Ranst Rel. wishing. c. Dean of the University. 2. had a little before founded a University. the dignity of Doctor of Theology.

and immediately wrote a long letter to the Archbishop of Mayence. Van 108. if I deserve death. sec. who proved the doctrine of the Church. (25) Hermant. in which he gave an exag gerated account of the errors preached in their distribution. 3. reject. presiding and speaking in you . 300. he protests that he adopts no other sentiments than those With such of the Scriptures. in which he asserted that the doctrine of Indulgences altogether was a very He did not rest satisfied with sending them to doubtful matter. and the most remote countries of the North (25). which scandalized the people. and to this letter . Holy Father. n. and from these few sparks. Sweden.&quot. sec. 3.AND THEIR REFUTATION. the Archbishop he posted them on the doors of the Church of All Saints in Wittemburg. His. In the year 1518. p. to admit that abuses 295 had crept into the mode of collecting these He. c. he retorted tions as heretical. or destroy. Norway. prostrate all I possess protestations of submission did he endeavour to deceive the Pope. I refuse not to die&quot. vivify will. in a pamphlet. Leo X. that whoever took an Indulgence was certain of salva and was absolved from all punishment and penalties of sin. entitled &quot. but against the validity of Indulgences altogether. he tacked ninety-five propositions. in the most insolent manner. to defend himself. 228 Gotti. but through Denmark. but as Cardinal Gotti (27) remarks. that fire tion. and had them publicly sustained by his scholars He was answered by Father Tetzel in in the University. and as he was armed with Inquisitorial powers. Van Ranst. revoke. 7. c. I recognise your voice as the voice of Christ. call. condemned these proposi When this came to Luther s ears. &quot.Resolutiones Disputationum de Indulgenand in the preface. 8. I offer myself. was kindled which not only ran through Germany. clearly saw the poison which flowed from the pen of the former. in this very letter. p. (26) Ap. having now received both Luther s and Tetzel s writings. 2. and intends merely to oppose the Schoolmen. 299. . and accordingly summoned him to Rome. (27) Gotti. however. with at your Holiness feet. such as. he thus addresses him : tiarum virtute . (26). not only alms. Ranst. preached against the abuses which existed. as you . sent printed copies of them through all Germany. Luther sent his conclusions to the Pope. . n. Frankfort.

ibid. to write to his Holiness to the same effect. and his Saints. as Luther already had a powerful party in his own country he. 20. was only required have the faith of obtaining them. Luther made some reply. . . a latere. sec. Gotti. and the want of means to undertake so long a journey. sec. that he should reject all doctrines censured by the Church. The Pope . as he had been appointed (30). n. and finally. loc cit. 4. . and added. 230. Her- (30) (31) (32) p. the appoint judges in Germany to try the cause (28). & Van Ranst. commissioning him to call on the secular power to have Luther arrested. n. dreaded to entrust the case to the decision of the Germans. 2. Luther was alarmed at finding himself in Augsburg. loc. Gotti. and the University of \Yittemberg. cit. sent as his Legate. 4. therefore. and presented a writing signed with his (28. and four Senators of Augsburg. without a safe conduct (although presenting himself without it). 10. cit. 2. declared in the Constitution Unigenitus to that he also asserted it that to obtain the fruit of the Sacraments. then totally Noel Alexander (31) he obtained one from Maximilian Hermant. but Cajetan reminded him that he denied the treasure of the merits of Jesus Christ. smiling. sec. Secondly That he should cease from publishing them. Van Ranst. t. 302. t. 230. cit. loc. to absolve him from all censures. Van Kanst. said he did not come to argue with him. and on the following day he presented himself before the Legate. and imposed three That he should retract the Augsburg. called Car dinal Cajetan. Luther excused himself on the plea of delicate health. n. in case he retracted his errors in maintaining 8.Luther answered that he never broached any doctrine in oppo Church. mant. Catholic. and Varillas wonders at his boldness in . sec. Alex. Thomas Vio. Hermant. 9. 229. as Clement VI. c. Gotti. in virtue sition to the of which. Nat. 19. them to excommunicate him On the Legate s arrival in before him. and Gotti. but should he obstinately persist (29). he summoned Luther commandments on him First : propositions asserted by him. c. that he had strong suspicions of the Roman judges he also induced Duke of Saxony. (29) Nat. which was granted him. . Alex. the Pope dispensed Indulgences. or. together with a Notary Public. 11. says. deny it (32). and asked time for reflection. Hermant. but the Cardinal.296 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. but to receive his submission. c. 3. and to request him to .

and to come.. 108. the Cardinal. and the next day pre sented a document. Fribourg. The Cardinal still insisted on the three primary conditions. not only against the value of Indulgences. Alex. n. by introducing to the people a religion so much the more pernicious. saying but still he flattered himself that the one obtained was so much Luther. 4. and had the appeal posted on the church doors (35). but. repugnant to the Scriptures. but also against the merits of the Saints. and that he was pre . . propping up his opinions by false Cardinal Cajetan heard him out. and Lou vain. if his adversaries were commanded The Cardinal gave him no answer. saying that his opinions were founded on truth. soon slipped through his fingers. and wrote to retract his heresy. sec. unless he came prepared to Luther then left Augsburg. likewise (34). 10. nevertheless. or reason that his propositions were true. past. Van Ranst. but. loc. own hand. Luther asked time to answer in writing. 3. to keep silent. however. appealed from the Cardinal to the Pope. 11. ning. afterwards. and good works. which consumed so great a part of Europe. as it was so favourable to sensual licence. 297 that he followed and revered the Roman Church in all her acts and sayings. 9. Alex.cit. Luther himself. and (33) Nat Gotti. p 302. pared to defend them. well aware that he had written several things which were not in accordance with the Catholic Faith. for he then persisted that he had neither said nor written anything gained. 302. and supported by reason and Scripture. (35) Van Ranst. present. 1 . and then told him reasoning. and to keep silence regarding Indulgences. that great fire. in its commencement. n. he now revoked and unsaid it. wished to have a still more ample retractation. not again to appear before him. Van Ranst to be a imprisoning Luther. it was his wish still to subject himself to the Church. Councils. or. when he had him censures Cajetan for not in Augsburg without a of such deceitful cun knowing him man so extinguishing. Decretals. or of Paris (33). and that if ever he said anything against her. c. so Luther. Fathers.AND THEIR REFUTATION. sec. (34) Nat. in which he advanced many opinions. that he would submit them to the judgment of the three Imperial Academies of Basle. The Cardinal. fearing sentence would be passed against him. p. safe conduct. notwithstanding.

p. The Legate. accompanied with dreadful convulsions Luther and of Luther. telling him that this friar was a heretic. 4. and afterwards from the Pope to the Council (37). declaring himself guiltless of any crime against Faith. his cries were like the roar of a lion. seeing the obstinacy of Luther. &quot. 11.&quot. : we then let it be war. published a Bull. (39) Hermant. and he indited a most humble letter. and (the Pope) has refused peace. in which he declared that the Supreme Pontiff alone had the right of granting them without . sec. : then he appealed. shall see whether Luther or the Pope shall be first hurt. . Alex. Oper. wrote to the 10. of Mayence. began to make the most rabid attacks on the Pope. I (37) Gotti. Luther s most determined enemy (39). Alex. calling him tyrant and Antichrist He &quot. Notwithstanding his boasting. and he died without Sacraments. n. Van Ranst. 3. the judgment of God. and that denying Christ was exalting the Church. dreadful convulsions racked every one of his limbs. the most single word . Hermant says the Elector protected Luther. who. 108. Nat. in his last agony. p. limitation. (38) Gotti. he was attacked with apoplexy. or rather to ruin him. or at all events banish him from his States. Melancthon immediately posted off to assist.&quot. 229. as if to mark While hunting. on the validity of Indulgences. sec. that see. Elector Frederick. p. on his escape from the power of the Legate. 208. on which he shed so much lustre. first to the Pope.&quot. 1518. n. sec. Van 229 .298 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. This protector met with a dreadful death. Hermant. 302 . not only on account of his affection for his newly founded University of Wittemberg. . t. or with out any signs of repentance. On the 9th of November. c. and that he should send him to Rome. Kanst. but they could not obtain from him a he had lost the use of all his senses. Leo X. and praying for a continuance of his protection (38). from the treasures of the merits of Jesus Christ . said he. 3. 12. says (36) new Latin language. that teaching the truth was disturbing the Church. It is unworthy of his protection. the Legate s letter to the Elector terrified him. but also through hatred to the Elector Albert. 11. c. n. &quot. 1 . however. c. n. 4. (36) Luther. 302. 1 . I there heard that deriding the whole transaction. Nat. The Elector immediately transmitted the letter to Luther.

four of his propositions were censured. and Pro-Chancellor of Ingoldstad. Ecchius. and of good works. of grace. they agreed to leave the whole matter to the decision of the Universities of Erfurt and Paris. not only among the youth of the University. in which. 299 and that whoever refused to believe communion of the Church. and condemned that of Luther. his doctrines were not so heretical as soon after the dispute. a good Catholic. though he said it was of human. Exurge retractation. Varillas. 3. solely condemning the abuse of them. after an examination of the writings on each side. Luther followed. Uncle of the Elector Frederick. for then the force of truth absolving sins. Domine. did not altogether reject Indulgences. began to write about this time. 48.AND THEIR REFUTATION. should be excluded from the he had a conference with Luther. and sent his Com missaries to publish it in Germany. The University of Paris. and In this conference. at the same time. were argued by Carlostad. and . through the instrumentality of Duke George. became his disciples. ordering. . which excited his ire to a great pitch against that University. as heretical (see third part of this history). accompanied by Car- and Ecchius. and own palace. who afterwards scattered themselves through all Saxony. received the doctrine One hundred and of Ecchius. tMa was an article of Faith. daring which Luther gained many adherents in Wittemberg. /. in his This conference took place in Duke George s city of Leipsic. (40) Van Ranst. in which he condemned forty-one of his principal errors seeing his party every &quot. After debating on many questions there. the primacy of the Pope. but some of the Professors. the Emperor Maximilian I. died. p.&quot. The same year his doctrines were condemned by the 12. obliged him to admit the Papal primacy. secular and regular. Indulgences. it. the power of lostad reserving cases. In the year 1519. in six discussions. and no hope of his then published in Rome his famous Bull. day gaining strength. and even some of the clergy. and there was an interregnum of six months. Leo X. a man of great learning. Universities of Cologne and Louvain (40). The following year there was another conference between Luther. p. in 1519. 303 . and disputed on Purgatory. the doctrines of free-will. not divine right he also acknowledged a Purgatory. and subsequently.

almost every heresy of former ages. and tramples on his servants and denies good works. he brought to light again in his works. how ever.&quot. and from the year 1521 to 1546. and throws upon God the cause of all evil . 230. the impious against the Pope. and also that all who followed or favoured him. c.He thus defiled everything holy : . and to the secular power. says (43) &quot. 1523. exclaimed son of perdition. and opens a licence to sin . Cochleus. 108. burned in the public square of Wittemberg. t. so : may eternal &quot. he orders his Commissaries to excommunicate the perverse. at the expiration of which. the Cardinals. His Holiness. (42) Gotti. From that day to the day of his death. and promises to receive with clemency whoever returns before the expiration of two months. 13. and all the Roman sink : of corruption . Canon Law. (43) Cocleus de act. n. The two months being he published another Bull. and the Book of the Decretals of the As you have opposed the Saints of the fire destroy you and then in a voice of &quot. and the burning of his books in Rome. incurred all the Luther. penalties and censures fulminated against heretics (41). his books to be publicly burned in Rome.300 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. . the Pope. & Script. magnifies faith. the people against (41) Hermant. c. saying Lord.&quot. declaring Luther a heretic. let us wash our hands in their blood (42). the Bull.&quot. . stirs up the laity against the clergy. 1. speaking of Luther s writings. hand them over as soon as he heard of the publication of the first Bull of 1520. he never ceased writing against the Pope and the Catholic Church. . Ann. finally. takes the power out of the hands of the magistrate. depresses justice. Luth. when he died. he preaches Christ. princes. elevates mercy. even then exhorts Luther and his followers to return to the fold. Let us fight with all our strength against that fury. passed. destroys all law.

-Conferenee publishes a Decree. on receipt of the letter. admitted the books were his but as to defending them. as that was an affair of importance to the Word salvation of souls. if he acknowledged himself the author of the books published in of his patron. and remains 14. the Elector. who is concealed by Elector in one of his Castles. by his harangue. rejected by Luther. with the Zuinglians . especially as at the request he obtained not only permission to from the Emperor himself. ther refuses to come . said that as the Diet was now so near. -Council of Trent. hoping. 19. to banish him from his territories. -The Second Diet of Augsburg. published the injurious Formula of the Interim. He said. April. and pouring forth calumnies and vituperations against the Holy See. it would be better to refer the 13. and Melancthon s Profession of Faith . Charles V. Marriage of Luther with an Abbess.. . The first Conference was in the Imperial Diet. in the name of the Emperor. -Dispensation given by the Lutherans to 21. At the request of the Pope. 15. to obtain a favourable reception for his doctrine. cursing the Council. Denmark. Norway. and the The an answer. to which Lu the Landgrave to have two wives.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to deliver up Luther. where Luther appeared before Charles V. in which Charles V. Edict of the Emperor in favour of Religion. 18. he . he required time to give of God. Melancthon s Treatise. The Elector. he dies. 22. 13. 24. where the Emperor 16.-Another in favour of the authority of the Pope. Luther was most anxious to appear in this illustrious assembly. at all events. in whole matter to its decision. attend. 301 THE DIETS AND PRINCIPAL CONGRESSES HELD CONCERNING THE HERESY OF LUTHER. and if it was his intention to defend them. against which the heretics protest. -The heresy of Luther takes possession of Sweden.-Edict of the Emperor against Luther. -Diet of Spire.-Diet of Augsburg. assembled Worms. 20. but also a safe conduct his name. and Luther arrived in Worms. then wrote to the Elector of Saxony. The Diet assembled in 1521. 25. 17.-League of Smalkald broken up by the Emperor. and other Kingdoms.-The Lutherans divided into fifty-six Sects. Luther still continued augmenting his party.-Diet of obstinate. 23. or. the Worms. on the ] 7th of Ecchius asked him.

especially St. 1. . near Alstad. that among his books some contained arguments on Keligion. (1) Nat. in which he declared Luther a notorious and obstinate heretic. and said he could not absolutely retract anything he had taught in his lectures. and of its Orders and States. well concealed and guarded. 14. as he was in his power. and wrote many of his works. should not were filled with heresies.302 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. He remained there he nearly ten months. after the term of the safe conduct ordained. Van Ranst. loc. his sermons. under the severest penalties. for the Elector Frederick. n. and had him conveyed to a place of security. 175. an edict. (3) Hermant. . The Emperor. p. Van Eanst. that. cit. A report was then spread abroad. Ecchius required a more lucid then turned to the Emperor. He protect him. 205. Notwithstanding. were it not . and he next day said. t. Emperor gave him a day for consideration. Thomas. dismissed him. the slaves of the Pope. provoked him to it. or his writings. 304. and he confessed that he was guilty of excess in his attacks on his adversaries. he should be proceeded against wherever found (2) and he would not have escaped. futed his Thomas heretical. perceiving his obstinacy. In the works written here. /. but the Elector had him conveyed to the Castle of Watzberg. whose works he wonder he called who centuries before had con own pestilential errors (3). others were written in his own defence. 230. fallible judges in this 14. c. cit. he pub lished. Alex. and prohibited any one to receive or moreover expired. a place which Luther afterwards called his Patmos. which was twenty days. sec. but he disdained violating the safe conduct he himself had given him. that Luther was imprisoned before the expiration of the safe conduct. first He and that both Pope and Councils were matter (1). who bribed the soldiers who escorted him. (2) Nat. and these he could not conscientiously retract . with consent of the Princes of the Empire. and there finished the plan of his heresy. p. Luther principally attacked the said scholastic Theologians. 4. him. 231 . loc. after some con He might then have arrested versation with him. in Thuringia. but that they answer. Varill. on the 26th of May. Van Kanst. 4. until convinced by Scripture and reason. We the works of St. Alex. dalla. .

and Agricola appeared on one side. and Zuinglius. or Sacramentarians. 244. In Providence of God is apparent : the Roman Church could thus oppose to the innovators that unity of doctrine she always possessed. that in these places in which the edict of Worms was accepted. Frederick of Francis. p. Saxony. also a priest. Luther. by a sacrilegious marriage. (5) Van Kanst. according to the interpreta The Elector tion of the Fathers approved by the Church. The same year another Conference. Catholics. on the other. Alex. Several other Conferences were held to remove. q. t. and appealed to a future Council. had already violated his vows. matters should remain as they were until the celebration of a General Council. About this period Luther married an Abbess of a His fellow-heresiarch Zuinglius. Spire. besides. 4. by the Emperor and its restoration could not be effected without public disturb ances. They agreed on all points. and that the Gospel should be explained. 303 In the year 1529. to endeavour to establish a union between their respective sects. 306 . Dukes of Luneburg. and Hedio. Ecolampadius. (4) Nat. 10. n. if possible. 15. and the heretics were always confounded on this point (5). I 6 . . Osiander. Jonas. Bucer. Nat. another Diet was held in the city of s orders. only he was restrained by the Elector of Saxony. 2. who. protested against this Decree. George of Branderburg. under the patronage of the Landgrave of Hesse. Ernest and Wolfgang of Anhalt. It was. n. with the exception of the Eucharist. Brenzius. as the Zuinglians totally denied the Heal Presence of Christ. and from this protest arose the famous designation of Protestant 16. cit. confederate cities (thirteen. or to some judge not suspected. t. (4). as contrary to the truth of the Gospel. but that wherever the ancient religion was changed. in which it was decided. but all this the the discussion of doctrine objected to then by the ended without coming to any agreement. sec. composed of Luther ans and Zuinglians. 9. c. Van Ranst. Melancthon. Alex. ex Sleidano. was held in Marpurg. 9. loc. shuddered at the Convent. 306. and Luther would have done the same long before. Hermant. and fourteen according to Protestant historians). decided that Mass should freely be celebrated in the places infected with Lutheranism.AND THEIR REFUTATION. though a heretic. it should be observed .

she came across his treatise on the nullity of religious vows. the Syrian. whose duty superstitions . likewise. who bowed down before the idol. p. he married her with great solemnity. it was to carry the sword of state before the Emperor (7). and requested him to visit her. induced her to leave her Convent. The Emperor and and the feast of In the July of 1530. an order was given to the Princes to attend the procession. sec. like Naam. and that. who said that the heresies of his day all ended. cit. embraced a religious life. nevertheless. and the Lutheran by Melancthon. c. Herman t. Conrad Wimpin. (7) Nat. On the other hand. and protested he would oppose it by every means in his power. where. Van Ilanst. who endeavoured as much as possible to soften down the This is the famous Confession opinions opposed to Catholicity. on the plea that this was one of the Roman the Elector of Saxony. The Lutheran Princes presented to the Emperor the Profession of Faith drawn up by Philip Melanc thon. that he soon after induced the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (6) to celebrate his sacrilegious nuptials. and finally became Abbess. the famous Diet of Augsburg was all the Princes being assembled at the Diet.. afterwards the Creed of the majority of Lutherans. and who. con sulted his Theologians.304 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. a lady of noble family. Second That in good : (6) Varillas. and John Cochleus. discourses. The Protestants refused. Corpus Christi falling at the same time. who constantly opposed it. Reading one of Luther s works. Luther was now quite taken with Catherine Bora. being now dead and such was the force of his example and all . without any vocation for that state. that in this case he might consider it a mere human ceremony. he might attend. t. and He called on her frequently. marriage of a Religious. Those marriages provoked that witticism of Erasmus. 1. 243. held. . Brenzius and Schnapsius. but poor. who gave it as their opinion. In this Diet the Catholic party was represented by John Ecchius. Alex. In those Articles they admitted First That we are not justified by Faith alone. loc. 17. in mar riage. and come to Wittemfinally berg with him. n. 2. in a Convent at Misnia. P 307. /. but by Faith and Grace. . 11 . 4. like a comedy. when the King leaned on his arm in the temple. forced by poverty. 306. devoid of shame. the Elector Frederic. of Augsburg.

but this Con tells us. 445. as Sleidan &quot. some We if he does not cast us off&quot. 11 . Campeggio ference never was closed. to preserve the unity of doctrine. mant. Roman Church . (8). and that obedience was due to them by jurisdiction Pastors. When Francis Varillas (9) mentions a curious I. he says. 10. in her clemency. by heard of this. in Spiritual matters. and Priests.. different from the if. Fifth That the Saints pray to God for us. though also man. They allowed the of Bishops. from either approving or condemning their invocation. In ten other chapters of less importance they agree with Catho lics. hoping it would render easier the establishment of peace. but in Fourth That free-will exists the reprobate. little matters. 244. to teach in the University (in which he did not succeed). works not only Grace alone concurs.&quot. coll 1. 305 wise. in each species. without Divine Grace he cannot be justified. 18. laity are of avail. . likewise. she will relax or wink at still profess obedience to the Roman Pontiff. but our co-operation like Third That the Church contains not only the elect. The Emperor. we are ready to yield her obedience. in saying that Jesus Christ is pre sent in the Eucharist. Alex. Constance. for each side. cit. joined to the commissions two jurists. fact relative to this. c. : &quot. Her- (9) Varillas. in which he laid it down as a principle. although he was most anxious for the establishment of peace. t. however. and that censures published by them. that it was necessary to preserve the pre eminence and authority of the Roman Pontiff.l. invited Melancthon to Paris. and did not condemn the who communicated in one kind only.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Nothing could exceed Luther s rage when he and he told Melancthon that he had a mind to break with him altogether. according to the rule of Scripture.l. and that he was now about to ruin the Religion it cost him twenty years labour to establish. n. They agreed. abstracting. Preachers. same Diet. and that it is a pious practice to venerate their memories on certain days. Melancthon was not permitted by Luther to sign the treaty. p. he received from him a pamphlet. because. (8) Nat. destroying the authority of the Pope. King of France. loc. The Zuinglians presented their confession of Faith at the in the name of the four cities of Strasburg. along with Ecchius and Melancthon. as he declares in his letter to the Legate We have no dogma.

