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AM RADIO BROADCASTING MODEL

Contents:
1 History 2 Operation 3 Broadcast frequency bands 4 Limitations 5 Other distribution methods

AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation. AM was the first method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is carried out in the medium wave band world wide, and on long wave and short wave bands also. Once AM was the only commercially important method for broadcast signal modulation. Today, it competes with FM broadcasting for mobile reception of music and speech, as well as with various digital modes distributed from terrestrial and satellite transmitters.

History:
AM was the dominant method of broadcasting during the first eighty years of the 20th century and remains widely used into the 21st. AM radio began with the first, experimental broadcast on Christmas Eve of 1906 by Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden, and was used for small-scale voice and music broadcasts up untilWorld War I. San Francisco, California radio station KCBS claims to be the direct descendant of KQW, founded by radio experimenter Charles "Doc" Herrold, who made regular weekly broadcasts in San Jose, California as early as June 1909. On that basis KCBS has claimed to be the world's oldest broadcast station and celebrated its 100th anniversary in the summer of 2009. The great increase in the use of AM radio came late in the following decade as radio experimentation increased worldwide following World War I. The first licensed commercial radio services began on AM in the 1920s.XWA of Montreal, Quebec (later CFCF, now CINW) claims status as the first commercial broadcaster in the world, with regular broadcasts commencing on May 20, 1920. The first licensed American radio station was started by Frank Conrad, KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Radio programming boomed during the "Golden Age of Radio" (1920s–1950s). Dramas, comedy and all other forms of entertainment were produced, as well as broadcasts of news and music.

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which used such power on occasion before World War II. based on the terms of their license. WLW's superpower transmitter still exists at the station's suburban transmitter site. to directionalize their transmitted signal to avoid interfering with other stations operating on the same frequency 2 . transmitter power input to the antenna for commercial AM stations ranges from about 250 watts to 50. for stations intended for wide-area communication during disasters including Cincinnati station WLW. An AM receiver detects amplitude variations in the radio waves at a particular frequency. Satellite Radio or HD (digital) Radio.000 watts. Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB).000 watts radiated power. Experimental licenses were issued for up to 500. Antenna design must consider the coverage desired and stations may be required. In broadcasting practice. but it was decommissioned in the early 1940s and no current commercial broadcaster is authorized for such power levels. It then amplifies changes in the signal voltage to drive a loudspeaker or earphones.AM RADIO BROADCASTING MODEL Operation or Working model: AM radio technology is simpler than Frequency Modulated (FM) radio.000 watts). Some other countries do authorize higher power operation (for example the Mexican station XERF formerly operated at 250. The earliest crystal radio receivers used a crystal diode detector with no amplification.

3 MHz–26. resulting in a channel occupied bandwidth of 3 . AM broadcasting now attracts mainly talk radio and news programming. In the Americas (ITU region 2).2 kHz by a National Radio Systems Committee (NRSC) standard adopted by the FCC in June 1989. AM is used mostly by broadcast services – other shortwave users may use a modified version of AM such as SSB or an AM-compatible version of SSB such as SSB with carrier reinserted. Moreover. Short wave is 2. Long wave is used for radio broadcasting in Europe. though a small section of the band could theoretically be used for microbroadcasting under the United States Part 15 rules. on the national level. it is 9 kHz. and U. This is the "AM radio" that most people are familiar with.5 kHz–283. and parts of Asia (ITU region 1). divided into 14 broadcast bands. The long range of short wave broadcasts comes at the expense of lower audio fidelity. Short wave is used by audio services intended to be heard at great distances from the transmitting station. by each country's telecommunications administration (the FCC in the U. elsewhere. Canada.  Long wave is 148. for example) subject to international agreements. maximum transmitted audio bandwidth is limited to 10.610 kHz.1 MHz.  Medium wave is 520 kHz–1. Due to the propagation characteristics of long wave signals. and are not broadcast services intended for reception by the general public. 10 kHz spacing is used.. the frequencies are used most effectively in latitudes north of 50°.S. this band is mainly reserved for aeronautics navigational aids. while music radio and public radio mostly shifted to FM broadcasting in the late 1970s The limitation on AM fidelity comes from current receiver design.5 kHz. Bermuda. The allocation of these bands is governed by the ITU's Radio Regulations and. ITU region 2 also authorizes the Extended AM broadcast band between 1610 kHz and 1710 kHz. to fit more transmitters on the AM broadcast band in the United States.AM RADIO BROADCASTING MODEL Broadcasting Frequencies: AM radio is broadcast on several frequency bands.  Frequencies between the broadcast bands are used for other forms of radio communication. Limitations: Because of its susceptibility to atmospheric and electrical interference. and is not allocated in the Western Hemisphere. In the United States. Medium wave is by far the most heavily used band for commercial broadcasting. The mode of propagation for short wave is different (see high frequency). territories. Shortwave broadcasts generally use a narrow 5 kHz channel spacing. with 9 kHz channel spacing generally used. Africa.S.

fluorescent lights.com/downloads/manuals/am1c.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation http://www. religious and talk radio stations. such as electrical motors.pdf 4 . sports. and a theoretical frequency response of 0–16 kHz.wikipedia. AM radio signals can be severely disrupted in large urban centres by metal structures. iBiquity's proprietary HD Radio has been adopted and approved by the FCC for medium wave transmissions. Both of these standards are capable of broadcasting audio of significantly greater fidelity than that of standard AM with current bandwidth limitations. nostalgia and ethnic/world music – survive on AM. and in many cities is now relegated to news.ramseyelectronics. although an AM station can be converted into an FM cable signal. in addition to stereo sound and text data. oldies. Some musical genres – particularly country. In the United States. tall buildings and sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) and electrical noise. AM radio generally cannot. while Digital Radio Mondiale is a more open effort often used on the shortwave bands. As a result. especially in areas where FM frequencies are in short supply or in thinly populated or mountainous areas where FM coverage is poor . AM radio in many countries has lost its dominance as a music broadcasting service. when it was shut down. While FM radio can also be received by cable. The former audio limitation was 15 kHz resulting in a channel occupied bandwidth of 30 kHz. or lightning.AM RADIO BROADCASTING MODEL 20. In Canada.4 kHz. In Switzerland a system known as "wire broadcasting" (Telefonrundspruch in German) transmitted AM signals over telephone lines in the longwave band until 1998. cable operators that offer FM cable services are required by the CRTC to distribute all locally available AM stations in this manner. References: http://en. and hybrid digital broadcast systems are now being used around the world. Other Distribution Methods: Stereo transmissions are possible (see AM stereo). and can be used alongside many AM broadcasts.