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What happens when waves strike an interface between two different media coming at an angle Reflection and transmission of waves at interfaces Application of E-field and H-field boundary conditions Total internal reflection Brewsters angle

i o

Ei Hi Ei

r ki

r ki

Hi

z=0

r Plane of Incidence: The plane containing the incident wavevector k i and a vector that

is normal to the interface is called the plane of incidence (in the figure above the x-z plane is the plane of incidence)

TE Wave: If the E-field of the wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence then the wave is called a TE-wave TM Wave: If the H-field of the wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence then the wave is called a TM-wave

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TE Wave - Wavevectors

r kr

Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

r i

r ki

Ht

Ei Hi

r ki = kix x + kiz z = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r k r = k rx x + k rz z = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] r kt = ktx x + ktz z = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]

z=0

ki =

n o i = i c

kr = ki = kt =

o i =

nt c

ni c

o t =

r kr

Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o

r ki

Ei Hi

o

z

r r r r r r E (r ) = y Ei e j k i . r + y Er e j k r . r z <0 r r r r E (r ) = y Et e j kt . r

z>0

z=0

(1) At z = 0 the E-field parallel to the interface must be continuous across the interface for all x This gives:

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

r kr

Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o

r ki

Ei Hi z=0 z

The only way the above boundary condition can be satisfied for all x is if all the xdependent phase factors are the same (this is called phase matching)

The first equality gives ( using ki = kr ) :

sin( i ) = sin( r )

i = r

angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

r kr

Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o

r ki

Ei Hi

o

z

The second equality gives:

z=0

k ix = k rx = ktx

k i sin( i ) = kt sin(t )

Snells Law

E i e j k i sin( i )x + E r e j k r sin( r )x = Et e j kt sin( t )x E i + E r = Et

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

(1)

r kr

Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o

r ki

Ei Hi

o

z

(2) At z = 0 the H-field component parallel to the interface must be continuous for all x

z=0

r r H (r ) r r H (r )

r r E E = ki y i e j k i . r + kr y r e j kr . r z <0 i i

z >0

E = kt y t e

t

r r j kt . r

t

x cos( i )

Ei

E E E cos( i ) i r = cos(t ) t t i i

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

(2)

r kr

Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o

r ki

Ei Hi

o

z

z=0

k n cos(t ) cos(t ) 2 iz 2 i 2 t Et ktz nt cos( i ) i cos( i ) T = = = = Ei t cos(t ) + 1 k iz + 1 ni cos(t ) + 1 Transmission ktz nt cos( i ) i cos( i )

coefficient

Reflection coefficient

TM Wave - Wavevectors

r kr

Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

z=0

ki =

n o i = i c

kr = ki = kt =

o i =

nt c

ni c

o t =

r kr

Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

r r r r r r H (r ) = y Hi e j k i . r + y Hr e j k r . r z<0 r r r r H (r ) = y Ht e j kt . r

z >0

z=0

(1) At z = 0 the H-field parallel to the interface must be continuous across the interface for all x This gives:

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

r kr

Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

z=0

The only way the above boundary condition can be satisfied for all x is if all the xdependent phase factors are the same (this is called phase matching)

The first equality gives ( using ki = kr ) :

k ix = k rx = ktx

sin( i ) = sin( r )

i = r

angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

r kr

Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

The second equality gives:

z=0

k ix = k rx = ktx

k i sin( i ) = kt sin(t )

Snells Law

Hi e j k i sin( i )x + Hr e j k r sin( r )x = Ht e j kt sin(t )x Hi + Hr = Ht

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

(1)

r kr

Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

(2) At z = 0 the E-field component parallel to the interface must be continuous for all x

z=0

r r E (r )

(2)

r kr

Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

TM

z=0

T

Transmission coefficient

Reflection coefficient

cos(t ) k n cos(t ) 2 t iz 2 i 2 t Ht t cos( i ) i ktz ni cos( i ) = = = = Hi i cos(t ) + 1 t k iz + 1 nt cos(t ) + 1 ni cos( i ) t cos( i ) i ktz

Snells Law

ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t ) ni nt

i i

If ni < nt then t < i and the transmitted wave bends towards the normal

ni

nt

i i

If ni > nt then t > i and the transmitted wave bends away from the normal

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

If ni > nt then t > i

ni

If i is increased, then t will eventually become 90o The value of i for which t is 90o is called the critical angle c

nt

i i

What if i is increased beyond c ? When i is increased beyond c the wave is not transmitted but is completely (100%) reflected at the interface back into the medium of incidence This phenomenon is called total internal reflection it happens for both TE and TM waves

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

ni > nt and i > c We need to consider in more detail what happens when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle

ni

nt

i i

k ix = k rx = ktx

ktx = k ix = k i sin ( i )

2 ktx = k i2 sin2 ( i )

2

c2

ni2 sin2 ( i )

kt =

nt

kt2 =

c2

2 nt

2 2 ktx + ktz =

2

c2

2 nt

ni > nt and i > c

ni

If i is larger than c the wave in medium t is evanescent in the z-direction

i i

Et

nt

2

c

2

2 2 nt ktx =

2

c2

ktz =

2 nt ni2 sin2 ( i )

-ve when i > c The z-component of the wavevector has become completely imaginary The field is evanescent in the z-direction in medium t

ktz = j

r r E (r )

z >0

= y Et e j ktx

e ktz z

''

ni > nt and i > c

ni

i i

Et

nt

r r E (r )

z >0

= y Et e j ktx

z >0

e ktz z = y Et e j e j ktx

''

''

e ktz z

''

r r E (r , t )

The wave is propagating along the interface (in the x-direction) but decaying (without spatial oscillations) in the z-direction

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

ni > nt and i > c If i is larger than c the wave is completely reflected back into the medium of incidence For i > c one can write:

ni

i i

Et

nt

ktz = j

The phase of the reflection coefficient in total internal reflection is called the GoosHanschen phase-shift

10

TE Waves TM Waves

k iz 1 Er ktz = = k iz Ei +1 ktz

t k iz 1 Hr i ktz TM = = Hi t k iz + 1 i ktz

Question: Can one ever get the reflection coefficient to go to zero (very desirable to get rid of unwanted reflections in optics)?

n ki = i c ki k iz k ix

n kt = t c kt ktz ktx

k i kt

( if

ni nt

(Phase matching)

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

One can have =0 for TM waves if: For i = B

ni

nt

nt cos( i ) = ni cos(t )

Snells law gives:

i i

ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t )

The above two equations will have a solution if and only if:

sin( i ) = cos(t )

This happens when: i + t =

and

cos( i ) = sin(t )

The angle of incidence for which this happens is called the Brewsters angle B :

n tan( i ) = t ni

B = tan1

nt ni

11

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