in 1539. however. a city of Franconia. to wait for a General Council. 307. It was forbidden them to allow any innovations in Religious matters. to defend with force of arms the doctrines they professed . the Emperor promulgated an edict. were made been broken by of Protestantism would have had not Maurice of Saxony. and obliged surrender his States into his hands (13). formed the famous League of Smalcald. was vic torious. c. This Philip is the same who obtained. Before they left. The Protestants refused obedience to this Decree. or any works contrary to Religion to be published in their respective territories. loc. the Diet. that all hopes of peace being at an end. 4. but was to beg pardon of the Emperor prostrate at his feet. 13. on the Elbe. as they called prisoners (11). the Landgrave. published an edict. The Landgrave obtained his liberty. Lutheri & Sleidano. p. and Philip. This was the cause of the famous battle of Mulberg. the nephew of the imprisoned Elector. Nat. on account of their errors regarding the Holy Sacrament. in which Charles V. asked leave to depart. (13) Nat. . Alex. 10. in fin. Van Ranst. Luther and other faithful Ministers of the Gospel. cit. 307. 19. ex Cochlaeo in Act. 7 Van Ranst. 10. 2. and Lutherans. which differed from the Lutheran one At the breaking up of only in the doctrine of the Eucharist. which he promised he would induce the Pope to summon in six months (10). n. condemning the sects of the Anabaptists. 4. (10) Nat. in which the Lutheran Princes and cities were allowed. /. the two chiefs of the heretical party in Germany. Alex.306 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in 1547. Alex. The whole power this defeat. 24j. Meningen. until the 15th of April following. Hermant. and there. taken up arms against Charles (12). (12) t. . sec. and the rest of the Empire. sec. p. c. Orders of the Empire. and Lindau. 1. Zuinglians. 19. n. Elector of Saxony. in 1531. sec. t. and met in Smalcald. and commanding to hold themselves in readiness to attend at the Council. 4. and John. to accept these articles. and again become united with the Catholic Church. the Emperor subscribed by the remaining Princes and and all should persevere in the ancient all Religion. n. Alex. and that all should unite in opposi The Lutherans refused tion to the Anabaptists and Zuinglians. (11) Nat. but they refused the admission of the Zuinglians into this League. from 20.

in 1567. but now that was assembled he would not attend it. 1545.. . and persuaded himself that Luther and the Theologians of his sect would grant him a dispensation to marry another. and six other persons. previous after the loss of his faith. p. Luther frequently Pope to summon a General Council. Melancthon. died. 1. though the same time. to his marriage he always led a moral life. t. They say they could not introduce into the New Testa ment the provisions of the Old Law. /. ber. was formally concluded under Pius IV. Melancthon. and the scandal they would give by yielding to his wishes. could not. knowing full well his doctrines would be there condemned. as Christ says they shall be two in one flesh. in order to avoid scandal it would be necessary that the second marriage should be celebrated privately. but they likewise say that there are certain cases in which the New Law can be dispensed with that the case of the Prince was one of . 530. 1. under Paul was opened on the 13th of Decem was continued under Julius III. Luther.. 21. that remarkable dispensation to marry two wives at Yarillas says (14). c. 531) gives the rescript in full by which they dispense with him. these but that. . and though they well knew the difficult position in which they were placed. content himself with one wife. that the Landgrave. 307 themselves. Thus Luther refused to attend the (14) Varillas. they reject the decisions of both. which permitted a plurality of wives. in December. 1563. according to De Thou. condemned by a Council. Bucer. The Landgrave The Council of Trent III. : Such has been the invariable practice of heresiarchs to refute the decisions of the Pope they appeal to a Council . The marriage was soon after privately celebrated in presence of Luther. He well knew whom he had to deal with he assembled them in Wittemberg. and five other Lutheran Doctors.. in the presence of few witnesses and this document is subscribed by . 2. he appealed from the Legate to the Pope then from the Pope not sufficiently in formed to the Pope better informed then from the Pope to a called on the it Council and now from the Council to himself. First. Varillas (P.AND THEIR REFUTATION. still his influence had greater weight with them than the : laws of Christ or the dictates of their consciences. and being many times suspended for various causes.

and thus he died. him he died in the sixty-third year of his ever. : &quot. A longer journey. and Paul. t. 366. triumphal car to Wittemberg. p. John. Saying this he died.454. 5. dying I will be his death&quot. who refused even to avail themselves of the them for that effect. (17) Varillas.lt. news of Luther s death was brought to Trent he went to Eisleben towards the end of January. and a great multitude. 1. (16) Gotti. While the Fathers were making preparations for the Fourth Session. 1546. could not be granted (18). the Pope while living. 7. but always refused to attend (17). and of the thousands of souls he led to His body was placed in a tin coffin. : Gospel.308 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 2. that it may turn out well. moriens ero inors tua. (16). The Lutherans were invited to the Council by various briefs of the Popes. . and borne on a perdition. (18) Varillas. and his three sons. p. : . and may I lose my head if I do not defend my opinions against that which comes forth from my mouth is not my all the world safe conduct given to . They at first split into two sects. t. supper and enjoying himself. and after his death his example was followed other Protestants. Pomeranius also composed that inscription for his Pestis tomb. (15). Van Ranst. He exclaimed in a rage I will go. (15) Cochleus in Actis Lutheri. Martin. 5. worthy alike of the master and the disciple I was the plague of eram vivus. 105. 393. on the re-opening of the Council but they required conditions which . when ho was then told he was invited to the Council. one of his followers Pray for our Lord God and his &quot. /. c.34. U4. Philip Melanc- thon preached his funeral oration in Latin. for the Council of Trent and the abominable Pope are grievously opposed to him. both on foot and horseback. &quot. to arrange some differences. at the invitation of some of his friends. was before . Papa&quot. n. and Pomeranius in German. 25. he said to Justus Jonas. s. jesting as usual.. and went to receive the reward of all his blasphe mies against the Faith.p. 22. p. &quot. &amp. he was a few hours after attacked with dreadful pains. by the Council. on the 17th of February. Cathe rine. 24. Kaging against the Council a little before his death. 16. sec. c. p. After eating a hearty age. Varillas.&quot. They were afterwards summoned by the Emperor Ferdinand. 2. 308 Bernin. 4. . in a coach. followed by his concubine. how anger but the anger of God&quot.

364. in death. 24. cit. and these two. art. 1558. Eric XIV. 19. In the year 1552 he again tarnished his honour. 10. t. were divided into fifty-six sects (20). of all it into the neighbouring king This kingdom. written by heretics . John. King of the Romans. usurping the authority to decide on questions of Faith and eccle We should. t. Gustavus. celebrated in Augsburg. he made peace with him. gained over King Gustavus. for after routing Maurice of Saxony. and continued the Faith of the nation Gustavus Erickson. 122. to deceive the people. for his younger brother. but his reign was but short. 2. and dethroned him in established in Sweden. their doctrines. by Olaus Petri. /. as Lindan afterwards informs us. It was his wish that the old all ceremonies should be kept up. (22) Nat. who imbibed it Wittemberg along with many others. (21) Nat. Justus. 309 Rigorous and Relaxed Lutherans (19). 24. loc. . giving himself up to God alone. art. through the disciples. . 5. and also per mitted the Religious to marry. Germany received the finally established in till the reign of this Catholic Faith in 1155. in Spain. 10. (19) Varill. 32J. declared war against him. in 1547. at his death. the Emperor Charles V. Lutheranism was intro duced into in the University of country in 1523. at first infected Sweden. Luther s heresy. Alex. Empire to his retired to the Jeromite the fifty-eighth year of his age (22). government of the brother Ferdinand. p. he tarnished his glory by publishing the famous Interim. c. who gave leave to the preachers to propound. Roraem in Luther. and granted freedom of worship in his states to the professors of the Confession of Augs In the year 1556 he gave up the burg. In another Diet. . instrumentality of his soon spread from first doms. and introduced new thus in four years Lutheranism was ones. and the Tiphos of Constans. and idolatrous. in Estremadura. the Ecthesis of Heraclius. /. as Noel Alexander (21) tells us. but in the following year. c. and Monastery of St. left the crown to his son. but he caused all the ancient books to be burned.AND THEIR REFUTATION. p. hold this Interim in the same detestation as the Enoticon of Zeno. & (20) Lindan Epist. restored the Catholic religion in that city 23. which was 1416. and preparing for which overtook him on the 21st of September. p. 5. 17. he . Alex. thus siastical discipline.. says Noel Alexander. and to leave to follow.

sooner than give up the faith she embraced. Charles. therefore. Fourth That the Church service should be cele brated in the vulgar tongue. dispositions. the good him in the Faith. and to the present religion but Lutheranism is publicly professed in 4 ( 23) Historia Kelig. Jovet. and he gave up all hopes. who governed the kingdom in the Sovereign s absence. who de clared Sigismund s right to the throne null and void. work by publishing a liturgy opposed and intending gradually to abolish the heresy. it and transmitted day no other Sweden (23). and Sweden to the Church. especially as the Pope excellent missioner to strengthen desired to re-unite sent him an He commenced to the Lutheran. usurped months after the the crown. Before John came to the crown. a zealous Catholic. . being settled on the throne. He was succeeded by his son. he was a good Catholic. She left the king . t. one of the greatest enemies Catholicity had either in Sweden or Germany but his daughter Christina renounced the throne. His Queen. established Lutheranism in Sweden. King of Poland. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. the King was already wavering in his determination to support the true Faith. he hoped to gain Sweden altogether to the Faith. a sister of Sigismund Augustus. son Sigismund. and his crime was sanctioned by the States. then King of Poland. That the married Bishops and Priests should have liberty to Third That Communion should be given in retain their wives. to his son. and followed the religion of his States. if his Holiness would grant four condi He tions : First That the nobility should not be disturbed in the Second possession of the ecclesiastical property they held. who reigned for six years. 2. her cousin. dom to Charles Gustavus. fearful of causing a revolt with which he was this unfavourable answer decided him. both kinds. The Pope consulted the Cardinals. When this answer arrived. but refused his request. on account of his religion. that she survived but a short time. p. Charles V. 324. and lived and died in the Catholic Church. Gustavus Adolphus. as he could not well grant him what he refused to so many other Princes. In twelve King followed her. was so much aifected by the change in her husband s threatened . and left the throne to his Charles of Sudermania. then wrote to the Pope.310 1569. saying..

AND THEIR REFUTATION. and water they have no There are. as Christian permitted the Scotch Presbyterians to found churches there. there. content with this. till lately. preach their doctrine. but they were till lately destitute of Priests and In Lapland. Regnor I. preserve many Ca tholic traditions. . however. There are also some Catholics. as he was de throned by his subjects. though the spirit of the age is opposed to persecution. and was succeeded by Christian III. Frederick. and fire. in 1523 Lutheranism was introduced by Christian II. (24) Joves. with all his family. There are many Calvinistic congregations in Den mark. KB. and Iceland is Lutheranism at the present day. till The judgment of God. soon fell on him. some Pagans remain as yet. but they were obliged to assemble privately for the Holy Sacrifice. had Convents Dominicans. 25. and against every Catholic who defended his religion. indeed. p. Denmark till the religion was established by year 826. Franciscans. and even now. This impious Monarch met an awfully sudden death while he was banqueting on Good Friday. 343. they labour under many restraints and disabilities. the sacrifice. and continued to be the only religion of the kingdom. Norway. who adore the spirits of the woods.. but now all have disappeared (24). His uncle. Thus in a short time Lutheranism became dominant in these kingdoms. and to his subjects to Not. and likewise the religion of these countries. who completed the final separation of Denmark from the Catholic Church. however. * cit. 311 Denmark and Norway underwent Idolatry was predominant Catholic a similar misfortune in with Sweden. and banished. belongs to Denmark. and continues to hold its sway there. Formerly. but few Catholic Missioner to instruct them. and many sealed their religion with their blood..* . Carthusians. especially in the country parts. he soon began a cruel persecution against the Bishops. and Brigittines. Catholics altogether in the Northern kingdoms. when the was chosen to succeed him. He gave liberty to the Protestants to follow it. Bishops have been appointed lately to Sweden and Norway. Cistercians. though the people.

pondering on the grievousness. 2. They are as follows : First It is a usual. who denied the Real Presence of Christ in the come the forty-one propositions of Luther. from enter Fourth The imperfect charity of one about induces a great fear. That the parts of Penance are three and Satisfaction is founded neither . 285. . and the foulness of his sins. through the mouth of Paul. III. by which a person recollects his years in the bitterness of in his soul. delays the soul. that the Sacraments of the New Law give justifying grace to those who place no hindrance in the way. -His . in his Bull Exurge Domine. and detestation of sins. hypocrite. Contrition. Third The tendency to sin (Fomes peccati). 27. (Constit. Con nor the ancient Holy Christian Doctors. First in order. 28. to trample both on Christ and Paul. and the incur this contrition only makes a man a Seventh That proverb is and a greater sinner. and the best ring eternal damnation : (1) Bernin. Eucharist. in Cochleus s account of Luther s proceedings. is. c.312 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.-Luther Luther condemned by Leo X. 16. the Books against 30. Fifth fession. 4. and better than all the doctrine about conditions given as yet the highest Penance is not to act so again. his erroneous translation of the New Testament 31. which of itself is enough to die necessarily to make the pains of Purgatory. Second To deny that sin remains in a child after baptism. which is obtained by examination. he rejected.-His method of celebrating Mass.-Other Errors taken s Remorse of Conscience. which is found in the Bullarium of Leo X. ERRORS OF LUTHER. and also in Ber 26. Book the Sacramentarians. t. most true.-His Abuse of Henry VIII. -Forty-one Errors of from his Books. Sixth Contrition. 26. 40). p. 29. condemned by Leo X. although there is no actual sin. recollection. nini s (1) works. . ing into heaven. but a heretical opinion. the multitude. and excludes from the kingdom. published in 1520. the loss of eternal beatitude. in Scripture. after leaving the body. sec.

Fourteenth No one ought to answer a Priest that he is contrite. from which the Pope grants Indulgences. obtain them for Indulgences are of no value to those who truly . act as if Ninth When we wish clearly to confess everything. Eighteenth Nineteenththose things that are lawful. the sin remains. has the same power. believe you are absolved. of the Indulgences are pious frauds and are of the number of and remission of good works. but we must also You should on no account you are absolved on account of your contrition. trust. because they have confessed. if you obtain the Priest s absolution. or the Priest should absolve you only in joke. Fifteenth They are in great error who approach the Sacrament of the Eucharist with trust.AND THEIR REFUTATION. have said the prayers and prepa all these eat and drink unto themselves rations for Communion judgment grace Sixteenth : . should declare that the laity should communicate under both kinds. if a Priest cannot be had. but because Whatsoever thou shalt loose. and the Bohemians who do so are not heretics. are no t the merits of Christ schismatics. you are most certainly absolved. but not expedient. Penance is 313 Eighth Presume not by any means to and not even every \vicked sin for it is that you should know all your mortal sins/ and hence. but It this faith makes them and Seventeenth The treasures of the Church. faithful. Eleventh &quot. unless (the Priest remitting them) he believes they are remitted yea. and you will be truly absolved. Thirteenth In the Sacra ments of Penance and the Remission of Sins. in a General Council. fessed. and you.&quot. and believe strongly you are absolved. but if they believe and alone trust. even a woman or child. for the remission of sin and the donation of grace it is believe trust is remitted. nor ought a Priest to ask such a question. Twelfth If by impossibility you should confess without contrition. nevertheless. pure seems advisable that the Church. the Pope or Bishop does no more than the lowest Priest nay. Hence. we we wished to leave nothing to the mercy of God to pardon. or his Saints. any Christian. no of the words of Christ : matter about contrition. Tenth Sins are not remitted to any one. . unless he believes it remitted . impossible in the primitive Church only these manifestly mortal were con life. they will then obtain worthy. a new confess venial sins. I say. not enough. are not conscious to themselves of any mortal sins.

314 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Twentieth They are seduced who believe Indulgences are salutary and useful for the fruit of the spirit. no matter whether approved or condemned by any Thirtieth Some of the articles of John Huss. those who have committed and those who mend their lives. and most Evangelical. Excommunications are merely external penalties. those who have not committed Twenty-third the Church. spiritual and do not deprive a man of the common prayers of Twenty-fourth Christians should be taught rather to love excommunication than to fear it. Twenty-sixth The word of Christ to Whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth. crimes. although not in error. Twenty-second For six classes of persons Indulgences are neither useful nor necessary to wit. is will well performed. the dead. the remission of the punishment due to the Divine justice for their actual sins. of the spirit to is Thirty-second A good work. The Twenty-fifth Pontiff.. and freely contradicting their We is rejected and the other ap have a way open to us for weak and judging their decrees. but not public ones. against the Turks to . with by any means good works. Peter. nevertheless. be it never so a venial sin. con Council. by freely confessing whatever appears true.&quot. who punishes our No man can be certain Thirty-fifth iniquities through them. &c. should think so and so. St. the sick. the successor of Peter. is not the Roman Vicar of Christ all instituted by &quot. Twenty-seventh the Church of morals. demned in the Council of Constance. ex tended but to what St. Vicar over the Churches of the world. Twenty-first Indulgences are necessary only for public crimes. until by a General Council one thing proved. are most Christian. it is. those on the of death. most true. those who are point lawfully impeded. Thirty-third It is against the burn heretics. such as not even the universal The just man sins in Church could condemn. to lay down articles of faith Twenty-eighth a great part of the Church. especially in a matter not necessary to salvation. every good work. Thirty-first acts. Peter himself alone had bound. crimes. and should be granted only to the hardened and impatient. Twenty-ninth ening the authority of Councils. Peter. Christ himself in St. neither sin nor heresy to think the contrary. Thirty-fourth To fight oppose the will of God. nor It is not certainly in the power of the Pope or nor laws If the Pope.

Thirty-eighth The souls in Purgatory are not sure of their salvation Scripture that they are charity. De Formula Missas et Communionis. 5.&quot. 108. as from the treatise &quot. Fifth Those who have made it a precept. Contra Regem.&quot.&quot. 2. Bull. &quot.. &quot. &quot. at least all of . Ad Walarbitro. t. Here are some of his most remarkable errors A Priest. 2.Novi Testament! &quot. Henricum VIII.&quot.&quot.&quot. sec. and satisfying for sin. extracted from various works &quot. in several volumes. Thirty-sixth Free will after sin is a matter of name alone. 1. though he does it in mockery or in jest. Gotti. ad lib. and Cardinal Gotti of Luther. Contra Episc. sec. De Servo and other works. 27. as long them nor is it proved by reason or beyond the state of merit or of increasing Thirty-ninth The souls in Purgatory continually sin. art. t. Alex. 5. diss.&quot. art. OrdiContra Latomum. enjoy a less share the Divine justice themselves. : one to imagine he can make satisfaction for his sins. we think we are also that good works free from sin. &quot.AND THEIR REFUTATION. printed in Wittemberg. Sixth It is confession to a Priest. De ReformaDe Captivitate Babilonica. he sins mortally. by Baptism and contrition .&quot. Tournelly. who commands auricular Whoever wishes to receive the Holy c. Catharini. which God Baptism does not take away all gratuitously pardons. &quot. Thirty-seventh Purgatory cannot be proved from the Holy Scriptures contained in the Canon of Scripture. still both First Second It is a foul error for any validly baptizes and absolves. obliging under mortal sin to communicate at Easter. have sinned greviously themselves.&quot. &quot. . Fourth Led astray by wicked Doctors. denses. p. Souls freed from Purgatory by the suffrages of the of beatitude than if they satisfied living. &quot. (2) Nat. De Indulgentiis. nem. Carlostadium. Ecclesiastical Pre Forty-first Fortieth lates and secular Princes would do no wrong if they abolished the mendicant Orders. Coiiip. not God. &quot. Three are available for increasing merit. &quot.&quot. Respon. sin. tione.&quot. Contra &quot. Contra Anabaptistas. &quot.&quot.&quot. and while one does what is in him. Thol. &c. De Missa privata. 4. 19. there are Besides the errors here enumerated and condemned by the many others mentioned and enumerated by Noel (2).&quot. as they seek relief and dread their punishment. 11. but the Pope. Translatio. Alexander. that he is 315 not in a constant state of mortal sin on account of the most hidden vice of pride.

