You are on page 1of 11

Lecture 19 Non-Normal Incidence of Waves at Interfaces

In this lecture you will learn:

What happens when waves strike an interface between two different media coming at an angle Reflection and transmission of waves at interfaces Application of E-field and H-field boundary conditions Total internal reflection Brewsters angle

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Waves at Interfaces TE and TM Waves


i o
Ei Hi Ei

r ki

Transverse Electric (TE) wave

Transverse Magnetic (TM) wave

r ki
Hi

z=0

r Plane of Incidence: The plane containing the incident wavevector k i and a vector that
is normal to the interface is called the plane of incidence (in the figure above the x-z plane is the plane of incidence)

TE Wave: If the E-field of the wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence then the wave is called a TE-wave TM Wave: If the H-field of the wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence then the wave is called a TM-wave
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TE Wave - Wavevectors
r kr
Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

r i
r ki

Ht

Ei Hi

r ki = kix x + kiz z = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r k r = k rx x + k rz z = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] r kt = ktx x + ktz z = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]

z=0

ki =

n o i = i c

kr = ki = kt =

o i =
nt c

ni c

o t =

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TE Wave First Boundary Condition


r kr
Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o
r ki
Ei Hi

o
z

r r r r r r E (r ) = y Ei e j k i . r + y Er e j k r . r z <0 r r r r E (r ) = y Et e j kt . r
z>0

z=0

Use boundary conditions:

r k i = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r k r = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] r kt = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]

(1) At z = 0 the E-field parallel to the interface must be continuous across the interface for all x This gives:

Ei e j k i sin( i ) x + E r e j k r sin( r )x = Et e j kt sin(t )x


ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TE Wave Phase Matching Condition


r kr
Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o
r ki
Ei Hi z=0 z

Ei e j k i sin( i ) x + E r e j k r sin( r )x = Et e j kt sin(t )x


The only way the above boundary condition can be satisfied for all x is if all the xdependent phase factors are the same (this is called phase matching)

ki sin( i ) = kr sin( r ) = kt sin(t )


The first equality gives ( using ki = kr ) :

kix = krx = ktx

sin( i ) = sin( r )

i = r
angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TE Wave Snells Law


r kr
Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o
r ki
Ei Hi

o
z

ki sin( i ) = kr sin( r ) = kt sin(t )


The second equality gives:

z=0

k ix = k rx = ktx

k i sin( i ) = kt sin(t )
Snells Law

n n i sin( i ) = t sin(t ) c c ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t )


E i e j k i sin( i )x + E r e j k r sin( r )x = Et e j kt sin( t )x E i + E r = Et
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

(1)

TE Wave Second Boundary Condition


r kr
Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o
r ki
Ei Hi

o
z

(2) At z = 0 the H-field component parallel to the interface must be continuous for all x

z=0

r r H (r ) r r H (r )

r r E E = ki y i e j k i . r + kr y r e j kr . r z <0 i i

z >0

E = kt y t e
t

r r j kt . r

r k i = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r k r = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] r kt = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]


t

x cos( i )

Ei

E E e j k i sin( i )x + x cos( r ) r e j k r sin( r )x = x cos(t ) t e j kt sin(t )x

E E E cos( i ) i r = cos(t ) t t i i
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

(2)

TE Wave Reflection and Transmission Coefficients


r kr
Transverse Electric (TE) wave Hr Er x Et

r kt

Ht

i i o
r ki
Ei Hi

o
z

The solution is:

z=0

k n cos(t ) cos(t ) 2 iz 2 i 2 t Et ktz nt cos( i ) i cos( i ) T = = = = Ei t cos(t ) + 1 k iz + 1 ni cos(t ) + 1 Transmission ktz nt cos( i ) i cos( i )
coefficient

Reflection coefficient

t cos(t ) 1 E r i cos( i ) = = = Ei t cos(t ) + 1 i cos( i )

k iz ni cos(t ) 1 1 ktz n cos( i ) = t k iz ni cos(t ) +1 +1 ktz nt cos( i )

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TM Wave - Wavevectors
r kr
Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

r k i = k ix x + k iz z = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r k r = k rx x + k rz z = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] r kt = ktx x + ktz z = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]

z=0

ki =

n o i = i c

kr = ki = kt =

o i =
nt c

ni c

o t =

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TM Wave First Boundary Condition


r kr
Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

r r r r r r H (r ) = y Hi e j k i . r + y Hr e j k r . r z<0 r r r r H (r ) = y Ht e j kt . r
z >0

z=0

Use boundary conditions:

r k i = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r k r = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] r kt = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]

(1) At z = 0 the H-field parallel to the interface must be continuous across the interface for all x This gives:

Hi e j k i sin( i ) x + Hr e j k r sin( r ) x = Ht e j kt sin(t )x


ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TM Wave Phase Matching Condition


r kr
Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

z=0

Hi e j k i sin( i ) x + Hr e j k r sin( r ) x = Ht e j kt sin(t )x


The only way the above boundary condition can be satisfied for all x is if all the xdependent phase factors are the same (this is called phase matching)

k i sin( i ) = k r sin( r ) = kt sin(t )


The first equality gives ( using ki = kr ) :

k ix = k rx = ktx

sin( i ) = sin( r )

i = r
angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TM Wave Snells Law


r kr
Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

k i sin( i ) = k r sin( r ) = kt sin(t )


The second equality gives:

z=0

k ix = k rx = ktx

k i sin( i ) = kt sin(t )
Snells Law

n n i sin( i ) = t sin(t ) c c ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t )


Hi e j k i sin( i )x + Hr e j k r sin( r )x = Ht e j kt sin(t )x Hi + Hr = Ht
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