Seventh The Scriptures Roman Tenth equal in the laity as in the learned. and the Bread. Thirtieth Matrimony is not a Sacrament. Thirty-second of Spiritual order. Eighth The Church in the time of St.316 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.. Fifteenth A sin is venial. the four All vows. should be abolished. Thirteenth Peter was not the Prince of the Apostles. Twentieth The Seventeenth right. requires supreme perfection from every Christian. Gregory was not above other is Churches. &c. Twelfth God We to a layman. it is not necessary they should be infallible. Eleventh There are no such things as Evangelical Counsels. Twentyafter shipwreck.&quot. dangerous error to call Penance. they confer grace. or even to the Church. It it Twenty-second it It is a plank impious to assert that the Sacraments are efficacious signs of grace. that real bread is present on the altar. than to a Pope. nature. Thirty-first The Sacrament of Orders was invented by the Pope s Church. having the authority of Scripture. Impediments affinity. but The primacy of the Roman Pontiif is not of Divine Eighteenth There are not Seven Sacraments. of crime. first Gospel does not permit the Mass to be a sacrifice. : and eat. and of human comments. or right of interpreting altogether.&quot.. and for the present there should only be established Baptism. it Sacrament. should give greater faith they are all Precepts. has been addressed sixth Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth. not by its own believe a Council but as to by the mercy of God. Bishops have not the right of reserving cases. Ninth God commands impossibilities to man. Penance. and believe Twenty-third to be. Twenty-eighth no reason why Confirmation should bo reckoned among Twenty-ninth the Sacraments. TwentyThe Mass is nothing else but the words of Christ Take &quot. unless we should say that when there is undoubted faith. Fourteenth The Pope is the Vicar of Christ by human right alone. and many things were rashly . &quot. both of Religious Orders and of good works. the rest. : TwentyTwenty- seventh There is A change of life is true satisfaction. should receive abstain from it entire (that is under both kinds). are but The Council of Constance erred. the promise of Christ. without heresy. a Council. for to all Christians that were. Twenty-fifth It is sufficient for a brother to confess to a brother. Sixteenth I and the Church never errs in matters of Faith. Nineteenth We can believe.

iii. ther the Epistle of St. . and on this he founded his system. he pub his own doctrines are from heaven. and the Apocalypse . in the Gospel of Matthew alone. Henry VIII. of the Seven Sacraments. we may perceive him. 28. Thirty-fifth . he says. reprehending me Are you always wise ? Do all others err ? Have so many centuries passed in ignorance ? How will it be if you are in error. James and St. no less than thirty-three. St. that the Divine essence neither generates nor is generated. fool. it has lost its indifference. is operated upon saying. . for the will acts spontaneously. heart beat. How often. &quot. In the Diet of Augsburg. that the soul is the substantial form of the human body. he made many changes after the first edition. but by and in another place. chap. such as. For we account a man to be justified by Faith without the works of the law. some one said to him. but a way and return to Thirty-sixth Antecedent grace is that movement is which is made in us without us. calls him a says he will trample on the crowned blasphemer. Paul. In the words of St. Thirty-third All Christians are Priests. and that In the same year. by Faith alone. when he made that &quot. that by grace a necessity is induced into not by coaction. 317 determined on.&quot. lost its liberty. and you lead so many along with you have to damnation ? But at length Christ (the devil he should said) confirmed me. the . a necessitate. the Epistles of St. nothing also. but. has my &quot. he says. Paul to the Hebrews. that by sin the will has necessity by necessity will. In the year 1522. not that liberty which Theologians call a coactione.&quot. both for good and evil. how remorse torments In his book on the Sacrifice of the Mass. &quot. v. ment of Penance Baptism. It was thus Luther explained efficacious grace. that the will of a man. 29. Thirtyfourth Extreme Unction is not a Sacrament there are only two The Sacra Sacraments. and have the same power in the words and Sacraments. answering him. 3. wrote a book in defence Luther. Jude.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Baptism and the Bread. lished his German translation of the New Testament. but without our free and indifferent action. that the Catholics spoke very loudly of this interpretation. he adds the word alone.&quot. in which learned Catholics discover a thousand errors he rejects altoge .&quot. not without our active and vital concurrence (as a stone which is merely passive to physical acts).

and says that was Images of the Deity alone which were he first admitted the Images of the Saints and prohibited. custodiat. &c. said . but Agnus Dei Quod ore sumpsimus. be permitted as useful. . hibits private Masses. &c.&quot.. N. with the exception of the Purification &quot. Confession He To prepare for Communion. as in the Catholic Sacrifice of the Mass. sic jubeo. by the word hoc. Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Sacrament. and (speaking of the Incarnation) as man is God. and one Collect. with three lessons. saying that the word this did crucified. the The is is elevated. alone. &c. says Benedicamus Domine. chaunts Communion to be sung. Pater Noster Domini. . and that Christ is truly and The bread and the body are united in carnally in the supper. that they may be heard by the people. he before the Cross. Ves pers. .&quot. but all in the vulgar tongue he then passed on to the Preface.. the day .&quot. De Formula he abolished the Introits of the Sundays. the Gospel. but to the body of Christ Luther opposed him in his book. After the Consecration. In the year 1525. C. so the . and Complin.318 arrogant answer : THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. the bread is pointed out. J. &c. and the Nicene Creed. the bread and the chalice is said. let my will be sufficient pro ratione voluntas reason for it. I wish so. and Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin he retained the Kyrie.. the Gloria. the use of vestments. the Hours. &c. this. but the words of the Consecration are chaunted as loud as the Pater Noster. and instead of the Ite Missa He gives the chalice to all. he says. Speaking of the Sacrament he says. but it is not necessary. the Sanctus is sung. . sit so. If your Papist prattles any more about tin* him that Doctor Martin Luther wishes it to be &quot. he composed his book. and the Benedictus qui venit. and Corpus D. tell sic volo. and while that is going on. word so . sen Fanaticos in the . the bread. not refer to the bread. Missse et Communionis all In the year 1523. . Carlostad attacked the doctrine of the 31. in place of the last Collect. sung he approves of the Orationes Domine He allows the Jesu. in this it law of Moses speaks of Images. : before he suffered. the Festivals of Saints. may allows Matins to be said. the Epistle. Contra Prophetas &quot. but without any blessing. I order 30.Who.&quot. and pro permits the prayer. immediately after the without any other prayer then the Pax communion follows. est. omitting all the rest he then says &quot..

.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and say. Church. We have the Scripture. then ridicules the interpretation Carlostad. Hospinian quotes a sermon Luther the Sacramentarians. says. my body which shall be delivered for you is this .&quot. if the Lutherans would called his falsely constitutes grant them the liberty to deny the Real Presence. this is my body. be blasphemous to bread. then. &quot. that which is given for for is my body others maintain the text. &quot. baked. if he believes in articles of Faith.&quot. others transpose the word this. He of the others. speaking of the preached against peace they wished to have established. who says the body. he retorts God was made man that it was most insulting to the Divine say Majesty to be crucified by wicked men and concludes. Ecolampadius tortures the word body. In an agreement made with Bucer. which tears asunder and despises the &quot. bread is 319 body and the body bread. and they already begin of Transubstantiation.&quot. this . : to believe It makes but little to remain or not to Transubstantiation. who said it was blasphemous to assert that God was kneaded. on Ecolampadius.&quot. distorts the word this . ing : The Sacramentarians prepare the way &quot. in 1526. but is there any place in Luther. . where.&quot. he granted that the body and blood of Christ remained in the Sa crament only while it was received. This is my body. and made of It would also. others say. Thus Luther a second hypostatic union between the bread and the body of Christ. he &quot. at Wittemberg.&quot. commemoration and others again say. &quot. Returning. this is not an article my of Faith. &quot. by say you. he says Speaking difference for any one to believe the bread remain in the Eucharist. He commences with Zuinglius. then derides their false interpretation of the words. : &quot. &quot. the Scriptures where it is written. for denial of all the nothing.&quot.&quot. says which says. He This is my &quot. he says: Cursed be such concord. This signifies my body. word is is the same as signifies. I suppose.

was There the professors of Wittemberg by the Duke of Saxony. he complained and on that account in that Luther was going too far. -John Agricola. loc. and Andrew Musculus. Alex. at the Diet. and stated his opinions with such moderation. of a very poor family. Van Gotti. tells us. Philip Melancthon. Chief of the Antinomians 37. He was man learning. and so fond of indifference that his disciples formed themselves into a sect called Indifferentists. and the Augsburg Con by him. -John Brenzius. 32. that Luther afterwards He doctrine. in endeavouring to smoothen down his He admitted the liberty of human it (2). n. Hermant. 241. 3 Ranst. but as he was a man of profound appointed one of of the greatest mildness of manner. 38. fession 33. 308. in his History of the Variations. 11 . he became imbued with Lutheran opinions. s. that (2) God is the author of (1) Nat. . as Bossuet. but undecided in his opinions. in writing to his friends. complained that Philip. c.-Andrew Atheists. sec.-His Faith.-Gaspar Sneckenfield abhorred even by 39. at the age of twenty-four. times called Confessionists divided his Confession into twenty-one articles.320 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Luther s chief and best beloved a dis was a German. s. and opponent of the Council of Trent. Hermant. and. He was a man of great genius. Rel. 34. IV. or by him 33.-Melancthon and his Character. and so opposed to strife that he never spoke a harsh word against any one. Luther for his impiety. 4. destroyed will.-Matthias Flaccus. Author of the Centuries. Francis Stancar. composed 30. . Chief of the Ubiquists. cit. and his followers were on that account some (1). he was anxious to bring about a union between all the Religions of Germany . many points smoothened down the harsh doctrines of Luther. a. THE DISCIPLES OF LUTHER. Osiander. in the year 1497. t. Ver. in the Palatinate. 109. ciple. The famous Confession of Augsburg was drawn up Adiaphorists. the Prince of Protestant Theologians.-Martin Chemnitz. 3. 19. 35. p. . 32. rejected the opinion of Luther. born in Brettan. and frequently.

he says. under Luther. ad. He was at length so tired with the way to matters went on among the Reformers. Many authors relate that. whatever it should be (3). 16. loc. in Istria. and retire into Poland. that with all his rians. loc. Qui quails fuerit nescio. that he intended to leave them altogether. and me truly. 8. to arrange a treaty of peace with the Sacramentabut notwithstanding all his endeavours he never could succeed (4). Gotti. at the age of sixty-one. & 9. c. an Matthias Flaccus Ecclesiastical History. his mother said to him son. is an easier more secure his (6). 364. c. I was : My a Catholic . of his eternal salvation. but the Catholic Berti relates (7) that he himself : composed own &quot. cit. says. . All these points were opposed Luther s system. now about which is charge you. : to wait the were very unsteady regarding matters of Faith can be justified by Faith alone and his rival. an. Striger(S) agreed (3) Varillas Hist. according &quot. sec. and became afterwards the Chief of the Rigid Lutherans. Osiander. there decision of the Council.. Alex. 20. /. 2. 24. or in 1560. Van Ranst. (6) Floremund.AND THEIR REFUTATION. He died in Wit- temberg in 1556. Nat. 363. epitaph. /. cit. n. He dis died in Frankfort. I answered is : The Lutheran for salvation&quot. and would imply that he much doubted 34. 32. he only threw oil and not water on the flames. p. in 1575. (8) Ap. says he changed his mind fourteen times on this one subject. the better Faith. the Catholic or the Lutheran He &quot. quoting Cochleus (5). loc. (4) Varillas. tails These are not the words of Faith. according to Van Ranst. 3. 1. 1560. being at the point of death. religion. /. as follows tumulus miseri Iste brevis tenit ossa Philippi.&quot. published in 1560. man . He was the principal of the compilers of the Centuries of Magdeburg. born in Albona. . cit. 2. sustained an in many things with Luther. (7) Berti. His. and to refute which Flaccus Cardinal Baronius published his celebrated Annals. 10. 2. to Gotti. erat. Spondara. He His opinions thus. & Gotti. s. at the age of fifty-five. was selected anxiety to smoothen down any harsh points in the system. p. sin. n. Illiricus. you have caused me to forsake that Faith tell : you are ?&quot. 321 and approved of the Mass. had the misfortune to study in Wittemberg. to appear before God. (5) Gotti.

1. 7. /. loc. 3. erroneous opinion. sec. Varillas. (11) Varillas. taught that Christ was the justifier of man not according to the human. 10. said that Original Sin was the substance itself of man. 7. of (1 2) Mantua. Alex. n. who taught that Christ saved man by the human Thus Osiander taught nature. and his followers were called Substantialists (9). a robber. a thief. 2. (10) Nat Alex. 8. p. L 24. Andrew Osiander was the son of a smith in the Mark of Branderburg. Gotti. 35. and was for a time his disciple. (9) Gotti. cit. a. n. 19. where he died without any sign . from which Faith in Jesus Christ alone could save him. loc. renewing the . sec. p. at the age of seventy-four (11). 5. 310. but if you believe you will be saved (10). as of an instrument for the salvation of mankind. Van Kanst. who believe in neither God nor the devil. & t. c. for he rejected all authority of law. p. sec. and making atonement). t. and drove him necessarily on to On evil. he retracted them but after Luther s death he went to Berlin.322 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. In answer to the first. sec. 11. he denied the necessity of good works for salva tion. Van Kanst. bordering on Pelagianism. n. 3. cit. 1. of repentance. 11. Alex. but became afterwards the founder of a sect. a. the errors of Eutyches. cit. Nat. on their condemnation. John Agricola was a townsman of Luther. 310. (12) Kemund. cit. . c. /. t. as subversive of all the value of good works. 11. Florinundus calls the Antinomians Atheists. blasphemous errors of the Manicheans. p. (14) Gotti. 109. loc. 6. 109. p. loc. and of every good movement. n. Van Banst. and Stancaro those of Nestorius (14). n. which did not substantially corrupt the whole human race and Flaccus. He Nature and opposed to him was Francis Stancaro. 36. 19. 2. 122. that Original Sin was but a slight accident. sec. that account. 310. . Van Itanst. Alex. t. sec. n. although it is God that justifies. and again commenced teaching his blasphemies. 1 ad 6. 16. I 17. 1. 7 . 512. and. on the contrary. which deprived him of free will. t. Nat. . 8. 363. n. c. in Synopsi. n. 2 . and taught that you may become a sensualist. (13) Gotti. cit. still he wishes to avail himself of the humanity of Christ (which was alone capable of suffering. not by the Divine Nature (13). we have to remark that. N. called Antinomians. but according to the Divine kind. or Law Opposers. Varillas says that Luther brought the errors of Agricola before the University of Wittemberg. 11. 7. p.

Cap. 37. but as an instru ment. and inclines to sin. in the soul after Baptism is a sin. . cupiscence which remains contrary to the Council of Trent. 2. already present. said that the body of Word. to-day what people of Witwould be to John Brenzius. not. This was nothing else but the blasphemy of Eutyches. (16) Gotti. inasmuch as the humanity is the instrument of his Divinity. 7. sec. p.&quot. is the cause of our a principal agent. and He taught that the con imitated his master in taking a wife. man new churches were every day forming in every corner of Germany. but with just as great a heresy. we have but to consider what is already said. In justification (16). 6. in Synopsi. a Suabian. (18) Remuncl. but not as God. merited for us and satisfied for us to God the Father. This is the Host before consecration and. nevertheless it was the Divinity. c. indeed. and Canon of Wittemberg. cit. as their (15) St. consequently. 310. which granted this grace to man. is &quot. is answer to Stancaro. deserved for man the grace of salvation. that denotes that the body of Christ is my body. n. /. 323 as justification. when he became the disciple of Luther. Thomas (15).S. says St. Thomas. 14. explaining the words. 2. for he taught that the Divine Nature of Christ. Christ. and changing as quickly as the moon. sec. but that Church never understood that concupiscence should be He also it is from sin. who. was already a priest. and not the humanity. which declares that the Catholic called a sin. according to the flesh. 6. that the Divinity suffered for the salvation of Remond (18) tells us. as man alone. 64. q. 1. and that two hundred sects existed at one time among the Reformers. p. 7) the efficient cause of this justification is God the meritorious cause Jesus Christ. because if Christ. by the personal union with the and. Hence the sect who acknowledged him (17) Gotti.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Van Ranst. that Jesus Christ is in everywhere. n. on the wood of the Cross. The Passion of Christ. as well as the human nature. . died Andrew Musculus of Lorraine on the Cross. said that the their faith No wonder that Duke George of tell Saxony temberg could not morrow. loc. that at that period kind (17). ar. 3. he says. opposed both Osiander and Stancaro. and hence the Council of Trent has declared (Sess. who teaches that Christ saved mankind.

n. Gotti. seeing them filled with abominable &quot. in the Gospel of St.&quot. works. 1. 19. sec. 5. He that he called him the Prince of Protestant Theologians. and also of Zuinglius. that he sent a messenger to Luther. while Luther was attacking the Church. not mind the Scriptures. 311. (21) Gotti. sec. Gotti informs us. in the Mark of Branderburg. the errors of the Manicheans. 9 . 41. to bring about an agreement strenuously. he says. the sixty-fourth year of his age. and he He same time. He published many t. all the author s works were condemned (22). told that we have but one Master. Istor. 1. he condemns sermons Matthew. but without effect. a noble Silesian. answer : May your spirit. of Christ in the Eucharist. 8 ad 10. along between the Lutherans and Sacramentarians. therefore. and a man of learning. n. 6. (20) Bossuet. Examen (19) Nat. Alex. 109. heresies. and followed his father s business until the age of fourteen. 293. but he. but was brought to perfection by this monster of hell. After but in a Synod. at the Germany and Switzerland than the arch-heretic himself (21). begging of him to correct them . and all returned him the following those who participate with fall Sacramentarians and Eutychians. took up arms We should also against her. Osius says the devil s gospel com menced with Luther. sec. Nat. for. only a dead letter. with his writings. n. . Luther s death. as they are not the word of God. sec. 3. Gaspar Schwenkfeldt. and some others. His Theological Professor was Me lancthon. this sect increased somewhat Martin Chemnitz was a poor woolcomber s son. in 1554. Melancthon. was called Ubiquists (19). t. 3. 8. but his principal one is the &quot. Van Ranst. Theology in Brunswick. who had more followers in many parts of taught. who was so well satisfied with the progress he made. n. is and spiritual lectures. Alex. 38. Wittemberg. and. and attacked the Lutherans as well. held at Naumburg. loc. for thirty years. into perdition. p. He was born in 1522. p. 6. we are in heaven. with Bucer. c. and even Luther was one of his adherents (20). cit.324 chief THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. (22) Gotti. . by Bucer. should only obey the private inspirations of the Holy Ghost . denying the Real Presence lius. when he commenced 39. of Sabelof Photius. Van Ranst. and died in taught his studies in Chemnitz laboured 1586. 2.

n. Con. to confess all our sins. It is not necessary. He says that man is justified by Faith alone. speaking of the sacrament of Penance. through his promise. though not as coming from the Minister himself. any books of Scripture. and thinks with the assistance of grace. only those approved of by all the Churches. and relics. according to him. He Hebrew them that. text. nee. .&quot. and rejects the Vulgate wherever it disagrees with he rejects tradition. but not a true sacrifice. and days. but still have no medium Baptism and the Eucharist. 109. their images. and that it must always bo He admits that the Mass may be called sacrifice. but no other festival (23). should honour the Saints. a Communion. but he allows the absolution of the Minister. . in the actual use of the taken under both kinds. but does not decide whether the body of Christ is really present in the bread and wine he merely says it is not a carnal presence. Purga tory. but from Christ. he praises the Greek and in which he endeavours of the Council. it can accomplish something good. as Canonical. we should observe the Sun Apud. through of which the merits of Christ are applied to him. 7. the Impanation of the Lutherans. c. and that good works are necessary to salvation. and merit. but believes in free will. Tridentini. I ad 7.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 325 to upset the decisions does not admit. Gotti. but not have We recourse to their intercession. are properly the Sacraments the rest are but pious rites and in the Eucha only rist he rejects both the Transubstantiation of the Catholics. cannot be proved from Scripture. only under the general deno mination of a good work. he says. he says. that Christ is there alone . . not those approved of by Councils alone .

without which no one can enter into The Church has received it as a tradition from the heaven. so can they receive Baptism. Ed. (1) Gotti. it is but just that they should receive the grace of Jesus Christ without actual Faith. according to the words of the Gospel He that believeth. c. Augustin writes (2). . and as. receive the grace of the Sacrament through the Faith of the Church in which they are baptized. de Verb Apost. Ver. who baptized. (2) August. -They rebel again under John of Leyden. however. they are healed by another s confession. 176. Munzer. n. without any actual fault of they contract original sin. not having come to the use of reason. as they that those who were baptized in infancy should be retaught JSTow this error sprung from Luther himself. 41. sec. 40. 45. they were incapable of real belief and salvation. than to their own (1). who are incapable of it. -Errors of the Anabaptists. 40. hence they were called Anabaptists. t. who causes himself to be crowned King. he that believeth not shall be condemned&quot. xvi. (Mark. Suifer little children says. 1. : shall be saved. The Anabaptists were likewise the spawn of Lutheranism. These unfortunate persons. Matthew. that children should as. in St. for. as St. who are capable of actual Faith. alias 10. sin. xix. and are saved. : therefore. is condemned to a cruel death.326 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.&quot. and dies penitent. and is baptized.-Are again defeated under their Chief.-They are split into various sects. Our Lord &quot. little children can acquire the kingdom of heaven. 14 to come to me. who is converted at his death. as they are sick with the weight of another theirs. 2. should remember. THE ANABAPTISTS. for infants. 44. for of such is the kingdom of heaven. -Their Leaders Seditions and Defeat. asserted it baptize them when they had no Faith of was better to leave infants without Baptism. 1. The chief doctrine of those heretics was. that in the text of the Gospel quoted it is adults are meant. .110.-The Anabaptists they refuse Baptism to Children. 16) . not be baptized in infancy. 43. 42. Serm. As. &quot. v.

Cypr. Through Luther s influence. or He was at first a disStorchius. 59 St. Magistrates. Amb. Apost. p 147. Serm. it was impossible to believe God would make use of so wicked a man to reform his Church. St.If to give Baptism to infants. anathematizing those who asserted that persons baptized before they came to the use of reason should be re-baptized. because they have not actual faith. 2. when they come to the years of discretion. The chief of the Anabaptists was Nicholas Stork. he and all his followers were banished from Saxony (5). such as that new heresy. St. 231 St. cit. but soon the head of a in 1522. 2. 11. p. 6. Cyprian. o. uses the following words: any one should &quot. 10. Greg. St. Aug. adFidum. . 12. espe cially in Munster. Ambrose. St. St. let This Canon condemns most clearly both the Anabaptist and Lutheran heresies. who pretended to lead a most mortified life. Gotti. 1. n. and that all Bishops. Hence. St. that they should be re-baptized. (4) Nat. alias 177. n. who opposed his true Church should be put to death (4). 41. p. and St. and preached the same errors as Storchius. 4 Tertul. and. Apostles so says 327 Irenseus. p. actual faith. Tertullian. all is men enjoy universal freedom from restraint. 18. 1. teaching the country people that they should t. t. a follower of Luther. that all property common. and said conduct. and Luther for promulgating He everywhere censured Luther s morals and too lax a one. and boasted of having frequent ecstacies and extra ordinary communications from the Deity. he preached many others. (3) Gregory of Nazianzen. 658. or that it is better to omit Baptism. Alex. .AND THEIR REFUTATION. the Council of Trent. sometimes also called Pelargus. saying it preached Being banished from Wittemberg. t. also. He abused the Pope for teaching too severe a doctrine. where. and St. sec. . He then went to Thuringia. Origen say that children having received Baptism should not be num bered among the faithful. (3) Orig. 349. all bear witness to the same practice. . accused him of debauchery and lasciviousness. than to baptize in the faith of the Church alone those who have not him be anathema. /. Here he was joined by Thomas Munzer. art. to gether with his first error. which he was revealed to him from heaven. 266. a Priest. Augustin. eiple of Luther. (5) Varillas. Iren. p. t. Naz. n. de Verb.&quot. and should be equally divided. he went to Thuringia. therefore. 35. loc. and Princes. t. 1. Epist.

not obey either Prelates or Princes. Hermant. but when regular troops were brought against them. cit. but began to sing a popular hymn. along with Pfeiffer. cit. Pfeiffer died an obstinate (6) Varillas. 267. encouraged by Munzer. pretending to be sick he was there discovered. while Munzer. and promising them the assistance of God in their battles. and. / 5. imploring defended themselves nor according to Munzer s promises. 1. notwithstanding their immense numbers. Those who escaped the slaughter marched towards Lorrain. followers. causing them to forsake their spades for the sword. of Guise.Gottiibid. to have his head cut off in Mulhausen. who promised them peace if they laid down their arms but Munzer. n. the assistance of the Holy Ghost.n. and the rest were taken prisoners. sec. 239. hid himself in Franchausen. Sleidan (8) says that these poor peasants. they were soon. These poor deluded creatures at first did a great deal of harm. (9) Nat. In the meantime. when they were at tacked by the troops. t. an apostate Premonfled with the rest. with the intention of devastating that province but the Count Claude . . . and such was the effect this had on them. This did not. p.7. stratensian Canon. whose protection. who attacked them. ex Sleidan. 2. without being recognized. c. cit. they made a stout resistance at immediately first. with his Anabaptist 44. to refuse all accommodation. and to kill the officer who bore a flag . brother to the Duke three of Lorrain. (9). Alex. Yarill. (7) Hist. not being trained to the use of arms. Gotti. however. appeared quite demented. t. This war and lasted five months. 12. slaughtered twenty victories thousand of them in which he gained (7). enemy in his sleeve. encouraged them. were ravaging Thuringia. who told them he would catch the of truce to them. cap. p. 29. In a short time he rallied round him the great body of the Anabaptists. and led forth three hundred thousand ignorant peasants (6). thinking himself lost if the conditions were accepted. last long the Munzer greater part fled. 1. they expected. and neither fled. 270. thirty-five and it is said cost the lives of a hundred thousand peasants Hermant . taken and condemned. loc. (8) Ap. balls of the . 110. they were encountered by an army commanded by Duke George of Saxony. This treachery infuriated the soldiers. that many of them stood firm before the promise cannon of the enemy. sec. completely routed.328 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.

AND THEIR REFUTATION. and you shall announce the death of the Lord. p. but all these unfortunates condemned to death. and challenged the say Judges and Princes. and after offering up some devout prayers. did not put an end to this sect. sitting at a table. 241. and imploring the The mercy of the . (12) Varill. 16. p. saying he deserved it for his sins.&quot. and the slaughter of so many of the 45. n. But the more general opinion is. Van Eanst. and sent them as Apostles of God. a. Queen. 436. loc.&quot. and ye shall announce the death of the Lord and at the same time the &quot. but. to preach his doctrine. V. since he extended he shewed himself a sincere penitent. c. nine years after his death. p. peasantry. Her. and it to John of Leyden bore. Varill. n. loc. 314. 239. . of a tailor. at the same time . (10) Nat. bared his neck to the executioner s sword (10). along with himself. (13) Her. 8. .. and eat. cit. V. Ranst. p. when they Dutch elected. the word and these were his last words. 313 . his companions died in their obstinacy its (12). He next selected twenty disciples. that is. Alex. Munzer s death. In the year 1534. Alex. 12. Hermant. 288. telling them to read the Bible. . cit. confessed of . he caused his followers to crown him King. Divine Mercy . from heaven. that his sect has spread roots into many Christian kingdoms (13). 427. in the were taken and year 1535 (11). 2. Gotti. and put it in practice by marrying sixteen wives. p. received the Viaticum. 329 Munzer s death is related in different ways some he died with the greatest boldness. distributed bits of bread to his followers. dispensed the chalice. saying Drink. cit. and Hermant says.p. and seized the city of Munster. Varill. Lord be praised for ever. the son was to banish the Bishop and all and then pretending to have a revelation act Rex Justitia3 hujus Mundi . and Noel Alexander says it can be relied on as fact. he preached polygamy. saying he was elected to that dignity by God himself. (11) N. and he called himself John of Leyden. : &quot. sec. with the most admirable patience. heretic. : . 315. Kanst. God to a Priest. saying Take. he rejected the Eucharist. c. the cruel death and tor ments inflicted on him he was three times tortured with pincers by two executioners for two hours. as their chief. one of his wives. that previous to his death he retracted his errors. His first the Catholics of the city. and he bore it all without a murmur. a number of people in West nearly phalia rebelled against their Princes.

from John Hut others. Clancularists. : Second It is is That no Christian could be a civil magistrate. from Mennon these held heretical opinions regarding the Trinity some Davidians. . and wished to destroy all the wicked. Alex. following the errors of said the devils would be saved in the end of the Origen. some Melchiorists. said there was no devotion God as weeping and wailing. split into several sects some say fourteen. The Anabaptists soon . 4. or Weepers. the day of judgment of . but preached in private houses and gardens. the true Messiah. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. tinction The Condormientes and called this slept together without dis of sex. others. The . who taught that heaven would not be opened till after . The Adamites appeared naked asserted. Thomas Munzer some who preferred voluntary poverty.330 46. he died in 1556. from Augustin Boehem. . Noel Alexander and Van Ranst enumerate many other classes of these fanatics (14). but only adults capable of reason. joined to errors of the Anabaptists. born of the Spirit. the pardoner of sins . indecency the new Christian The Ejulants. having. who taught that Christ had but one Nature. Huttites. to be disinterred. as they recovered followers the pristine innocence of Adam. for three years afterwards. after Some were called Munzerites. some. the beloved Son of God. Augustins. and his remains writings. in public. 11. Charity. the . The Demonists. and promised to rise again in three years. Fourth War unlawful to Christians. t. and various other errors some were called Mennonites. the The Servetians. so pleasing to (14) Nat. when asked burned along with his if they were Anabap denied it they had no churches. n. the Senate of Basle caused him tists. This vain prophecy had some truth in it. Van Ranst. of Michael Servetus. from Melchior Hoffman. even seventy./?. art. blasphemies against the Trinity and Jesus Christ. 19. that he was not born of Mary. &sec[. world. whose history we have just given polygamy. Buholdians. 315. followers of one George. from John (Buhold) these preached Ley den. The not shtmld errors of the Anabaptists were First That children be baptized. 47. not of the flesh. Third in no case lawful for Christians to swear. who called himself the Third David.

Alex. therefore. L CARLOSTAD. that all crucifixes and images of the Saints in should be destroyed. and thus he became chief of the Sacramentarians. Andrew Carlostad he was born in the village from which he took his name.-Carlostad. however. s. went to Wittemberg. and. and composed a Mass on that subject. Varillas. and afterwards became his follower in heresy. and broke the Altars and Images (1). Ver. 331 ARTICLE II. pride. 49. he could restrain himself no longer. in opposition to Luther. 48. p. he deprived him of his this . would not allow him to remain a disciple of Luther. 1. 16. as if he were to say is : my body which I am about to deliver up for you. and was. -He is reduced to live by his labour in the field . His Doctorship.AND THEIR REFUTATION. P 217. in Franconia. and was Archdeacon of He was. the most learned the church of Wittemberg. 3. trampled on the Consecrated Host.&quot. and he carried his infidelity to such a pitch Wittemberg that he abolished the Mass. man in the Elector Frederick Saxony. 50. THE SACRAMENTARIANS. s. 3. t. teaching. a great favourite with he it was who admitted Luther to the . c. it is said. I 231 . . Hermant. Gotti. body) did not refer to the bread. informs us. 1. he gets married. /. . on that account. to sacrifice his body for us. and caused the Altars and Images to be restored and not being able to convince Carlostad of his errors. s. but to Christ himself. t. 148. that Christ was not really present in the Eucharist. The father of the Sacramentarians was. Van Ranst. as Van Ranst 48. . and even against the will of the Elector. that the word this (this is my This who was about &quot. who was then concealed in his Patmos of Watzburg. When came to Luther s ears.-He dies suddenly. (1) Nat. father of the Sacramentarians. 109. c. t. Another error he taught in opposition to Luther was the doctrine of the Iconoclasts. 19. . Rel.

says Bossuet. (3) Berti. and afterwards subsistence first (5).. n.gt. ashamed to appear in Wittemberg in the poor state he was reduced to. Carlostad s friends and finally induced Luther to permit him to return to Wittemberg. in revenge for the treatment he received from him caused him to be pelted with stones. I 3. I. 217 . Carlostad s Luther. and they then to .332 benefice THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and to fly from the place. and took out a it to Carlostad. Stor. Carlostad went to Orlemond in Thuringia. parting benediction to Luther was May I see you : &quot. told him he would give if he would write against him. and Carlostad. Octavius Lavert and Raynaldus have pre of all the priests of the it* (6). served some parts of (2) Hermant. that he was obliged to become a porter. cement the bargain thus the war commenced. 109. In the he married a young lady of good family. Var. Deus qui post tarn longam et impiam Sacerdotum tuorum es. It may be as well here to give Bossuet s account of the war between Luther In the year 1524 Luther preached in Jena. s. 234 . del. but he agreed to this only on condition that he 49. It happened one day. p. t. csecitatem Beatum Andream Carlostadium ea gratia donare dignatus ut primus. And may you break your neck before Behold. 1. presence and blamed him for the opinion he held regarding the Real and Carlostad : Presence. broken on the wheel !&quot. would not oppose his doctrine for the future. 117. 3. . he married. how ever. c. 2. you quit the town acts of the new apostles of the Gospel (4). c. and he year 1525. 3. V (6) Octavius Lavert. 242 . 1. 12. !&quot. interfered. Variaz. chose rather to live in another town. n. and there wrote that wicked treatise. De Coena Domini (2). n. * /&amp. 25 Ranst. composed a sacrilegious service of Mass. to turn to field labour along with his wife for We may here remark that Carlostad was the new Gospel who married. where he was reduced to such poverty. (5) Gotti. Brev. s. Varillas. 211. &quot. him a gold florin florin and handed drank together. Carlostad. and dignities by authority of the Elector. who pocketed it. who went to visit him after the sermon. p. nulla habita . Notwithstanding all that had passed. ex cochleo. on the occasion of his abominable nuptials. 2 (4) Bos. that Luther came to this town. in a tone of mockery. which contains in full his heretical opinions. ad an. as Berti tells us (3). Gotti. in of Carlostad. who had him and banished from his territories along with the woman seized. the rejoined Luther. 15. Hist.

just chastisement of God. ej us vestigia sequentes ejectis concubinis aut eisdem ductis ad legitiinum consortium thori convertantur. n. .AND THEIR REFUTATION. a being was ashamed to beg. an. cit. ut illius. &quot. and where a sudden death overtook him in the midst of his sins (8). 16. that he . c. (9) Lands. nos imitatione guadeamus in aeternum. obliged to earn a scanty subsistence. and thus lady. and that it said to him: Tell your father that in three days I will deprive him of life. wishing to have no com petitor. loc. (7) Rinal. and that immediately one of his children ran to him telling him that he had seen the same vision. Var. breaking his head. 359. and died. 1st. Papistic! Juris ratione. after It declaiming against the Real Presence. by working as common field Some time afterwards he went to Switzerland. without any signs of repentance. 50. always pursues we see him and his wife. 3. te Deus poscimus. was seized with apoplexy. as he had lived. Yarillas says. p. 8. 333 The the impious. qui Pat-res nostros sectatus antiques tibi placet. labourers which they could not always obtain. All that is known for certain is that he died suddenly. hoping to get a kind reception from the heretics of that country. But Zuinglius. who. (7). /. s. however. da quEesumus ut omnes Sacerdotes recepta sanamente. whose doctrine regarding the Sacrament of the Altar coincided with his own. Oremus Nos ergo concubinis nostris gravati. uxorem ducere ausus fuerit. 74. and dropped dead (9). that whilst he was preaching a man of fearful mien appeared to him. was also told at the time. 4. gave him a very cool reception he then went to Basle. coming down from the pulpit.&quot. t. (8) Varillas. or Zuingle. where he was appointed preacher. 1523.

but only a commemoration of the Sacri once offered on the Cross. (10) Nat. to publish the Swiss Indulgences. . Alex. as had been done in Germany. (11) Apud. but hoping to better his condition. cit. but only as the works of Christ. that our works are no good as ours. seeing his hopes frus trated. s. 4. Alex. ZUINGLIDS. n. Gotti. and advance himself in the estimation of the Court of Rome. and was after wards promoted to a parish in Zurich (1). Gotti. But in this he was disappointed . t. the decree of the Senate rejected by the 54. he changed the sword for the gown. Victory of the Catholics and his death.-His errors. became a most eloquent preacher. 2. he hoped that would be a favourable occasion for him to acquire notoriety. . In his early days he was a soldier. a Franciscan. 3. c. 11. -Congress held before the Senate of Zurich other Cantons. some say in Moggi . Varillas. 51. first. 155. t. n. called Mildenhausen. in 1519. . Nat. Third Christ . n. Ulric Zuinglius was born of an obscure family in a poor village of Switzerland. 1. Fourth Marriage is fitted for all. /. and gets married . and the beginning of his heresy. n. Zuinglius. n. that Indulgences were to be published in Switzerland. 1. and being a man of talent. 2. 2. art. against Indulgences the Pope Faith (2). 16. and with power to prohibit any one else from doing so. sec. 100. Hearing. was sent by the Pope. 51. and from that passed on Mass fice The First following were his principal tenets not a Sacrifice. Rel. e.-Zuinglius. 1 . Fifth Those who make a vow of chastity are held by presump- of intercessor but Christ.334 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Second have no necessity The : is We is our justificator any and here he deduced. sells his Canonry. 52. 3. and began then against the power of to other errors against the to preach.-Zuinglius . Ver. 52. Father Sampson. s. 53. unless with his permission. 19. imitated the example of Luther in Saxony. loc. he was at first Parish Priest of two rural parishes.

he does not remember. that is the passage. has the Pope and Bishops arrogate in Holy Writ. the Pelagians.&quot. the Impanation of the Luther ans. spoke to him. of the body&quot. on the contrary. as Varillas remarks. body of Christ but . that the Apostle says the Eucharist is to be eaten. where it is said. &quot. whether ficat (3). inserted. however. He preached Luther attributed every thing Zuinglius. but ended by He first said that the Eucharist was a calling him a heretic. est for he could no where find that the word was used for signi- break of day. that is the passage. when one morning.&quot. which turned even Luther against him. this &quot. remembrance of the Passion of Christ. that as the Pasch of the Jews was but a mere figure of the passing of the Lord. and the explanation given by Carlostad (N.c. of the Lord.AND THEIR REFUTATION. still signifies. and thus he began to teach. He then the began word is has the same meaning as signifies the in the words. (4) Hermant. confession made to a Priest not for remission of but should be made solely to obtain advice. Priests but those Eighth The Holy Scripture The Scripture knows no other who announce other errors regarding free to grace. a black or white one. said he. this bread the difficulty was not solved. to free will Word of God. . 237. For it is the phase. Euch. who at first called him the strong champion of Christendom. for in (3) Zuinglius. but not the remembrance. for salvation. and the force of nature. a spirit. here the word is stands for the word signifies .This is my body. (4). and said Ignorant man. &quot. He broached many other errors regarding the Sacraments. Ninth recognizes no Purgatory. that is. he and where the text says. de Subsid. he got the translation of the New Testa This is my body. argument. tion. but. then came the difficulty.&quot. t. : Behold. 335 Sixth The power which no foundation is to themselves.\. substantiation of the Catholics. that 48). the explana the Phase. /. at &quot. Original Sin. Seventh The sin. signifies my be more foolish than tion is this is annexed This Nothing. To authenticate this discovery of his. and he five times changed he rejected the Tranhis mode of explaining the communion . can Exodus. and other points. read the twelfth chapter of Exodus. but his chief blasphemies were against the Holy Eucharist. so the Eucharist was the figure of Christ sacrificed on the Cross. following the will. to teach. ment printed.

p. . preached in traditions. and placarded them in all the towns of the Diocese of The Dominicans preached against them as heretical. tion.&quot. The Vicar- General answered. place. according to Varillas. 1. Vicar-General answered. insisted it should be held in presence of the Senate of Zurich. that it was a Council alone should and then was silent the other Ecclesiastics were asked if they had anything to say they followed the Vicar-General s example. all Zurich. loc. but the Dominicans it was to take place in the presence of the judges appointed by the Bishop of Constance. 4 p. that the words but to the figure of Jesus Christ (5). cit. Lord length in the Confutation X. n. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 53. and offered to convince Zuinglius of his errors in a public dispu tation. This error we refute at &quot. in this move he was successful. 11. and would not yield their pretended right to any one . loc. that a great deal of what he set forth was an absurdity. Zuinglius printed sixty-seven propositions. . the majority of whom knew not how to read or write . while he. . on the other hand. that no more notice should be taken of and that the Mass and the adoration of the Eucharist This decree was opposed by the other should be abolished (6). in 1524. by way of doubt. . (6) Varill. in effect. understood that Zuinglius accepted the challenge. 214. and made a Decree. I 7. gave the palm of victory to Zuinglius. and in the year 1526. (5) Gotti. composed of two hundred laymen. for the Senate thought themselves competent judges in religious matters. another public disputation was Varill. Nat. No. but surely the text of the Gospel does not give any explana this is my body.336 . Alex. sent his Vicar-General to try This took and bring matters to some rational arrangement. Cantons. 1. Zuinglius first read his Theses. 5. and the Bishop not being able to prevent it. 304. cit. .. neither to dispute nor give decisions. the Congress took place in their presence. and were silent also the Senate. t. refers not to the body. Constance. that thence forward the pure Gospel (according to Zuinglius) should be decide. and explained them without meeting with any inter ruption he then asked if any one had any reply to make the . . and the Senate commanded all the Ecclesiastics of Zurich to attend. that he was sent by his Bishop. . therefore. Zuinglius replied in his defence.

s. from passing Catholic The party . p. and mar ried. and through revenge. n. followed this example . to resist the vice of incontinence (8). (9) Varill. held in Swiss 337 (7). and were soon after obliged to go to war with the heretical Cantons. and Zuinglius. 19. 11. c. 1. thinking he was killed. 109. they were only treated as they deserved. . Schafhausen. and three others. for the following reason (9).loo\ cit. Zug. between Zuinglius and Ecolampadius. remained Catholic. Nat. and condemned the doctrine of Luther and Zuingluis. p. was struck to the earth his followers. till Zuinglius. c. 2. In the year 1528. art. in which the arguments of Ecchius were so convincing. 2. 237. for insulting the new reli gion. 7. . was for some time doubtful. would have no chance against this army in the open field. soon Lucerne. Alex. fifteen . on his troops. on the Catholic side. St. Eight thousand Catholics took the field in October. while valiantly leading . Uri. n. Twenty thousand of the Zurich troops then marched out to attack the Catholics. Gall. as they do not produce enough for their own consumption. Basle. but were told. 12. (8) Varill. prevented the merchants who supplied the Catholic Cantons with corn. two officers who embraced the were received by the Zuinglians. L 8.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 1532 hundred of the Zurich troops were entrenched outside the city the Catholics assaulted them in that position and put them to flight. Baden on the one 54. and veneration of Sacred Images. and were pursued by (7) Gotti. The Catholics with their small number. the Invocation of Saints. and in the same year. that by a formal Decree. the Canton of Berne united with Zurich in embracing his doctrine. 354. s. as an infraction of the Confederation League. against the advice of his friends. and Ecchius and some others. and Purgatory. Switz. 304. 3. Zuinglius sold his Prebend. Hermant. 13. and victory . c. so they posted themselves in a narrow pass they were here assaulted by the Zuinglians. deposed Zuinglian doctrines through their territories. insisted on marching at their head. who they provided them with places. The Catholics complained of this. Gotti. side. the Swiss recognized the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. immediately took to flight. and Underwalden. n. shamelessly asserting that he had not sufficient confidence in himself.

and some of his followers collected his ashes. 13. 2. of his. who immediately killed him. 1532. Noe.. there you will behold Abel. five other battles were fought. & Van Ranst. loc. n. p. : Redeemer and the redeemed Abraham. . . in which he speaks of the glory that Kings are to expect in heaven There. Bossuet. This was the language of this new the Catos. 358. of France. the Scipios. but got no answer another now came up. among a heap . 4. Theseus. and kept it as a relic (11). and the Catholics were always victorious . /. and told their commanders by their orders he was quar tered and burned. he says. (13) Bossuet. Numa.&quot. in heaven. He was killed on the llth of October. & seq. (11) Nat. with only the loss of fifteen on their own not side (10). n.loc. know him. 318. on condition that each Canton should freely profess its own Religion. the idolaters. in the forty-fourth year of his age. there you will see Hercules. but Natalis. .338 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Church Reformer after his apostacy he places. extract from this letter. who are said to have killed five thousand Zuinglians. Gotti. it has Before I dismiss this subject. Gotti.&quot. with few interruptions. say he was forty years old. 1. Alex. p. The war was not yet ended . t. to Francis I. in his History of the Variations (13). 1. cit. Zuinglius was found by two Catholics. peace was at length concluded. but . p. according to Hermant. gives gods. cit. (12). along with Christ . 19. and Van Ranst. &c. still breathing they asked him if he wished for a Confessor. 355. and continued to the present day I will mention a few words of a sermon. and the Holy Patriarchs. Hist. the Catholics with great slaughter. de Variat. large and the Pagan a OO) Varill. who did of the slain. Isaac . prostrate on his face. you will see the &quot. or letter. thus. &quot. (12) Varill.