(1)

TM Wave Second Boundary Condition


r kr
Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

(2) At z = 0 the E-field component parallel to the interface must be continuous for all x

z=0

= k i y i Hi e j k i . r k r y i Hr e j k r . r z <0 r k i = k i [sin( i ) x + cos( i ) z ] r r r r r t y t Ht e j kt . r E (r ) =k k r = k r [sin( r ) x cos( r ) z ] z >0 r kt = kt [sin(t ) x + cos(t ) z ]

r r E (r )

x cos( i )i Hi e j k i sin( i ) x x cos( r )i H r e j k r sin( r ) x = x cos(t )t Ht e j kt sin( t )x cos( i )(i H i i Hr ) = cos(t )t Ht


(2)

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TM Wave Reflection and Transmission Coefficients


r kr
Transverse Magnetic E r (TM) wave x Hr Et Ht

r kt

r i

Ei Hi

r ki

The solution is:


TM

z=0

T
Transmission coefficient

Reflection coefficient

i cos(t ) 1 Hr t cos( i ) = TM = = Hi i cos(t ) + 1 t cos( i )

cos(t ) k n cos(t ) 2 t iz 2 i 2 t Ht t cos( i ) i ktz ni cos( i ) = = = = Hi i cos(t ) + 1 t k iz + 1 nt cos(t ) + 1 ni cos( i ) t cos( i ) i ktz

t kiz nt cos(t ) 1 1 i ktz n cos( i ) = i t kiz nt cos(t ) +1 +1 i ktz ni cos( i )

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Snells Law
ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t ) ni nt

i i

If ni < nt then t < i and the transmitted wave bends towards the normal

ni

nt

i i

If ni > nt then t > i and the transmitted wave bends away from the normal
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Total Internal Reflection Critical Angle


If ni > nt then t > i

ni
If i is increased, then t will eventually become 90o The value of i for which t is 90o is called the critical angle c

nt

i i

ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t ) ni sin(c ) = nt sin 2 n sin(c ) = t ni

What if i is increased beyond c ? When i is increased beyond c the wave is not transmitted but is completely (100%) reflected at the interface back into the medium of incidence This phenomenon is called total internal reflection it happens for both TE and TM waves
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Total Internal Reflection Phase Matching


ni > nt and i > c We need to consider in more detail what happens when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle

ni

nt

i i

The phase matching condition gives us:

k ix = k rx = ktx

ktx = k ix = k i sin ( i )
2 ktx = k i2 sin2 ( i )

2
c2

ni2 sin2 ( i )

We also know the dispersion relation for medium t :

kt =

nt

kt2 =

c2

2 nt

2 2 ktx + ktz =

2
c2

2 nt

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Total Internal Reflection Evanescent Wave


ni > nt and i > c

ni
If i is larger than c the wave in medium t is evanescent in the z-direction

i i

Et

nt

2 The previous two equations imply: ktz =

2
c
2

2 2 nt ktx =

2
c2

[nt2 ni2 sin2 (i )]

For i > c one can write:

ktz =

2 nt ni2 sin2 ( i )

-ve when i > c The z-component of the wavevector has become completely imaginary The field is evanescent in the z-direction in medium t

ktz = j

'' ni2 sin2 ( i ) nt2 = j ktz

The E-field (assuming TE wave) in medium t is then:

r r E (r )

z >0

= y Et e j ktx

e ktz z

''

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Total Internal Reflection Evanescent Wave


ni > nt and i > c

ni

i i

Et

nt

The E-field (assuming TE wave) in medium t is:

r r E (r )

z >0

= y Et e j ktx
z >0

e ktz z = y Et e j e j ktx
''

''

e ktz z

''

r r E (r , t )

= y Et e ktz z cos( t ktx x + )

The wave is propagating along the interface (in the x-direction) but decaying (without spatial oscillations) in the z-direction
ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Total Internal Reflection Reflection Coefficient


ni > nt and i > c If i is larger than c the wave is completely reflected back into the medium of incidence For i > c one can write:

ni

i i

Et

nt

ktz = j

'' ni2 sin2 ( i ) nt2 = j ktz

The z-component of the wavevector has become completely imaginary

The reflection coefficient for the E-field (assuming TE wave) is:

k iz 1 '' E r ktz k ktz k iz + jktz = = = iz = = e j '' k iz Ei + 1 k iz + ktz k iz jktz ktz =1

The phase of the reflection coefficient in total internal reflection is called the GoosHanschen phase-shift

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

10

TE and TM Waves: Reflection Coefficients


TE Waves TM Waves

k iz 1 Er ktz = = k iz Ei +1 ktz

t k iz 1 Hr i ktz TM = = Hi t k iz + 1 i ktz

Question: Can one ever get the reflection coefficient to go to zero (very desirable to get rid of unwanted reflections in optics)?

n ki = i c ki k iz k ix

n kt = t c kt ktz ktx

k i kt

( if

ni nt

But k ix = ktx k iz ktz

(Phase matching)

is never zero for TE waves

But one can have =0 for TM waves if:

t kiz = i ktz nt cos( i ) = ni cos(t )


ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

TM Waves: Brewsters Angle


One can have =0 for TM waves if: For i = B

ni

nt

nt cos( i ) = ni cos(t )
Snells law gives:

i i

ni sin( i ) = nt sin(t )
The above two equations will have a solution if and only if:

sin( i ) = cos(t )
This happens when: i + t =

and

cos( i ) = sin(t )

The angle of incidence for which this happens is called the Brewsters angle B :

n tan( i ) = t ni

B = tan1

nt ni

ECE 303 Fall 2005 Farhan Rana Cornell University

11