&quot. and held the situation of tutor to the s Prince Palatine children . uncertain cit. /. How strange that not one of the new Apostles of the Gospel could agree with another. and that he poisoned himself. BUCER . 3.-Ecolampadius. how ever. 19. only a month after Zuinglius s death. c. inspiration of the Holy Ghost. that he was found dead in his bed. Alex. n. says Florimund &quot. cit. is. Alex.&quot.If vows. (5) Varill. 8. (2). as he explained the the figure of is my body. I will not observe one of them. when we are told that he said: him to . (3) Gotti. (4) Gotti. and made his profession (1) but we may judge of his Brigit. (1) Nat. and married. PETER MARTYR. was Greek linguist. 15. Why. should we wonder at his leaving the on entering it. as he said. n. Gotti quotes others to his death. Many writers. Varillas says (5). s. 3.AND THEIR REFUTATION. a John Ecolampadius. ECOLAMPADIUS 55. &quot. and became a follower when such were his sentiments who appointed him Superintendent Zuinglius s of Basle (3). In a few cloister. I shall soon be in &quot. 2. . strangled by the devil. 56. t. dead in his bed. regarding the est explanation of text. who assert. 48). (4). : and also that. He followed doctrine. a faithful follower of Zuinglius. to him a Luther said he was found source of the most poignant grief. but not his N. hell . 356. I make six hundred intentions. loc. & Nat. a generally received others say opinion at that time. n. he was heard to exclaim that a short time previous Alas. his friends injudiciously importuned become a Monk. p. n.&quot. tell us that he several times attempted to Cardinal take away his own life. 17. by the years of Zuinglius. . n. it.&quot. just before his death.-Bucer. L 8. (6).&quot. he laid aside the cowl. so he entered into the Order of St. 57. at the age of forty-nine. (2) Floremund in Synopsi. : I. unless I like &quot.this by significant (see Real Presence. (6) Gotti. he said &quot. the general opinion. 55.this is my body&quot. 9. loc. -Peter Martyr. . by &quot. 1C. 339 HI. according to Noel Alexander he died of an ulcer in the os sacrum . He died in the year 1532.

364. and only seven years of age. which condemned his doctrine. n. cit. the pillar and the ground of truth. tus&quot. have to give Tribunal of God. 2. p. that he apostatized. Varil. Martin Bucer was the son of a poor Jew in Strasbourg. without being baptized. and received to . but that after our justifi every good Fourth cation the good we perform we do through necessity. Cardinal Gotti says (9). and he wished have it tried at that Tribunal. Varil. saying. conferences. p. 8) Gotti. if he found it false (as it was). 363. loc. but took place solely by faith. and quarrelled with Luther. fill Gotti. He was selected person to unite the Zuinglians held by the Landgrave as the most likely and Lutherans but though he . Gotti. 2. loc. on ac count of the hardness of their hearts. 4. }. 3 . n. . manv c. see. On this account he passed over to the sect of the Sacramentarians. I. \. where. (10) Varil. Sixth He admitted the Presence err in morals and faith. Third God we sin in of Christ in the Holy Sacrament. He was taken in by the Dominicans to serve Mass and assist the servants of the Convent but finding him endowed with great talents. cit. c. cit. Holy Orders. 8. and see whether false&quot. that as a divorce was allowed to the Jews. t. but said it was not real. 1. t. Luther he added others: First That Baptism is an necessary as a positive precept. 2. (9. and it was in defence of that sect he wrote his Dialogue. that they That usury is not con cannot be forbidden to marry. Foolish man. 109. Christians errors of of it He was also permitted to To the extraordinary temperament (10). Arbogas&quot. who left him at his death on the world. was so taken with Luther s doctrine on Celibacy. in fine. they gave him the He soon became habit of the Order. my true or (7). l. 8. and not only married once. he never could succeed. and put him to study (8).340 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. an account before the doctrine is and fluctuating in the Faith. he had the Church. but that it is not necessary for salvation. Fifth trary to the Divine command. without any one to look to him. 109. s. for Luther never 7) Gotti. a great proficient in sacred and profane literature. (11). Second That there is no Church which does not That before we are justified by work we do. 56. there would be no remedy to ward off eternal perdition. loc. That some are so formed by God for the marriage state. 1. but three times succes sively.

where the stake awaited him. where he lived and taught a long time. loc. and in 1549. 341 would give up the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament. commonly called Peter Martyr. and immediately called to Rome. according to some authors. communicate it to others who used to meet him in a church. but reduced family. who two years He previously was appointed Professor of Theology in Oxford. after his profession. and then made him a SacramenAs soon as he tasted the poison himself. commonly called Peter Martyr. /. Hebrew. Port. 5.. This had not gone on long when he was charged with his errors His before the Nuncio. other celebrated disciple of Zuinglius who. who. born mother. and was. who was acquainted with the Latin language. . by order of Queen Mary. (14) Varillas. While preaching in the Cathedral of Naples. went to Germany. was Peter He was Vermigli. that he became a Canon Regular (13) of St Augustin. He thence went to Bologna to study Theology. on the best brethren in religion. in the reign of Edward VI. In his noviciate he gave indications of great talent. p. he went to England to join Peter Vermigli. The in England. had not been three years sixty-one. in 1556. and preached several Lents in the principal cities of Italy. He left Strasbourg. taught him till he was eighteen years of age. pulpit. cit.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Cambridge. His in Florence. in in in . 297. (13) Gotti. of a noble. at the age of 1551 and Cardinal Gotti says (12). but the general opinion is. where he was taught Greek. alia parola Vermigli. 17. a Florentine. and who certainly believed him innocent. in the Monastery of Fiesole. and returned with a great He next turned his attention to the of learning (14). /. and contracted climate not agreeing a friendship with Peter Martyr. in 1500. and fearing to be discovered in but the Spain. t. especially endeavoured to disseminate his errors. with whom he always lived terms. by reading Luther s and Calvin s works. became infected with their heresies. took up his (12) Varil. Dizion. he was tormented with remorse of conscience in his last moments. and Philosophy. p. he began to tarian. II. he took the Carthusian habit. England when he died. n. he came to Naples. with him. 106. 2. His bones were exhumed and burned. when. 57. he had the mis stock fortune to become acquainted with a Spanish lawyer of the name of Valdes. sent to Padua.

and was received with great honour in London. 106. who re ceived every heretic. 16. He went disciples first to Zurich. hoping that his there would procure a Professorship for him. while discovered. sec. Berti Hist. where they soon became four proselytes in They were a little Ministers. sec. ship of Theology. loaded with fruits of perdition. for besides the many years he taught his errors in all these places. defence most warmly. and he succeeded so far. Peter being discovered also. He returned to Strasbourg. he composed and left after him also a number of works to sustain them (15). I. in 1553. cit. (15) Varillas. c. in Strasbourg. and was appointed to a Chair in Oxford. Dizion. He where he went with a he married. JN&quot. Van Ranst. and not knowing where to fly. 391 . and obliged to fly to the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland. with double the salary that was promised to him.342 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.un 16. loc. where he died in 1562. p. and procured him immediately a Professor He remained there till called to England. where he thought he a Zuinglian congregation. Portat. but as he wished to make himself the master of all. p. that among others he missed. and afterwards to Basle . with less risk to himself could establish than in Naples. turned his steps likewise to Switzerland. 3. he met but a cool reception in then went to Bucer. . 17. and he was most fully acquitted and dis to Lucca. and finally went to teach his blasphemies in Zurich. From Home he went made among the Professors of the University. either place.

He obtained a Chaplaincy for his son when he was twelve years old. the son of a Flemish saddler. 61.-He many. 450. the impious Works he publishes there .-He causes Michael Servetus to be burned account Conference qualities alive. in 69. and flies is made Master of Theology. -He and . and Varillas (1) says. THE HERESIES OF CALVIN. -He goes to and meets Erasmus. his dispute with Bolsec. -He goes to Italy. -Unhappy 67. John Calvin was born on the 10th of July. 60. and that a person who subsequently He was the third son of rebuilt it was hanged at the door. L 12. to see Bucer. 1509. 62. 58.. Istor. 59. t. &quot. and Receiver to the Chapter.&quot. where he marries a widow. makes some followers. that the house in which he first saw the light was afterwards razed to the ground by the people. finishes his 63. 65.&quot. 68.-Birth and Studies of Calvin. and returns to Ger 66.-He begins to broach his heresy . . L I : .Instructions. THE BEGINNING AND PROGRESS OF THE HERESY OF CALVIN.-He returns to France.&quot.-Seditions and disturbances France on Calvin s . that he was born in the city itself. 7L-His personal and depraved manners. end of the Calvinistic Mission to Brazil. and Fiscal Procurator to the Bishop of Noyon. and introduces the &quot.Supper. in Noyon. 70. he afterwards goes 64.-He returns to Geneva. they seek to imprison him. p. 343 ARTICLE III. 1. at the from Geneva. embarrassed there.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and he makes his escape through a window. and afterwards a country Curacy in the village of Martville. of Poissy. and is put head of the Republic . Angouleme. -Melancholy death of Calvin. Gerard Caudin (he afterwards changed his name to Calvin). but is obliged to fly is arrives in Geneva. . (1) Varillas. della Rel.~He commences to disseminate his impieties in Germany to Basle. in the ancient province of Picardy some say he was born in Bourg de Pont but the almost universal opinion is. which he some time 58.

271. 16. 16. N. 19. apply himself to Theology but Beza confesses that he never could not be called a studied Theology deeply.344 after THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 1 (2) Varillas. where. Ranst. cit. /. cit. 271 . friends but it is only worthy of contempt. Endowed with those benefices. c. sec. and the given of using his talents against the Church. I. This little work was highly lauded by it his contains nothing but scraps of learning badly digested. 431. Calvin. Ha?r. . Gotti. verted to his which God gave him for his service. loc. Hermant Hist. Varill. he let himself down from the window (5). al. 330. who gave orders to arrest him in the College of Cardinal de Moyne. sus pected what was intended. cit. and that he Theologian. loc. 1 . n. . a concealed studies. loc. at the age of twenty-eight. Ill. p. Alex. 10. . 5. 13. 452. al loc. Van Ranst Hist. sec. p. Ver. Ill. and was soon distinguished for talents. 119.n. p. and while the officers of justice were knocking at the door. t. (5. cit. a. exchanged for the living of Pont FElveque (2). in the house of a vinen. Nat. n. Varil. n. perceiving the acute into his mind. 3. as he stancy. n. 1. Hermant. p. sec. he commenced the study of that language under Melchior Walmar. s. but which he per own ruin. his father sent . c. c. t. 161 Lancist Hist. Van /. He then published a little treatise on Con in which he advised all to suffer for the truth. and he returned 59. he first began to disseminate &quot. 1. his heresy (4). 4. calls Martyrs of the truth. loc. and num The had many indications Calvin publication of this work. 5. c. de Cone. genius of his scholar. (3) Nat. great praises of those heretics condemned . cit. injurious invectives against the Catholic Church. 2. by degrees instilled the poison of heresy and induced him to give up the study of law. p. 3. aroused the attention of the Criminal Lieutenant. l. however.&quot. ibid. Alex. and a native of Germany. Gotti. c. l. (4) Gotti. 320. 1. by the bed-clothes. and without scruple sold his benefices. p. t. cit. and took refuge . Van Ranst. who. and went to Paris.n. Gotti Rel. sec. John Morin. In the meantime. c. Berti Hist. whom he berless errors besides. ^hen he had gone through to him Bourges to Lutheran. and (3) . home. t. he at an early age applied himself with the greatest diligence to study. Calvin s father died. cit. called his errors. where he then lodged. with his heresy. as by the Church. 5. and to the ruin of many nations infected his preliminary study law under Andrew Alciati but wishing to learn Greek. 2.

30. 3 . and Calvin told him inquired the meaning of this masquerade. left for Germany. and everything. 6. for Tillet. n. cit. It was here he composed almost the entire of the Four Books of his pestilent Instructions. p. but told him he might be saved 60. As he finished each chapter he used to read it . in that Church. /. and when his friend advised him to return. a. answered Faith of I will : If I and not cast himself away. p. it is said. as well as he could from the escaped into Angouleme. and he became a dis accompany him to Germany. 10. (6) Varillas. n. cit. he assured him. but he adopted a more lucid arrangement. he. c. I would not forsake the . 13. and that Calvin could not find it in his heart to deny it. mostly manuscripts. who recognized him. Gotti. 345 changed clothes. He Greek. my fathers but now . where Reforming doctors. Varillas adds. Alex t. . and possessor of a library of 4. *. p. 454 s. 19. 1 . that while he resided afterwards in Geneva. Louis de Tillet. and was afterwards the happily ciple of Calvin. who offered to a Conference with the . 330 Varil. as Varillas informs us (6). accordingly. joined them. and a more elegant style of Latinity (7). a nephew of his asked him if salvation could be obtained in the Catholic Church. and his friends procured him lodgings in the house of the Parish Priest of Claix. I am pledged to my doctrines. 3. Gotti.000 volumes.AND THKTR REFUTATION. (8) Varill. a very studious person. and prevailed on his brother to In this he retrace his steps and renounce his Calviriistic errors. succeeded the Priest returned.&quot. as we shall see hereafter. . p. In this disguise he was met by a Canon of Noyon. a good Catholic. the greater part of which he took from the works of Melancthon. dresser. (7) Nat. with whom he and left his house with a spade on his shoulder. first in his district to raise his voice publicly against Calvinism (8). loc.. Ecolampadius. . &quot. They. and defend them till death and an awful and terrible death awaited him. 454. and for three years taught little he learned from Wai- mar. had to begin again. 1. but had not gone further than Geneva when Tillet s brother. and other sectaries. retract his errors. would confirm him in the course he was adopting. Van Ranst. and Chief Registrar of the Parliament of Paris. 345. who at first refused his assent to such wicked doctrine but by degrees his faith was undermined.

in which he told Erasmus to pay particular attention he did so. s. 2. Varill. s. refused to adopt it. 459. n. 457. seeing the difficulties he was ties suggested to him a middle way to reconcile both par that is. Nat. man one who would be a great plague to the Church (9). however. c. Nat. as neither would consent to give up their peculiar tenets on the Real Pre sence of Christ in the Eucharist. some part of the Testament re It : Last Supper was read. his heresy. and went to Poictiers. or. either because he thought Luther never would give up his own particular views. to propose as a doctrine that in the reception of the in. and arrived at Strasbourg. 10. and after some con to what would drop from him versation with him. returned to France in 62. Alex. but his followers increasing. told his friends that he saw in that young . Calvin. n. (10) Varill. p. which was privately celebrated in the following manner First. it is Eucharist not the flesh. he began to expound his tenets to a few. Calvin continued his rout to Germany. where Bucer was labouring to unite the Lutherans and Zuinglians in doctrine. Alex. is received this. Gotti. 1. or Manducation. 1. but the substance or power. Calvin always lative to the saying that in the New Testament no mention is made of any Bread and wine were then other sacrifice than that of the Cross. and the 16. as he called it. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. of Jesus he imagined. . finding it difficult to make many proselytes to his Sacramentarian doctrines -in Germany. Calvin sent out from this several ministers to the neighbouring villages. 1 . minister. perhaps. t.346 61. he transferred his Chair to a hall of the University. as the Lutherans called themselves preachers. but in general the burthen of these dis courses was the abuse of the Pope and of the Mass. 2. and. 323. where at first. then the minister made a few observations on it. Ill. instead of the words of conse- (9) Van Ranst. s. Christ that parties. in the privacy of a garden. Calvin next visited Erasmus with a letter of recommendation from Bucer. would reconcile both Bucer. n. 1535. cit. but never could succeed. made a great many pro was there he first published the forty articles of selytes (10). and it was there also he introduced the Supper. towns and by this means. called Ministerium. and here the Calvanistic teachers took the name of ministers. p. p. 1 . c. Hermant. jealous that the idea did not originate with himself. /. . set on the table. loc. 271 . Calvin.

and every other country where its pestilential doctrines would be em braced 63. c. t. like a true prophet. and wife of Hercules of Este. p. and freeing them from Papistical errors the Our Father and the Creed was said. It was.2. as Royal edicts were every day published against heretics. Goti. all the favour Calvin could obtain was leave to quit his States. 321. gave it to each. obliging her to give up the practice of the new religion. he went to visit her. in memory of his passion and death. The was finished by a prayer. I came not to send peace. and understanding that Renee. but a sword showing. w. new Church of Poictiers. succeeded in making her one of his followers. Van Ranst. (12) Varill. impossible to conceal the breaking it off eat in silence . so that he held privately in her chamber several con ferences with her and others of the party. and. While Calvin was at Basle he felt a great desire to pro where Luther could make no way . 10. When this came to the Duke s ears. . the residence of Margaret. the great evils this work would bring on France. (11). and bitterly reproved the and Duchess.&quot. Queen of Navarre. where he employed himself in preparing his four books of the Institutes for the press. The congregation were seated round a table. and they swore not to betray anything that was there done.4. w. He then at once fled from Ferrara to France.2. /. on account of the disturbed state of Religious opinions in Europe (12). of France. 321.s. Alex. 465. 13. and as the Royal Ordinances were very rigorous against innovators.AND THEIR REFUTATION. He was twenty-six years of age when he published this work. 19. cration. thanking God for Supper enlightening them. was a woman fond of novelties. Duke of Ferrara. In the (11) Nat. however. and they the wine was dispensed in like manner. . 1. which was very active just then. t. so he went to Basle. let us eat of the bread and drink of the wine of the Lord.&quot. said &quot. a. for fear of the Inquisition. and the minister. he was very angry.lll. but also fond of dabbling in Theology. he went to Nerac in Aquitaine. &quot. and a proficient not only in Philosophy and Mathe matics. with the motto. a pa existence of this troness of the new doctrine. Van . Ranst. and Calvin felt that he could not be safe in Pictou. pagate his doctrine in Italy. 347 brethren. daughter of Louis XII.p. p. : My a small portion of bread. after some time. Even here he was not in safety.

Ecclesia in meliorem ordinem singular! beneficio reprofligata posita. tion on a bronze tablet. n. abrogatisque ejus superstitionibus. c. power to induce him to appoint him Preacher and first acts after his appointment was to burn the Images of the Saints which adorned The table of the high the Cathedral. (14) Nat. p. s. but he and Farrell were accused. as follows &quot. to commence their infamy. though the cause is not known. MDXXXV. perceiving that Calvin would be of great assist ance to him in maintaining the new doctrines he had introduced cer et. (15) Gotti. 16. w.lll. t. : Quum anno Domini Antichristi tyrannide. which en from this Charles . Their accuser was Peter de Charles.&quot. Hist. G. and to break the Altars. 2. Alex. in 1537. Brev. c. cit.6. to serve as a table for cutting off the heads of the criminals. of holding erroneous opinions concerning the Trinity and the Divinity of Jesus Christ. 221. Calvin fixed his residence in Geneva. perpetuse memoriae causa fieri. and Minister of Geneva he charged Calvin. sacrosancta Christi Religio hie in suam puritatem. who said the . it so happened that he was beheaded on the same stone himself (14). and at Calvin s instigation. Apud Berti. *. which the year before rebelled against the Duke of Turin. et simul pulsis fugatisque hostibus. ibid. but by the just judgment of God. the Catholic Religion. Van Ranst. which a wretch called Perrin caused to be fitted up in the place of public execution. atque hoc loco fa quo suam erga Deum gratitudinem testatem Farrell. at the instigation of William Farrell and the Genevese.348 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. p. and that he was condemned to suffer the pains of . Urbs ipsa in suam libertatem non sine insigni miraculo restituta fuerit . 3. into Geneva. with denying the Unity of God in three Persons besides. loc. Romani Monumentum hoc erigi curavit. Altar was formed of a slab of very precious marble. and cast off. but his detention. only lasted for a short time (13. that the Saviour on the cross was abandoned by his Father. a Doctor of Sorbonne. 2. dures for eternity. unlike that of the reprobate. who had been a Sacramentarian. along with its allegiance. hell. P. he had stated in his Catechism. 162. and got the magistrates to One of his Professor of Theology (13). in a short time 64. placed a public inscrip . S. Gotti. used every means in his stay. Q.l. word Trinity was a barbarism. year 1536 he went to Geneva. . and driven into despair.

and his accuser was banished from Geneva. while Calvin insisted on using leavened bread. p. (19) Varill. . it This affair concluded. went to Strasbourg. 12. a. 13. p. 3 121 p. cit. and died in the Catholic Church. however. where be was again received by his friend. n. n. a most fortunate circumstance for him. p. s. who. and he. another adventure there. but met with A Flemish Catholic. cit. of the name of . Gotti. seeing Berne was no longer a place for him. 65. I. so much so that Easter being now nigh they said they would not communicate unless with leavened bread (17). He went to Rome. appointed a minister called Mare to administer the Sacrament. & Nat. Varill. Ill. the widow of an Anabaptist. The meeting immediately broke up. 514. anxious to diifer as much as to the possible from (16). Van Ranst. . and banished both Calvin and Farrell from the city (18). munion that day. . (17) Nat. following the custom of Berne. 11. n. /. and ob tained absolution for his errors. Peter s Church but Calvin frightened him so much that he hid himself. s. (16V Varill. 512. Gotti. with unleavened bread. (18) Nat. in which he collected together all the French and Flemings who embraced his doctrine here also. in St. were in favour of the use of unleavened bread. loc. Zachary. I. 2. 513.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to use the other. Calvin went to Berne to plead his cause. 7. Alex. Zuinglius preached people. 349 argued that Calvin denied the Divinity of Christ. 8. the letter was then read. and the magistrates then commanded that there should be no com . The magistrates. 2. used un leavened bread for the Supper. s. it he took out a letter. jealous of their authority. and asked him if he knew the writing. and minister of a new church. Calvin. Calvin had a serious dispute with his confrere Farrell. n. . n. Calvin acknowledged it was written with his own hand . saying it was an abuse introduced by the Scho lastic Papists. and appointed Professor of Theology. c. Alex. in the year 1538. and found to contain a great deal of abuse of Zuinglius (19). he married one Ideletta. in fin. was at that time before the Council of Berne he held a in the midst of disputation about matters of Faith with Calvin . /. Bucer. and got them to declare in his favour. The magistrates. with whom he lived fourteen years. Calvin cleared himself and Farrell from these charges. as opened his eyes to Divine grace.

(22) Gotti. n. Alex. nevertheless could not tole rate the opinions of Luther and Calvin concerning free will. c. n. De Necessi one against the Interim of Charles V. ibid. and Henry Calvin and death itself II. 1114.350 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. In the year 1542. Ecclesice. deceived by nought all his ministers. sec. that as God predestined some to grace and Paradise. Tridentinum (21). and he accordingly in- (20) Gotti. Varill. 9. set at punishments. and being thus safe in between herd of swine Geneva. 19. though an apostate Carmelite. established the discipline of his sect. s. In the called their ashes the ashes of Martyrs (23). He then also published his pestilent books. who. and Calvin He could not agree with Calvin in this. 13. he encouraged his followers in France to lay down their lives for the Faith. it but had no children. almost daily.. and said. 4. and even Hebrew. n. entitled Defensio Sacrce Doctrince. De Disciplines. Nat. Ill. so he predestined others to sin and hell. though Varillas says he had one. 2. and was appointed Chief of the Republic. n. even nay. Gotti. called Antidotum adversus Cone. he procured a union (22). some of them cast themselves into the flames. 66. . as he called his doctrines . put forth twenty-five Chapters on the Dogmas of Faith we are bound to believe. t. while Francis I. ar. n. he had a great dispute in Geneva with Jerome Bolsec. French Catechism. only Calvin sighed to return to Geneva. but lived two days (20). sec. were lighting and these deluded creatures. who denied it altogether. Flemish. German. and another against the Council of Trent. his sect and the Zuinglians. called. 2. (23) Gotti. 11. which his followers afterwards translated into various languages. the Faculty of Sorbonne. by way of checking the errors then published tate Reformandce. loc. English. & seq. year 1551. and in 1541 was re He was received with every demonstration of joy and He then respect. 1. 10. (21) Nat. and Calvin seeing all his impious novelties condemned by these Chapters. which he was cautious not to leave. attacked the venerable University in the grossest manner. fires to burn heretics. Alex. and the Senate decreed that thenceforward the ministers or citizens could never change the He then also published his great statutes promulgated by him. cit. Spanish. so as to call the Professors a In the year 1453. Erse.

and thus he who. got a servant of his to make the charge.AND THEIR REFUTATION. be burned. likewise.. not by the Church of Geneva alone. he hence it not a person subsisting. agreed and the sentence was carried into execution on the 17th of (24) Nat. Word was was then summoned. Calvin was to preach that evening after dinner. 14. Happily for Bolsec. . however. and wrote a great deal against Calvin s doctrine. and Calvin followed. and published several other errors we shall see here after. and as it was Sunday. in the dedication of his work to Francis I. asserted that the Divine Undergoing an examination. When he read this. /. called the magistrates who burned heretics. cit. 1. Gotti. 2. and with a threat of having him flogged. loc. 20. this sentence was put in execution he then began to reflect on the evil step he had taken. Alex. who an tories as : swered him in his impious work tinatione (24). : These are the facts of the case (25) Calvin procured from the Fair of Frankfort the Dialogues of Servetus. on his way to Italy. n. that Jesus Christ was but a mere man. and go to prison. in the case of Servetus. re. sec. Diocletians. and he immediately ran to the house of one of the Con suls to get an order for his arrest. t. Calvin. he proposed that his condemnation should be sanctioned. in which he denied the Trinity. cit. and Berne. and seeing that Servetus was condemned by that avowal of his opinions. on a charge of heresy. Servetus was passing through Geneva. Calvin caused Michael Servetus to 67. since once he proved him in a disputation to have made a false quotation. accordingly. became. By the laws of Geneva it was ordered. to Calvin. and expected to escape observation. that no one should be im prisoned unless his accuser would consent to go to prison also. 8. but by the Churches of Zurich. as he had an old grudge against him. and in the servant s name forty charges were brought against Servetus. He was betrayed. he immediately marked his prey. (25) Varillas. again returned to the Catholic Church. who was just going into the pulpit. a Diocletian himself. They all in condemning him to be burned to death by a slow fire. Servetus was curious to hear him. Basle. if he made his appearance there again. 35 L duced the magistrates to banish Bolsec from Geneva and its terri a Pelagian. De ^Sterna Dei Prcedes- About the year 1553.

: Calvin. equipped three vessels.352 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. cit. 9. Thus he In the following year at the age of thirty-six (27). for Richer said that the Word made flesh should not be adored.&quot. a zealous French Calvinist. sec. first ages. it was lawful to put This was answered by Martin but Theodore Beza wrote a long rejoinder in defence of heretics to death. 3. /. that when Servetus was led to punishment he cried out &quot. 1. under the pretext of a commercial speculation . Nicholas doctrines among these simple people. to endeavour to introduce their poisonous For this purpose. John. the According to the words of St. and he was heard to cry out Wo is me. n. I can neither live nor die. sec. 20. Durant. that the Eucharist &quot. when in theory and practice they did the Calvin.0 God. n. (27) Varillas. save soul . (26) Varillas. 219. loc.&quot. flesh availeth nothing. for being fastened to the stake by an iron chain. as the two ministers could not agree on the doctrine of the Eucharist. same themselves. Nat. t. p 221. Alex. have pity on me. 1553 (26). Varillas quotes a writer October. in which he and many other Calvinists. a mission to America. and worthy it appears that he died obstinately in his errors. Ministers to accompany them an apostate Carmelite the other a young aspirant of the name of William Carter. that he did not say Eternal Son of God. Gotti. and hence he deduced.&quot. When Calvin heard of this. Son of the Eternal God. /. p. and thus we see how inconsistently heretics act in blaming the Catholic Church at that time. he sent two one of the name of Peter Richer. Jesus. with consent of the King. Mission arrived in Brazil. some of them noblemen. to defend himself from the charge of being called a Diocletian. who : asserts. Ill. when the pile was lighted. It is my of remark. 2. c. by a most horrible death. 20. published a treatise to prove that by Scripture and Tradition. In the year 1555. but their primary object was to in troduce Calvinism. for making use of the secular arm to punish heresy. but turned out a total failure. 1. and the custom of the obstinate Bellius . so that the unhappy wretch was burning for two or three hours before death put an end to his torment. embarked for Brazil. the spirit quickeneth. a violent wind blew the flames on one hence side. In the month of November this impious . the Calvinists had the vanity to send 68. perished &quot. .

This dispute put an end and Durant himself. his disappointment at its by some authors that this was the time when first the French Calvinists adopted the name of Huguenots (30). 19. sec. cit.21. loc. . which he after wards defended by his writings (28). n. 256. and returned to the Church. /. sec. and brother of the King of Navarre. 1. a number of Calvinists were discovered 69. called it. It is said easy to see. It is failure. 2A . and covered with blood. tied with ropes. on such a bold face that they preached A scandalous transaction took Minister . (28) Nat. publicly abjured Calvinism. cast down the altars. 331 ./7. was of no use to those 353 who received it. 3. that many enormities were committed in these nocturnal meetings. remained as obstinate . The Conference of Poissy was also held at this time. Gotti. (29) Gotti. and began to put publicly in the streets of Paris. to Calvin. contrary to the Royal Ordinances. named Malois was preaching when the bell rang for Vespers. In the year 1557. n. cit. In the year 1560. Princes of the House of Guise. 5. ar. leaving the sermon. and even some of them were burned alive (29). and Louis. the Calvinistic heresy having now become strong in France. but says he endeavoured to pre vent it. The people in the church when the Calvinists. the conspiracy of Amboise This was principally directed against the was discovered. One hundred and twenty were taken and imprisoned. in the year 1558. as he siastics. Gotti. the heretics sent to have it stopped. into the church. Prince of Conde. n. Varillas. 23.. place on this account near the church of St. several Eccle trampled on the Most Holy Sacrament. as it prevented them from continued to hearing the preacher. as ever. was at the head of it. to the Mission. however. broke the images. in Paris clandestinely celebrating the Supper by night in a pri vate house. Calvin mentioned this conspiracy in a letter to his friends. (30) Varillas. /. S. through the streets of the city to prison. They were all punished. n. and a rumour was abroad. loc. Calvin expected that his party would have the victory in this he was disappointed but the heretics. 10. n. wounded : A Medard and then dragged thirty-six of them. t.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 111. Alex. thus beaten. Bullinger and Blauret. and Francis II. c. King of France. rushed furiously ring on. 6. 13. Beza wrote a flaming account of this victory of the Faith. in which he admits that he was acquainted with it.

sec. and. that he appeared as very emaciated. 9. ad an. t. says (32). Nat. 16. but proud and rash. He suffered also from hypochon dria. gave a theological lecture every week. n. litude. that he easily fell out with all who were obliged to have any graceless in his delivery. he was endowed by God with a pro digious memory. in the 54th year of his age. and his colour was so bronzed all over. used to the Catholic Church and people. so that he was some times two days without eating. or answers. as from a weakness of stomach. . 459. 450. on every Friday held a long con ference with his followers on doubts of faith. 10. Varillas. n. err. He on that account affected extreme gravity. sec. sec. 16. the Judge. that he at once discovered the point on which every thing hinged in the doubts proposed to him. quoted by Noel Alexander and Gotti (31). n. (32) Varillas. and cursing his life. and that his intellect was so acute. in his sermons. and almost all his remaining time was taken up in clearing up and answering the very temperate both in knotty questions of his friends. and He was the slave of 1. the writer of his life. p. He was if little. 1. and in teaching. exhaling a horrible stench from his ulcers. but William Bolsec. so that he never forgot what he once read. and hence his delicate health made him melancholy. Varillas. . ibid. he preached almost every day. He was indefatigable in studying. (31) Nat. his studies. (33) Spondan. /. and break out in invectives against He was prompt in giving advice communication with him (33). He was eating and drinking. /.354 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in preaching. not so much through any love of the virtue of abstinence. in 1564. or to be lost. /. Alex. assert that he died calling on the devil. Beza says he died calmly . and so rude and intractable. 10. n. and besides. through his means. and frequent headaches. 3. his writings. in his account of Calvin s character and per sonal qualities. loc. 13. 1. /. especially in logical and theological subtleties. cit. Alex. At length the day of Divine vengeance for the wretched 70. in writing. at the same time. Calvin drew nigh he died in Geneva. and others. p. Gotti. 10. He was fond of so and spoke but He was frequently. bad. 71. 12. Gotti. and it is wonderful how any man could write so many works during the time he lived. was very vain of himself. and thus he appeared before Christ. to answer for all the souls lost. 1564. on the 26th day of May.

c. and as a writer inclined to speak badly of every one. (38) Kemundus. and vindictiveness. but through the intercession of the Bishop. (34) Spondan. sec. Such are the virtues attributed Reformers of the Church (38). cit. that when he taught Greek in Angouleme the same charge was brought he was condemned there against him by his scholars. and Bolsec even says in his of him. 1534. this condem nation. Cardinal Gotti says (37). loc. that he was condemned to death for it in JSToyon. n. and read by. sent on purpose to verify the fact. Berteler. n. at all events.AND THEIR REFUTATION. 6. 3. 16. (35) Varillas. ad an. and on that account Bucer. Secretary of the Republic of Geneva. He was addicted to immorality. but without mentioning the offence but Noel Alexander says (36) positively. that in the registry of Noyon a leaf is marked with . 1. and that it was shown to. (36) Nat. 9. 355 almost every vice. 1. in to the pretended (37) Gotti. and Spondanus says (34). in his youth. that. that both the certificate of the condemnation and the offence was preserved in Noyon. though his friend. . the punishment was changed to branding with a red-hot iron. and that likewise. Alex. but especially hatred. says he is a mad dog. Varillas says (35). he was charged life even with an unnameable offence. in a letter of admonition to him. n. fin. cit. /. anger.

to study his Humanity. AND OTHER CALVINISTS. when young. immoral life. in Orleans. 72. and imprisoned by Elizabeth. he left the direction of the unfortunate Geneva to Theodore Beza. of a noble family.-His learning. AND ENGLAND. 75. employments. who was succeeded beheaded. succeeds Elizabeth.. next Bothwell . -She takes refuge in England. which he held. 78. SCOTLAND. 74. For this he was imprisoned. and. in Vezelais. and 72. Charles I. n. who sent him to Paris. 76.-Their disorders in Flanders. in his favour. he is succeeded by his son. in life and doctrines. the son of Mary. Darnley of her is . Charles II. 81 . 85.. 1519. in Burgundy. and he has been charged with even more abominable crimes.-Con- 77Disorders of the Huguenots in France. and soon . 80. but even stole the chalices and ornaments of a church belonging to the natives of Burgundy. a worthy successor of his. liberated . 84. 73. who by his brother. and wrote several amatory poems.-James I. city of afterwards to Orleans.-Edifying death of Mary Stuart. of which he was Procurator.-Conference of St. and next in heresy. 86. THEODORE BEZA. and he was a great He led. and death.356 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. Francis de Sales with Beza. a Catholic. but he spent not only that and his paternal property. WHO DISTURBED FRANCE. regarding Court of Paris to order his imprisonment.. under Melchior Wolmar. ance was agreeable.-He is is At Calvin s death. uncle resigned a Priorate. of the name of Claudia. to learn Greek.~And in Scotland. 79. THE HUGUENOTS. but soon after he published in Paris a shocking a person named Audabcrt. his character and vices. His appear Calvin s master. who died in France. his manners polished. an favourite with all his acquaintance. is driven by violence to make a fatal renunciation Crown in favour of her son. 82.-Horrors committed by them they are proscribed in France. and was educated his uncle. 83. James II. he had an intrigue with a tailor s wife in Paris. both He was born on the 24th of June. His likewise. which induced the epigram. -Theodore Beza . -She returns to Scotland. and marries .. first in Greek.-Mary Stuart is married to Francis II. This terrified him. succeeded by his son. tinuation of the same subject. and afterwards condemned to death by her. made him his heir .

. . whom he then married. t. what wonder is it. so that he was called Calvinolator. Priests. . for the one admitted. Covered with for twelve infamy. but especially of the horrible profanation He wrote a letter of congratulation to the Queen of England. he changed his name to Theobald May. &quot. the Congress of Worms. 16. Hist. he was of dishonesty. c. /. 2. as Spondanus tells us. t. praising her for assisting to plant the Faith in France by blood and slaughter and when he went to . . he again repeats the same sentiment (2) . yet having a knowledge of the crimes already committed by Beza. for he not only ran through his property. and even in this transaction. Gotti. but he was sustained by Calvin. 1. the body of Christ in the Eucharist.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to try and gain Melancthon asked him. when he scarcely believes in the existence of God (3). He presented himself to Calvin. and pro cured him a Professorship of Greek. the penalty was burning alive. and fled to Geneva. Brev. On the occasion of the outbreak of the Calvinists against the Priests of the Church of St. never theless. in the Conference of Poissy. arillas. (1). sec. 19. and from that he was pro moted to a Professorship of Theology in Lausanne. whom he venerated almost to adoration. taking Claudia with him. n. The Ministers of that city. though apostates.They only did 2. 4. he boasted not only of the insult to the Church and the of the Holy Eucharist. sent him. where Calvin and disasters in friends for his sect. (3) Spondan. 114. and seeing the de bauched life he led. for he prevailed on the agents of his benefice guilty to pay him the revenue of it before it came due. but also sold his Prioratc hundred crowns . in a letter of his. though obscurely. the adorer of Calvin 73. and one of his companions. I. 1501. 18. that Beza does not believe that. for. if 357 convicted of the crime he was charged with. who. He was reduced to the greatest poverty. finding he studied under Wolmar. France 6 ?&quot. ad An. 137. sec. &quot. In his teaching he surpassed even Calvin in impiety. received him. but the other said.Why the French caused so many c. Medard (N. 69). He said. that the body of Christ was as far from the Eucharist as heaven is from the earth and although he was obliged to retract. said. (2) Berti. though her husband was still living. refused to admit him to the Ministry .

Lord has promised to protect it to the end of the and the gates of hell shall not prevail against I will here relate a Conference St. and found him a venerable old man. n.&quot. but. but turned his back on him. that a man Francis then asked him. n.7. desired St. the risk of his life. and in his hand a beautifully bound little volume. men In to this. Why. for our world. rather. with Beza.&quot.&quot. &quot. he married a very young widow. : is it thus said the gentleman to a friend of his. but that he so regretted seeing him devote his energies to prop up anything and called He weak was Church ? as the Catholic religion. da (5) Gotti. that every one may understand that God did not send such it. 1 have done so on purpose. before he would give his (6) Vita di St. for all before God. 2. sidered St. Church of Geneva. at could he convert him. 21. S. and said Sic tempus fallo&quot. Melancthon. to poison it by his bad example and doctrine he was. little time. rather. Beza not to believe all he heard of commenced. Florimund (4) says. however. Francis a man of learning and merit. 17. as the Apostles made him no answer. Francis to see Beza. that a nobleman of Guienne returning from Home. by begging Beza answered. I. Pietro Gallo. what the Apostles had done before them. said did. When the gentle man asked him what it contained. 22. called to account to govern the . or. Let not the reader wonder that I have said so much about the vices of Luther. then. reform his Church. and Beza. . 10.&quot. he showed him that it was a I thus cheat book of sonnets.&quot. with one foot already in Charon s bark. passes his time. cit. /. time.&quot. the eighty-fifth of his age (5).&quot. in the year 1605. that he always con him from his enemies. 4) Floremund.. loc. do you not suffer stripes. 74. Beza demanded a Remund. &quot. Beza continued for forty-one years after Calvin s death &quot. c. Calvin. c. this holy man. life (6). on Beza. and try The Saint made his way into Geneva. whom he found alone. &quot. Oh. the devil. &quot. of whom we shall have occasion to speak hereafter. in the year 1600. his opinion. about the year 1597. Francis de Sales had it. as we find it in the Saint s Clement VIII.358 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. &quot. to destroy however. if it could be saved in the Catholic St. 6. called on Beza. Francesco di Sales. no heresiarch ever can or ever has suc ceeded. Beza Although nearly seventy years old when his wife Claudia died. with a long white beard.

?&quot. remained walking about for a of an hour. said St. and that St. Why. How. is hours. that the the Council did not follow them.&quot. which threaten punishment to the wicked. &quot.&quot. that not only those who do evil. held the most opposite opinions Luther says. without any danger a man may be saved. that there should be some judge from whom there is no appeal. &quot. for other wise disputes never would have an end. then. 359 he went into his study. and then coming out said Yes . we only the virtue of Christ. does it happen. and never leave the Catholic Church. said that the only rule of Faith was the Scriptures. inspired by God. by teaching salvation by Faith But you. and of some other books of the Holy Scriptures Calvin admits it. Francis. every one the internal understanding of their true sense. and their true sense should be decided Scriptures had different meanings. It is necessary. can to which of the two. &quot. James. good works but we. shall suffer eternal punish in order to know the ment.&quot. and the Holy Ghost gives to &quot. when Luther or Calvin. &quot. . if the Scrip How.in the Catholic Church. those who omit to do the good commanded to be done. Whom are we to believe They had now been disputing for three . said by the Church. so great a difference exists. said smoothened the way to heaven. both. answer .&quot. hand. said he. that it . and the to every one. then. and that it was necessary that But. by &quot. Beza. &quot. You have put obstacles in the way of salvation.&quot.&quot.&quot. : &quot. &quot. &quot. said said St. in the opinion of the Reformers. and when Beza saw himself thus hemmed up in a corner.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Francis. then. on the other ture be clear. Francis answered. Beza. and to whose judgment all should submit . the Holy Ghost has revealed the truth ? Be sides. that in the most important questions of Religion. and the truth never could be found. &quot. that it know. true Faith. inculcating the necessity of alone. and Christ says. have you established your Reformation with so much bloodshed and destruction. by denying the necessity of good works. the Scriptures are clear.&quot. I believe quarter that a man may be saved in the Catholic Church. Luther denies the Canonicity of the Epistle of St. is in the Eucharist the real body of Christ Calvin.&quot. Holy Ghost inspires the true sense of Luther and Calvin. in the Gospel.&quot. since. . have St. also. &quot. and promise rewards to the good. likewise.&quot. Beza then began talking about the Council of Trent. destroy all human and divine laws. Francis. but.

Francis to death if he ever came Calvinists. head of any sect will forsake the Beza doctrines he has taught others. Some time after. left him under a promise of returning soon again to visit him but this was not in his power. The writer of St. both from the Old and the New Testament. . and . Some say that Beza was anxious to see him again.360 he lost his THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. for Calvin blasphemously asserted. and determined to put St. those who Francis thinking him now better disposed after this acknowledg ment. but return immediately to the Church he had forsaken that if he feared the persecution he would suffer from the thing for his eternal salvation it is hard to expect that the he should remember he ought to suffer every but as Luther himself remarked. Francis s life says. they argued especially concerning Free Will. Francis. God. and that on that account his friends that again. that Beza was convinced of its truth. Des Hayes.. that now his years sshould lead him to reflect whether he was not letting the time of mercy pass by. also. and. day of justice he should defer his conversion no longer. St. Francis by the hand. but to confirm pray and preserve them in the Faith they profess. The Saint proved the doctrine of Free Will so clearly. spoke to him plainly. he died as he lived. and preparing himself that. to enlighten them to adopt another. and only answered the Saint s arguments by with his accustomed meekness. cordially taking St. as he was now near the close of for the life. 75. Finally. for the Genevese put guards to watch their Minister. St. that whatever man does. gave out that the violence of his sickness we know that nothing of this for certain. among many things then discussed. then. The said that he did not despair of salvation in his own Church. said he abuse. did not come to give him any annoyance. he does through necessity that if he is predestined he does what is good if he is not. Governor of Montargis. Saint then seeing that his heart was made of stone. . and become a convert. said that he daily prayed to it. Francis paid him a second visit. are certain that they profess the true faith. and told him. being in Geneva. he might lead him to This shows the doubts he entertained of his new faith for . St. again at the request of the Pope. and he retracted his errors. never to God. deranged his mind but and it is most probable that . and took his leave. that if he was not in the right way. he does what is evil. temper. and.

up arms in the cause of the Reformation. (9) Spondan. During the reigns of Francis I. vide Her. heresy was so spread through every province of the kingdom. are blamed for the death of the young King.. was poisoned by a Huguenot surgeon. Hist. who. and ministers of the new sect. and preach granting 77. this is what retains me and it is . 16. close by which they had their first conventicle. why he remained in his new sect? He pointed out to him a young woman in his house. she was always ready to assist them. Huguenots. an abscess of Charles IX.. sacrileges. 361 conversing familiarly one day with Beza. ad an. too. sec. was the chief promoter of she all her endeavours to extinguish the Faith the heretics to take up arms. t. at his first presentation to Louis Bourbon. but in many other countries. did her. how not succeed according to her wishes (8). even condemning many of them to the stake. Queen of Navarre. not only in France. Ranst. asked him. to show how much harm one perverse heresiarch may occasion. cit. supposed that this was his second wife. however. n. . only sixteen still this years of age. 1560. as is supposed. when Henry was succeeded by his son. Prince of Conde. to take The Huguenots. she used . it broke forth like a torrent. and she was the head of the conspiracy of Amboise. She encouraged worsted. c. sedition. I will only then give a sketch of them.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and overwhelmed the whole kingdom with errors. for it is said. 272. of seventeen. royal decree was published in the reign leave to the Calvinists to hold meetings. and blood shed all this Jeane. ever. 2. as they are generally called. near Toulouse. and when they were encouraged (7). p. at the age by putting poison into his ear while treating him (9). from the castle of Hugon. . (7) (8) A Van Van Ranst.. Francis II. 76. 322. which. and of the desolation they caused suffice to relate all in France. and ever prosecuting the Calvinists with the utmost rigour.. though both zealous Catholics. Henry II. however. 7. that there was not a city or town but had its temple In the year 1559. and his son. Volumes would not the destruction caused by Calvin and his followers. loc. Francis II. he was seventy years old. whom he married when or We have now to speak of the French Calvinists. and said.

King of Navarre. of Calvinists were killed on St. Genevieve. 3. and Anthony. They took several cities. leaving an only son Henry. however. Hermant. Alex. his hand was cut off. In the year 1572. was besieging Orleans. 11. and destroyed the churches. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. 2. who commanded the Catholics. 15. Ill. Bartholomew s day. 1563. that he died shortly after. the Priests. which Conde was taken prisoner by Francis of Guise. Vassay. and possessed by a diabolical spirit. most hurtful to the Catholic interests. (11) Nat. and were 78. but which was subsequently modified by another edict (10). broke open the tombs of Saints. terrifying to read the details of the excesses committed by the Calvinists against the Churches. beaten. and burned their relics. Apud Gotti. who commanded the royal army.. though not conquered. and especially the Holy Eucharist. who was afterward the famous Henry IV. The first nothing could equal the outbreak took place in . c. as he (10) Nat. and his body burned. n. . in which the rebels were beaten.362 outside the cities. disturbances they caused. s. & 4. Alex. in Champagne. (12) t. for the was immediately taken. the Catholics gained the again battle of Jarnac. and in the year 1569. 4. As an atonement for this officiating of the sacrilege. 5. c. a great number Calvinists. in which the Prince of Conde. he was treacherously wounded by one John Poltroze. he paid dearly. and they declared war against their King and country. 306. in The first was fought in Dreux. n. 19. King of France. leader of the was killed (11). It is It is related in the Annals of France. c. commander of the royal troops. such were the hellish fruits of the doctrines Calvin taught. proved mortal. employed by Beza the wound . where seventy Calvinists were killed the Prince of Conde immediately put himself at the head of the Calvinistic party. The Calvinists went to war again in 1567. art. the Sacred Images. was so severely wounded. that a Huguenot went into the church of St. snatched the Sacred Host out of the hands Priest. in the Vennassain. he was then hanged. and it is thought that not less than a hundred thousand Calvinists perished in this war . 9. and on this occasion. while the Duke of Guise. in the year 1563 (12). In the following year. and the Queen-Mother made a treaty of peace with the heretics. t. Many battles were subsequently fought. n.

that a great many returned to of Tours.. . both sects rivalled each other in making proselytes there. the King. bearing lighted torches in their hands. Flemings. the 363 same month. in the year 1685. Regent of the Low to the Catholic cause. the Faith. used every means. XL. was on account of the Lutheran and by the house of Austria to oppose France . loc. wrecked the churches of Antwerp. therefore. but Calvin sent many of his disciples to Flanders. and heretics again took up arms . King Philip refused to ratify this concession. cit. wrote him a letter. already infected with heresy. felt themselves aggrieved by the Spanish Governors. praising his 79. Innocent zeal (13). and succeeded with Philip II. and finally adopted such among rigorous measures against them. 17. Countries were likewise infected by it. but after his departure. and those who refused compliance. and the Parliament. who had been sent as Counsellor of Mary. Gregory of Tours. Hungary. Would further than France. broke the altars and images. however. so that the Regent felt herself obliged to grant them a provisional licence for the exercise of their false the Religion. and sister of Charles Countries. though under many obligaions to the King (13) Gotti. and the chief to its Calvinistic troops. went in procession from the chapel royal to the church of St. and this sedition spread through Brabant and other provinces. maintained spreading there. in the suburbs Louis XIV. they broke out into open insurrection. left the kingdom. irreverence. and The Low reason of God. Genievieve. n. his mother. that the plague never spread never tainted any other kingdom. kept the heretics in check. Francis a Paula. This was a most fatal blow Queen of V. by his vigorous measures. in 1556. remained the most numerous. for this great prelate.AND THEIR REFUTATION. in obtaining the recal of Cardinal Granville. and left the monasteries heaps of ruins. Orange. but the Prince of of Spain. also. and his zealous administration of his Inquisitorial powers. About this time. also. c. burned the body of St. the Princes of the blood.. which was preserved incorrupt for fifty years. the Huguenots. by sending preachers these sectaries. the King then sent the Duke of Alva with a powerful army to chastise them. 16. in the church of St. and The the Calvinists. to convert them.

2. t. 265. who was at first a Lutheran. infected that kingdom. authority to consult regarding this war of the Netherlands is Cardinal Bcntivoglio. Anabaptists. King of opportunity was not long wanting. tolerated. p. The perver sion of this kingdom commenced with John Knox. dalla p.. King of Scot land. and in the country towns and villages they enjoy greater freedom* (15). p. soon after. James gave the command of his army to a favourite of his. as he was not of noble birth. became one of his followers. but the whole province was in rebellion against the King The best of Spain and the authority of the Catholic Church. p 95. 475. Hermant Histor. t. likewise. and the consequence was. strove to induce his nephew. of dissolute morals. I 28. dalla/&amp. The scale of victory inclined sometimes to one side. and being intimate with Calvin. and the like. to follow his example. that the Scots were beaten. (16) Varillas Hist. whom the nobility obeyed with the greatest reluctance. and the upshot of the matter was.B This was written hi 1770. There are. 1. t. and led an army of thirty thousand Germans into the Low Countries (14). 27. Lutherans. and came to Scotland. 2. although they do not enjoy the free exercise of their Religion. t. . I.. and separate himself from the Roman Church. wards residing some time in Geneva.gt. James V. proclaimed himself chief of the rebels and Calvinists. 441. 105. and establish a schism. that he promised Calvin that he would risk everything to plant it in Scotland . still they are and allowed to have private chapels in the cities. to put his design into execution.364 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.. Jovet Storia della Relia. he quitted Geneva. * N. c. Oliver Sinclair. and discuss the matter. Although the Calvinists were most nu merous in Holland. an apostate Priest. a great number of Catholics and. King James excused himself under various pretexts. cit. and James died of grief (17). Socinians. The Henry VIII. and so ardent was he in his new Religion. 471 . its Varillas (1C) gives the whole history of we will give a sketch of it. (14) Varillas. Calvinism spread itself also into Scotland. (17) Varillas. but after introduction there . de Concil. it is now divided between a thousand sects Calvinists. sometimes to another. England. Her. that Henry went to war with him. (15) Jovet loc. 2. Arians. and totally 80. . and invited him to meet him in some place where they could hold a conference.

. Henry VIIL. Mary Now this was exactly what Knox wanted. for this marriage would draw Scotland into schism. in other Meanwhile. to every The in words. as tending to make Scotland a of their opposition to province of England. however.. with consent of the Queen-Mother. but the chief cause it. to The King of II. sister to the Prince of Guise. David Scotland. Andrew s.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to Religion. one in private or in public to pray as he liked. then all-powerful in and Governor of the kingdom. succeed. but the Calvinists arms against him. and enabled the Queen Regent to send her daughter to France. who had already instilled heretical opinions and one great reason he alledged was. for previous to her departure for England. proposed to Francis I. to be brought up in the family of Henry II. they did not to favour the English alliance. asked her in mar being now Queen riage for his son Edward. the Archbishop of St. rose Archbishop opposed this concession. Francis II. and the Catholics. and imprisoned him. favoured Henry s wishes. before she completed her seventh year. body of troops into Scotland. and gave permitted the Calvinists to disseminate their doctrines. of Scotland. and he unfortunately succeeded so well. On the death of Francis I. Earl of Arran. and then only five years old* This demand raised two parties in the kingdom. gave it all the opposition in their power.. and so Mary was sent. and Henry II. who was a friend of the heretics. that he substituted Calvinism for Catholicity. a long Stuart. to inherit his throne. afterwards the sixth of that name. King of France. but was soon left a (18) Varillas. 365 leaving an infant only eight days old. and in time to be married to his son. liberty or. The infant Mary. and made him promise In this. gained over by Knox. and sent a large which kept the Calvinists in check.. cit. Mary was married to Francis II. was the injury 81.. Mary of Lorrain. marry Mary to the Dauphin. loc. On the contrary. . son of Henry France was very well pleased with the proposal. the Regent. to choose whatever religion he pleased. afterwards Cardinal. the Cardinal. Beatoun (18). regency was just the thing to give him an opportunity to establish his opinions. . James Hamilton. that into his mind it would establish a perpetual peace between the two kingdoms.

366 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. however. p. so some of her friends planned and standing accomplished her liberation. destroyed the churches. The Calvinists. /. On immediately broke out into rebellion hearing her. and obliged her to marry him. was returning from visiting her son at Stirling. but not knowing where to seek a place of security. in this sedition. she unfortunately sought it in England from still The poor Queen was (19) Varill. Under fear of death she then took the pen and signed the deed making over the kingdom 83. The rebels of Henry Darnley s murder. 28. where she found religious affairs in the greatest confusion. and on her refusal they threatened to throw her into the lake. 2. that they took her prisoner and confined her in a castle. since she married his murderer. of the window The rebels. who had to fly to Denmark from this outbreak. and obliged the Queen-Mother to grant them the Such was the miserable state of free exercise of Calvinism. and accused her of being privy to the murder of her against brought her to a this the Calvinists former husband. engaged a body of conspirators. himself. Queen Mary then returned to Scotland. who was afterwards assassinated in the King s house by Earl Bothwell. the kingdom when the Queen returned to it from France . p. castle. became so bold at last. Bothwell. 503. widow. and she immediately set about remedying these religious dis About the year 1568 she married Henry Darnley (20). leaving one son. and the per fidious Knox advised that she should be put to death. p. 500. seized her as she blinded with love of the Queen. declared before his death that the Queen was perfectly innocent however. (22) Varill. likewise. but the prin Bothwell cipal cause of their hatred to her was her religion. did not go so far as that. t. notwith her renunciation. (21) Varill. and should renounce the crown in favour of her son. afterwards James VI (21). body out 82. and afterwards hanged his (19). . The Calvinists assassinated the Archbishop in his very chamber. 426. detained in prison. to her son. p. glad of a pretext to persecute the Queen. 502. and one of them had the cowardice to hold a dagger to her breast. orders. (20) Varill. but they told her that she should con sent to be banished either into France or England. 479. then thirteen months old (22). and the marriage was not blessed with children.

seg. a natural brother of Mary. still after being im accuse her of procuring her husband s murder. under pain of high treason the chiefs of the party were thus constrained to obey. . to Elizabeth ap a commission to try her. and she therefore pro Mary that if she used her authority to make the Scotch from England. detaining her. Queen Elizabeth. Third Not to prosecute any one be beheaded. but she was still kept in prison. 367 others most anxious to deprive her of life and Mary was her only rival. Elizabeth. she was condemned to She received the news of her sentence with the greatest courage. but she imprisoned her first. Mary yielded. p. and wrote three requests to Elizabeth: That after her death her servants might be at liberty to First go where they pleased. at the dawn of day the officers of justice came to conduct her to (23) Varill. and though many persons of pointed the greatest weight took up her defence. prisoned nineteen years. and the Countess of Lennox. Elizabeth pretended to receive (23) her . but on the day appointed. and an entire resignation to the divine will. then unprepared for war. 50 e. The execution of the sentence was deferred for two months. 1587. mother of the murdered Darnley. induced Murray. who wished to follow the Catholic faith. She asked for a pen. but otherwise that there would be no chance of her libera tion till the war was at an end. and ordered the Scotch to disband themselves. with six thousand men. she would assist her to recover her king dom. had recourse mised retire to craft to avert the blow. the 18th of February. at Carlisle. and afterwards in under pretence that her enemies wished to make away The national pride of the Scotch was raised when they their Queen was a prisoner. . the Pope had in recognizing Elizabeth was. and having changed from prison to prison. and they invaded learned England Bolton with her. 84.AND THEIR REFUTATION. to have another pretext for . and the greatest difficulty kingdom. When Mary arrived in England. that while Mary all woman Sovereign. sixteen times in England alone. and Elizabeth. of who promised to aid and assist her as a sister Thus she threw herself into the power of the very for lived she was the lawful inheritor of the English throne. Second To allow her to be buried in consecrated ground and.

Port. She then requested the Governor to allow the persons composing son. 2. by permission of the Pope. in fin. and tell him to pardon Eliza beth for my death. her suite to be present at her death. which I voluntarily embrace for the Faith. and near Queen Catherine this inscription the wife of &quot. the hall. She went forward with a majestic &quot. . The Queen asked for a confessor to prepare her for death. She then dressed herself with all the elegance of a bride. Mary entered. the Office of the Blessed Virgin in the other. Thorn. and said My dear Melvin. when she heard it. St. covered with a long veil. 84. s. tyrannica crudelitate ornamentum nostri seculi cxtinguiter. and even Elizabeth. 2. the last prison she inhabited. that they might certify that She knelt down on a cushion she died in the Catholic Faith. Every thing was covered with black.. to the Church (25). could not conceal the effect it had on her. crucifix in one hand. .&quot.368 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and a a golden cross on her breast.. p. 11 t. sopra. /. 16. ar. Her body was buried Henry VIII. retained a consecrated particle for that purpose (24). the place of execution. (24) Vide P. and tell him that I die in the Catholic Religion. her Major-domo. Pius V. and it is said was put on her tomb. prayed for a short time in her oratory. c. and He will help him. t. when I am dead go to my : and tell him let him put his if he loves me or himself to follow no other trust in God. 4. : said it was too precipitate. and the it off executioner cut at the second stroke. 72. It is said that she received the holy Communion herself. she then laid her head on the block. which reached to her feet. and a minister was sent to her whom she refused to receive. &quot. c. Dizion. in St. and the pulpit from which the sentence was read. gait. a Rosary pendant at her girdle. and went to the scaffold which was prepared in the hall of Fotheringay Castle. Suar. own hand covered with black. she saluted him with a serene counte nance. Jovcs Istoria della Rel. but immediately after re Maria Scotorum Regina virtumoved by order of Elizabeth tibus Regiis et animo Regio ornata. and heard the sentence signed by Elizabeth s read. (25) Varillas. having. the scaffold. 3. but was refused. and calling Melvin. but for all that she continued to and added many martyrs persecute the Catholics more and more. 8. s. . Bern. t. /. Mary s death filled all Europe with horror and compassion for her fate. 28 .

being then King of Scotland. for. at Cromwell s instigation. and the year after his coronation. first to France and afterwards to Cologne and Holland. and after several battles he lost the kingdom. under pain of death. James II. and the son of Queen 85. 1685. but died the death of the just. condemned him to be beheaded. the fifty-ninth year of his age.. and they.. In the year 1606 he brought out that famous declaration that the King of England was independent of the Roman Church. but they delivered him up to the English. He died in 1625. Charles II. after Elizabeth s death. King of Scotland. and took the title of James I. took the field against him. the Sovereign of three kingdoms he followed his father s errors in religion. and died in 1685. Charles L. who then governed the kingdom. born in 1633. and sent succours to the Calvinists in France. a though he openly declared himself Roman 2B . . He King of Scotland. King of five. This unhappy Monarch was succeeded by his son. called the Oath of Supremacy. and like his father. while his mother lived forty-two years in almost continual sorrow and persecution. born in 1630 86. and he died on the scaffold on the 30th of July. at his father s death he went to Scotland. and was proclaimed King of that country and of England and Ireland likewise. He was succeeded by his son. Crom well. Mary. He was the first King who governed the three kingdoms of England. then in their possession. born in the year 1600. took little heed of his mother s advice or example. which took place in 1603. so that Charles had to make his escape in disguise. who was then aiming at sovereign power. that all Catholic Priests should quit the kingdom. he suc ceeded her. but he lived and died a heretic.. both the Scotch and English Parliamentarians took up arms He against him. he ordered. which took place in 1658. and the twenty-second of his English reign. He was recalled after Cromwell s death. King of Great Britain. and was crowned . Ireland and Scotland. the twentyfifth of his reign and forty-eighth of his age. 369 James VI. and put his forces to flight. took refuge with the Scotch. and was soon after proclaimed death.. . James was proclaimed King on the day of his brother s the 16th of February. to enable them to retain He was unfortunate for Rochelle. 1648. England in 1661.AND THEIR REFUTATION. under title of Protector of England. at the age of sixtywas succeeded by his second brother.

an Edict of Toleration. and especially Baptism. Hser. HITHE ERRORS OF CALVIN. Ardently attached to the Faith. 93. in William. but this lost him his crown. 87. mach. and will give in the last part of the work a particular treatise to refute them. THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.-Penance.. and forsook the communion of the English Church. Calv. James had to fly He soon after went over to Ireland. 87. is sufficient for salvation.-Justification. 90.-The Trinity. -Calvin adopts the errors of Luther. destines man to sin and to hell. the principal errors of Calvin. Germains. 95.-Jesus Christ. he promulgated. (1) Prateol. took possession of the kingdom. and. 97-The Eucharist and the Mass. As this sovereign did not hesitate to sacrifice his temporal kingdom for the Faith. who adopted almost Calvin adopted almost all the principal errors of Luther. 98. promulgated by Calvin. in 1689. in the Catholic Faith in II. 94. the sixty-eighth year of his age. Prateolus (1) reckons two hundred and seven heretical doctrines.-Good Works and Free Will. granting to the Catholics the free exercise of Religion. 91. in Theo- . Prince of sion of that fled kingdom back again to France. to keep posses to France. who. 13. and Faith alone in Jesus Christ Sacraments. as we shall hereafterwards show in the refutation of Luther and Calvin. . in 1687.372 Catholic. and died in at all events. -The Divine Law 92. we every reason to believe that he received an eternal crown have from died James the Almighty.-He denies Purgatory and Indulgences other errors. but being again beaten he St. left one son.-Calvin s errors regarding the 89. in 1701. 88. and another author (2) makes the number amount At present I will only speak of to fourteen hundred. all the errors of the ancient heretics.-The 96. Forvandes. who Rome.-That God pre Scriptures. James III. for the English called Orange. (2) Francisc. though James s son-in-law.

we had this Faith alone. fall did Christ discharge the office of a mediator after the This is a mani of Adam. c. are not only one God. Calvin. ad Synod. to believe in the continual actual generation of the Son from the Eternal Father (6) but this doctrine is not only the general one Divine Persons. I. and that in the Trinity there but one Divine Nature. c. cit. Regarding the Persons of the Trinity. 16. I all these words were buried in oblivion. for it was when Christ took flesh in the womb 1. he says that he was the medi my ator of mankind with his Eternal &quot.&quot. 90. ad Stanearum. and the Maccabees. he says. are one God&quot. and he does not like words Consubstantial. the &quot. but also three distinct Persons for otherwise one might fall into the errors of Sabellius. Fourth He of the Scriptures as denies the authority of the denies the Canonicity of the books of Canon Third He Ecclesiasticus.&quot. : Thou St. this day have begotten &quot. from all Augustin. dent. thee&quot. vide loc. fest error. 1. has inserted in the (5). of the (3) Calvin.AND THEIR REFUTATION. Adam sinned (8).&quot. Calvin. my Son. 7). and before &quot. and one Person. or even Trinity. totally rejects Apostolical Traditions (4). an^ Holy Ghost. he says. Judith. however. he says in one of his letters. and the Son. says the Church has no against right to interpret and judge of the true sense of the Scriptures. cit. IV. Breviary the Athanasian Creed. that is. Tobias. and on that account the Holy Fathers made use stantial to explain of the words Hypostatic and Consub both the distinction and the equality of the Second It is a foolish thing. and the Holy Ghost. Wisdom. and wish. to Divine Nature. 88. Speaking of Jesus Christ. Calvin. (4) Calvin. This day. Vulgate. 371 Scriptures. explaining this text. Calvin. Epist. &quot. Not alone. among Theologians art (7). in Autid. who said tively laid is that these were but simple words. Tri- (5) (6) (7) (8) Calvin. but is proved by the Scriptures I &quot. down that the Father. As regards the Holy Second settled He by refuses to receive the the Council. loc. . but as the Eternal Word of God. ii. 89. says : and in every continuous instant. Son. Hypostasis. 13. in his book the Council of Trent (3). Office of the The Church. sec. Father before he became man. . that the Father. 2.&quot. Instit. (Ps. he begets me according eternity. Instit. as his Word and his Natural Son. in which it is posi . Antid. ad Sess.

but in the imposition of the The justice of Christ. and appears just by that means (13). that there are no venial sins. Vera Chiesa. and one mediator of God and man. sec. 9. reconciliation for there is one between God and man as the Apostle says. c. and this (I. recognized two Persons in Christ (10). he says it is impossible for us to observe the law imposed on us by God. so that the sinner. 15. c. c. 3. /. c. L 3. sinner. 11. Concerning the Divine law. Nestorius. sec. Concerning justification. sec. every work which even the just man performs is sinful that good works have no merit with God. that he suffered the pains of the damned. also says. became the mediator of &quot. This was the doctrine of the French Calvinists in their celebrated profession of faith believe that we are &quot. : We made participators of this justification by Faith alone. is not justified by contrition. He also blasphemously taught. ii. 3. (12) Idem /. but that such desires arise from the wickedness which reigns all are mortal that . sec. since in us . 10. Mary that he . which reconciles the sinner with God. sec. he says that it does not consist in the infusion of sanctifying grace. but by Faith alone. he says in another place. c. 9. 5). 24. was the great price he offered to his Eternal Father for our like Cardinal Gotti says (9). puts on the justice of Christ by Faith. 1. and that to say the contrary is pride. (13) Idem. 14. 1. 1. 3. /. n. n. God. 11. the man Christ Jesus&quot. grace (12). andj:hat original concupiscence. Timothy. (14) Idem. that.372 Virgin THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. and proceeds from a wish to depreciate* . that those who are jus applied to our use. Inst. 13. 8. is still sinful. though continuing a justified by being clothed with masked as it were He the justice of Christ. redemption. and this so happens because the promises of life offered to us in Christ are tified He likewise said. 16. 92. 3. sec. 4.&quot. though we do not consent to it. c. (11) Calv. 1. and the sins of mankind (11). but as one of the sinner still. 3. believing in the promises and in the merits of Jesus Christ (14). (10) Calvin. or that vicious leaning to sin which exists in us. t. . that man. and clothed in that. appears before God not as a sinner. should believe with a certainty of Faith that they are in a (9) Gotti. is just. that when Christ descended into hell (and he understands it as the hell of the damned). he 91. in a state of sin. 23.

but even of eternal salvation so that one should consider himself as one of the elect. - - - - (16) Idem. or otherwise. he never had them. seq. though all the while he acts without being But if God moves the will of liberty and through necessity. Paul was by the special revelation he received from God (15). 12.&quot. when man acts without free will. and it is God himself moves him to do it. who assert that God merely permits sins. but does not wish them. for God has so willed it. He uttered horrible blasphemies actions as meritorious to salvation. word. or instigate them. when each follows his own will. says He it. de Script. 11. The Synod of Dort. or deserve punish enough that man should act spontaneously. &quot. & (17) Tertull. state of grace. and that this certainty should only of perseverance. He likewise said. not he who commands or moves the sinner to commit &quot. he says. how can he have merit or demerit ? Calvin again blasphemously answers ment. c. this. is and says. they cannot be lost.AND THEIR REFUTATION. and through it may be said. sec. that to acquire merit. those. 2. then God is the author of sin ? No. he said. but he and all his posterity lost it through sin . does not blush. -that when speaking of human The first is. he does through necessity. it But then. without driven to it by others. 42. The first man alone. Haerat. anything that man does. and that this but a name without the substance (18). oppose the Scriptures. and if any one thinks he lost them. . sec. when it decided that in should particular instances one may lose the Divine grace. U /. which movement man cannot resist. Inst. not at all be surprised at this disagreement in the same sect. (15) Calv. however (16). 3. 3. the Yalentinians have the same right to their own opinion as Valentine himself (17). 8 ) Calv Inst L 2 c 2 c. both when he does what is good. they cannot blame their disciples for separating from them as Tertullian says. 373 be understood not . as well as when he does what is evil. because the author of sin is he alone who commits Calvin. hence. opposed this doctrine. /. had free will. . to give utterance to a third blasphemy. for as the heresiarchs separate from the Church. then. 16. that and every sin is committed by the Divine authority and will . necessity. We 93. and that once in possession of them. it. free will. 2. is man has no free will. that Faith and justification belong to the elect alone.&quot. c. as St. man even to commit sin.

a a tyrant. merely because since they have Faith that they are justified. cxxxiv. since he condemns men to eternal punishment. and then punishes him . as we are. .374 &quot. they make God distribute his rewards unjustly. but of which he is the author&quot. c. . but constrained to commit it and wicked. 23. /. (22) Calv. (19). says. Calvin says that this is the benefit but I answer him thus If. then good works are no longer and Christ died to destroy every precept both of the old necessary. 94. though they should not it. : a God that wiliest iniquity&quot. knowing beforehand the salvation or reprobation of each person. a sins. is the fine theology of these new Reformers of the Church. moves Calvin not being able to get out of this difficulty. Dei. we cannot understand it (21). v. he agrees to it. while. (Psalms. as he has decreed it. Inst. and to give freedom and confidence to Christians to man may be do whatever they sins. 3. reader. &quot. blasphemy did not affright Calvin monstrous as it is. according to : saved. c. solely by his will. for Finally. (Psalms. ibid. David (20) Whatsoever the Lord pleased he both done in and on the earth&quot. (21) Calv. at the same time. they are not at liberty to avoid sin. and concludes that God. that the by Divine ordinance. which the Scripture pronounces are done not only by his permission. 5). It is sinner rible who is lost. that some men are predestined to eternal torment by the Almighty. and not by their evil actions (22). how can he avoid it ? If God. seterna. : . THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. observe unjust. . Such. He bases this falsehood on that text of They . . unjust and wicked a deceiver. Luther and Calvin. he gives his grace and heaven to the wicked. by any means in their power. and to commit even the most enormous enough to secure their salvation without any co- (19) Calv. I ask. and even this hor . for the purpose of tormenting them for all eternity because he imposes on them a law which they never can. (20) Calvin. feign that he permits those things. man to commit sin. . and new law. even be sorry for their of the death of Christ his system. who make the Almighty a tyrant. since it is like. 6) but he appears to heaven Thou art not forget what the Psalmist says in another place &quot. is lost a necessary consequence of this doctrine. that carnal men. 2. 3. /. de Praedest. because he creates men deceiver. for he himself first causes a man to sin.

20. Penance. lawful Ordinations. which . (28) Idem. gives to the elect alone. and the third which is he admits. is impressed by Baptism. 11. /. He also says that the words of the ministers of the Sacraments are not consecrating. but only of exciting our the preaching of the Divine Word (24). but wishes to save them through the merits of Christ. to forgive. he says. c. Idem. 4. 14. Iiistit. opus operatum. by opus operatum. 4. c. the Eucharist. ad Can. Con and Orders (27). to wash.AND THEIR REFUTATION. . calls confidence. understand. the good work of the ministers of the Sacra ments (25). and He ridicules a shadow of things to come (Collos. to nourish. iv. 19. 7. he says. 9). and hence he infers. so that those who are not predestined to eternal happiness. that which the Sacrament signifies as Baptism. &quot. 4. that they should merely believe firmly that God does not impute to them their sins. We. Trid. ex opere operate. *. Cone. s. /. I grant to be a performed in true and Sacrament but he totally rejects the Sacraments of Confir mation. so much as the power which the Almighty gives to the Sacraments (if not hindered by sin). 9. as an invention of ignorant Monks but in this. though they may be in a state of grace.&quot. and Matrimony (28). he only shows his own ignorance. and Ordination first two he positively asserts to be Sacraments. . though they do everything in their power to This certain faith in our salvation. ii. 4. that the Sacraments faith. (27) Calvin. as he understands by . 375 operation on their part . the three Sacraments Baptism. He denies that there is any difference between the Sacraments of the Old and the New Law (26) . in Antid. he says. s. of operating in the soul . receive not the effect of the Sacrament. 14. and he ridicules our Theological term. 4. Sess. gain hell. 14. which he 95. Penance. and Christ. like have not the power of conferring grace. Instit. (23) (24) (25) (20) Calvin. God. 19. 1. /. 26. 17). Paul says that the former were but weak and needy elements (Gal. not the act of the minister himself. he says. &quot. Idem. only instituted firmation. Extreme Unction. Idem. s. c. that they have Speaking effect on the elect alone.&quot. /. Catholics. c. The imposition of hands. but only declaratory. c. 14. for explaining the power of the Sacraments. intended alone to make us understand the Divine promises (23). but St. 23. of the Sacraments. s. 4. the Supper. Though the Sacramental character.

20 & seq. he denies that it is necessary for salvation (29). n.De Csena Domini. He not alone denies that Penance 96. Idem. that Transubstantion. he says. they are saved (32). 14. because it is a Sacrament only while it is used.376 THE HISTORY OB HERESIES. cit. 4. but only ordained by Innocent III. in the Council of not necessary to make satisfaction for our not to be pleased with our works. though they are not baptized. as believed by Catholics. and that the essence of this Sacrament is eating by Faith He denies (and this is the error he most furiously the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist. 20. we see in his book. *. are he says. as we believe mean the conversion (29) (30) (31) (32) Idem. (35) Calvin. though they die without baptism. /. Bossuet Variat. and this is my The words of consecration (35). 15. 37. he teaches that the Baptism of John the Baptist was of the same efficacy as the Baptism instituted by Jesus is Christ (33). for all children of Christians. but figuratively. /. snatched off by members death. he says. satisfaction would be to derogate from that atonement made by Lateran . 15. because. and that they do not are to be taken. Regarding the Sacrament of the Eucharist. s. &quot. /. and that it is because God is Christ for our 97. /. them. a Sacrament. Law (30). 3& 4. against which as his malice is directed. not in reality. 31. are remitted by the remembrance of Baptism. &quot. c. Finally. : blood. (34) Vide loc. he says. are saved. 4. and he teaches that laymen and women cannot baptize a child even in danger of death (an error most dangerous to the salvation of these poor innocents). Calvin. 15. 3. c. but he teaches errors concerning it . s. and that the Eucharist ought not to be preserved or adored. c. being born in the alliance of the New all born in grace (31). de Caena Dom. . for they are of the Church when they are born. and such sins. for the sins committed after Baptism.&quot. all sins. that the many absolution of the Confessor has no power to remit an abstraction of the remission God grants merely . (33) Idem. c. defends) This is my body. 19. s. because children. is nothing but a mere invention. he says. loc.. but is us. he admits Baptism as a Sacrament. sins. cit. by the promise made to Christians that the confession of sins is not of Divine right. and do not require the Sacrament of Penance (34) .&quot. t. 3.

and it is. giving communion under one kind. (39) Dallasus Apol. s. 10.AND THEIR REFUTATION. deciding that the Lutherans. but that the bread and wine in the Sacrament are merely figures of the body and blood of our Lord (36). Pope (45). injurious to the Sacrifice of the Cross to say so. *. s. and he rejects the Fast of (47). cit. Real Presence in the Eucharist (37). 6. the Intercession of Saints.&quot. or the interpretation He entirely renounces Ecclesiastical Laws. when they Calvin denies. . 377 of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. and the Veneration and St. who they knew believed in the Real Presence. but we may ask the Calvinists : Is not idolatry contrary to the honour of God ? and are not the Lutherans adore as God. 18. as he alleges. are not infallible in the definition of articles of Faith. 3. denies Purgatory (41). and the rites appertaining to discipline (46). but not his proper flesh and blood then he says. c. c. II. loc. Nothing. 4. vows to fast or to (36) Calvin. in 1631. he says. . the &quot. When such is their doctrine. Inst. proving that he did not believe in. 17. c. Eccl. 20. and that in the communion. as they asserted. c. both believed in the fundamental articles (38). but not of jurisdic . 4. because. /. 98. and that private Masses are in direct opposition to the institution of Christ. or admit. (47) Idem /. should be admitted to their communion. 4648. (38) Calvin. tion (44). 3. s. L 3. (40) Calvin. Peter and the The Church and General Councils. (41) Idem. of the Scriptures. that the Mass is a Sacrifice instituted by Jesus Christ for the living and the dead (40). 4. c. (46) Idem /. he says. 33. 32. 5. (42) Calvin. c. 17. Instit. s. (43) Idem /. 5. we receive the life and substance of Jesus Christ. p. Calvin. Instit. Lent being pernicious and impious. c. such rites. the value of In dulgences (42). 12. 6. c. (44) Idem I. (45) Idem /. 43. (37) Mem. mere bread ? idolaters. /. (48) Idem /. can be more reprehensible than dividing the Supper in other words. likewise. 34. we ought surely be surprised to see the Calvinists in their famous Synod of Charenton. 4. c. 4. also. Daille denies (39) that there is any thing in this Decree contrary to piety or to the honour of God . Idem /. c. s. enjoyed among the of Images (43) Apostles merely a supremacy of honour. Peter. he says. and the Celibacy of the Clergy (48) . 4. /. and then he rejects the primacy of St. 4. 9. 20. 2. c. he says. Reform. 19 & 20. we do and do not receive Jesus Christ.

The most rigid 100. 3. 13. and in a word. 13. 4. s. we may say members of the same family believing same thing. /. and Gomorists. 3. are super stitious (49). de Usur. may be permitted.-The Piscatorians. sects The sect of Calvin in fact. (51) Calvin Respons. besides. art. 1. Reformed. Noel Alexander and Cardinal Gotti (50) enumerate many other errors of his. Alex. t.-The Quakers and Tremblers. s. (50) Idem. 99. (I) Nat.The Puritans. who are found in France. 70) (51). s. t. Nat. in in others sprung. Arminians. his writings. They rejected Episcopacy (49) Ibid. and that is you can scarcely find the was soon divided into numerous other that from every sect a thousand the case. 105. 312. for there is no text of Scripture prohibiting it. sec. follow the his followers. 2. 2. he says. t. and. and the religious vows. Ver. at his death. c. Usury. 23. but like to especially. Anglo-Calvinists. go on a pilgrimage. inter Epist. Rel. follow their own way of thinking. that he cursed his life.. his studies.-The difference between 103. Gotti. and Presbyterians. especially in England. doctrine of Calvin to the letter.-The Arminians and Gomarists. 13. THE DIFFERENT SECTS OF CALVINISTS. ists. 5. that it was not and without reason. as we read above (N. 223. 19. who hate all who do not abhor the Catholics the churches consecrated of all the Calvinists are the Puritans. he preached and wrote so many blasphemies. -The Independents these Sects. c. Presbyterians. and do not even pray in by them.. 99. Alex. 6.378 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. in general. IV. p. 104. sec. 19. 102. we find among others called Independents. We shall speak of the principal sects described the These are the by Noel Alexander and Cardinal Gotti (1). and these. and called on the devil to take him. Switzerland. 100. he says. In England and Scotland they are called Puritans. and Flanders. where the Palatinate.-The Anglo-Calvin106. c. 2. . 101. Gotti. s. Pis catorians. art.The Sects into which Calvinism was divided.

sermon. not even keeping the Lord s Prayer.&quot. and recognize no superior as invested with the power of teaching them. both of the Catholic and Churches. unless the name is derived from the Greek word. like. . disciples of John Agricola. 102. &quot. According to them. means that Charles friends to royalty. days but they do not admit to the Supper. When Oliver Cromwell became Protector of England o he was an Independent. with their hats on. are called Presbyterians. N. They allow no one They celebrated &quot. or. N. Their Churches are formed into classes to Provincial the classes are subject decisions They almost of Divine authority. in 1649. 101. because they adopt a form of if Synods must be obeyed. who considered themselves perfect in this frequently They imagined they were such a pitch. 35). gifted young person . boasting that they had the spirit of the Prophets and Apostles. Presbuteroi. They celebrated the Supper. nor to Baptism. Tremblers. which means our Elders. and the Anti-Scripturists. islands. as the Anabaptists. whose Church government by lay elders. but their system of church government is different. their They are no I. and they say that Bishops Their Elders are have no more authority than Presbyters. . They Anglican are as exact in the observance of the Sunday as the Jews are of the Sabbath. 103.their doctrine. Spirit to trembled all over. the rites. 86). to the preach who does not on Sun Supper&quot. the Antinomians (who rejected all law. and it was through was brought to the block (as we have seen above. The Independents and Presbyterians believe much the same as the Puritans. as . called. There are also Quakers. The Presbyterians are a powerful body in the British They separated themselves from the Independents. . that they endure the abundance of the Divine light they enjoyed. in the case of some specially generally men of years. who totally rejected the Scriptures. only those of their own sect. and these to a National Synod. or singing and they were the progenitors of all the other sects that overran England. follow . as they were sometimes life. 85). They believe just what they (N. and Liturgy. 379 and ceremonies. that supreme power resides in each sect which they would not allow to the Councils of the Universal Church.AND THEIR REFUTATION. not being able to moved by the They . without Catechism.

and Presbyterians. . many of these opinions. Episcopal Order. and that he had other human They held erroneous opinions even on the first of Faith. they say. and confirm those who have received Baptism. and have Canons and Prebends. and it is difficult at present to know exactly what their creed is. who believe that nothing is vile or unlawful which nature desires. . supposed they hold those opinions no longer. they should dress exactly alike. and establishing new rites. which their cognate sects reject totally. not believing in the Trinity. surplice is used as a vestment. Archdeacons. publish ordinances and Such are the powers granted to the Sovereign. and they frequently had to be punished for seditious conduct by the magistrates. his Council. are justified it is by their own justice itself. in the censures. a tailor. for they never uncover for any one. or in hell or heaven after this life . or the second dogmas coming of Christ. is head of the Church. called Ranters. and the fountain all ecclesiastical authority. they have preserved the doctrine. there are Chancellors. that though Jesus Christ despaired on the cross. changed or modified. laws. and the 104. are now defects. with tribunal decides all judgments brought before it. but as superior by Divine right they retain a sort of form of conse cration for Bishops they ordain Priests. and that no one should be honoured more than another. and Rectors of Parishes they have preserved the Cathedrals. They did believe. enemies of all political order all .Calvinists are Independents. has the of of Henry and of Elizabeth. for they . not alone as distinct from other offices. John Fox. wished that men from the Puritans. of Priesthood and Deaconship. decide on matters of Faith. and show some honour to the Sign of the Besides Bishops. reject not only all Ecclesiastical. Their founder was an Englishman. Another sect was called Levellers. Church discipline and Unlike all these sects. with power and his royal consent of the Metropolitan and Convocation He can. different in The Anglo. who say morning and evening prayers. making new . There is another sect. They recognize both the orders The King. Cross. according to the laws The Sovereign. . both . Deans. which were held by the first Quakers. They say no prayers in their meeting-houses they even look on prayer as useless. but even civil ceremonies.380 THE HISTORY OF HERESIES.

that Christ has redeemed the elect alone. and. and composed a new Catechism. and for his He. he precepts go. gained merit both for himself and us . wish to avail themselves of them. should be observed. He divided the justification of Christ into active and passive . . version of He likewise published a new Both the Bible. that God gives to the predestined alone. Penance. on the contrary. our doctrine. as far as the judicial He differed almost entirely with Calvin. taught that the breaking of the bread passion. Arminius published a Remonstrance. and Pastor. 8. a Professor of Theology. his followers were called Remonstrants. Supper&quot. at Herborne. and die without repenting he Of the third error. entitled. likewise. embraced this opinion. Hence God exalted him. he says. The first error he attacks is. on Leyden. both for the sanctity of his life. but the other Calvinists did not. in the was essential and the academy of Marpurg &quot. He differed in several points with the Calvinists. in the year 1683.AND THEIR REFUTATION. a proud and vain man. that of. the active he acquired by the holiness of his life the passive. from John Piscator. 105. has destined many to hell such reprobation is create^ them. (Philip. he rejects eight errors of Calvin.&quot. and Professors of of writing. that Christ. In this that account. He . Two the Arminians and Gomarists. Arminius or Harmensen. said. The Policy of the Church of pub lished in London. he says. alone the passive to us. says: He humbled himself. and it is by this we are justified. The Piscatorians were so called. 381 England.. obedient unto death. by his labours and as the Apostle sufferings. or Catechism. 106. filled with a thousand errors. by an absolute decree. the Atonement. For which God exalted him. Theology in the University In 1619. by his sufferings the active justification was profitable to himself . and glory of all men. and gives all sufficient means of salvation. justification. before he . the Catholic doctrine. 9). which in several articles comes near to Gomar.. &quot. God. if they the second error. other Calvinistic sects had their origin in Holland. were rejects that God. being made &c. work &quot.&quot. It is. The Mosaic Law. because of the sins they commit. and other points. wishes the salvation faith. regarding Predestination. ii. himself and his doctrines were unanimously condemned by the Reformers.

HOLDEN. and invited deputies from England. reject this. Rel. Ver. or differed but slightly from the Calvinistic doctrines. the Arminians were condemned. cit. 11. c. Grotius was concealed in it. but was saved by a stratagem of his wife. took the part of Arminius. is. and. is disposed is to receive excluded from the fruit of Redemption. loc. Scotland. on the other hand. and other kingdoms. sec. if he it as he The fourth error he ought. who obtained leave to send him a chest of books. and his disciples were called AntiRemonstrants. 12.382 says that no one is THE HISTORY OF HERESIES. . 40. he says. for man by that no one can resist grace malice can. Dizion. 13. 6. Geneva. c. but he teaches that in this life we may both lose the grace received. a Professor in the same University. Alex. reproves. Alex. 3. . and who has once it Gomar (2). The error that he received grace cannot again lose it . and Hugo Grotius. DUBLTV . t. that the States-General convoked a Synod. it. Port. 2. to amuse him in his after a time. (3) Nat. END OF VOLUME I. n. The dispute. became so violent. at Dort. instead of solitude . but as almost all the deputies who attended Synod were Calvinists. at length. (2) Nat. if he likes. and he thus escaped (3). and opposed Arminius and his Remonstrants with the greatest violence. Barneveldt. and the Gomarists got the upper hand. the chest was sent back. and Grotius was condemned to perpetual imprisonment. the books. and they accused the Arminians of Pelagianism. Gotti. The was held. for which Barneveldt perished on the scaffold. adopted all the though recover dogmas of Calvin. fifth is false. again by repentance. art. n. UPPER ABBEY-STREKT. to terminate it. 19. alia parola Grozio. . The States Chancellor. sec.

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